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Stress mitigating and growth enhancing effect of dietary tryptophan in rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton, 1822) fingerlings.  


An experiment was conducted to study the stress mitigation and growth enhancing role of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) under thermal stress in rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings for 45 days. Seven hundred and twenty fishes were distributed in three major groups that are ambient temperature (26 °C), 34 and 38 °C in triplicate following a complete randomized design. Acclimation of fishes to 34 and 38 °C over average ambient temperatures were carried out at 1 °C/day. Each group was fed with a diet supplemented with 0, 0.36, 0.72 or 1.42 % L-TRP. Results showed that blood glucose and serum cortisol level were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the higher temperature groups than the ambient temperature group. Similarly, aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, CAT, superoxide dismutase activities were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the control groups (0 % L-TRP) and decreasing activities of these enzymes were observed with the increasing level of dietary L-TRP. In different temperature groups, L-TRP-supplemented groups were found to have higher (p < 0.05) growth, RGR and PER. The results obtained in the present study indicate that dietary L-TRP mitigates thermal stress and enhances growth. From the present study, we can conclude that dietary supplementation of L-TRP at the 0.72 % level in the diet is found to be optimum to reduce thermal stress even up to 38 °C in rohu, L. rohita. The baseline data obtained here could be useful for the farmers to formulate feeds to culture the fish in different agro-climatic zones. PMID:24705914

Kumar, Prem; Saurabh, Shailesh; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Arasu, A R T



Effect of dietary supplementation with Achyranthes aspera seed on larval rohu Labeo rohita challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.  


Larval rohu Labeo rohita were fed four different diets: three of the diets contained Achyranthes aspera (prickly chaff-flower) seeds at 0.10% (D1), 0.25% (D2), or 0.50% (D3); the fourth diet was a control diet (D4; no A. aspera supplementation). After 70 d, the rohu were injected intraperitoneally with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Mortality of fish was recorded for 7 d. In the D4 group, the first mortality was observed within 12 h of exposure, whereas in the D1-D3 treatment groups, mortality was first observed at 24 h postexposure. In the D4 group, 50% of fish died within 72 h of exposure, whereas in the D3 group, 10-15% mortality occurred between 72 and 84 h. The cumulative mortality rate was 50% for D4, 40% for D1, 35% for D2, and 15% for D3. Total tissue protein level in the larvae was higher for the D2 and D3 groups than for the other groups. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were significantly lower in D3 larvae than in the other groups, whereas lysozyme and nitric oxide synthase levels were significantly higher in D3 larvae compared with the other groups. Dietary supplementation with A. aspera seeds at the 0.50% level provided protection against oxidative stress, prevented tissue damage, and enhanced disease resistance in rohu larvae. PMID:23025591

Chakrabarti, R; Srivastava, P K



Dietary yeast RNA supplementation reduces mortality by Aeromonas hydrophila in rohu (Labeo rohita L.) juveniles.  


A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days to delineate the effect of dietary ribonucleic acid or chitin on haematological parameters, phagocyte respiratory burst and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of Labeo rohita juveniles. One hundred and twenty-six (avg. wt. 13.40 +/- 0.17 g) juveniles were randomly distributed in six treatment groups, each one in three replicates. Six isonitrogenous (crude protein: 34.34-35.37%) and isocaloric (414-425 kcal 100 g(-1)) purified diets were prepared with different concentrations of either ribonucleic acid or chitin except the control group, viz., control, T1 (0.1% ribonucleic acid), T2 (0.2% ribonucleic acid), T3 (0.4% ribonucleic acid), T4 (25 mg chitin kg (-1)) and T5 (50 mg chitin kg (-1)). Weight gain %, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) among the experimental groups. Haemoglobin content and total erythrocyte count were observed within the normal range and were not influenced by the dietary immunostimulants. Highest total leukocyte count was found in the T(3) group. The immunomodulatory effects of dietary immunostimulants were studied by using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay and serum parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. The respiratory burst activity (NBT) of blood phagocytes was highest in the T3 group followed by the T2 group, which varied significantly (P < 0.05) from other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total protein, globulin and lower A/G ratio was observed in the T(3) group. The relative percent survival after challenging with Aeromonas hydrophila was highest in the T3 group, compared to the control group, followed by the T2 group. The results indicate that dietary ribonucleic acid at 0.4% enhances phagocyte respiratory burst and protection of Labeo rohita juveniles to challenge by A. hydrophila. PMID:15820128

Choudhury, Dharitri; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Kumar, Shivendra; Das, S S; Mukherjee, S C



Molecular characterization of interleukin 15 mRNA from rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton): Its prominent role during parasitic infection as indicated from infection studies.  


Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is an important cytokine of fish immune system. Sequence characterization of IL-15 from rohu, Labeo rohita revealed a mRNA sequence of 1064 bp with coding sequence of 567 bp and signal peptide of 16 amino acids. There are four characteristic sequence features viz., presence of four out-of-frame AUG initiation codons, four highly conserved cysteine residues, constitutive expression in all tissues and evolutionary similarity. The ontogeny study revealed maternal transfer of this molecule and higher expression up to 3 h post-fertilization in fertilized embryos. Its expression was down-regulated in anterior and posterior kidneys, intestine and liver tissues of rohu infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Mild up-regulation in liver and higher expression in spleen was noticed in rohu stimulated with poly I:C (poly ionosinic:cytidylic), whereas down-regulation was observed in intestine and kidney tissues. However, a consistent higher expression was noticed in kidney and skin tissues during Argulus siamensis infection. Therefore, rohu IL-15 might possess more defensive role during early development and parasitic infection. PMID:25514374

Das, Sweta; Mohapatra, Amruta; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, P K



Characterization of the ceruloplasmin gene and its potential role as an indirect marker for selection to Aeromonas hydrophila resistance in rohu, Labeo rohita.  


Ceruloplasmin is an acute phase protein found to be activated by the host immune system during stress conditions. The ceruloplasmin gene has been reported in several teleosts and here we characterize the gene and test its association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rohu, Labeo rohita. A ceruloplasmin mRNA sequence of 3355 base pairs (bp) was derived (GenBank ID: JX010736). The coding sequence (CDS) comprised of 3276 bp that coded for 1092 amino acids. Alignment results showed the greatest similarity with zebrafish followed by channel catfish sequence, and a phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of amino acid sequences showed that rohu shares a common clade with these two species. In the ontogeny study, the expression of ceruloplasmin was detected at 9 h post-fertilization onwards, and a strong level of expression was detected at 24 h (38-fold) and 15 days (34-fold) post-fertilization. The ceruloplasmin transcripts were evident in liver, spleen, stomach and heart. Expression was undetectable in gill, brain, eye, skin, muscle, intestine, anterior and posterior kidney tissues. Expression of ceruloplasmin after A. hydrophila infection was up-regulated 6 h post-challenge and was modulated until 15 days post-challenge. The level of ceruloplasmin was also compared in rohu selectively bred for higher growth and disease resistance. The gene showed a 4.58-fold higher level of expression in resistant line over susceptible line rohu selected based on family challenge test survival to A. hydrophila. Serum ceruloplasmin levels in three year classes of rohu selected for higher growth showed a positive correlation (0.49 ± 1.11) with survival against challenge with A. hydrophila. The estimated heritability was also found to be quite high (0.50 ± 0.22) for this parameter. Thus, ceruloplasmin could be one of the useful marker traits for selection against A. hydrophila resistance in fish. PMID:23481214

Sahoo, P K; Das, Sweta; Mahapatra, Kanta Das; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Ødegård, Jørgen; Robinson, Nicholas



Molecular cloning and characterization of Toll-like receptor 3, and inductive expression analysis of type I IFN, Mx and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the Indian carp, rohu (Labeo rohita).  


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate or non-specific immunity. Among various types of TLRs, TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, the genetic material or replicative intermediate of many RNA viruses and triggers TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? dependent signalling pathway to induce type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we cloned and characterized full-length TLR3 cDNA in rohu (Labeo rohita), that comprised of 2,619 bp nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 873 amino acid with the estimated molecular mass of 98.57 kDa. The constitutive expression of TLR3 gene was detected in all embryonic developmental stages and in various organs/tissues of rohu fingerlings. In vivo tissue specific modulation of TLR3, type I IFN, Mx (myxovirus-resistant protein) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR following intravenous injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic analogue of viral dsRNA. A significant relationship of TLR3 induction, and type I IFN, Mx, IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression were observed in majority of the treated fish tissues, as compared to their control. Together, these data highlight the important role of TLR3 in recognizing dsRNA, and in augmenting the innate immunity in fish in response to viral infections. PMID:23065215

Samanta, Mrinal; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Panda, Padmaja; Jayasankar, Pallipuram



Thermal tolerance, growth and oxygen consumption of Labeo rohita fry (Hamilton, 1822) acclimated to four temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 30 day feeding trial was conducted using a freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (rohu), to determine their thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption and optimum temperature for growth. Four hundred and sixteen L. rohita fry (10 days old, 0.385±0.003g) were equally distributed between four treatments (26, 31, 33 and 36°C) each with four replicates for 30 days. Highest body weight gain and

T. Das; A. K. Pal; S. K. Chakraborty; S. M. Manush; N. P. Sahu; S. C. Mukherjee



Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).  


Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33  ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (<500 nm) and could be successfully endocyted in the body. Despite low antigen loading in PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for Freund's adjuvant (for stimulating antibody response) to overcome many side effects offering long lasting immunity. Our encouraging results suggest that PLA/PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system could be a novel antigen carrier for parenteral immunization in fish. PMID:25689492

Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita



Molecular characterization of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in the Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita).  


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. Among various TLR types, TLR2 is involved in recognizing specific microbial structures such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), zymosan etc., and after binding them it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce various cytokines. In this report, TLR2 gene was cloned and characterized in rohu (Labeo rohita), which is highly commercially important fish species in the farming-industry of Indian subcontinent. Full-length rohu TLR2 (rTLR2) cDNA comprised of 2691 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2379 bp encoding a polypeptide of 792 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 90.74 kDa. Structurally, it comprised of one leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) each at N-terminal (LRR-NT; 44-55 aa) and C-terminal (LRR-CT; 574-590 aa), 21 LRRs in between C and N-terminal, one trans-membrane (TM) domain (595-612 aa), and one TIR domain (645-790 aa). Phylogenetically, rohu TLR2 was closely related to common carp and exhibited significant similarity (93.1%) and identity (88.1%) in their amino acids. During embryogenesis, rTLR2 expression was detected as early as ?7 h post fertilization indicating its importance in embryonic innate immune defense system in fish. Basal expression analysis of rTLR2 showed its constitutive expression in all the tissues examined, highest was in the spleen and the lowest was in the eye. Inductive expression of TLR2 was observed following zymosan, PGN and LTA exposure and Streptococcus uberis and Edwardsiella tarda infections. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, in various organs was significantly enhanced by ligands exposure and bacterial infections, and was correlated with inductive expression of TLR2. In vitro studies showed that PGN treatment induced TLR2, MyD88 and TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) expression, NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa B) activation and IL-8 expression. Blocking NF-?B resulted in down-regulation of PGN mediated IL-8 expression indicating the involvement of NF-?B in IL-8 induction. Together, these findings highlighted the important role of TLR2 in immune surveillance of various organs, and in augmenting innate immunity in fish in response to pathogenic invasion. This study will be helpful in developing preventive measures against infectious diseases in fish. PMID:22173272

Samanta, Mrinal; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Mohapatra, Girish B; Sahoo, Bikash R; Maiti, Nikhil K



Antagonistic Activity of Cellular Components of Potential Probiotic Bacteria, Isolated from the Gut of Labeo rohita , Against Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria\\u000a isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic\\u000a activity against A.

Sib Sankar Giri; V. Sukumaran; Shib Sankar Sen; J. Vinumonia; B. Nazeema Banu; Prasant Kumar Jena


Evaluation of corn steep liquor as a supplementary feed for Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of corn steep liquor (CSL), a by-product of corn starch industry, in the fish diet at 25% (D1), 50% (D2) and 75%\\u000a (D3) replacement of fish meal are investigated on the growth of Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings. Formulated feeds were iso-nitrogenous (39% crude protein) and iso-energetic (15.8 kJ\\/g). The CSL is found\\u000a to be rich in protein (43.48%), lactic

Sandeep G. Chovatiya; Sujata S. Bhatt; Amita R. Shah



Immune responses and protective efficacy of recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR)-based vaccine of Aeromonas hydrophila with a modified adjuvant formulation in rohu (Labeo rohita).  


Despite the importance and success of developing a candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the vaccine-induced immunoprotection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, primarily due to lack of information on most of the immune related genes of the species. In this study, a novel candidate antigen recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR) of A. hydrophila was evaluated as a vaccine candidate along with a modified adjuvant formulation. Protective efficacy of the rOmpR immunization was assessed in terms of survival against A. hydrophila challenge as well as modulation of immune response in vaccinated fish after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h and 10 days post-injection (using immune gene expression analysis) and 10, 28, 56 and 140 days post-injection (serum immune parameter analysis). The generated immune response was compared with a formalin-killed A. hydrophila antigen preparation using mineral oil only and modified adjuvant alone. We report a variable up-regulation of the immune-related genes viz., lysozyme G, complement factor 4, immunoglobulin M, ?2-microglobulin, major histocompatibility complex I and II, and interleukin-1? in anterior kidney and spleen tissues at early time points post-immunization in all the groups, when compared to the control fish. The vaccinated fish also showed an increase in serum natural hemolysin titer, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities, and antibody titer irrespective of vaccine formulations as compared to control fish on days 10, 28 and 56. However, the increase in the serum parameters was more pronounced on day 140 in rOmpR-modified adjuvant injected group, indicating the modulatory role of this new vaccine formulation. Upon challenge with live A. hydrophila on days 56 and 140 post-immunization, significantly reduced percent mortality was noted in the group immunized with modified adjuvant based rOmpR vaccine formulation. Taken together, our results suggest that rOmpR along with modified adjuvant could potentially be used as a vaccine formulation to handle A. hydrophila infection on a long-term basis. PMID:24937805

Dash, P; Sahoo, P K; Gupta, P K; Garg, L C; Dixit, A



Analysis of immune-related ESTs and differential expression analysis of few important genes in lines of rohu (Labeo rohita) selected for resistance and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.  


A total of 137,629 contigs generated via de novo transcriptome assembly from resistant and susceptible lines of rohu (first generation) raised against aeromoniasis were further analyzed in terms of defence-related genes. Out of 1,939 contigs showing homology to genes involved in immune processes, 1,866 were further categorised into different functional subgroups. Comparative analysis revealed five genes for the first time in any carp species out of which apolipoprotein h, septin 4 isoform 3 and septin isoform cra_c were identified for the first time in fish. Differential expression analysis of ten genes viz., heat shock proteins (Hsps) (Hsp30, Hsp70 and Hsp90), serum lectin isoform 1 (SLI1), linker histone H1M (LHH1M), NAD(P)H quinone 1 (NQO1), zona pellucida 2 (ZP2) and three unknown genes that were highly up-expressed in first generation resistant line fish from mRNA-seq coverage data, was carried out using susceptible and resistant individuals of the second generation selected populations in eight different tissues viz. liver, kidney, intestine, gill, brain, spleen, skin and muscle using qPCR. Significant up-regulation in Hsp90, NQO1, C_116914 and C_22454 in specific tissues of resistant line and variable expression in Hsp30 and LHH1M genes in different tissues of both lines were noticed. The expression of Hsp70 was lower in many tissues of the resistant line than in susceptible line rohu. The expression of ZP2, SLI1 and C_94589 genes was not significantly different in terms of fold difference between the two lines. Differentially expressed genes need further characterisation to explore their role in resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu. PMID:25081649

Das, Sweta; Chhottaray, Chiranjibi; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, P K



Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.  


Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P<0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. PMID:24502533

Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan



Isolation and characterization of head kidney derived macrophages of Labeo rohita.  


Macrophages play a significant role in non-specific defense mechanisms of all vertebrates against pathogens. One critical element in the area of fish immunology is the unavailability of in-vitro model of immune cells. Therefore, it is essential to develop methods for harvesting and culture of macrophages for assessing innate immune functions of rohu, Labeo rohita, an important culture fish of India. Head kidney leukocytes from were isolated by density gradient sedimentation, so as to exclude other cells. Among isolated leukocytes, only macrophages showed the unique property of sustained adherence on plastic surfaces. These cells exhibited optimum growth at 28 degrees C in L-15 containing 20% FBS. Cultured head kidney macrophages (HKM) demonstrated the property of phagocytosis as evidenced by engulfment of yeast cells. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (20 microg/ml) resulted in functional activation of macrophages as seen by enhanced reactive oxygen and nitrite production; and lysosomal enzyme activity. These results show that in-vitro model of HKM cells can be used to study the role of macrophages in innate immune responses against various immunomodulators. PMID:25204072

Awasthi, Abhishek; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, P K; Rebello, S C; Khan, M Y; Lakra, W S



Carbofuran induced changes in breeding of a freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide, on the breeding performance of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) has been investigated in the present study. Breeding of L. rohita was conducted after treatment with three sublethal concentrations, i.e. 0.06, 0.15 and 0.30 mg L of carbofuran for 96 h. The present investigation showed that the number of total eggs and

S. Adhikari; Biplab Sarkar; Amita Chattopadhyay; D. N. Chattopadhyay; S. K. Sarkar; S. Ayyappan



Modulation of digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae fed ascorbic acid enriched zooplankton.  


The effect of supplementation of ascorbic acid through enriched zooplankton [10%, 20% and 30% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) inclusion in diet of zooplankton] on different digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae was studied from 4 day to 15 day post hatch. Ascorbic acid (AA) content in different groups of unenriched (8.6+/-0.71) and enriched zooplankton were, 750+/-29.3, 1409.1+/-45.5, 2009.21+/-199.2 mug/g respectively on dry matter basis with differences (P<0.05) between the treatments. A difference (P<0.05) was found in tissue AA level in different dietary groups. Low amylase, protease, lipase and alkaline phosphatase activities were present in rohu larvae from the mouth opening stage which showed increasing trend with the age of larvae and increasing dietary AA content. A clear dose-dependent modulation of digestive enzyme activities in response to 10%, 20% and 30% AP enriched zooplankton feeding was evidenced from positive correlations between dietary AA content with magnitude of elevation of enzyme activity in different groups. There were 57, 55, 29.2 and 2 fold increases in amylase activity; 7.35, 7.02, 4.43 and 2.73 fold increases in protease activity; 45.636, 41.50, 19.83 and 13.69 fold increases in lipase activity and 6, 5, 3, and 2 fold increases in alkaline phosphatase activity observed in the 15th day post hatch larvae fed 20%, 30%, 10%AP enriched and normal zooplankton respectively, than 4-day post hatch larvae of the respective groups. Enzyme activities were also positively correlated with specific growth rates of wet weight of rohu larvae at the 15th day post hatch. Increased AA might have played an important role in advancing morphological transformation of the digestive tract, protecting gastric mucosa and accelerating growth by the process of tissue formation, which necessitated the requirement of more nutrient thereby, increasing digestive enzyme activity. The regulatory role of AA in the modulation of different digestive enzymes activity and its physiological consequences of nutrient digestibility and utilization during ontogenesis could be extrapolated for better nutrient management of the larvae. PMID:18329933

Mitra, Gopa; Mukhopadhyay, P K; Ayyappan, S



Molecular cloning, characterization and functional assessment of the myosin light polypeptide chain 2 (mylz2) promoter of farmed carp, Labeo rohita.  


We cloned the 5'-flanking region (1.2 kb) of a muscle-specific gene, encoding myosin light chain 2 polypeptide (mylz2) of a farmed carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). Sequence analysis using TRANSFAC-database search identified the consensus cis acting regulatory elements of TATA-box and E (CANNTG)-box, including the monocyte enhancer factor 2 motif, implying that it is likely to be a functional promoter. The proximal promoter (~620 bp) was highly homologous with that of Danio rerio (zebrafish) as compared to Channa striatus (snakehead murrel) counterparts and showed less identity with Sparus auratus (gilthead sea bream), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Direct muscular (skeletal) injection of the construct containing the mylz2 promoter (0.6 kb) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene showed efficient expression in L. rohita, validating its functional activity. Further, the functional activity was confirmed by the observation that this promoter drove GFP expression in the skeletal muscle of transgenic rohu. The promoter may have potential applications for value-addition in ornamental fishes and studying gene regulatory functions. PMID:24740361

Mohanta, Ramya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic and vitamin C on the immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).  


The immunostimulatory effect of probiotics and vitamin C has been established in many systems including fish. An investigation was carried out to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a probiotic bacterium "Bacillus subtilis", vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl polyphosphate and their combination on the immune response of Indian major carp, rohu, (Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings fed for a period of 60 days. The total serum protein and globulin content was significantly higher (p<0.05) in probiotic (B. subtilis @ 10(8) CFU/g of the feed) fed group while the respiratory burst activity of blood neutrophils was significantly high in vitamin C (ascorbyl polyphosphate @100 mg per kg diet) fed group. The antibody level was significantly high in Bacillus subtilis treated group followed by the probiotic (B. subtilis @ 10(8) CFU/g of the feed) and ascorbyl polyphosphate (ascorbyl polyphosphate @100 mg per kg diet) combined group. The least percentage of mortality was recorded in B. subtilis treated group (25%) followed by 35 and 40% in ascorbyl polyphosphate treated and B. subtilis and ascorbyl polyphosphate combined groups, respectively. PMID:17434319

Nayak, S K; Swain, P; Mukherjee, S C



Genomic cloning and sequence analysis of Interleukin-10 from Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in inflammation, immunoregulation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, it is our interest to isolate, clone, sequence and characterize IL-10 gene from the fish Labeo rohita (Lr). The gene was amplified using genomic DNA isolated from head kidney with primers designed on conserved sequence homologues of fishes belonging to Cyprinidae family. The gLrIL-10 is 1467 nucleotides long with five exons and four introns sharing the same organization as of mammalian IL-10 genes. An open reading frame of 537 bp was found to encode a putative 179 amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids with conserved signature sequence motif. Sequence analysis showed similarity with the IL-10 from most fresh water fishes of Cyprinidae family. LrIL-10 has 27.2 % identity and 54.95 % similarity with the human IL-10. Sequence analysis followed by phylogenetic studies showed highest identity with Catla catla (98%) followed by Cyprinus carpio (93%), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (89%) and is distantly related to human, rhesus monkey and frog. These data from primary sequence characterization may be used to further understand transcriptional regulation and functional characterization of LrIL-10 in relation to species-specific molecular immunology. Abbreviations IL-10 - Interleukin-10, Lr - Labeo rohita, nt - nucleotides. PMID:25489171

Karan, Sweta; Kaushik, Himani; Saini, Nipun; Sahoo, Pramod K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C



Impact of industrial effluents on the biochemical composition of fresh water fish Labeo rohita.  


In acute toxicity (96 hr) experiment the fingerlings of freshwater fish Labeo rohita was exposed to tannery, electroplating and textile mill effluents. The LC0 and LC50 concentrations were 15% and 20% for tannery effluents, 3% and 6% for electroplating effluents and 18% and 22% for textile mill effluents respectively. It was found that, electroplating effluent was more toxic than tannery and textile mill wastes. After acute toxicity experiments for different industrial effluents, various tissues viz. gill, liver, muscle and kidney were obtained separately from control, LC0 and LC50 groups. These tissues were used for biochemical estimations. The glycogen content in all the tissues decreased considerably upon acute toxicity of three industrial effluents except muscle in LC50 group of tannery effluent and kidney in LC50 group of textile mill effluent, when compared to control group. The total protein content decreased in all tissues in three effluents except gills in LC50 group of tannery effluent, kidney in LC50 group of electroplating effluent and kidney in LC0 group of textile mill effluent. In general total lipid content decreased in all tissues after acute exposure when compared to control group. The results obtained in the present study showed that, the industrial effluents from tannery, electroplating and textile mills caused marked depletion in biochemical composition in various tissues of the fish Labeo rohita after acute exposure. PMID:17915759

Muley, D V; Karanjkar, D M; Maske, S V



Immunomodulation of Labeo rohita juveniles due to dietary gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch.  


A 60 days experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on immunomodulation of Labeo rohita juveniles. Two hundred and thirty four juveniles (av. wt. 2.53+/-0.04) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. Six semi-purified diets containing NG and G corn starch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100) were prepared viz., T(1) (100% NG, 0% G starch), T(2) (80% NG, 20% G starch), T(3) (60% NG, 40% G starch), T(4) (40% NG, 60% G starch), T(5) (20% NG, 80% G starch) and T(6) (0% NG, 100% G starch). After a feeding period of 60 days, the juveniles were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila to study their immunomodulation due to feeding of G and NG starch. RBC and haemoglobin content were significantly (P<0.05) reduced due to bacterial challenge, but dietary starch (G/NG starch) had no effect on it. G:NG starch ratio in the feed had significant effect on total leukocyte count during pre- and post-challenge periods. The leukocyte count concomitantly increased with the increased level of G starch in the diet. Highest albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio was recorded in T6 group (100% G starch) and lowest in T1 group (100% NG starch) group followed by T2 group both in pre- and post-challenge periods. NBT, lysozyme activity, total protein and globulin content were highest in T2 group (80% NG, 20% G starch) both in pre- and post-challenge periods. After challenge with A. hydrophila, the highest survival was recorded in T2 group, whereas lowest survival was recorded in T6 group. Conclusively high level of G starch was found to be immunosuppressive in Labeo rohita juveniles and NG:G starch ratio of 80:20 seems to be optimum for promoting growth and protecting immunity in L. rohita juveniles. PMID:17383896

Kumar, Vikas; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Kumar, Shivendra



Immunomodulatory effect of arsenic on cytokine and HSP gene expression in Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


Immune system is fundamental for survival of an organism against invading pathogens and other harmful agents. Cytokines, the signaling proteins that are produced transiently after cell activation and exert pleiotropic effects on cells of the immune system, are important mediators of cell mediated immune response. When expressed in a dysregulated fashion cytokines can underlie either immunodeficient or immunopathologic states. Heat shock proteins (stress proteins, HSPs) are also key proteins, which play important role in immunomodulation, apoptosis and influence the immune responses. Arsenic is a major toxic environmental contaminant and a human carcinogen. Prolonged drinking of arsenic-contaminated water leads to chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis). Arsenic is also immunotoxic and renders the host immunocompromised. Arsenic exposure has been reported to result in growth retardation, gross pathology including skin and eye lesions, ulcerations, cataract development etc. in different fish species. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of arsenic exposure on the expression of immune genes IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, complement C3a and HSP genes HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSC71, HSP78, and HSP90 in Labeo rohita, an important aquacultured species, as such information is not available on this major carp. Cytokine and HSP gene expression analyses were carried out in kidney and liver tissues, respectively, in arsenic-exposed fishes by RT-PCR and HSPs were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was observed that arsenic has a generalized immune-suppressive effect leading to down regulation of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines; besides, it led to up regulation of the HSP genes indicating arsenic-induced cellular stress. Thus arsenic exposure makes L. rohita immunocompromised and could increase its susceptibility to pathogen attacks. PMID:25652292

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Mitra, Tandrima; Purohit, Gopal Krishna; Mohanty, Sasmita; Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna



The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati



Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6?mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45?mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5?mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45?mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F?) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54?kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54?kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686



Behavioural and histopathological effects of azodye on kidney and gills of Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


The present paper emphasizes on the histopathological effects of an azo dye, Direct Green 6 on the kidney and gills of Labeo rohita by light microscopy. Fingerlings were exposed to sublethal concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm) of dye for 5, 10 and 15 days to study histopathological changes. No histopathological changes were seen in the kidney and gills of control fingerlings. Unlike control fingerlings, both the target organs showed some histopathological changes. Fingerlings exposed to 2.5 ppm concentration of the dye showed shrinkage of glomerulus, increased peritubular space, decreased lumen while 5.0 ppm produced haemorrhage in the interstitial tissue and mild degeneration in the kidney. Necrosis in the tubular epithelium, distruction of cell membrane and loss of cellular cytoplasm were observed in kidney of fingerlings exposed to 10 ppm dye concentration. Gills of fingerlings exposed to 2.5 ppm of dye showed aneurism and mild degenerated central axis. 5 ppm of dye concentration produced remarkable changes like epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, enlarged and vacuolated cartilage cells. Haemorrhagic tip, fusion and curling of secondary gill lamellae and at some places complete removal of them were also observed in gills of fingerlings exposed to 10 ppm. PMID:24620571

Barot, J; Bahadur, A



Comparative study on the effects of low cost oil seed cakes and fish meal as dietary protein sources for Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of combination of soybean meal (SBN), mustard oilcake (MOC), sesame oilcake (SOC) and linseed oilcake (LOC) as alternative for dietary fish meal (FM) protein for Labeo rohita fingerling for a period of 56 days. Six experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30, 50, 60, 70 and 100% (2 diets) of the total

K. A. Latif; M. T. Alam; M. A. Sayeed; M. Afzal Hussain; S. Sultana; M. A. Hossain



Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.



Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.  


Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R



The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in ?-helical and random coil structures and an increase in ?-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.



Effect of Mangifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


The study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of Mangifera indica (mango) kernel on the immune response and disease resistance of Labeo rohita fingerlings against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila infections in. L. rohita fingerlings fed diet containing 0 (Control), 1g, 5 g, 10 g mango kernel kg(-1) dry diet for 60 days. Biochemical (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, blood glucose), haematological (WBC, RBC, haemoglobin content) and immunological (superoxide anion production, lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity) parameters of fish were examined at 20, 40 and 60 days of feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila 60 days post feeding and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-infection. The results demonstrate that fish fed with mango kernel showed enhanced superoxide anion production, lysozyme, serum bactericidal, serum protein, albumin (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The mortality (%) was recorded up to 10 th day post-challenge. Less survivability was observed in control group (50%) up to day 10 after infection. The survivability was higher in experimental diets. The group fed 5 g kernel kg(-1) dry diet showed highest percentage survival (98%). These results indicate that mango kernel stimulates the immunity and makes L. rohita more resistant to A. hydrophila infection. PMID:17161956

Sahu, Swagatika; Das, Basanta Kumar; Pradhan, Jyotirmayee; Mohapatra, B C; Mishra, B K; Sarangi, Niranjan



FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.



Aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage in Labeo rohita: protective effect of an antioxidant supplement, Amrita Bindu.  


The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 in adduct formation and DNA damage in Labeo rohita. Also, the salubrious efficacy of an antioxidant supplement Amrita Bindu (based on Indian system of Medicine) was investigated. Fish weighing 175-250 g were administered intraperitoneally a single dose of 100 microg aflatoxin B1/100 g body wt. and another group was given 20% solution of Amrita Bindu along with aflatoxin B1 at 100 microg/100 g body wt. On the 3rd and 6th day, the liver tissue was analyzed for aflatoxin concentration, aflatoxin-DNA adduct formation and DNA damage measured in terms of single strand breaks. The fishes administered with aflatoxin B1 showed elevated concentration of aflatoxin along with a parallel increase in the DNA adduct when compared with the controls. While the fish co-administered with Amrita Bindu showed 34% and 24% reduction in aflatoxin deposition (accumulation) and aflatoxin-DNA adduct formation respectively on the 3rd day, a further reduction by around 41% and 33% in aflatoxin deposition and DNA adduct formation respectively was observed on the 6th day. Furthermore, the increased single strand breaks (measured by alkaline single cell gel assay) and fragmentation observed in agarose gel electrophoresis in aflatoxin B1 administered fish were significantly reduced by Amrita Bindu co-administration. In conclusion, this is the first report to show aflatoxin B1-induced DNA adduct formation and DNA damage in one of the major Indian culturable fish, Labeo rohita. Also, our observations show that the antioxidant supplement, Amrita Bindu, has a potential role in ameliorating the aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage thus suggesting its applicability in preventing the vital macromolecule DNA. PMID:16635106

Madhusudhanan, N; Kavithalakshmi, S N; Shanmugasundaram, E R B; Shanmugasundaram, K R



Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.



Acute toxicity of cadmium to fish Labeo rohita and copepod Diaptomus forbesi pre-exposed to CaO and KMnO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

96-h LC50 values of cadmium (Cd) to fish Labeo rohita and the copepod Diaptomus forbesi, determined by static bioassays, were, respectively, 89.5 and 10.2 mg\\/l. LC50 values increased significantly when fish pre-exposed to 100–350 mg\\/l CaO or 0.5–1.5 mg\\/l KMnO4 for 4 d and the copepod to 20–70 mg\\/l CaO or 0.25–1.0 mg\\/l KMnO4 for same period. The LC50 values

Tapas Kumar Dutta; Anilava Kaviraj



Bioconcentration of zinc and its effect on the biochemical constituents of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita: An FT-IR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeo rohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of ?-sheet structure.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Nishanth, T.; Renju, V. B.



Gas-liquid chromatography for fenvalerate residue analysis: in vivo alterations in the acetylcholinesterase activity and acetylcholine in different tissues of the fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


The disruption of acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita is demonstrated in the present study using acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate. L. rohita on exposure to lethal (6 microg/L) and sub-lethal (0.75 microg/L) concentrations of fenvalerate showed time- and dose-dependent inhibition in the activity of AChE, suggesting a decrease in the cholinergic transmission and consequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) in the tissues (brain, gill, liver, and muscle) leading to continuous nerve impulses, causing prolonged muscle contraction which, as a consequence, causes paralysis and results in death. These also have lead to behavioral changes and create widespread disturbance in the normal neural physiology of the fish. Residue analysis using a gas-liquid chromatography technique (GLC) revealed that highest quantity of fenvalerate accumulated in gill followed by liver and muscle under lethal concentrations, whereas in sub-lethal concentrations muscle accumulated the highest concentration followed by gill and liver. The results suggest that in a biomonitoring program AChE activity can be a good diagnostic tool for assessing fenvalerate toxicity. The lipophilic nature of fenvalerate is of concern, since L. rohita is an important staple fish species, which may lead to the phenomenon of biomagnification. PMID:19778241

David, Muniswamy; Patil, Vineetkumar K; Chebbi, Sameer G; Marigoudar, Shambangouda R; Chittaragi, Jagadeesh B; Halappa, Ramesh



Effect of alternate day feeding strategy of sub-optimal protein level on haemato-biochemical responses in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juveniles.  


A feeding trial was conducted for 60?days to delineate the effect of alternate day feeding strategy of sub-optimal protein level on haematological parameters, serum parameters and phagocyte respiratory burst activity (NBT) in Labeo rohita juveniles. One hundred and thirty-five fingerlings (1.87?±?0.01-2.26?±?0.05?g) were distributed in triplicate groups of each treatment, and fish were fed at 5% body weight daily. Three experimental isocaloric (401.32-410.28?kcal/100?g) diets of 30%, 25%, and 20% crude protein designated as diet A, diet B, and diet C respectively, were prepared, using locally available feed ingredients. Three different feeding schedules of normal protein diet continuously (diet A-30%), alternate feeding of 1-day diet A followed by 1-day diet B (1A/1B) and alternate feeding of 1-day diet A followed by 1-day diet C (1A/1C) were tested. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p?Labeo rohita juveniles. PMID:21883499

Kumar, P; Jain, K K; Munilkumar, S; Sahu, N P; Siddaiah, G M; Saha, H



The ontogeny of Mauthner cells in the brain of Labeo rohita as revealed by NADPH-d and nNOS immunohistochemistry.  


Nitric oxide (NO) is well demonstrated to act as a neuronal messenger in neurotransmission in vertebrate animals. We are for the first time reporting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the Mauthner cells (MC) of the carp, Labeo rohita brain during post-embryonic development. The NADPH-d and nNOS-positive MC were seen intensely labeled in all young stages on either side of the ventricle in the hindbrain. In adult, these cells were moderately stained with NADPH-d but not with nNOS. Further, the morphometeric analysis of the staining intensities showed the decrease in the optical densities of the MC as the development progresses. The gradual increase in cell diameter was evident from hatchling to adult (18-22 ?m to 98-106 ?m), while the nuclear diameter remained nearly unchanged (10-12 ?m to 18-20 ?m). In fishes, MC are known to be involved in the control of startle response. The NADPH-d enzymatic activity seen in the MC of early development may play an important role to activate the startle response to fast escape from the predators and unfavorable environmental conditions to survive during early phase of life. As nNOS is absent in the adult MC, we assume that the adult MC express a different splice variant of nNOS which is detected by NADPH-d, but not by the currently used antibody. Hence, the presence of nNOS (enzyme required for the synthesis of NO) in the MC suggests the involvement of NO in neurotransmission to generate the startle response rapidly. Furthermore, we also suggest that NO may be involved in other aspects such as pathway finding, neuronal cell migration, signaling and refinement during the development of the brain of L. rohita. PMID:21132510

Palande, Nikhil V; Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G



GnIH and GnRH expressions in the central nervous system and pituitary of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita during ontogeny: An immunocytochemical study.  


Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. In 2000, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brain of other vertebrates. We show for the first time GnIH immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and pituitary during development of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and compare it with the localization of GnRH. GnIH and GnRH immunoreactivities were observed from the olfactory system to spinal cord throughout development. In the brain, both neuropeptides were localized in the telencephalon, diencephalon including the preoptic area and rhombencephalon. The localization of GnIH and GnRH in the pituitary suggests that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of pituitary hormones by an autocrine manner during development. In addition, the presence of GnIH and GnRH in several other brain regions including the olfactory system suggests their involvement in the regulation of other physiological functions. PMID:24955881

Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; Palande, Nikhil V; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi



Dietary intake of trace elements from highly consumed cultured fish (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) and human health risk implications in Bangladesh.  


Concentrations of fourteen trace elements (essential and toxic) in the composite samples (collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh) of three highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) of all the studied elements was estimated on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by Bangladeshi households (mean fish consumption of 49.5gperson(-1)d(-1)). The studied fish species pose no risk with respect to the EDI of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Se, Cu, Mo, Mn, Sb, Ba, V, and Ag. Among the three studied fishes O. mossambicus showed higher content of dietary arsenic (1.486mgkg(-1)). From the human health point of view, this study showed that the inhabitants in the arsenic-contaminated area, who consume arsenic-contaminated water with fish (especially for O. mossambicus), are exposed chronically to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. PMID:25747154

Ahmed, Md Kawser; Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Saiful; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Bhattacharjee, Lalita



Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita



Acute toxicity of cadmium to fish Labeo rohita and copepod Diaptomus forbesi pre-exposed to CaO and KMnO4.  


96-h LC50 values of cadmium (Cd) to fish Labeo rohita and the copepod Diaptomus forbesi, determined by static bioassays, were, respectively, 89.5 and 10.2 mg/l. LC50 values increased significantly when fish pre-exposed to 100-350 mg/l CaO or 0.5-1.5 mg/l KMnO4 for 4 d and the copepod to 20-70 mg/l CaO or 0.25-1.0 mg/l KMnO4 for same period. The LC50 values also increased when the pre-exposure period of CaO was increased to 12 d at concentration 100 mg/l for fish and 20 mg/l for copepod. All fish died when pre-exposed to 1.5 mg/l KMnO4 for 8 d. But LC50 values of Cd to copepod increased when pre-exposure period of 0.5 mg/l KMnO4 was increased from 4 to 8 d. PMID:11272918

Dutta, T K; Kaviraj, A



Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg?1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.



Duckweed ( Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal as a source of feedstuff in formulated diets for rohu ( Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish intestinal bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.2 kcalg?1 approximately) diets were formulated including raw and fermented duckweed (Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) intestine and having extracellular amylolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activities was used for leaf meal fermentation for 15 days

A Bairagi; K Sarkar Ghosh; S. K Sen; A. K Ray



Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40?ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20?ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, ?B-helix, ?C-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, ?B-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling. PMID:23956969

Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal




E-print Network

An eight-week feeding trial was conducted in a static in-door rearing system to examine the effects of partial substitu-tion offish meal (FM) protein with deoiled salseed meal protein with and without supplemental amino acids in diets for rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings (average weight 5.50 ±0.19 g

For Rohu; Labeo Rohita (hamiltoan; Stosowanej Do; ?ywienia Palczaków; Rohu Labeo


Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method  

PubMed Central

The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3?M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4°C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse. PMID:23533718

Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha



Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.  


The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A



Effect of Dactylogyrus catlaius (Jain 1961) infection in Labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822): innate immune responses and expression profile of some immune related genes.  


The monogenean ectoparasite, Dactylogyrus sp. is a major pathogen in freshwater aquaculture. The immune responses in parasitized fish were analyzed by quantitation of innate immune factors (natural agglutinin level, haemolysin titre, antiprotease, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities) in serum and immune-relevant gene expression in gill and anterior kidney. The antiprotease activity and natural agglutinin level were found to be significantly higher and lysozyme activity was significantly lower in parasitized fish. Most of the genes viz., beta2-microglobulin (beta2M), major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI), MHCII, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) in gill samples were significantly down-regulated in the experimental group. In the anterior kidney, the expression of superoxide dismutase and interleukin 1beta (IL1beta) were significantly up-regulated whereas a significant down regulation of MHCII and TNFalpha was also observed. The down-regulation of most of the genes viz, MHCI, beta2M, MHCII, TLR22 and TNFalpha in infected gills indicated a well evolved mechanism in this parasite to escape the host immune response. The modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by this parasite can be further explored to understand host susceptibility. PMID:24669670

Dash, Pujarini; Kar, Banya; Mishra, Arpita; Sahoo, P K



Models of seasonal growth of the equatorial carp Labeo dussumieri in response to the river flood cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenology of Labeo dussumieri, an omnivorous carp common to South Asia, was investigated in a population inhabiting a flood plain anabranch of the Mahaweli Ganga, Sri Lanka. The Mahaweli Ganga exhibited a bimodal discharge pattern typical of many equatorial rivers, with a minor peak during the S.W. monsoon and a major peak during the N.E. monsoon. Seasonal changes in

Michael A. K. Smith



Effects of intra- and interspecific competition on diet, growth and behaviour of Labeo calbasu (Hamilton) and Cirrhinus cirrhosus (Bloch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of intra- and interspecific competition on diet, growth, grazing, swimming, resting and social behaviour of two carps calbasu (Labeo calbasu) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus) were examined in single and mixed species treatments. Three treatments (tanks with 4 L. calbasu, 4 C. cirrhosus or 2 L. calbasu plus 2 C. cirrhosus) were randomly assigned to six 1m2 glass-walled aquaria, in

Mohammad Mustafizur Rahman; Marc Verdegem



Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.  


Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders



Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.  


Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M



Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.  


We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S



Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie



Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India.  


Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable. PMID:23703433

Kant, Rajni; Haq, S; Srivastava, H C; Sharma, V P



Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen of higher thermal stability.  


Collagen is the most abundant protein found in animal body and widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, its applicability is severely limited due to high cost. Fish processing waste, which otherwise cause serious environmental pollution, is a promising cost effective collagen source. In the present study, collagen was isolated from scales of Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla (Catla). It is first time that these species are used as sources of collagen. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed maximum demineralization achieved after 48h of EDTA treatment of intact scale. The isolated protein was confirmed as collagen by different physico-chemical techniques like FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and CD. Further amino acid analysis corroborates isolation of type I collagen. A major characteristic of obtained collagen was found to have denaturation temperature (T(d)) of 36.5 degrees C, which is promising as an advantage for biomedical application due to closeness in T(d) to mammalian collagen. PMID:20116238

Pati, Falguni; Adhikari, Basudam; Dhara, Santanu



A comparative study of COI and 16?S rRNA genes for DNA barcoding of cultivable carps in India.  


Abstract The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, 16?S rRNA has also been advocated for DNA barcoding in many animal species. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16?S rRNA in discriminating six cultivable carp species: Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo fimbriatus, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba from India. Analysis of partial sequences of these two gene fragments from 171 individuals indicated close genetic relationship between Catla catla and Labeo rohita. The results of the present study indicated COI to be more useful than 16?S rRNA for DNA barcoding of Indian carps. PMID:24047160

Mohanty, Mausumee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Lakshman; Das, Paramananda



In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of two heavy metal salts in a fish cell line (RF).  


Labeo rohita (rohu) is one of most important of Indian major carps, which is highly ranked among the important freshwater aquaculture species in the world. Heavy metals are major risk factors for aquatic health, which are biomagnified through the food chain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different divalent salts of two heavy metals, such as zinc (ZnCl(2), ZnSO(4) and ZnNO(3)) and cadmium (CdCl(2) and CdSO(4)), in an established fish cell line, RF developed from fin tissue of L. rohita. The RF cell line was used for assessment of heavy metal cytotoxicity through various endpoint assays, including maximum tolerated dose (MTD) determination, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, and Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) assay. Results revealed that these heavy metal salts were cytotoxic to the RF cell line at varied concentrations. MTD values were found to be 1.563, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5 and 25?mg/L for CdCl(2), CdSO(4), ZnCl(2), Zn(NO(3))(2) and ZnSO(4), respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values calculated by MTT, NR and CB assay were 53.83?±?7.02, 58.03?±?9.12 and 79.20?±?15.27 for ZnSO(4), 26.44?±?7.01, 36.60?±?7.82 and 155.6?±?14.75 for Zn(NO(3))(2), 20.26?±?17.95, 16.94?±?7.05 and 87.54?±?7.58 for ZnCl(2), 5.166?±?0.57, 15?±?1 and 41.80?±?8.38 for CdSO(4) and 4.966?±?0.56, 9.56?±?1.73 and 20.93?±?4.47 for CdCl(2). This study establishes the RF cell line as an in vitro tool for assessment and monitoring of heavy metal concentration in the aquatic environment. PMID:23829824

Goswami, Mukunda; Yadav, Kamalendra; Dubey, Akhilesh; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Konwar, Rituraj; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, Naresh S; Lakra, Wazir S



Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in cultured and wild-caught freshwater fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.  


Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

Phan, Van Thi; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders



Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp,Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytesin vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational\\u000a process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte

S. Dasgupta; D. Basu; L. Ravi Kumar; S. Bhattacharya



Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  


The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah



Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah



The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  


The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati



First evidence of comparative responses of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) to relatively resistant and susceptible Indian farmed carps to Argulus siamensis infection.  


Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) is present in teleost but not in mammals. Among Indian farmed carps, Catla catla is relatively more resistant than Labeo rohita to Argulus siamensis lice infection. TLR22 is believed to be associated with innate immunity against ectoparasite infection. To investigate the TLR22 mediated immunity against argulosis, we have cloned and characterized TLR22 genes of L. rohita (rTLR22) and C. catla (cTLR22). The full-length cDNAs of rTLR22 and cTLR22 contained an open reading frame of 2838 and 2841 nucleotides, respectively; bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically rTLR22/cTLR22 was most closely related to Cyprinus carpio (common carp) counterpart, having highest sequence identity of 86.0%. The TIR domain remained highly conserved with 90% identity within freshwater fishes. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the rTLR22/cTLR22 genes are encoded by uninterrupted exons. The co-habitation challenge study with A. siamensis infection confirmed that C. catla is comparatively more resistant than L. rohita. Further, comparative mRNA expression profile in immune relevant tissues also suggested about the participatory role of TLR22 during lice infection. However, TLR22 might not solely be involved in conferring relative resistance among carp species against argulosis. PMID:24998226

Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Chakrapani, V; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.  


In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?Labeo rohita (395 in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A



Distributions of metals in the food web of fishponds of Kolleru Lake, India.  


The distributions of trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr Mn, Zn and Cu) in water, sediment, plankton and four fish species (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Pangasius pangasius and Cirrhinus mrigala) from fishponds of Kolleru Lake, India were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of lead (0.01-0.03mg/l) and copper (0.01-0.08mg/l) in water and cadmium (3.0-9.0mg/kg), chromium (47-211mg/kg) and copper (10-64mg/kg) in sediment were above the EPA threshold effects level (TEL) and are of biological concern. The abundance orders of metals were Mn>Cd>Cu>Pb in water, Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu >Pb>Cd in sediment and Cu>Mn>Cr>Zn>Pb>Cd in plankton. The concentrations of the metals in the muscles of these four fish species apparently decrease in the order Zn>Cu>Cr>Mn=Pb>Cd and were well below WHO permissible limits that were safe for human consumption. PMID:19070365

Adhikari, S; Ghosh, Lopa; Giri, B S; Ayyappan, S



Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)); Bou-Olayan, A.H.



Recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila outer membrane protein 48 (Omp48) induces a protective immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda.  


The gene coding for an outer membrane protein Omp48 of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from an infected fish was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of nucleotide sequence showed the omp48 gene to be an adhesin encoding a protein of 426 amino acids with high identity to the omp48 gene of Aeromonas veronii, another fish pathogen. The gene belonged to the maltoporin group of porins and had high similarity to LamB porins of A. hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The expressed purified recombinant protein had an estimated molecular weight of 48 kDa. Further, rabbit hyperimmune sera against the recombinant protein reacted with A. hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria and A. veronii whole cell proteins at the region of 48 kDa, in western blotting. The recombinant protein was immunogenic in the fish Labeo rohita Hamilton. Fish immunized with recombinant protein, when challenged with virulent A. hydrophila and another bacterial fish pathogen, Edwardsiella tarda, showed relative percent survivals of 69 and 60, respectively. Our results suggest that Omp48 of A. hydrophila could be used as a potential vaccine candidate for protection not only against A. hydrophila infection, but also against the fish pathogen E. tarda. PMID:22564558

Khushiramani, Rekha Matlani; Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Akash, Naviledasappa; Deepanjali, Appunni; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani



Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.  


The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdk1. Densitometric analysis of the immunoblot data collected from the melatonin pre-treated MIH incubated oocytes showed that cyclin B level continued to increase even after 4 h of incubation, and reached the peak after 12 h. Moreover, determination of H1 kinase activity as an indicator of MPF activity in oocytes revealed that melatonin pre-incubation considerably increased MIH stimulation of histone H1 phosphorylation as compared to MIH alone. Thus, the present study demonstrates for the first time that prior incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on carp oocyte maturation. PMID:15639142

Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar



FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532



High vitamin A content in some small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh: perspectives for food-based strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency.  


Recognising the importance of fish in the Bangladeshi diet, the objective of the present study was to screen commonly consumed fish species for vitamin A content to evaluate the potential of fish as a vitamin A source in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A deficiency. Samples of 26 commonly consumed fish species and one crustacean were collected in Kishoreganj and Mymensingh, Bangladesh. To obtain edible parts, the fish were cleaned by Bangladeshi women according to traditional practices. Distribution of vitamin A in parts of the fish and the effect of the cleaning practices on the vitamin A content in#10; edible parts were assessed. The content of vitamin A compounds was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The vitamin A content in small fish ranged from 2680 retinol equivalents (RE)/100 g raw edible parts in mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) to 20 RE/100 g raw edible parts in chata (Colisa lalia; an alternative scientific name is Colisa lalius). The vitamin A content in cultured species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), rui (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was low, <30 RE/100 g raw edible parts. In mola, 90% of the vitamin A was found in the eyes and viscera. The vitamin A content in the screened fish species was highly variable, by more than a factor of 100. The existence of commonly consumed fish in Bangladesh belonging to the categories of very high and high vitamin A content offers a great unexploited potential for food-based strategies to improve the vitamin A intake by promoting the production and consumption of these species. PMID:12396468

Roos, Nanna; Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Thilsted, Shakuntala Haraksingh



Effect of consumption of the nutrient-dense, freshwater small fish Amblypharyngodon mola on biochemical indicators of vitamin A status in Bangladeshi children: a randomised, controlled study of efficacy.  


In Bangladesh, some commonly consumed, indigenous, freshwater small fish species (eaten whole with bone, head and eyes) such as mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) are nutrient-dense, containing preformed vitamin A as retinol and especially 3,4-dehydroretinol. The objective of the present randomised, controlled efficacy study was to evaluate the effects of mola on biochemical indicators of vitamin A status. Children (n 196), aged 3-7 years, with serum retinol 0.36-0.75 micromol/l, were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups to receive a daily test meal (6 d/week for 9 weeks) of rice and vegetable curry (no vitamin A) ad libitum and 50 g fish curry consisting of: (1) mola, 600 retinol activity equivalents (RAE) (using 40 % biological activity of 3,4-dehydroretinol isomers) (experimental group, n 66); (2) rui (Labeo rohita), a large fish (no vitamin A), with added retinyl palmitate, 600 RAE (positive control group, n 65); or (3) rui, 0 RAE (negative control group, n 65). The nutrient compositions of the dishes were analysed. After 9 weeks, no significant treatment effects were observed for serum retinol (P = 0.52) and retinol-binding protein (P = 0.81) in the experimental group compared with the negative control, whereas the positive control improved significantly (P < 0.001). The present results do not suggest conversion of the large amount of 3,4-dehydroretinol in mola curry to retinol. Further research on the functional effect of mola in humans is needed. Mola is a nutrient-dense animal-source food, rich in haem Fe, Zn and especially Ca, thus consumption of mola in Bangladesh should continue to be encouraged. PMID:17925053

Kongsbak, Katja; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Wahed, Mohammed A



The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)  

SciTech Connect

Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

Alam, M.K.



Prevalence of zoonotic trematodes in fish from a Vietnamese fish-farming community.  


The prevalence of fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) metacercariae was investigated in fish farmed by rural households in Nghe An Province, located in northern Vietnam. In total, 716 fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 6 carp species, i.e., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix), and roha (Labeo rohita), collected from 53 fish farms were examined. The overall prevalence of FZT metacercariae was 44.6%, ranging from 12.5% to 61.0% in fish species collected from grow-out ponds, which are the production system for growing fish from fingerling size to market size. The overall prevalence was 43.6% in fingerlings cultured in nurseries, ranging from 7.4% to 62.8% for different fish species. The FZT species recovered were heterophyids and echinostomatids and included Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Stellantchas musfalcatus, and Echinochasmus japonicus, all of which are intestinal flukes in humans, other mammals, and birds. This is the first report of H. yokogawai and E. japonicus in fish in Vietnam, and the first record for S. falcatus in northern Vietnam. Although a previous cross-sectional survey of the people living in these fish farm households revealed a very low prevalence of FZTs (< 1%), our results demonstrate that intestinal flukes are common in farmed fish in this area, suggesting that reservoir hosts such as dogs, cats, and pigs are more important in sustaining the life cycles of these flukes in fish farms than human hosts. This has implications for the effectiveness of control programs focused mainly on treatment of humans. PMID:18564743

Chi, Tran T K; Dalsgaard, Anders; Turnbull, James F; Tuan, Pham A; Murrell, K Darwin



A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings.  


Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40°C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100°C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents. PMID:25791885

Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M



Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.  


This 3?×?3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 ?g/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 ?g/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 ?g/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 ?g/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 ?g/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 ?g/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 ?g/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 ?g/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah



Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382




E-print Network

Salvelinus fontinalis HENDERSON (1962) qualifie également les cellules de la paroi des lobules de « lobules'espace extralobulaire). Il s'agit de : Esox lucius, Salvelinus willughbü et Labeo (MARSH!,r, et LOFTS, ig56 ; LOFTS et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Histological Lesions in Gills of Feral Cyprinids, Related to the Uptake of Waterborne Toxicants from Keenjhar Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gill epithelium is a major site of gaseous exchange. The aim of the present study was to detect heavy metals content from the gills of L. rohita H., C. catla H., and C. mrigala H., respectively, from Keenjhar Lake water and to evaluate the histological alterations from the gills, due to the accumulation of waterborne toxicants. Heavy metals content was

A. L. Korai; K. H. Lashari; G. A. Sahato; T. G. Kazi



The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra



Epidemiological studies of Clonorchis sinensis in lower area of Nag Dong river nearby Busan City in Korea.  


The infection rates with cercaria and metacercaria of the Clonorchis sinensis in snail and fish hosts, and the prevalence among the inhabitants in the lower Nag Dong river in Busan were investigated in the period from June 1981 to March 1982. The stool examination and E.P.G. count for prevalence and intensity of clonorchiasis were done by cellophane thick smear and Stoll's egg count methods. The prevalence rate of clonorchiasis among inhabitants of 3 towns in Bug Gu, was 38.4% among a total of 1,384 persons examined. By town, the prevalence in Gu Po was 25.4% out of 330 persons examined, 39.3% in 438 examined in Gang Dong and 44.8% out of 616 in examined in Myeng Ji respectively. According to sex, the male(41.9%) showed relatively higher rate than female(35.3%). By age, increase of rate was observed as increase in age. The highest rate was 80.7% in 50~59 years group. The intensity of infection was light: 89.1% of examined cases were below 10,000 E.P.G.; by area 80.9%(Gu Po), 80.2%(Gang Dong), 97.3%(Myeng JI). Out of fresh water fish species collected, 2 species were not infected with metacercaria. The metacercarial detection rate from fish in low Nag Dong river showed 100% in Pseudorasbora parva, Pseudogobio esocinus(41.4%), Hemibarbus labeo(37.1%), Acheilognathus limbata(33.3%) and Erythroculter erthropterus(4.5%) respectively. The mean number of metacercaria per gram of muscle was 21.2 in P. parva, P. esocinus(15.0), H. labeo(11.9), A. limbata(6.3), and E. erythropterus(1.6) respectively. Though 7 area along Nag Dong river were surveyed for Parafossarulus manchouricus, the snails were not found at all areas except for one area, Seo Nam stream; and the cercaria was infected 0.9% out of 708 examined. PMID:12902685

Song, Soo Bok



Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D



Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *  

PubMed Central

Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.



Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus – a review  

PubMed Central

Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat



Health risk from As contaminated fish consumption by population living around River Chenab, Pakistan.  


We analyzed six edible fish species (Securicola gora; Cirrhinus reba; Rita rita; Sperata sarvari; Culpisoma naziri and Labeo kalbasu) to evaluation As contamination. These species were caught from the River Chenab of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of arsenic (As) and the antioxidant response in the muscle, liver and gills. The sampling sites were divided into agricultural, industrial and urban land uses. Although, the highest concentration of As, and the antioxidant activity was found in the liver, but the muscles also had a high concentration of As than that of gills. The range of As detected in these tissues was in the following order: Liver (0.009-3.95?gg(-1))>muscles (0.006-3.5?gg(-1))>gills (0.002-2.96?gg(-1)). Furthermore, the R. rita showed the highest concentration of As (2.18?gg(-1)) followed by S. sarvari (1.98?gg(-1)). The median concentrations of As, in the liver and muscles were also above the FAO/WHO, EPA permissible limits. The LPO activity was significantly related to As, which showed a possibility of cell membrane damage in these species. The human health risk assessment revealed that higher than normal concentration of As in muscle was particularly hazardous for the younger population. PMID:23831902

Waheed, Sidra; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Jahan, Sarwat



Phylogeny and polyploidy: Resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  


Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (?400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion. PMID:25698355

Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L



Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa.  


Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g(-1). The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g(-1). In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g(-1)), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g(-1), THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g(-1) for at-risk groups. PMID:12810322

Campbell, L M; Osano, O; Hecky, R E; Dixon, D G



Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.  


Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus. PMID:25119364

Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè



Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.  


Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives. PMID:24191617

Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A



An assessment of the DNA barcodes of Indian freshwater fishes.  


Freshwater fishes in India are poorly known and plagued by many unresolved cryptic species complexes that masks some latent and endemic species. Limitations in traditional taxonomy have resulted in this crypticism. Hence, molecular approaches like DNA barcoding, are needed to diagnose these latent species. We have analyzed 1383 barcode sequences of 175 Indian freshwater fish species available in the databases, of which 172 sequences of 70 species were generated. The congeneric and conspecific genetic divergences were calculated using Kimura's 2 parameter distance model followed by the construction of a Neighbor Joining tree using the MEGA 5.1. DNA barcoding principle at its first hand approach, led to the straightforward identification of 82% of the studied species with 2.9% (S.E=0.2) divergence between the nearest congeners. However, after validating some cases of synonymy and mislabeled sequences, 5% more species were found to be valid. Sequences submitted to the database under different names were found to represent single species. On the other hand, some sequences of the species like Barilius barna, Barilius bendelisis and Labeo bata were submitted to the database under a single name but were found to represent either some unexplored species or latent species. Overall, 87% of the available Indian freshwater fish barcodes were diagnosed as true species in parity with the existing checklist and can act as reference barcode for the particular taxa. For the remaining 13% (21 species) the correct species name was difficult to assign as they depicted some erroneous identification and cryptic species complex. Thus, these barcodes will need further assay and inclusion of barcodes of more specimens from same and sister species. PMID:24378233

Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar



The fish fauna of Anambra river basin, Nigeria: species abundance and morphometry.  


The fish yields of most Nigeria inland waters are generally on the decline for causes that may range from inadequate management of the fisheries to degradation of the water bodies. Sustainable exploitation requires knowledge of the ichthyofaunal composition in the water bodies. We did a survey of fish species in Anambra river basin for 22 months. Fish samples were collected using four different gears -hook and line of size 13, caste nets, gill nets, and cages of mesh sizes of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm each. We recorded 52 fish species belonging to 17 families: 171, 236, and 169 individuals at Ogurugu, Otuocha, and Nsugbe stations respectively. Two families, Characidae, 19.5%, and Mochokidae, 11.8%, constituted the dominant fish families in the river. The dominant fish species were Citherinus citherius, 9.02%, and Alestes nurse, 7.1%. Other fish species with significant abundance were Synodontis clarias 6.9%, Macrolepidotus curvier 5.7%, Labeo coubie 5.4%, Distichodus rostrtus 4.9%, and Schilbe mystus 4.5%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Citharinus citharius dorsal fins 20, anal fins 30, caudal fins 21, pectoral fins, 9 and 8 ventral fins, and Alestes nurse 10 dorsal fins, 14 anal fins, 31 caudal fins, 7 pectoral fins and 6 ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are Citharinus citharius total length 300 mm, standard length 231 mm, head length 69 mm, body length 101 mm, body girth 176 mm, body weight 900 mg. Alestes nurse total length 200, standard length 140 mm, head length 60 mm, body length 80 mm, body girth 120 mm, body weight 400 mg. The most abundant animal utilizing the basin was Ardea cinerea (D3) with 22.2% occurrence (D4) and this was followed by Caprini with 13.51%, and Varanus niloticus, 10.04%. The least abundant animals utilizing basin were Chephalophus rufilatus, and Erythrocebus patas, with 0.58% each of occurrence. PMID:19637699

Odo, Gregory Ejikeme; Didigwu, Nwani Christopher; Eyo, Joseph Effiong