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Sample records for rohu labeo rohita

  1. Transcriptional changes in three immunoglobulin isotypes of rohu, Labeo rohita in response to Argulus siamensis infection.

    PubMed

    Kar, Banya; Mohapatra, Amruta; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chains of three isotypes viz., IgM, IgD and IgT/IgZ are described in teleosts. In this study, a challenge experiment with an ectoparasite Argulus siamensis was conducted to evaluate the changes in adaptive immune response by quantitation of expression of Ig heavy chains in skin, head kidney and mucus of infected rohu, Labeo rohita. Rohu were challenged with 100 metanauplii of A. siamensis/fish. Head kidney, skin and mucus samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d and 30 d by sacrificing four fish each from infected and control groups at each time point. The expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ in these tissues were measured by reverse transcription real time quantitative PCR. IgM level was found to reach its peak significantly 30 d post-infection in head kidney tissue, while IgM transcripts were below detectable range in skin and mucus at all time points. IgZ and IgD levels were significantly up-regulated post-infection in all the three tissue samples. Early up-regulation of IgD was observed in skin and mucus, compared to head kidney. This study showed that parasitic invasion can trigger varied expressions of immunoglobulin types to provide systemic as well as local protection in the host. In particular, the appearance of high level of expression of IgZ and IgD in skin and mucus will pave the way for vaccine development against A. siamensis which feeds on those tissues. PMID:26306856

  2. Effects of cypermethrin on survival, morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early development.

    PubMed

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Zuberi, Amina; Azizullah, Azizullah; Khan Khattak, Muhammad Nasir

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub-lethal doses of Cypermethrin (CYP) on the survival and morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early developmental stages. Newly fertilized eggs were incubated in the presence of sub-lethal concentration of CYP (20% of LC50 i.e., 8.43 μg L(-1)) in a well designed flow through system. Increased mortality was found with increase in exposure time. Deformities like eroded yolk and margins, elongated yolk sac, larvae with short tail, no eyes or larvae with zigzag movement and paralyzed larvae were observed in CYP treated group from blastula to fry stage. The activities of antioxidant like Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Lactoperoxidase (LPO) were decreased from 24 to 96 h in the control group whereas increased in CYP treated group. The Glutathione reducatse (GR) activity was also increased with time in both the control and treated groups; however, the activity was significantly higher in CYP treated group. Similarly, the whole body cortisol level showed an increasing trend with time in both control and treated groups. However, in CYP exposed group the cortisol level was considerably higher after 24 h exposure but statistically comparable to the control group after 96 h. It can be concluded from the present results that CYP even at very low concentration adversely affects the early development of L. rohita and enhances mortality. The obtained results reveal that CYP may affect the wild population of fish by inducing oxidative stress and modulating stress response during early ontogenesis. PMID:26408976

  3. Antiproliferative, ACE-inhibitory and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from rohu (Labeo rohita) roe (egg) prepared by gastrointestinal proteases.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we have reported the chemical composition, molecular mass distribution and antioxidant activity of rohu roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antiproliferative, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from rohu (Labeo rohita) roe proteins, prepared by gastrointestinal proteases (pepsin and trypsin), were investigated. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The results showed that the pepsin hydrolysate possessed dose dependent inhibitory effect on Caco-2 cell line. Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates displayed ACE-inhibitory activity in vitro. The ACE-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate generated by pepsin (47 ± 1.7 %, at 1 mg/ml) is higher than that obtained by trypsin (36 ± 3.2 %). Additionally, the undigested rohu roe proteins and its hydrolysates exhibited functional properties. Solubilities of the hydrolysates were above 81 ± 9.2 % at all pH values tested. Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates showed good foaming capacity (45-211 %) and emulsification activity (4-29 m(2)/g). The foaming abilities and emulsifying activity index (EAI) were affected by pH. The results suggest that protein hydrolysates from rohu roe could be useful in food industry for various applications. PMID:26604407

  4. Identification of Deleterious Mutations in Myostatin Gene of Rohu Carp (Labeo rohita) Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Mohapatra, Shibani D.; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A) of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P) were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies. PMID:27019850

  5. Molecular characterization of two kiss genes and their expression in rohu (Labeo rohita) during annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Sengupta, Sushmita; Nayak, Madhusmita; Samanta, Mrinal; Sahoo, Lakshman; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin is an important regulator of reproduction in mammals and presumably non-mammalian species. In the Indian subcontinent, rohu (Labeo rohita) is a commercially important seasonal breeder freshwater fish species, but till date, the expression of kisspeptin gene during different phases of annual reproductive cycle has not been investigated. To address this, we cloned and characterized kiss1 and kiss2 full-length cDNA by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and analyzed their expressions in brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay at various gonadal developmental stages of the annual reproductive cycle. Full-length rohu kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA encodes 116 and 125 amino acids respectively, and in the adult fish, they were widely expressed in brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, muscle, kidney, intestine and eye. In male, kiss1 mRNA in brain and testis showed the highest level of expression during meiosis division of the gonad. The kiss2 mRNA revealed the highest expression during recrudescence stages in the brain, spermiation stages in pituitary and post-spawning stages in testes. In females, significantly (p<0.05) a higher level of kiss1 transcript was expressed in brain and ovary, in the full grown oocyte stages, whereas during pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages in pituitary. The kiss2 gene expression was almost similar at various gonadal developmental stages in the brain and ovary, but, highest expression was detected in full grown oocyte stages in the pituitary. These results together may suggest the involvement of two kiss genes in the control of seasonal gonadal development in rohu. PMID:26506261

  6. A linkage map of transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms in rohu (Labeo rohita) and QTL associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Production of carp dominates world aquaculture. More than 1.1 million tonnes of rohu carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), were produced in 2010. Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis in rohu, and is a major problem for carp production worldwide. There is a need to better understand the genetic mechanisms affecting resistance to this disease, and to develop tools that can be used with selective breeding to improve resistance. Here we use a 6 K SNP array to genotype 21 full-sibling families of L. rohita that were experimentally challenged intra-peritoneally with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci associated with disease resistance. Results In all, 3193 SNPs were found to be informative and were used to create a linkage map and to scan for QTL affecting resistance to A. hydrophila. The linkage map consisted of 25 linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid chromosomes in L. rohita. Male and female linkage maps were similar in terms of order, coverage (1384 and 1393 cM, respectively) and average interval distances (1.32 and 1.35 cM, respectively). Forty-one percent of the SNPs were annotated with gene identity using BLAST (cut off E-score of 0.001). Twenty-one SNPs mapping to ten linkage groups showed significant associations with the traits hours of survival and dead or alive (P <0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Of the SNPs showing significant or suggestive associations with the traits, several were homologous to genes of known immune function or were in close linkage to such genes. Genes of interest included heat shock proteins (70, 60, 105 and “small heat shock proteins”), mucin (5b precursor and 2), lectin (receptor and CD22), tributyltin-binding protein, major histocompatibility loci (I and II), complement protein component c7-1, perforin 1, ubiquitin (ligase, factor e4b isoform 2 and conjugation enzyme e2 c), proteasome subunit, T-cell antigen receptor and lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase. Conclusions A panel of markers has been identified that will be validated for use with both genomic and marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of L. rohita to A. hydrophila. PMID:24984705

  7. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16 GB, 72 bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  8. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  9. Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-05-01

    Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (<500 nm) and could be successfully endocyted in the body. Despite low antigen loading in PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for Freund's adjuvant (for stimulating antibody response) to overcome many side effects offering long lasting immunity. Our encouraging results suggest that PLA/PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system could be a novel antigen carrier for parenteral immunization in fish. PMID:25689492

  10. Low-depth shotgun sequencing resolves complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Das, Sofia P; Bit, Amrita; Patnaik, Siddhi; Sahoo, L; Meher, P K; Jayasankar, P; Saha, T M; Patel, A B; Patel, Namrata; Koringa, P; Joshi, C G; Agarwal, Suyash; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya; Kushwaha, B; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, N S; Iquebal, M A; Jaiswal, Sarika; Kumar, Dinesh; Jena, J K; Das, P

    2016-09-01

    Labeo rohita, popularly known as rohu, is a widely cultured species in whole Indian subcontinent. In the present study, we used in-silico approach to resolve complete mitochondrial genome of rohu. Low-depth shotgun sequencing using Roche 454 GS FLX (Branford, Connecticut, USA) followed by de novo assembly in CLC Genomics Workbench version 7.0.4 (Aarhus, Denmark) revealed the complete mitogenome of L. rohita to be 16 606 bp long (accession No. KR185963). It comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 putative control region. The gene order and organization are similar to most vertebrates. The mitogenome in the present investigation has 99% similarity with that of previously reported mitogenomes of rohu and this is also evident from the phylogenetic study using maximum-likelihood (ML) tree method. This study was done to determine the feasibility, accuracy and reliability of low-depth sequence data obtained from NGS platform as compared to the Sanger sequencing. Thus, NGS technology has proven to be competent and a rapid in-silico alternative to resolve the complete mitochondrial genome sequence, thereby reducing labors and time. PMID:26260184

  11. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the putative T cells of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Sanjay C; Rathore, Gaurav; Punia, Peyush; Sood, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we have described the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against thymocytes of rohu, Labeo rohita. MAbs were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with freshly isolated and nylon wool column enriched mononuclear cells of thymus. Positive clones against thymocytes were screened by cellular ELISA. The hybridoma showing strong reactivity with nylon wool enriched mononuclear cells, and non-reactivity with a rohu thymus macrophage cell line and rohu serum was selected and subjected to single cell cloning by limiting dilution. The MAbs secreted by a positive clone were designated as E6 MAb. Western blotting of reduced protein from enriched thymocytes showed that E6 reacted with a 166.2 kDa polypeptide and belongs to the IgG1 subclass. Flow cytometric analysis of gated lymphocytes, revealed that the percentage of E6 positive (E6+) cells in thymus (n = 5, 720.4 ± 79.70 g) was 89.7 %. Similarly, the percentage of E6+ cells in kidney, spleen and blood (n = 5) was 6.71, 1.71 and 1.88 %, respectively. In indirect immunoperoxidase test, E6+ cells appeared to be lymphoid cells with a high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio and were densely packed in the central region of thymus whereas, a few cells were found to be positive in kidney and spleen sections. E6 MAb also reacted with a small population of lymphocytes in blood smear. This MAb appears to be a suitable marker for T lymphocytes and can be a valuable tool in studying immune response and ontogeny of L. rohita immune system. PMID:25749913

  12. Establishment of a leukocyte cell line derived from peritoneal macrophages of fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek; Rathore, Gaurav; Sood, Neeraj; Khan, M Y; Lakra, W S

    2015-01-01

    A continuous leukocyte cell line with phagocytic activity was established from peritoneal macrophages of rohu, Labeo rohita (LRPM). LRPM was initiated from adherent mononuclear leukocytes isolated from peritoneal cavity of rohu, without use of any growth factors or feeder cells. These cells exhibited maximum growth at 30 °C in L-15 medium containing 20 % foetal bovine serum, and has been subcultured for more than 60 passages till date. The cells showed 85 % viability after 6 months of storage in liquid nitrogen. The species of origin of the LRPM was confirmed by the amplification and sequencing of 655 bp fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA. Functionally, LRPM showed phagocytic activity of yeast cells and fluorescent latex beads as evaluated by phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Immuno-modulators such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide and phorbol myristate acetate resulted in functional activation of LRPM; and enhanced their microbicidal activity through release of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Culture supernatant from activated cells also revealed lysozyme activity. Cells of LRPM were positive for alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase enzyme indicating macrophage lineage. Our results indicate that this cell line can be a useful in vitro tool to study the role of macrophages in teleost immune system and to evaluate the effects of new aquaculture drugs. The LRPM cell line represents the first reported leukocyte cell line of peritoneal origin from any freshwater species of fish. PMID:24248274

  13. Genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Labeo rohita using Alkaline Single-cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Ali, Rahat; Ali, Tayyaba; Mobeen, Ameena

    2014-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide of organophosphate group, which causes severe toxicological effects in non target aquatic organisms especially in fish. In the present study the genotoxic effects of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were observed in the erythrocytes and gill cells of Labeo rohita (commonly known as rohu) using the Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the behavior of the fish were also investigated. The 96 h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos, estimated by Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) in static bioassay, was found to be 442.8 µg/L. On the basis of LC50 value, the fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (SL-I ∼221.4 µg/L, SL- II ∼110.7 µg/L and SL-III ∼73.8 µg/L) for 96 h. Blood and gill samples were collected at every 24 h and were subjected to the Comet assay. The observed DNA damage was concentration dependent and time dependent and those levels of DNA damage in between the tested concentrations and times were significantly different (p < 0.01). It was also found that the gill cells are more sensitive to chlorpyrifos, though; it revealed more DNA damage as compared to the erythrocytes of fish. Fish exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos showed different neurotoxic behavioral responses. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos is a genotoxic and neurotoxic insecticide causing DNA damage and neurotoxic effects in Labeo rohita. PMID:24524247

  14. Protective effects of leucine against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of leucine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in Labeo rohita (rohu) in vivo and in vitro. Primary hepatocytes, isolated from the hepatopancreas, were exposed to different concentrations of LPS for 24 h to induce an inflammatory response, and the protective effects of leucine against LPS-induced inflammation were studied. Finally, we investigated the efficiency of dietary leucine supplementation in attenuating an immune challenge induced by LPS in vivo. Exposure of cells to 10-25 μg mL(-1) of LPS for 24 h resulted in a significant production of nitric oxide and release of lactate dehydrogenase to the medium, whereas cell viability and protein content were reduced (p < 0.05). LPS exposure (10 μg mL(-1)) increased mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in vitro (p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with leucine prevented the LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs by downregulating TLR4, MyD88, NF-κBp65, and MAPKp38 mRNA expression. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, which was increased by LPS treatment, was further enhanced (p < 0.05) by leucine pretreatment. The enhanced expression of IL-10 might inhibit the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. It was found that leucine pretreatment attenuated the excessive activation of LPS-induced TLR4-MyD88 signaling as manifested by lower level of TLR4, MyD88, MAPKp38, NF-κBp65 and increased level of IκB-α protein in leucine pre-treatment group. In vivo experiments demonstrated that leucine pre-supplementation could protect fish against LPS-induced inflammation through an attenuation of TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway. Taken together, we propose that leucine pre-supplementation decreases LPS-induced immune damage in rohu by enhancing the expression of IL-10 and by regulating the TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathways. PMID:27016401

  15. Application of calcined waste fish (Labeo rohita) scale as low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, R; Bepari, S; Banerjee, A

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of converting waste Rohu fish (Labeo rohita) scale into a high-performance, reusable, low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a significant portion of the main component of fish scale i.e. HAP (hydroxyapatite) could be transformed into β-tri-calcium phosphate when calcined above 900°C for 2 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) morphology studies of the calcined scale depicted a fibrous layer of porous structure; while a BET surface area of 39 m(2)/g was measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimal parametric conditions viz. methanol/oil molar ratio, 6.27:1, calcination temperature, 997.42°C and catalyst concentration, 1.01 wt.% of oil corresponding to a maximum FAME yield of 97.73%. Reusability results confirmed that the prepared catalyst could be reemployed up to six times, procreating a potentially applicable avenue in biodiesel synthesis. PMID:21094040

  16. Antagonistic Activity of Cellular Components of Potential Probiotic Bacteria, Isolated from the Gut of Labeo rohita, Against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Sen, Shib Sankar; Vinumonia, J; Banu, B Nazeema; Jena, Prasant Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic activity against A. hydrophila was determined. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed that R1, R2, and R5 were Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Bacillus subtilis VSG1, respectively. Four different fractions of cellular components (i.e. the whole-cell product, heat-killed whole-cell product [HKWCP], intracellular product [ICP], and extracellular product) of these selected strains were effective in an in vitro sensitivity test against 6 A. hydrophila strains. Among the cellular components, the ICP of R1, HKWCP of R2, and ICP of R5 exhibited the strongest antagonistic activities, as evidenced by their inhibition zones. The antimicrobial compounds from these selected cellular components were partially purified by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their properties were analysed. The ranges of pH stability of the purified compounds were wide (3.0-10.0), and compounds were thermally stable up to 90 °C. Considering these results, isolated probiotic strains may find potential applications in the prevention and treatment of aquatic aeromonosis. PMID:26781682

  17. Development and characterization of a continuous macrophage cell line, LRTM, derived from thymus of Labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822).

    PubMed

    Rebello, Sanjay C; Rathore, Gaurav; Punia, Peyush; Sood, Neeraj; Elangovan, V

    2014-01-01

    A long-term thymic macrophage cell line from the thymus explants of Labeo rohita designated as LRTM (L. rohita thymic macrophages) was established, which has been maintained in culture for more than 1 yr. This cell line designated LRTM cells have been subcultured for 70 passages. The cells shape was initially long and elongated; with subsequent passages, the cells became short and epithelial like. The cells exhibited optimum growth in L-15 containing 10% fetal bovine serum and also in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium at 37°C with 5% CO2 and showed 85+-% viability after 12 mo storage in liquid nitrogen. In addition, cells showed nonspecific esterase and surface expression of Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G and classes I and II major histocompatibility complex antigens. These observations confirmed that this cell line had the morphologic and functional features as a macrophage. The cells exhibited phagocytic activity by engulfing yeast cells as well as fluorescent latex beads, which was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and Giemsa staining. The long-term cultured cells show rapid production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides and phorbol miristate acetate (PMA). Mostly, all the cells were alpha napthyl esterase acetate positive. After stimulation with PMA and lipopolysaccharide, cultured fish macrophages produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. The karyotype analysis showed that these cells have a tetraploid karyotype with 100 chromosomes in each cell, indicating that they are normal L. rohita cells. Amplification, sequencing, and alignment of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA from rohu confirmed that the cell line originated from L. rohita. This cell line should be useful for studying the role of thymic macrophages in differentiation and maturation of thymocytes and can be source of macrophage-specific enzymes and cytokines. The macrophage cell line will be invaluable in studies of pathogen/macrophage interactions, the mechanisms of macrophage antimicrobial effector functions and the contribution of macrophages to the specific immune responses of teleosts. PMID:23955429

  18. Genomic cloning and sequence analysis of Interleukin-10 from Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Karan, Sweta; Kaushik, Himani; Saini, Nipun; Sahoo, Pramod K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in inflammation, immunoregulation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, it is our interest to isolate, clone, sequence and characterize IL-10 gene from the fish Labeo rohita (Lr). The gene was amplified using genomic DNA isolated from head kidney with primers designed on conserved sequence homologues of fishes belonging to Cyprinidae family. The gLrIL-10 is 1467 nucleotides long with five exons and four introns sharing the same organization as of mammalian IL-10 genes. An open reading frame of 537 bp was found to encode a putative 179 amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids with conserved signature sequence motif. Sequence analysis showed similarity with the IL-10 from most fresh water fishes of Cyprinidae family. LrIL-10 has 27.2 % identity and 54.95 % similarity with the human IL-10. Sequence analysis followed by phylogenetic studies showed highest identity with Catla catla (98%) followed by Cyprinus carpio (93%), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (89%) and is distantly related to human, rhesus monkey and frog. These data from primary sequence characterization may be used to further understand transcriptional regulation and functional characterization of LrIL-10 in relation to species-specific molecular immunology. Abbreviations IL-10 - Interleukin-10, Lr - Labeo rohita, nt - nucleotides. PMID:25489171

  19. Ultrastructural alterations in the gills of Labeo rohita fingerlings exposed to thermal extremes.

    PubMed

    Das, T; Sahu, N P; Chakraborty, S K; Chatterjee, N; Mohammed, M S; Dalvi, R S; Baruah, K; Pal, A K

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the cellular alterations in the gill of Labeo rohita exposed to lethal temperature maxima (LTM ax ) and lethal temperature minima (LTM in ) by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Acclimation of advanced fingerlings of L. rohita was carried out at 26°C for 30 days. Acclimated fish were subjected to a constant rate of increase or decrease in temperature (0.3°C/min) until the LTM ax and LTM in values were reached. Dissected gills were processed for TEM, both at the end of acclimation period at ambient temperature (26°C) and at lethal temperatures. Results indicated that at ambient temperature, the gill tissues appeared normal. However, significant changes were observed at lethal temperatures. The gill tissues at lethal temperature maxima showed severely damaged lamellae, with more vacuolated space. At lethal temperature minima, gill tissues showed increased density of mitochondria. Our prima-facie report indicated that L. rohita exposed to lethal temperatures exhibited marked ultrastructural changes in the gills. PMID:23480531

  20. Identification of MDP (muramyl dipeptide)-binding key domains in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-2) receptor of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Jitendra; Swain, Banikalyan; Sahoo, Bikash R; Dikhit, Manas R; Basu, Madhubanti; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-08-01

    In lower eukaryotes-like fish, innate immunity contributed by various pattern recognition receptor (PRR) plays an essential role in protection against diseases. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic PRR that recognizes MDP (muramyl dipeptide) of the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as ligand and activates signalling to induce innate immunity. Hypothesizing a similar NOD2 signalling pathway of higher eukaryotes, the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of rohu (Labeo rohita) was stimulated with MDP. The data of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed MDP-mediated inductive expression of NOD2 and its down-stream molecule RICK/RIP2 (receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-2). This observation suggested the existence of MDP-binding sites in rohu NOD2 (rNOD2). To investigate it, 3D model of ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of rNOD2 (rNOD2-LRR) was constructed following ab initio and threading approaches in I-TASSER web server. Structural refinement of the model was performed by energy minimization, and MD (molecular dynamics) simulation was performed in GROMACS (Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulations). The refined model of rNOD2-LRR was validated through SAVES, ProSA, ProQ, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers, and molecular docking with MDP was carried out in GOLD 4.1. The result of docking identified LRR3-7 comprising Lys820, Phe821, Asn822, Arg847, Gly849, Trp877, Trp901 and Trp931 as MDP-binding critical amino acids in rNOD2. This is the first study in fish to provide an insight into the 3D structure of NOD2-LRR region and its important motifs that are expected to be engaged in MDP binding and innate immunity. PMID:23255217

  1. Physiological responses of dietary tryptophan fed Labeo rohita to temperature and salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M S; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Ciji, A; Meena, D K; Das, P

    2013-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the possible effects of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) in Labeo rohita based on growth performance and physio-biochemical responses. In the experiment I, a 60-day feeding trial was carried out to elucidate the effects of dietary TRP enrichment on growth performance and physio-biochemical responses. In the experiment II, the TRP pre-fed L. rohita, from experiment I, was exposed to temperature and salinity stress to evaluate stress-mitigating efficacy of TRP. In L. rohita, dietary supplementation of TRP showed significant effect on weight gain percentage and feed conversion ratio but not on blood glucose. A significant increase in RNA content and RNA/DNA ratio upon TRP supplementation was observed and was positively correlated with growth performance. The results of experiment II indicated that weight gain percentage, serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly reduced in groups that were exposed to temperature and salinity stress and fed diets without TRP supplementation. However, dietary supplementation of TRP significantly augmented weight gain percentage in stress-exposed groups. Tryptophan supplementation helped in bringing back T3 and T4 levels comparable with control. A significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, Adenosine triphosphatase, blood glucose and serum cortisol was observed in temperature- and salinity-exposed groups fed without TRP-supplemented diets. However, TRP supplementation was found to be effective in restoring the above parameters. The results of these experiments suggest that dietary TRP supplementation augments growth, lowers energy demand and helps in mitigating thermal and salinity stress in L. rohita. PMID:23186225

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of arsenic on cytokine and HSP gene expression in Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sudeshna; Mitra, Tandrima; Purohit, Gopal Krishna; Mohanty, Sasmita; Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna

    2015-05-01

    Immune system is fundamental for survival of an organism against invading pathogens and other harmful agents. Cytokines, the signaling proteins that are produced transiently after cell activation and exert pleiotropic effects on cells of the immune system, are important mediators of cell mediated immune response. When expressed in a dysregulated fashion cytokines can underlie either immunodeficient or immunopathologic states. Heat shock proteins (stress proteins, HSPs) are also key proteins, which play important role in immunomodulation, apoptosis and influence the immune responses. Arsenic is a major toxic environmental contaminant and a human carcinogen. Prolonged drinking of arsenic-contaminated water leads to chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis). Arsenic is also immunotoxic and renders the host immunocompromised. Arsenic exposure has been reported to result in growth retardation, gross pathology including skin and eye lesions, ulcerations, cataract development etc. in different fish species. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of arsenic exposure on the expression of immune genes IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, complement C3a and HSP genes HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSC71, HSP78, and HSP90 in Labeo rohita, an important aquacultured species, as such information is not available on this major carp. Cytokine and HSP gene expression analyses were carried out in kidney and liver tissues, respectively, in arsenic-exposed fishes by RT-PCR and HSPs were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was observed that arsenic has a generalized immune-suppressive effect leading to down regulation of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines; besides, it led to up regulation of the HSP genes indicating arsenic-induced cellular stress. Thus arsenic exposure makes L. rohita immunocompromised and could increase its susceptibility to pathogen attacks. PMID:25652292

  3. Effect of cellular products of potential probiotic bacteria on the immune response of Labeo rohita and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immunological efficacy of cellular components from the potential probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis VSG1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 was evaluated in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL phosphate-buffer solution (PBS) containing 0.1 mg of any of the following cellular components: intercellular products (ICPs) of VSG1 (BS-ICPs), heat-killed whole cell products of VSG2 (PA-HKWCPs), or ICPs of VSG3 (LP-ICPs). Fish injected with 0.1 mL PBS served as the control. Various immunological parameters, including the expression of immune-related genes, were measured 14 and 21 days post-immunization. The fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded up to 21 days post-infection. The results revealed that administration of cellular components significantly increased the activity of serum lysozyme and the alternative complement pathway, phagocytosis, and respiratory bursts throughout the experimental period. Total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels were significantly higher in experimental groups than in the control up to 14 days post-immunization, and decreased thereafter. With respect to immune-related genes, IL-1β, COX-2, iNOS, and IL-10 were highly (P < 0.05) up-regulated in fish immunized with cellular components, compared to the control. The expression of TNF-α and NF-κB was up-regulated in immunized fish up to 14 days post-immunization. Interestingly, fish immunized with LP-ICPs exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge relative percent survival (83.32%), followed by PA-HKWCPs (66.66%), and BS-ICPs (50%). These results indicate that cellular components of probiotic bacteria can influence immune responses, enhance disease protection, and stimulate immune-related gene expression in rohu. Hence, these cellular components may be useful as adjuvants for vaccines in aquaculture. PMID:26282681

  4. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6?mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45?mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5?mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45?mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F?) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54?kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54?kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686

  5. Physiological changes in Labeo rohita during nitrite exposure: detoxification through dietary vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Ciji, Alexander; Sahu, Narottam Prasad; Pal, Asim Kumar; Akhtar, Mohammad Shahbaz

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of sub-lethal nitrite-nitrogen exposure on Labeo rohita. Fishes fed with different levels of vitamin E (VE) for 60days were exposed to nitrite for another 45days with same feeding regime. There were four treatment groups, viz., VE100-N, VE100+N, VE150+N and VE300+N. After 45days of exposure, lowest specific growth rate was observed in VE100+N and highest in VE100-N. Reno-somatic index and methaemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. Highest Hb and Hct were observed in VE100-N and significantly decreased upon nitrite exposure. Significant differences were observed in the activities of catalase and SOD as well as serum potassium and chloride levels among different treatments. However, serum calcium and osmolality was not significantly varied. Nitrite exposure caused marked increase in nitrite concentration in gill, liver and muscle. In liver and muscle dietary supplementation of higher amounts of VE found to reduce nitrite accumulation. It was noticed that nitrite exposure has adversely affected growth, haematological variables, ionic balance and dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE found to overcome the adverse effects of nitrite-nitrogen. Detoxification of nitrite by methaemoglobin reductase system was enhanced by dietary supplementation of additional amounts of VE. PMID:23727021

  6. The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

  7. Scales of freshwater fish Labeo rohita as bioindicators of water pollution in Tung Dhab Drain, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of municipal wastewater on scale morphology of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6, or 35.4%) of municipal wastewater for durations of 15, 30, and 60 d. Recovery experiments were also performed for a duration of 60 d. Scales were extracted after respective exposure periods, cleaned, and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Results showed concentration- and exposure duration-dependent alterations in the morphology of scales. Severe damage was observed at the anterior and posterior portions of scales in the form of lepidontal breakage and uprooting, destructions at the base of circuli and radii along with complete structural loss in the focal region and adjacent circuli and radii, and alterations in structure of tubercles. Data indicate that scales of fish L. rohita may be employed as bioindicators of water pollution and could be incorporated into water monitoring surveillance. PMID:25734766

  8. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  9. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of malathion induces significant cellular, biochemical and histological alterations in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subrata; Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of malathion, an organophosphate pesticide, raises the possibility of its undesirable toxicity to non-target organisms. Agricultural run-off and vector control sprays are the major sources of exposure to this pesticide for aquatic organisms. Some earlier studies have reported the presence of malathion at concentrations ranging from 18.12?g/L to 105.2?g/L in various water samples. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that these sub-lethal yet environmentally significant concentrations of malathion has serious toxicological implications on the fingerlings of Labeo rohita. Exposure to increasing concentration of malathion (10, 50 and 100?g/L) was reflected in the serum concentration of the pesticide and also in the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in fish brains. Increased abnormalities in liver function test coupled with a rise in the oxidative stress response were observed in gills, liver and kidney. However, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities like superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase by malathion exposure suggested a hormetic response. Tissue injury due to malathion was evident from the morphological and nuclear anomalies in the H-E stained sections of gill, liver and kidney. Cell cycle analysis of these organs further fortified the histopathological findings. This study elucidates the sub-lethal toxicity of environmentally relevant malathion concentrations on Labeo rohita which indicates the potential health hazard posed to human beings consuming this fish. This calls for careful application of malathion in areas adjoining to inland fisheries. PMID:26778434

  10. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  11. FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

  12. Computational analysis of transcriptome of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) for functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeo rohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita. PMID:23275698

  13. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita--towards to identify novel probiotics against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116

  14. Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP), as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet), on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA) were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P < 0.05) in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) was also downregulated (P < 0.5) after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival) compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita. PMID:26649325

  15. Variability in antioxidant/detoxification enzymes of Labeo rohita exposed to an azo dye, acid black (AB).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satinder; Kaur, Arvinder

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate effect of a highly toxic azo dye, acid black (AB) (CI: 20470, 96 h LC50=10 mg/L) on the biochemical responses of Labeo rohita. Antioxidant/detoxification enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in liver, kidney, gill, muscle and brain of L. rohita after 96 h exposure to 6 mg/L (LC10), 8 mg/L (LC30) and 10 mg/L (LC50) of dye with an aim to find out the target tissue and biomarker enzyme for AB. The fish were then kept for a recovery period of 90 days, and activity of the selected enzymes was determined at the end of this period. Present dye altered the activities of all these enzymes in the selected tissues of the experimental fish in a dose-dependent manner. SOD was the maximally affected enzyme, and liver was the most affected tissue. The results indicate that AB is very toxic to L. rohita as there was a significant effect of even 6 mg/L dose of the dye and the toxicity prolonged for a long time because the fish was not able to recover from the stress even 90 days after the exposure. The study suggests that SOD can be used as a biomarker enzyme and liver is the target tissue for AB. PMID:25277676

  16. Activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor signaling in Labeo rohita by iE-DAP and identification of ligand-binding key motifs in NOD1 by molecular modeling and docking.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Bej, Aritra; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-07-01

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor recognizes various pattern-associated structures of microbes through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and activates signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. This report describes the activation of NOD1 receptor signaling by gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (or ?-D-Glu-mDAP [iE-DAP]) in a commercially important fish species, rohu (Labeo rohita). It also described critical motifs in the NOD1-LRR domain that could be involved in binding iE-DAP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The activation of NOD1 receptor signaling was studied by injecting iE-DAP, and analysis of tissue samples for NOD1 and receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase (RICK) expression was done by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. To identify ligand-binding motifs in NOD1, the 3D model of NOD1-LRR was generated, followed by a 6-ns molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular docking of LPS with NOD1-LRR was executed at the Hex and PatchDock servers, and iE-DAP and poly I:C in the AutoDock 4.2, FlexX 2.1, Glide 5.5, and GOLD 4.1 programs. The results of qRT-PCR revealed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of NOD1 and RICK expression. Molecular docking revealed that the amino acid residues at LRR1-2, LRR3-7, and LRR8-9 could be involved in poly I:C, LPS, and iE-DAP binding, respectively. In fish, this is the first report describing the 3D structure of NOD1-LRR and its critical ligand-binding motifs. PMID:23657901

  17. Mercuric chloride induced toxicity responses in the olfactory epithelium of Labeo rohita (Hamilton): a light and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Mandal, Dipak Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of mercury and histomorphological changes in the olfactory epithelium of Labeo rohita were investigated after exposing the fish to two sublethal concentrations of HgCl₂ (66 and 132 μg/L) for 15 and 30 days. Mercury deposition increased in the tissue significantly (p < 0.05) with dose- and duration-dependent manner. Severe damage to the olfactory epithelium was evident. When fish exposed to 66 μg/L for 15 days, the histology of olfactory epithelium exhibited that mucous cell proliferation was upregulated and cell size was significantly increased from the control. Similar trends were found in 30 days exposure in both treated groups. Histology showed that mercury induced degeneration of columnar sensory cells, supporting cells and ciliated non-sensory cells and induced basal cell proliferation. Basal cell hyperplasia led to form intraepithelial proliferative lesion, thickening of epithelium, basal lamina disruption and cyst formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mercury exposure at 66 μg/L caused clumping and loss of cilia, erosion in microridges on the supporting cells and proliferation of mucous cell opening. Complete degeneration of ciliated cells and cyst formation was observed in the fish when exposed to 132 μg/L HgCl₂. This result suggests that prolonged exposure to mercury might cause irreversible damage to the olfactory epithelium and impair the olfactory function of fish. PMID:23807681

  18. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic characterization and optimization of Pb(II) biosorption by fish (Labeo rohita) scales.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Raziya; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar

    2008-08-15

    The present study reports the use of locally available fish (Labeo rohita) scales for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption (196.8 mg g(-1)) occurred at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption was found to be pH, dose, initial metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed dependent while particle size and temperature independent. Experimental data of Pb(II) biosorption onto fish scales fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model in comparison to the model of Langmuir. The fast adsorption process in first 30 min followed by subsequent slow adsorption rate was suitably described by pseudo-second order model. In addition, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical pretreatments on surface properties of fish scales by the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis. Physical pretreatments resulted in partial degradation of some functional groups. Alkaline pretreatments of fish scales did not have any significant influence on the nature of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) uptake, while acidic pretreatments resulted in degeneration of the most of functional groups on biosorbent cell wall. FTIR analysis confirmed the involvement of amino, carboxylic, phosphate and carbonyl groups in Pb(II) biosorption by fish scales. PMID:18242826

  20. Dietary inclusion of protease producing novel Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium as a probiotic enhances immune responses in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, C; Dillibabu, V; Madhuri, Dash-Koney; Priya, D Mohana; Nagalakshmi, C; Sekaran, G

    2014-04-01

    Abstract: This study stresses the key role which can be played by Tannery Fleshing (TF) hydrolyzing probiotic Pontibacter spp. in aqua feed formulation and identifies the probiotic strains in the fish gut capable of enhancing the overall growth and immune responses. Probiotics included are Pontibacter species (Pb) and Bacillus megaterium (BM) wherein Lactobacillus (LB) served as control. Experimental diets includes tannery fleshing (TF1), TF+LB strain (TF2), TF+BM strain (TF3), TF+Pb strain (TF4), Fishmeal+BM(TF5), Fishmeal+Pb and Control fish meal based diet (TF6). Compared with control, total weight gain (TWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in fish fed with diets supplemented with probiotics were significantly increased (p < 0.05). NBT, lysozyme activity, total protein and globulin content were highest in TF4 diet. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, TF4 recorded highest survival and TF1 lowest survival in comparison with the control. Growth and related parameters reveals the effective utilization potential of tannery fleshing probiotic as a feed source. Comparative studies with standard fish meal diets reveals that the fish fed with Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium included feeds enhanced both assimilating capacity and immunological responses in Labeo rohita. PMID:25911831

  1. Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Pavan; Dabas, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate) in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. The 96 h LC50 value of potassium dichromate estimated was 118 mg L(-1) by probit analysis using SPSS (version 16.0) software. Based on 96 h LC50 value, three sublethal test concentrations of potassium dichromate (29.5, 59.0 and 88.5 mg L(-)(1)) were selected and specimens were exposed in vivo to these test concentrations for 96 h. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of potassium dichromate were evaluated in gill and blood cells using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. In general, significant (p < 0.05) effects due to the concentrations and the exposure durations were observed in exposed specimens. The MN induction was highest at 96 h at all the test concentrations in the peripheral blood. A similar trend was observed for the DNA damage, measured in terms of percentage of tail DNA, in erythrocyte and gill cells. The study indicated hazardous effect of the hexavalent chromium to fish and other aquatic organisms and indirectly to human beings. PMID:24649973

  2. Bioconcentration of zinc and its effect on the biochemical constituents of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Nishanth, T.; Renju, V. B.

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeo rohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of β-sheet structure.

  3. Isolation of potential probiotic Bacillus spp. and assessment of their subcellular components to induce immune responses in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974

  4. Mitigation of immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary gelatinized starch in Labeo rohita fingerlings by elevation of rearing temperature within optimum range.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shivendra; Sahu, N P; Gal, Denes

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the strategy to mitigate the immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of gelatinized starch in fingerling of Labeo rohita. Fingerlings were either maintained at ambient water temperature (26 °C) or exposed to 32 °C for one week and then subjected to 26 °C for four weeks. Both groups were fed with isoproteinous (30% crude protein) diets containing gelatinized (G) or non-gelatinized (NG) starch. After 5 weeks of feeding trial, fingerlings were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. Serum cortisol and glucose content was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in G starch fed group and decreased with the increase in temperature from 26 to 32 °C, which was consistent for next four week after decrease in temperature from 32 to 26 °C. Lower respiratory burst activity and serum total protein and globulin content in G starch fed group at 26 °C significantly (p < 0.05) increased after elevation of temperature from 26 to 32 °C and levelled off to NG starch fed group. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of G starch fed group was significantly higher in group reared at 32 °C compared to 26 °C. After challenge, fish fed G starch showed lower survival rate than that of fish fed NG starch. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32 °C) for one week significantly increased the survival rate of G starch fed group and levelled off to NG starch fed group. The results of this study indicated that dietary G starch may cause metabolic stress of fingerling L. rohita, as might consequently lead to the decrease antioxidant abilities, depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32 °C) for one week mitigate immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary G starch. PMID:26475365

  5. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2015-07-15

    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  6. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. PMID:26327113

  7. Histochemical analysis of glycoproteins in the secretory cells in the epidermis of the head skin of Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Rai, A K; Srivastava, N; Kumari, U; Mittal, S; Mittal, A K

    2012-12-01

    A series of histochemical procedures were employed to localise and characterise glycoprotein (GP) classes produced by the epithelial cells, the type A and the type B mucous goblet cells (MGCs) and the club cells in the epidermis of Labeo rohita. The epithelial cells secreted GPs with oxidizable vicinal diols and GPs with sialic acid residues without O-acyl substitution in low concentrations. The type A MGCs and the type B MGCs, in contrast, produced these GPs in high concentrations. Further, these MGCs produced GPs with O-sulphate esters as well. GPs with O-sulphate esters were produced in high concentration by the type A MGCs and in low concentration by the type B MGCs. The club cells produced GPs with oxidizable vicinal diols in trace amounts. Production of more than one type of GPs suggested a basis for functional discrimination in their role in the mucous secretions at the skin surface. This is considered an adaptation to environment inhabited by the fish and is discussed in relation to their role in lubrication, protection and inhibition of the invasion and proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:22939776

  8. Dietary intake of trace elements from highly consumed cultured fish (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) and human health risk implications in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Saiful; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Bhattacharjee, Lalita

    2015-06-01

    Concentrations of fourteen trace elements (essential and toxic) in the composite samples (collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh) of three highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) of all the studied elements was estimated on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by Bangladeshi households (mean fish consumption of 49.5 g person(-1) d(-1)). The studied fish species pose no risk with respect to the EDI of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Se, Cu, Mo, Mn, Sb, Ba, V, and Ag. Among the three studied fishes O. mossambicus showed higher content of dietary arsenic (1.486 mg kg(-1)). From the human health point of view, this study showed that the inhabitants in the arsenic-contaminated area, who consume arsenic-contaminated water with fish (especially for O. mossambicus), are exposed chronically to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. PMID:25747154

  9. Ecological risk assessment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita: Hematology, ionoregulation and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N

    2015-10-01

    The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms. PMID:26094035

  10. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-01

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

  11. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-15

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945

  12. Effect of guava leaves on the growth performance and cytokine gene expression of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). Among the immune parameters examined, lysozyme levels (79.5 ± 5.1 U mL(-1)), leukocyte phagocytic activity (52 ± 4.3%), and alternative complement pathway activity (ACP) (186.1 ± 8.3 U mL(-1)) were significantly high (P < 0.05) in G2 fed group; there was, however, no significant effect of guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. PMID:26093209

  13. Heat-killed whole-cell products of the probiotic Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2 strain affect invitro cytokine expression in head kidney macrophages of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2016-03-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the efficiency of heat-killed whole-cell products (HKWCPs) of probiotic Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2 strain in stimulating the cytokine responses in the head kidney (HK) macrophages of Labeo rohita. The HK macrophages were incubated with HKWCPs or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the responses of cytokine genes, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1?, IL-p35, IL-12p40, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-alpha (IFN-?), and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) at 2, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72h post-stimulation (hps). Among proinflammatory cytokines, significantly higher expression of IL-1? and TNF-? was observed at 8-24 hps, and 2-16 hps with HKWCPs, respectively, as compared to controls. However, COX-2 and NF-?B displayed strong expression (P<0.05) at 2-8 hps, and 8, 16 and 72 hps with HKWCPs, respectively. Antiviral cytokines IFN-? and IFN-? displayed strong expression (P<0.05) at 8-24 hps, and 2, 24 and 48 hps with HKWCPs, respectively. Expressions of cell-mediated immune factor genes (IL-12p35 and IL-12p40) were also significantly upregulated at various time points, except IL-12p40at 72 hps, in HK macrophages stimulated with HKWCPs. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated (P<0.05) at 2-24 hps HKWCPs, compared to controls. Enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production) and humoral (lysozyme) immune parameters of treated HK macrophages confirmed the induction of inflammatory response. Thus, our results indicated that HKWCPs of probiotic P.aeruginosa VSG2 had greater potential for stimulating the invitro expression of cytokines in fish and that these HKWCPs may be used as vaccine adjuvants in aquaculture. PMID:26876356

  14. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  15. Neuroanatomical localization of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the central nervous system of carp, Labeo rohita during post-embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Palande, Nikhil V; Sinh, Dharmendra P

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemically diffusible molecular messenger playing various roles in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the key enzyme in synthesis of NO. The neuroanatomical distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was studied and developing stages of Labeo rohita such as hatchlings (10-15mm), frys (15-35mm), semi-fingerlings (35-65mm), fingerlings (65-100mm) and adults (350-370mm) were used. In the telencephalon, nitrergic cells were observed in both pallial and subpallial regions along with entopeduncular nucleus suggesting the involvement of NO in the control of sensory functions throughout the development. In the diencephalon, nNOS positive neurons were localized in the nucleus preopticus periventricularis and preopticus parvocellularis throughout development while nucleus preopticus magnocellularis was found immunopositive only in adult specimens who suggest the involvement of NO in the hormonal regulation. nNOS immunoreaction was also noted in suprachaismatic nucleus, habenula, lateral tuberal nucleus, paraventricular organ and anterior division of preglomerular nucleus throughout development. In the mesencephalic region, nNOS immunoreactivity was seen in the optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, nucleus of median longitudinal fascicle and occulomotor nucleus indicate the role of NO in integration of visual inputs and modulates motor control of the eyes and movements. Caudally, in the rhombencephalon, the cerebellum, the nucleus reticularis, the octaval nucleus and the motor nucleus of vagal nerve were nNOS positive during development. nNOS reactive cells and fibers were noted in the spinal motor column, thus suggesting a role of NO in gestation and startle response from early development. PMID:26143285

  16. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg−1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

  17. Effects of intracellular products of Bacillus subtilis VSG1 and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 on cytokine responses in the head kidney macrophages of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-12-01

    The efficiency of intracellular products (ICPs) of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis VSG1 and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 in stimulating cytokine responses in the head kidney (HK) macrophages of Labeo rohita was investigated. The HK macrophages were incubated with ICPs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the responses of cytokine genes, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-1 (IFN-1), and IFN-γ were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-stimulation (hps). Among the proinflammatory cytokines, a strong increase in the gene expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was displayed mainly at 2-6 hps with ICPs, as compared to that of the positive control (LPS) or the negative control (PBS) (P < 0.05). However, COX-2 and NF-κB showed higher expression at 2 and 24 hps, and 6-24 hps with ICPs, respectively. Antiviral cytokines IFN-1 and IFN-γ displayed strong expressions (P < 0.05) at 6-12 hps, and 12-24 hps with ICPs, respectively. Upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was recorded at 6-24 hps with ICPs, as compared to that controls. Expressions of cell-mediated immune factor genes (IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-18) were also significantly upregulated at different time points, except 48 hps, in HK macrophages stimulated with ICPs. Furthermore, enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay) and humoral (lysozyme) immune parameters in stimulated cells confirmed the induction of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the results of this in vitro study indicate that the ICPs of B. subtilis VSG1 or L. plantarum VSG3 have great potential for stimulating the cytokine responses in fish, and are thereby potential immunostimulants to fish. Further studies could be conducted to explore its suitability as an adjuvant vaccine in aquaculture. PMID:26520566

  18. In situ kinetics of renal β-glucuronidase in teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Chilke, Arun M

    2010-12-01

    β-glucuronidase is the lysosomal enzyme that increases in the tissues of animals in response to xenobiotics entering the body. Kidney is one of the organs where all the xenobiotics can be carried along with the blood for filtration, and therefore, this enzyme may be present in large amount. Ours is probably the first attempt in the teleost to study the kinetics of enzyme β-glucuronidase. It has been observed that this enzyme exhibits highest activity at pH 5 in the solution of 0.1 M acetate buffer at 38°C. Enhanced activity was noted at 52°C. However, activity starts declining up to 70°C, but above this temperature, the enzyme activity is completely inhibited, indicating heat-stable behavior. Five hours incubation at 38°C was the maximum time required to accomplish the reaction. The increase both in the substrate and in the enzyme concentration increased the reaction velocity. The Vmax and Michaelis constant (Km) recorded in the present study are 8.83 μg/h and 1.33 mM. The present study will have importance in understanding the basic health of fish. PMID:19946795

  19. Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method

    PubMed Central

    Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha

    2013-01-01

    The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3 M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4°C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse. PMID:23533718

  20. Establishing targeted carp TLR22 gene disruption via homologous recombination using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in gene editing techniques have not been exploited in farmed fishes. We established a gene targeting technique, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Labeo rohita, a farmed carp (known as rohu). We demonstrated that donor DNA was integrated via homologous recombination (HR) at the site of targeted double-stranded nicks created by CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease. This resulted in the successful disruption of rohu Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene, involved in innate immunity and exclusively present in teleost fishes and amphibians. The null mutant, thus, generated lacked TLR22 mRNA expression. Altogether, this is the first evidence that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a highly efficient tool for targeted gene disruption via HR in teleosts for generating model large-bodied farmed fishes. PMID:27079451

  1. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India. PMID:25895267

  2. Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

  3. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  4. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets. PMID:20369287

  5. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). PMID:25827627

  6. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  7. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie

    2008-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  8. Characterization of mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 genes in wild Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and mapping of natural genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    We characterized mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) 6 and 8 genes in Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and determined genetic variation in wild populations across the natural distribution in Indian rivers. A total of 206 individuals were sampled from 11 riverine sites belonging to distinct geographical locations covering five major river basins. Sequencing of 842 base pairs of ATPase 6/8 revealed 21 haplotypes with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.1250 (River Satluj) to 0.8846 (River Bhagirathi). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data revealed significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.192, p < 0.0001) which was indicative of moderate level of genetic structuring in the wild L. calbasu populations. The patterns of genetic divergence and haplotype network of mtDNA revealed distinct clades present in Indian rivers. The analysis of data demonstrated the potential of ATPase 6/8 genes in determining the genetic diversity and indicated considerable sub-structuring in wild calbasu populations present in different rivers. PMID:25630739

  9. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

  10. Distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river and the fish Labeo victorianus in Tanzania and possible risks for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Mataba, Gordian Rocky; Verhaert, Vera; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river. Samples of surface water, sediment and fish were collected up- and downstream of the North Mara Gold Mine (Tanzania) and following trace elements were analysed: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Trace element concentrations in surface water were below or near the detection limit. Regarding the sediments, relative high concentrations of arsenic at all sites and high levels of mercury at a site downstream of the mine where artisanal mining is performed were observed. Trace element concentrations in Ningu fish tissues (Labeo victorianus) were comparable to slightly higher than levels in fishes from unpolluted environments. For none of the measured human health risk by consumption of fish from the Thigithe river is expected when the Tanzanian average amount of 17g/day is consumed. However, for Hg and As the advised maximum daily consumption of Ningu fish was lower than 100g. As a result fishermen and people living along the shores of the river consuming more fish than the average Tanzanian fish consumption set by the FAO (2005) are possibly at risk. PMID:26780131

  11. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176

  12. A cost benefit analysis of fish culture strategy towards the control of mansonioides in Shertallai, Kerala state.

    PubMed

    Panicker, K N; Jayasree, M; Krishnamoorthy, K

    1992-05-01

    The cost benefit analysis of fish culture as a means for vector control towards the containment of Brugian filariasis in Shertallai, a highly endemic tract for this disease in Kerala was carried out. While the financial gain accrued to the community was to the tune of Rs. 1,82,052 in ponds (under monoculture) with Chinese grass carp from 763 ponds, it was Rs. 1,83,740 from 1000 ponds under polyculture with Catla catla, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita, Labeo fimbriatus, Cirrhina mrigala and Ctenopharyngodon idella (Chinese grass carp). Monoculture with Giant gourami (Osphronemous goramy) fetched an income of Rs. 7,654 to the community from 128 ponds. A marked reduction in weed reinfestation/vector breeding was observed in ponds under fish culture than other without fishes. The study clearly indicates that fish culture is an ideal strategy for Mansonioides control as it can bring perceptible benefits to the community. PMID:1506068

  13. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  14. Variation in susceptibility pattern of fish to Argulus siamensis: Do immune responses of host play a role?

    PubMed

    Kar, Banya; Moussa, Cisse; Mohapatra, Amruta; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar

    2016-05-15

    Branchiuran ectoparasites of the genus Argulus can have extensive damaging effects on cultured fish. There exist no systematic studies that evaluate susceptibility or resistance of various carp species to Argulus sp. and the underlying mechanisms. The present study aimed at identifying the most susceptible and resistant cultured species, studying settlement and survival of parasite on these species, and finally unravelling the variations of immune response in both resistant and susceptible species. Fish from eight species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Carassius auratus, Labeo fimbriatus) were individually challenged with metanauplii of A. siamensis (100 metanauplii/fish) before rearing them in single tank in triplicate for 45 days. Based on the observed parasite load on each species, L. rohita was found to be the most susceptible and C. idella the resistant species. The settlement and survival of the parasite on L. rohita and C. idella was compared at 24, 48, 72 and 96h post experimental infection. Survival was significantly low at 72h onwards in C. idella indicating it is an unsuitable/poorly preferred host for A. siamensis. The inflammatory responses which are known to be related to susceptibility were analysed. Individuals of both the species were exposed to A. siamensis (100 parasites/fish), and after 24h and 3 d, skin samples directly from the attachment site and non-attachment sites were assessed for transcriptomic profiles of selected innate defence genes. Artificial skin abrasion permitted comparisons between abrasion associated injury and louse-associated injury. The inflammatory responses varied significantly between both species indicating their role in determining susceptibility of a host to A. siamensis. The expression of major histocompatibility class II and matrix metalloproteinase 2 was significantly higher in C. idella compared to L. rohita and therefore appeared to be involved in the early protective response against A. siamensis. It is essential to study the expression pattern of more participatory genes of the inflammation related pathways to understand species specific susceptible patterns. PMID:27084477

  15. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2010-04-01

    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  16. Fish erythrocytes as biomarkers for the toxicity of sublethal doses of an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate poikilocytosis in Labeo rohita (an important food fish) as an early indicator of stress due to an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535). This dye was observed to be very toxic to test fish (96 h LC50 as0.45 mg/L dye). Fish were given short-term (96 h) and subchronic (150 days) exposures to the dye, and poikilocytosis was recorded under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light microscopy helped in identification of micronuclei along with irregularities, notches, blebs, lobes, crenation, clumps, chains, spherocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis in erythrocytes. However, SEM indicated shrinkage, oozing of cytoplasm, and several new abnormal shapes including marginal foldings, discocytes, keratocytes, dacrocytes, degmacytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, protuberances, stomatocytes, drepanocytes, holes in the membrane, stippling/spicules, crescent-shaped cells, triangular cells, and pentagonal cells. Earlier studies speculated changes in the membrane to be responsible for clumping and chaining of erythrocytes, whereas the present SEM study clearly indicates that oozing out of cytoplasm is also responsible for the formation of chains and clumps. This study also shows that erythrocytes exhibit pathological symptoms before the appearance of other external symptoms such as abnormal behavior or mortality of fish. There was a dose- and duration-dependent increase; therefore, poikilocytosis, especially echinocytes, spherocytes, and clumps, can act as a biomarker for the stress caused by azo dyes. PMID:25434363

  17. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nutrients budget and effluents characteristics in polyculture of scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and Indian major carps ponds using organic inputs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Dey, Lambodar

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in farmers' ponds (0.4-0.6 ha) in Orissa, India, at stocking densities of 0.30-0.38/m(2) for scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and 0.60-0.70/m(2) for Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). The average initial body weights of scampi and the major carps were 0.02 and 8-10 g, respectively. The culture period was 272-292 days. Feed was the main input. The FCR (feed conversion ratio) varied from 1.78 to 1.83. Feed and cow dung were applied to these ponds as organic inputs. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi and carps varied from 73 to 92 g and from 718 to 820 g, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 97.60% total nitrogen (N), 97.90% total phosphorus (P) and 94.72% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvest of scampi and carps accounted for recovery of 52.45% N, 19.43% P and 18.12% OC, respectively. N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 38.31, 71.40 and 69.50%, respectively. The median nutrient loads in the fish pond effluents were equivalent to 0.58 kg of inorganic N, 0.135 kg of P and 8.83 kg of total OC per ton of Indian major carps and scampi production. PMID:22864442

  19. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage. PMID:24741158

  20. Lipotropes promote immunobiochemical plasticity and protect fish against low-dose pesticide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Muthappa, N A; Gupta, Subodh; Yengkokpam, Sona; Debnath, Dipesh; Kumar, Neeraj; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay B

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of different lipotropes in modulating immunity and biochemical plasticity under conditions of sublethal low-dose pesticide-induced stress in fish. Labeo rohita fish fingerlings were divided in two sets with one set of fish continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan (1/10th of 96-h LC50) for 21 days, the other was unexposed, and both sets of fish were fed with practical diets supplemented with either 2 % lecithin, 0.5 % betaine, or 0.1 % choline and compared against unsupplemented diet. Low-dose endosulfan exposure had adverse effects (P < 0.05/P < 0.01) on hematological profile (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit), serum protein (total protein, albumin, and globulin) and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglyceride), anti-oxidative status (ascorbic acid content of muscle, liver, brain, and kidney and activity of anti-oxidative enzymes: catalase and superoxide dismutase), neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle and brain), immunological attributes (WBC count, albumin to globulin ratio, phagocytic activity, and serum cortisol), and metabolic plasticity as revealed from enzyme activities (muscle lactate dehydrogenase, liver and kidney glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase-G6PDH activity). Dietary lipotropes prevented these effects completely or partially and the effects were lipotrope dependent. Kinetics (maximum velocity value V max, catalytic efficiency and Michaelis constant K m) of G6PDH enzyme from crude extracts of liver and kidney indicated inhibition due to endosulfan but lipotropes could protect enzyme and showed a stabilizing effect. The supplements also helped maintain integrity of histoarchitecture of the hepatocytes in endosulfan-exposed fish to a great extent. Feeding lipotropes to fish reared in endosulfan-free water also improved hematological and serum protein and lipid profiles and were immunostimulatory. In conclusion, dietary lipotropes, especially betaine and lecithin at the levels used, improve erythropoiesis, serum protein and lipid profile, anti-oxidant status, immunocompetence, neurotransmission, and protect the livers of L. rohita fingerlings even when continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan. PMID:23666764

  1. New host record of five Flavobacterium species associated with tropical fresh water farmed fishes from North India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Yellow pigmented, filamentous, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genus Flavobacterium are commonly associated with infections in stressed fish. In this study, inter-species diversity of Flavobacterium was studied in apparently healthy freshwater farmed fishes. For this, ninety one yellow pigmented bacteria were isolated from skin and gill samples (n = 38) of three farmed fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio. Among them, only twelve bacterial isolates (13.18%) were identified as Flavobacterium spp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests, partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, all the 12 isolates were 97.6-100% similar to six different formally described species of genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis grouped these strains into six different clades. Of the 12 isolates, six strains (Fl9S1-6) grouped with F. suncheonense, two strains (Fl6I2, Fl6I3) with F. indicum and the rest four strains (Fl1A1, Fl2G1, Fl3H1 and Fl10T1) clustered with F. aquaticum, F. granuli, F. hercynium and F. terrae, respectively. None of these species except, F. hercynium were previously reported from fish. All the isolated Flavobacterium species possessed the ability of adhesion and biofilm formation to colonize the external surface of healthy fish. The present study is the first record of tropical freshwater farmed fishes as hosts to five environmentally associated species of the Flavobacterium. PMID:26691454

  2. Use of the non-toxic cryoprotectant trehalose enhances recovery and function of fish embryonic stem cells following cryogenic storage.

    PubMed

    Dash, Surjya N; Routray, Padmanav; Dash, Chadananda; Guru, Bhikari C; Swain, Priyabrata; Sarangi, Niranjan

    2008-12-01

    Fish embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from of blastulae (64 cell stage embryo) of Labeo rohita were propagated in culture and retained their ES cell-like properties after cryogenic storage (-196 degrees C, i.e., liquid nitrogen). Toxic effect of DMSO (dimethyl sulphoxide) on stem cells during preservation process has been reported to restrict therapeutic applications. In this study we reduced the concentration of DMSO and added the non-toxic cryoprotective agent (CPA) trehalose. Cryopreservation of ES cell colonies was done at 5, 25 and 52 passages with 0.2 M trehalose and 0.8 M (DMSO). A combination of both the cryoprotective agents (non-toxic and toxic) demonstrated better survival and recovery of ES cells than the DMSO used alone. Use of this CPA combination in the freezing media gave an optimum viability of more than 83 % in a slow freezing protocol. Trehalose showed a definite advantage over DMSO in terms of viability and intactness of ES cell colonies with evenly distributed morphology. There was no significant difference observed in the expression levels of cell surface markers like stage specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) between early and late passages after 60 days of post-thawing. More than 90 % of the ES cell colonies showed extensive expression of ALP and positive expression of SSEA-1 from an early stage of ES cells culture up to passage 52 (in our study) in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and without feeder cells. Further, thawed ES cells showed a normal karyotype and maintained an undifferentiated state through out the study. This study on ES cell cryopreservation and subsequent retention of stem cell properties without feeder cells using a non-toxic cryoprotectant trehalose would be highly useful for future in vitro differentiation, manipulation of fish ES cells and as a model for mammalian ES cell culture. PMID:19075757

  3. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  4. A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.

    2015-06-01

    Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40 °C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100 °C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents.

  5. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37 nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580 nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96 % degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135 min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process. PMID:26300362

  6. Prevalence of zoonotic trematodes in fish from a Vietnamese fish-farming community.

    PubMed

    Chi, Tran T K; Dalsgaard, Anders; Turnbull, James F; Tuan, Pham A; Murrell, K Darwin

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) metacercariae was investigated in fish farmed by rural households in Nghe An Province, located in northern Vietnam. In total, 716 fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 6 carp species, i.e., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix), and roha (Labeo rohita), collected from 53 fish farms were examined. The overall prevalence of FZT metacercariae was 44.6%, ranging from 12.5% to 61.0% in fish species collected from grow-out ponds, which are the production system for growing fish from fingerling size to market size. The overall prevalence was 43.6% in fingerlings cultured in nurseries, ranging from 7.4% to 62.8% for different fish species. The FZT species recovered were heterophyids and echinostomatids and included Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Stellantchas musfalcatus, and Echinochasmus japonicus, all of which are intestinal flukes in humans, other mammals, and birds. This is the first report of H. yokogawai and E. japonicus in fish in Vietnam, and the first record for S. falcatus in northern Vietnam. Although a previous cross-sectional survey of the people living in these fish farm households revealed a very low prevalence of FZTs (< 1%), our results demonstrate that intestinal flukes are common in farmed fish in this area, suggesting that reservoir hosts such as dogs, cats, and pigs are more important in sustaining the life cycles of these flukes in fish farms than human hosts. This has implications for the effectiveness of control programs focused mainly on treatment of humans. PMID:18564743

  7. The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

  8. A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-06-15

    Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents. PMID:25791885

  9. Surface microstructural features of scales in relation to toxic stress of Basic Violet-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of the scales of Labeo rohita on exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of Basic Violet-1 (an important textile and hair colorant). The dye induced loosening of the scales and caused breakage and disorganization of lepidonts. Erosion of lepidonts occurred mostly in the fish exposed to 0.20 and 0.40 mg/L dye, during acute exposure and to 0.0225 and 0.045 mg/L dye, during the subchronic exposure. However, lepidonts were sloughed off from their sockets in 0.60 and 0.80 mg/L dye during acute exposure and in 0.09 mg/L dye during the subchronic exposure. Circuli, the base that provides anchorage to the lepidonts, got damaged, and tubercles responsible for coloration of a fish became atrophied with an increase in the duration of exposure. The results of the present investigation clearly indicated that exposure to Basic Violet-1 (BV-1) even at a concentration as low as 0.0225 mg was responsible for deleterious changes in the scale morphology of the test fish after 150 days of exposure. Similar changes were observed in the scales of the dead fish also. It can thus be suggested that this noninvasive technique is very helpful for evaluating the health status of an aquatic body. At the same time, the changes in ultramorphology of scales can act as an early indicator of the stress of very minute doses of dyes and even the scales of a dead fish can act as indicators of the untoward changes that would have occurred in the environment of the fish before death. PMID:26432273

  10. Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Exogenous Trypsin Biomimics Zymogen-Like Enzyme in Fish Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind R.; Ferosekhan, S.; Kothari, Dushyant C.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare trypsin can be favored as a dietary supplement in animals and humans. PMID:24040333

  11. Identification and immunogenic potential of B cell epitopes of outer membrane protein OmpF of Aeromonas hydrophila in translational fusion with a carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous and virulent bacterial pathogen, affects a variety of fishes, including Labeo rohita. Existing treatment strategies comprise antibiotic therapies and attenuated bacterial strain-based vaccines. No functional subunit vaccine has been available until now. Given their key role in determining pathogenicity, outer membrane proteins have been successfully explored as potential vaccine candidates. We have devised a direct strategy for eliminating non-specific responses by selectively aiming the immune response against specific immunodominant epitopes of the outer membrane protein F (OmpF) of A. hydrophila (AhOmpF). Five putative epitopes of AhOmpF predicted in silico were genetically conjugated with heat labile enterotoxin chain B of E. coli (LTB). Recombinant fusion proteins expressed in E. coli were purified from solubilized inclusion bodies and refolded. The fusion protein retained GM1 ganglioside receptor binding activity of LTB, indicating proper folding. Four of the five fusion proteins were found to be highly immunogenic. Of the four proteins, antisera against the fusion protein (anti-rEpiF1) harboring 66-80 amino acid residues of the OmpF gave maximum cross-reactivity with the targeted rOmpF in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was able to recognize both fusion partners-rOmpF and rLTB-in Western blot. Antibody isotyping of the antisera and cytokine array analysis of the culture supernatants of splenocytes from sensitized mice manifested a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with a bias toward Th2. Anti-rEpiF1 antibodies were able to bind to the cell membrane of live A. hydrophila cells and agglutinate them. Our results thus suggest that the OmpF epitope (66-80) in fusion with a carrier protein is a promising vaccine candidate against A. hydrophila. PMID:25636835

  12. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

  13. Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

    2015-02-01

    This 3 × 3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 μg/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 μg/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 μg/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 μg/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 μg/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 μg/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 μg/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 μg/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures. PMID:25182443

  15. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  16. Soft tissue digestion of Paradiplozoon vaalense for SEM of sclerites and simultaneous molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Q M; Avenant-Oldewage, A

    2015-02-01

    Classification of most monogeneans is primarily based on size, shape, and arrangement of haptoral sclerites. These structures are often obscured or misinterpreted when studied using light microscopy, leading to confusion regarding defining characters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has predominantly been used to study haptoral sclerites in smaller monogeneans, focusing on hooks and anchors. In the Diplozoidae, SEM has not been used to study haptoral sclerites. Using new and modified techniques, the sclerites of diplozoids collected in South Africa were successfully studied using SEM. The digestion buffer from a DNA extraction kit was used to digest the surrounding tissue, and Poly-L-lysine-coated and concavity slides were employed to limit the movement and loss of sclerites, with the latter being more user-friendly. In addition to the success of visualizing the sclerites using SEM, the digested tissue from as little as half of the haptor provided viable genetic material for molecular characterization. From the results presented here, the study of the sclerites of larger monogeneans using SEM, including those bearing clamps, is a viable possibility for future research. Also, this method may be beneficial for the study of other, non-haptoral sclerites, such as cirri in other families of monogeneans. During this study, Labeo capensis was noted as a valid host of Paradiplozoon vaalense in a region of the Vaal River where the type host, Labeo umbratus, appears to be absent. PMID:25148647

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis (Cypriniformes, Barbinae, Acrossocheilus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Shiqi; Du, Zongjun; Xie, Meng; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; He, Tao; Ren, Hongmei; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis collected from the Qingyi River is determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. yunnanensis is a circular molecule of 16,596 bp in length, and all genes showed the typical gene arrangement conforming to the vertebrate consensus. The 13 protein-coding genes of A. yunnanensis and other 21 Barbinae species from 3 genera were used for phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The topology demonstrated the genus Acrossocheilus is relatively close to the Labeo than Garra, the A. yunnanensis may have a common ancestor with A. monticola, where both belong to the non-barred group. PMID:26024134

  18. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  19. Phylogeny and polyploidy: resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion. PMID:25698355

  20. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river. PMID:26339622

  1. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Campbell LM; Osano O; Hecky RE; Dixon DG

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g(-1). The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g(-1). In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g(-1)), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g(-1), THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g(-1) for at-risk groups.

  2. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurlie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  3. Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2012-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area. PMID:21647772

  4. Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat

    2014-01-01

    Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

  5. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river. PMID:26339622

  6. Parasites of South African freshwater fish. VI. Nematode parasites of some fish species in the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J

    1994-03-01

    The nematode parasites of 30 spot-tailed robbers, Brycinus imberi, five tiger-fish, Hydrocynus vittatus, 77 large-scaled yellowfish. Barbus marequensis, two mudsuckers, Labeo molybdinus, 114 catfish, Clarias gariepinus, 46 silver barbel, Schilbe intermedius, 66 squeakers, Synodontis zambezensis, three eels, Anguilla spp., 83 Mozambique bream, Oreochromis mossambicus, 81 red-breasted bream, Tilapia rendalli swierstrae and 32 large-mouthed bream, Serranochromis meridianus, caught in the Sabie, Crocodile and Olifants Rivers in the southern and central regions of the Kruger National Park, were collected, identified and counted. A single Camallanus sp. male was recovered from one of the mudsuckers; Capillaria spp. from three catfish and one squeaker; philometrid nematodes from two silver barbel, 15 squeakers and a large-mouthed bream; Paracamallanus cyathopharynx from one tiger-fish, 80 catfish, 28 silver barbel and one squeaker; Procamallanus laeviconchus from a single catfish; Rhabdochona esseniae from six large-scaled yellowfish; Rhabdochona versterae from 14 spot-tailed robbers; Rhabdochona spp. from 20 catfish, 17 silver barbel, eight squeakers, two eels, one large-mouthed bream and two red-breasted bream; Raillietnema synodontisi from 33 squeakers; Spinitectus petterae from 37 catfish; Spinitectus zambezensis from 55 squeakers; Spinitectus spp. from one tiger-fish and four silver barbel, and Spirocamallanus daleneae and Synodontisia thelastomoides from 33 and 35 squeakers, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7898896

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in edible fish species from Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huma, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the accumulation of trace metals in the liver, kidney, gills, muscles, and skin of four edible fish species (Tor putitora, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo calbasu, and Channa punctatus) of Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan. The fish samples were collected in the pre-monsoon (May 2008) and post-monsoon (October 2007) seasons and were analyzed for heavy metals by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Kidney and liver showed relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The accumulation of metals in the different organs of the fish (skin, muscles, and gills) in post-monsoon was higher than in pre-monsoon. In pre-monsoon, the metals followed the trend Zn > Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Mn > Co > Cu > Cd > Li, while in the post-monsoon season, the trend was Fe > Pb > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Co > Mn > Cd > Li. The concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in the muscle of all fish species were higher than the WHO guideline values of heavy metals in fishes for human consumption except in T. putitora. Cu level was nearly equal to the WHO maximum levels in C. mrigala and L. calbasu, while it was lower in T. putitora and C. punctatus. It is strongly advocated that risk assessment studies should be conducted and there is an urgent need for water quality restoration and management of Rawal Lake Reservoir. PMID:23884877

  8. Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives. PMID:24191617

  9. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability in a Massively Perturbed System: The Fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gownaris, Natasha J.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ojwang, William O.; Michener, Robert; Kaufman, Les

    2015-01-01

    Background and Trophic Diversity Study Lake Turkana is an understudied desert lake shared by Kenya and Ethiopia. This system is at the precipice of large-scale changes in ecological function due to climate change and economic development along its major inflowing river, the Omo River. To anticipate response by the fish community to these changes, we quantified trophic diversity for seven ecological disparate species (Alestes baremose, Hydrocynus forskalli, Labeo horie, Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall, and Tilapia zillii) using stable isotopes. Based on their marked morphological differentiation, we postulated that dietary niches of these species would be similar in size but show little overlap. The degree of trophic diversity varied greatly among the species studied, refuting our hypothesis regarding dietary niche size. Oreochromis niloticus and L. niloticus had the highest trophic diversity and significantly larger dietary niches than T. zillii, A. baremose and H. forskalli. Low overlap among the dietary niches of the seven species, with the exception of the synodontid catfish S. schall, is consistent with our second hypothesis. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability Breeding vulnerability was highest among those species with the lowest trophic diversity. We predict that in suffering two strikes against them, A. baremose, H. forskalli, T. zillii, and L. horie will be most affected by the highly altered Lake Turkana ecosystem and that O. niloticus, L. niloticus and S. schall will be least affected. Low vulnerability among O. niloticus and L. niloticus is promising for the future of the lake’s fishery, but the third most important fishery species (L. horie) will be highly vulnerable to impending ecosystem change. T. zillii should be treated as separate from O. niloticus in the fishery given higher sensitivity and a different ecological role. We see potential for expansion of the fishery for S. schall but don’t recommend the development of a fishery for A. baremose and H. forskalli. PMID:25992561

  10. Twelve myxosporean species of the family Myxobolidae infecting freshwater fishes of the River Nile, Egypt, with the description of four novel species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; El-Ganainy, Sahar; Ahmed, Manal; Gamal, Shams; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Myxosporidian parasites infecting fish are very dangerous parasites causing severe damage to a large number of economically important fishes especially in aquaculture. A survey of myxosporean parasites infecting four species of fishes from the River Nile in Egypt is conducted. One hundred and ninety-five out of 316 fish specimens with a percentage of 61.7% were found to be naturally infected with these parasites. Light microscopic examination of different tissues revealed the presence of 12 myxosporean species belonging to the family Myxobolidae. Four of the identified species are novel and the other eight species are redescribed. Myxidium sp.nov. a coelozoic species inhabiting the gallbladder of Labeo niloticus with its mature spores float free in bile was detected. These spores possess a fusiform, straight, or slightly crescentic shape with less pointed ends and two equal polar capsules. Three novel histozoic Myxobolus species infecting Oreochromis niloticus were identified. Myxobolus sp(1).nov. is a species inhabiting kidney tissue with ovoid spores exhibiting a small intercapsular appendix. Myxobolus sp(2).nov. and Myxobolus sp(3).nov. recovered from kidney and intestinal tissues. Spores of Myxobolus sp(2).nov. are elliptical in shape with an anterior end wider than posterior one. Their two polar capsules are ovoid to pyriform occupied nearly the first third of the spore body. Spores of Myxobolus sp(3).nov. are broader than long with nearly rounded or ovoid two polar capsules. Eight species of the recovered myxosporean parasites are redescribed, Myxobolus niloticus Fahmy et al., 1971 from pectoral, dorsal, and tail fins of L. niloticus, Henneguya suprabranchiae Landsberg, 1987, and Henneguya branchialis Ashmawy et al., 1989 are recovered from the gills and suprabranchial organ of the catfish Clarias gariepinus, respectively, Myxobolus naffari Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 1998 and Myxobolus imami Ali et al., 2002 are found in the kidney of Barbus bynni and L. niloticus, Myxobolus caudatus Ali et al. & Parasitol Res (2002) from Tail fin of B. bynni, Myxobolus fomenai Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 2008 from kidney and intestinal tissues of O. niloticus, Thelohanellus niloticus Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 2012 are observed in the gills of L. niloticus. PMID:25952702