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1

PCR based detection of furadan genotoxicity effects in rohu ( Labeo rohita ) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study involves the use of RAPD-PCR to evaluate the genotoxic effects of furadan in the DNA of Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings. Rohu fingerlings were exposed to 0.02 ppm of furadan for a total period of 96 h and samplings were done\\u000a at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. RAPD - PCR were carried out with the blood and liver DNA samples

G. Mohanty; J. Mohanty; S. K. Garnayak; S. K. Dutta

2009-01-01

2

Comparative fatty acid profiles of wild and farmed tropical freshwater fish rohu (Labeo rohita).  

PubMed

The proximate composition of the whole body and the fatty acid composition of the liver, muscle, eye and brain of wild and cultured rohu (Labeo rohita) were analyzed. The cultured species was found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid contents than its wild counterpart. The saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid contents were significantly higher in the cultured species, whereas the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels were higher in the wild species. Fatty acids C16:0 and C18:1 n-9 were the principal fatty acids of the SFAs and MUFAs, respectively, identified in the analyses. Docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were the predominant PUFAs in both groups, and all three were found to be present at significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels in the wild species. Erucic acid (C22:1 n-9), which was the predominant fatty acid (30.76%) in the feed, was detected only at low levels in muscle (0.30%), liver (1.04%) and eye (1.28%) of cultured fish tissue. PMID:19288256

Sharma, Prakash; Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Ranjan, Jayant; Kithsiri, H M P; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati

2010-09-01

3

Expressed sequences and polymorphisms in rohu carp (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) revealed by mRNA-seq.  

PubMed

Expressed genes and polymorphisms were identified in lines of rohu Labeo rohita selected for resistance or susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila, an important bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis. All animals were grown in a common environment and RNA from ten individuals from each line pooled for Illumina mRNA-seq. De novo transcriptome assembly produced 137,629 contigs with 40× average coverage.Forty-four percent of the assembled sequences were annotated with gene names and ontology terms. Of these, 3,419 were assigned biological process terms related to "stress response" and 1,939 "immune system". Twenty-six contigs containing 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to map to the Cyprinus carpio mitochondrial genome and over 26,000 putative SNPs and 1,700 microsatellite loci were detected. Seventeen percent of the 100 transcripts with coverage data most indicative of higher-fold expression(>5.6 fold) in the resistant line pool showed homology to major histocompatibility (MH), heat shock proteins (HSP)30, 70 and 90, glycoproteins or serum lectin genes with putative functions affecting immune response. Forty-one percent of these 100 transcripts showed no or low homology to known genes. Of the SNPs identified, 96 showing the highest allele frequency differences between susceptible and resistant line fish included transcripts with homology to MH class I and galactoside-binding soluble lectin, also with putative functions affecting innate and acquired immune response. A comprehensive sequence resource for L. rohita, including annotated microsatellites and SNPs from a mixture of A. hydrophila-susceptible and -resistant individuals, was created for subsequent experiments aiming to identify genes associated with A. hydrophila resistance. PMID:22298294

Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, Pramoda K; Baranski, Matthew; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra N; Das, Sweta; Mishra, Yashowant; Das, Paramanandra; Barman, Hirak K; Eknath, Ambekar E

2012-10-01

4

Application of comet assay in the study of DNA damage and recovery in rohu ( Labeo rohita ) fingerlings after an exposure to phorate, an organophosphate pesticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.002 and 0.01 ppm) of phorate, an organophosphate pesticide;\\u000a samplings were done at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out to evaluate tissue specific genotoxic effects produced\\u000a by phorate, on three different tissue systems and to assess DNA repair response in fish. Results of tissue specific DNA damage

G. Mohanty; J. Mohanty; A. K. Nayak; S. Mohanty; S. K. Dutta

2011-01-01

5

A linkage map of transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms in rohu (Labeo rohita) and QTL associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila  

PubMed Central

Background Production of carp dominates world aquaculture. More than 1.1 million tonnes of rohu carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), were produced in 2010. Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis in rohu, and is a major problem for carp production worldwide. There is a need to better understand the genetic mechanisms affecting resistance to this disease, and to develop tools that can be used with selective breeding to improve resistance. Here we use a 6 K SNP array to genotype 21 full-sibling families of L. rohita that were experimentally challenged intra-peritoneally with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci associated with disease resistance. Results In all, 3193 SNPs were found to be informative and were used to create a linkage map and to scan for QTL affecting resistance to A. hydrophila. The linkage map consisted of 25 linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid chromosomes in L. rohita. Male and female linkage maps were similar in terms of order, coverage (1384 and 1393 cM, respectively) and average interval distances (1.32 and 1.35 cM, respectively). Forty-one percent of the SNPs were annotated with gene identity using BLAST (cut off E-score of 0.001). Twenty-one SNPs mapping to ten linkage groups showed significant associations with the traits hours of survival and dead or alive (P <0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Of the SNPs showing significant or suggestive associations with the traits, several were homologous to genes of known immune function or were in close linkage to such genes. Genes of interest included heat shock proteins (70, 60, 105 and “small heat shock proteins”), mucin (5b precursor and 2), lectin (receptor and CD22), tributyltin-binding protein, major histocompatibility loci (I and II), complement protein component c7-1, perforin 1, ubiquitin (ligase, factor e4b isoform 2 and conjugation enzyme e2 c), proteasome subunit, T-cell antigen receptor and lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase. Conclusions A panel of markers has been identified that will be validated for use with both genomic and marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of L. rohita to A. hydrophila. PMID:24984705

2014-01-01

6

Effect of dietary Spirulina level on growth and chemical composition of carcass in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted in three different tanks for 45 days (T1, T2 and T3) to investigate the effect of dietary Spirulina level on growth and chemical composition of carcass in rohu, Labeo rohita. A diet having de-oiled rice bran(30%), rice polish (15%), de-oiled mustard oil cake(25%), Soya bean oil cake(10%) and de-oiled groundnut cake(20%) was provided to the control (i.e. 100% formulated feed), whereas in T2 95% formulated feed with 5% Spirulina and in T3 90% formulated feed with 10% Spirulina. Data were analysed with ANOVA (P < 0.05) and found significant. There was significant difference in the average final weight of the fish among treatments with highest in the T3 (11.28g) followed by T2 (8.32g) and T1 (7.51g). The higher SGR was recorded in T3 (2.17) followed by T2 (1.52) and T1 (1.28). There was significant difference in the average carcass composition of the fish among treatments with highest level in T3 followed by T2 and T1. PMID:24749207

Chandra, Gyan; Saxena, Amita

2012-07-01

7

Role of HSP70 in cytoplasm protection against thermal stress in rohu, Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

To understand the function of HSP70 of Labeo rohita (LrHSP70) in cellular protection, LrHSP70 ORF cDNA was inserted into the plasmid of pET-32a(+) or pEGFP-L1. Then, the recombinant plasmids were transformed or transfected into Escherichia coli cells, mouse myeloma cells (MPC-11) or fish hepatoma cells (PLHC-1). Western blot results revealed that LrHSP70 was expressed in E. coli cells and molecular weight was estimated to be 70 kDa. In cells, LrHSP70 was over-expressed following thermal or cold stress. Results revealed that LrHSP70 protected prokaryotic cells against thermal or cold extremes as well as played the same role in MPC-11 and PLHC-1 cells. After heat treatment at 42 °C for 1 h, the viability of the cell was declined considerably. PLHC-1 cells with pEGFP-L1/LrHSP70 exhibited a higher survival rate (50%) than wild-type cells (18%) or cells with only pEGFP-L1 (21.2%). When the time lag extended to 2 h, the survival rates were 30%, 3.4% and 5.3% respectively. The present study revealed that LrHSP70 plays an important role in response to thermal and cold stress in fish. PMID:25240978

Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V

2014-12-01

8

Molecular characterization of interleukin 15 mRNA from rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton): Its prominent role during parasitic infection as indicated from infection studies.  

PubMed

Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is an important cytokine of fish immune system. Sequence characterization of IL-15 from rohu, Labeo rohita revealed a mRNA sequence of 1064 bp with coding sequence of 567 bp and signal peptide of 16 amino acids. There are four characteristic sequence features viz., presence of four out-of-frame AUG initiation codons, four highly conserved cysteine residues, constitutive expression in all tissues and evolutionary similarity. The ontogeny study revealed maternal transfer of this molecule and higher expression up to 3 h post-fertilization in fertilized embryos. Its expression was down-regulated in anterior and posterior kidneys, intestine and liver tissues of rohu infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Mild up-regulation in liver and higher expression in spleen was noticed in rohu stimulated with poly I:C (poly ionosinic:cytidylic), whereas down-regulation was observed in intestine and kidney tissues. However, a consistent higher expression was noticed in kidney and skin tissues during Argulus siamensis infection. Therefore, rohu IL-15 might possess more defensive role during early development and parasitic infection. PMID:25514374

Das, Sweta; Mohapatra, Amruta; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, P K

2015-03-01

9

Antagonistic Activity of Cellular Components of Potential Probiotic Bacteria, Isolated from the Gut of Labeo rohita , Against Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria\\u000a isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic\\u000a activity against A.

Sib Sankar Giri; V. Sukumaran; Shib Sankar Sen; J. Vinumonia; B. Nazeema Banu; Prasant Kumar Jena

10

Immune responses and protective efficacy of recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR)-based vaccine of Aeromonas hydrophila with a modified adjuvant formulation in rohu (Labeo rohita).  

PubMed

Despite the importance and success of developing a candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the vaccine-induced immunoprotection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, primarily due to lack of information on most of the immune related genes of the species. In this study, a novel candidate antigen recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR) of A. hydrophila was evaluated as a vaccine candidate along with a modified adjuvant formulation. Protective efficacy of the rOmpR immunization was assessed in terms of survival against A. hydrophila challenge as well as modulation of immune response in vaccinated fish after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h and 10 days post-injection (using immune gene expression analysis) and 10, 28, 56 and 140 days post-injection (serum immune parameter analysis). The generated immune response was compared with a formalin-killed A. hydrophila antigen preparation using mineral oil only and modified adjuvant alone. We report a variable up-regulation of the immune-related genes viz., lysozyme G, complement factor 4, immunoglobulin M, ?2-microglobulin, major histocompatibility complex I and II, and interleukin-1? in anterior kidney and spleen tissues at early time points post-immunization in all the groups, when compared to the control fish. The vaccinated fish also showed an increase in serum natural hemolysin titer, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities, and antibody titer irrespective of vaccine formulations as compared to control fish on days 10, 28 and 56. However, the increase in the serum parameters was more pronounced on day 140 in rOmpR-modified adjuvant injected group, indicating the modulatory role of this new vaccine formulation. Upon challenge with live A. hydrophila on days 56 and 140 post-immunization, significantly reduced percent mortality was noted in the group immunized with modified adjuvant based rOmpR vaccine formulation. Taken together, our results suggest that rOmpR along with modified adjuvant could potentially be used as a vaccine formulation to handle A. hydrophila infection on a long-term basis. PMID:24937805

Dash, P; Sahoo, P K; Gupta, P K; Garg, L C; Dixit, A

2014-08-01

11

Establishment of a leukocyte cell line derived from peritoneal macrophages of fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).  

PubMed

A continuous leukocyte cell line with phagocytic activity was established from peritoneal macrophages of rohu, Labeo rohita (LRPM). LRPM was initiated from adherent mononuclear leukocytes isolated from peritoneal cavity of rohu, without use of any growth factors or feeder cells. These cells exhibited maximum growth at 30 °C in L-15 medium containing 20 % foetal bovine serum, and has been subcultured for more than 60 passages till date. The cells showed 85 % viability after 6 months of storage in liquid nitrogen. The species of origin of the LRPM was confirmed by the amplification and sequencing of 655 bp fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA. Functionally, LRPM showed phagocytic activity of yeast cells and fluorescent latex beads as evaluated by phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Immuno-modulators such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide and phorbol myristate acetate resulted in functional activation of LRPM; and enhanced their microbicidal activity through release of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Culture supernatant from activated cells also revealed lysozyme activity. Cells of LRPM were positive for alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase enzyme indicating macrophage lineage. Our results indicate that this cell line can be a useful in vitro tool to study the role of macrophages in teleost immune system and to evaluate the effects of new aquaculture drugs. The LRPM cell line represents the first reported leukocyte cell line of peritoneal origin from any freshwater species of fish. PMID:24248274

Awasthi, Abhishek; Rathore, Gaurav; Sood, Neeraj; Khan, M Y; Lakra, W S

2015-01-01

12

Analysis of immune-related ESTs and differential expression analysis of few important genes in lines of rohu (Labeo rohita) selected for resistance and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.  

PubMed

A total of 137,629 contigs generated via de novo transcriptome assembly from resistant and susceptible lines of rohu (first generation) raised against aeromoniasis were further analyzed in terms of defence-related genes. Out of 1,939 contigs showing homology to genes involved in immune processes, 1,866 were further categorised into different functional subgroups. Comparative analysis revealed five genes for the first time in any carp species out of which apolipoprotein h, septin 4 isoform 3 and septin isoform cra_c were identified for the first time in fish. Differential expression analysis of ten genes viz., heat shock proteins (Hsps) (Hsp30, Hsp70 and Hsp90), serum lectin isoform 1 (SLI1), linker histone H1M (LHH1M), NAD(P)H quinone 1 (NQO1), zona pellucida 2 (ZP2) and three unknown genes that were highly up-expressed in first generation resistant line fish from mRNA-seq coverage data, was carried out using susceptible and resistant individuals of the second generation selected populations in eight different tissues viz. liver, kidney, intestine, gill, brain, spleen, skin and muscle using qPCR. Significant up-regulation in Hsp90, NQO1, C_116914 and C_22454 in specific tissues of resistant line and variable expression in Hsp30 and LHH1M genes in different tissues of both lines were noticed. The expression of Hsp70 was lower in many tissues of the resistant line than in susceptible line rohu. The expression of ZP2, SLI1 and C_94589 genes was not significantly different in terms of fold difference between the two lines. Differentially expressed genes need further characterisation to explore their role in resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu. PMID:25081649

Das, Sweta; Chhottaray, Chiranjibi; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, P K

2014-11-01

13

Molecular characterization and expression of type-I interferon gene in Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Genes coding for type-I interferon (I-IFN) has been cloned from Labeo rohita, a commercially important and widely cultured fish in India and South East Asia. In the present study, full-length gene of I-IFN was amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that I-IFN consists of 1,786 bp genomic sequence with four introns and five exons and an ORF of 546 bp encoding for a putative protein of 181 amino acids. The mature protein has a molecular weight of 18.97 kDa and consists of 158 amino acids and a signal peptide of 23 amino acids at the N terminus. The sequence carries I-IFN signature motif, one glycosylation site, two conserved cystine amino acids and other conserved amino acids. The sequence showed highest similarity to that of Cyprinus carpio (84%). In silico analysis of the rohu I-IFN protein was done using various bioinformatic tools. The constitutive expression of I-IFN gene was found to be more in spleen compared to gill and kidney in real time PCR assay. Expression of I-IFN increased about 20-fold in cultured kidney cell 2 h after induction with poly I:C and showed maximum expression at 8 h post-induction. PMID:24449367

Parhi, Janmejay; Mukherjee, S C; Saxena, Gopalkrishna; Sahoo, Lopamudra; Makesh, M

2014-05-01

14

Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue-level expression of complement C3 of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).  

PubMed

Complement component C3 plays a central role in all known complement activation pathways. In the present study, we cloned, sequenced and analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence of Labeo rohita complement C3 (LRC3). The expression pattern of complement C3 mRNA in different tissues of healthy rohu and after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated using real-time PCR. The LRC3 cDNA sequence of rohu comprised of 5081 bp encoding a predicted protein of 1645 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence had the characteristic domain architecture. About eight domains specific to complement C3 are present in the sequence starting from signal peptide to netrin C345C (NTR) domain. The post-translational processing signal sequence (RKRR), the C3-convertase cleavage site sequence (LAR) and the canonical thiol-ester motif (GCGEQ) were found to be conserved in the LRC3. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the highest expression of C3 in liver and extra-hepatic expression of C3 was also observed in all the tissues studied. A. hydrophila challenge resulted in significant up-regulated expression of C3 transcripts in both liver and kidney at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. PMID:25038278

Pushpa, K; Gireesh-Babu, P; Rajendran, K V; Purushothaman, C S; Dasgupta, S; Makesh, M

2014-09-01

15

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cirrhinus mrigala (?)?×?Labeo rohita (?).  

PubMed

Abstract We cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Cirrhinus mrigala (?)?×?Labeo rohita (?) by PCR-based method. The total of the mtDNA was 16,595?bp. It consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes, and one putative control region (D-loop region). The overall base composition on strand was as follows A: 32.09%, G: 15.51%, C: 27.95%, T: 24.45%, and the A?+?T content 56.54%. All the protein-coding genes initiated by typical ATG codon, and ten genes ended with the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, while COII2, ND4 and Cytb genes terminated with GCC, TAT and GCT. The control region contains a thiolases active site, EGF-like domain signature and two anaphylatoxin domain signature. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetics of the hybrid fish in the Cyprinidae family. PMID:25350736

Wu, Ping; Chen, Dunxue; Guo, Xinhong; Chu, Wuying

2014-10-28

16

Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.  

PubMed

The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder. PMID:21207198

Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

2011-06-01

17

Genomic cloning and sequence analysis of Interleukin-10 from Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in inflammation, immunoregulation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, it is our interest to isolate, clone, sequence and characterize IL-10 gene from the fish Labeo rohita (Lr). The gene was amplified using genomic DNA isolated from head kidney with primers designed on conserved sequence homologues of fishes belonging to Cyprinidae family. The gLrIL-10 is 1467 nucleotides long with five exons and four introns sharing the same organization as of mammalian IL-10 genes. An open reading frame of 537 bp was found to encode a putative 179 amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids with conserved signature sequence motif. Sequence analysis showed similarity with the IL-10 from most fresh water fishes of Cyprinidae family. LrIL-10 has 27.2 % identity and 54.95 % similarity with the human IL-10. Sequence analysis followed by phylogenetic studies showed highest identity with Catla catla (98%) followed by Cyprinus carpio (93%), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (89%) and is distantly related to human, rhesus monkey and frog. These data from primary sequence characterization may be used to further understand transcriptional regulation and functional characterization of LrIL-10 in relation to species-specific molecular immunology. Abbreviations IL-10 - Interleukin-10, Lr - Labeo rohita, nt - nucleotides. PMID:25489171

Karan, Sweta; Kaushik, Himani; Saini, Nipun; Sahoo, Pramod K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

2014-01-01

18

Impact of Cypermethrin on Fingerlings of Common Edible Carp (Labeo rohita)  

PubMed Central

Laboratory evaluations were made to assess the toxicological and biochemical effect of cypermethrin on fingerlings of common edible freshwater culture carp (Labeo rohita). There was a significant negative (P < 0.05) correlation observed between effective doses of cypermethrin and exposure periods; that is, LC50 values decreased from 0.323??g/L (6?h) to ?>?0.278??g/L (12?h), ?>?0.240??g/L (18?h) and >0.205??g/L (24?h). Exposure to sublethal doses of cypermethrin for 24?h and 96?h exposure period caused significant (P < 0.05) time- and dose-dependent alterations in total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, and lactate level and in the activity of enzyme protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases, acetylcholinesterase, and cytochrome oxidase in liver and muscle tissues of fish. Thus, cypermethrin has potent piscicidal activity against fingerlings of fish Labeo rohita and adversely affects their behavioural patterns, shifting aerobic pathway of fish respiration towards anaerobic pathway and also inhibiting energy production by suppressing ATP synthesis. PMID:22666103

Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Richa; Singh, Ajay

2012-01-01

19

Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of roe protein hydrolysates of Channa striatus and Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Bioactive roe protein hydrolysates were prepared from Channa striatus (CRPH) and Labeo rohita (LRPH) and their functional and in vitro antioxidant properties evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis was 28.41% at 60min in channa and 18.85% in labeo roe concentrates at 90min. The yields of protein hydrolysates were 24.15% and 12.45% for channa and labeo roe protein concentrates, respectively. The protein content was identical (58%) in both roe protein hydrolysates. Protein solubility in channa was higher (90.48%) when compared to labeo (50.6%) at pH 12. Higher oil absorption capacity and foam stability were observed in CRPH and higher emulsifying capacity was found in LRPH. Smaller peptides of 12kDa were noted in both CRPH and LRPH. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in CRPH than in LRPH as seen from DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. PMID:22953883

Galla, Narsing Rao; Pamidighantam, Prabhakara Rao; Akula, Satyanarayana; Karakala, Balaswamy

2012-12-01

20

Toll-like receptor 22 in Labeo rohita: molecular cloning, characterization, 3D modeling, and expression analysis following ligands stimulation and bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of innate immune receptors that sense pathogens or their molecular signatures and activate signaling cascades to induce a quick and non-specific immune response in the host. Among various types of TLRs, TLR22 is exclusively present in teleosts and amphibians and is expected to play the distinctive role in innate immunity. This report describes molecular cloning, three-dimensional (3D) modeling, and expression analysis of TLR22 in rohu (Labeo rohita), the most commercially important freshwater fish species in the Indian subcontinent. The open reading frame (ORF) of rohu TLR22 (LrTLR22) comprised of 2,838 nucleotides (nt), encoding 946 amino acid (aa) residues with the molecular mass of ? 107.6 kDa. The secondary structure of deduced LrTLR22 exhibited the presence of signal peptide (1-22 aa), 18 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) regions (79-736 aa), and TIR domain (792-935 aa). The 3D model of LrTLR22-LRR regions together elucidated the horse-shoe-shaped structure having parallel ?-strands at the concave surface and few ?-helices at the convex surface. The TIR domain structure revealed alternate presence of five ?-helices and ?-sheets. Phylogenetically, LrTLR22 was closely related to common carp and exhibited significant similarity (92.2 %) and identity (86.1 %) in their amino acids. In rohu, TLR22 was constitutively expressed in all embryonic developmental stages, and tissue-specific analysis illustrated its expression in all examined tissues, highest was in liver and lowest in brain. In vivo modulation of TLR22 gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), synthetic double stranded RNA (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid), and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) RNA. Among these ligands, bacterial RNA most significantly (p < 0.05) induced TLR22 gene expression in most of the tested tissues. In A. hydrophila infection, induction of TLR22 gene expression was also observed in majority of the tested tissues. Together, these data suggested that in addition to sensing other microbial signatures, TLR22 can recognize bacterial RNA and may play the important role in augmenting innate immunity in fish. PMID:25064133

Samanta, Mrinal; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Mahapatra, Girishbala; Sahoo, Bikash R; Paichha, Mahismita; Lenka, Saswati S; Jayasankar, Pallipuram

2014-09-01

21

Physico-chemical characterization and biological response of Labeo rohita-derived hydroxyapatite scaffold.  

PubMed

The chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterials. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses of fish scale materials reveal the different phase changes with temperature and find out the suitable calcination temperatures. The composition and structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powders are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The EDX as well as chemical analysis of fish scale-derived apatite materials confirms that the Ca/P ratio is 1.71. The compressive stress, hardness and porosity have been evaluated on sintered HAp biomaterials. The cell attachment on HAp surfaces, cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay, which are carried out in RAW macrophage-like cell line media demonstrate good biocompatibility. The histological analysis also supports the bioaffinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface. PMID:24288117

Mondal, S; Mondal, A; Mandal, N; Mondal, B; Mukhopadhyay, S S; Dey, A; Singh, S

2014-07-01

22

The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati

2014-01-01

23

A preliminary report on effect of pulsed magnetic fields on fresh water fish (Labeo rohita) chromosomes.  

PubMed

Marine-life scientists around the world are already carrying out investigative trials to obtain higher yields under in-captive breeding conditions, on both edible varieties and ornamental fishes with optimal inputs. However, for such trials to succeed there is a need for genetic improvement. The idea that fish production can be enhanced by genetic manipulation is gaining acceptance, as there is a strong possibility that qualitative improvement of economically important traits can be achieved by identifying and utilizing more effective genotypes. In the present communication a tentative plan for genetic manipulation of fresh water fish using controlled, pulsed magnetic fields, is being discussed. Chromosome preparations of Labeo rohita were made using Colchicine-Methanol-Acetic acid air drying technique, using tissue from gills. The fish were exposed to Pulsed Magnetic Field (PMF)with intensity 0.2 Gauss, pulsing at 50 Hz frequency (sine wave) for 6 hours / day for a total period of 30 days inside specially designed magnetic field enclosures. The karyological investigations revealed no distinct difference between "test" and "control" groups. PMID:15847344

Vijayalakshmi, M; Mathews, K Thresia; Selvanayagam, M; Sankernarayan, P V

2004-07-01

24

The applicability of oxidative stress biomarkers in assessing chromium induced toxicity in the fish Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

Kumari, Kanchan; Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati

2014-01-01

25

Fish cholinesterases as biomarkers of sublethal effects of organophosphorus and carbamates in tissues of Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Organophosphates and carbamates are major agrochemicals that strongly affect different neuroenzymes and the growth of various fish species. Here, we study the effect of sublethal concentrations of profenofos and carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and the associated health risk in fish. Labeo rohita fingerlings were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of profenofos and carbofuran. The minimum cholinesterase activities in the brain, gills, muscle, kidney, liver, and blood were after exposure to profenofos (0.06 mg/L). The minimum AChE and BuChE activities in the brain, gills, muscle, kidney, liver, and blood were after exposure to carbofuran (0.28 and 0.198 mg/L). Exposure to both types of pesticides affected the functions of these organs, including metabolism and neurotransmission, to various extents at different exposure concentrations. These findings suggest that they are required to be properly monitored in the environment, to reduce their toxic effects on nontarget organisms. PMID:24357265

Ghazala; Mahboob, Shahid; Ahmad, L; Sultana, S; Alghanim, K; Al-Misned, F; Ahmad, Z

2014-03-01

26

Characterization of Bacillus spp. From the Gastrointestinal Tract of Labeo rohita-Towards to Identify Novel Probiotics Against Fish Pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116

Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

2015-01-01

27

Activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor signaling in Labeo rohita by iE-DAP and identification of ligand-binding key motifs in NOD1 by molecular modeling and docking.  

PubMed

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor recognizes various pattern-associated structures of microbes through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and activates signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. This report describes the activation of NOD1 receptor signaling by gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (or ?-D-Glu-mDAP [iE-DAP]) in a commercially important fish species, rohu (Labeo rohita). It also described critical motifs in the NOD1-LRR domain that could be involved in binding iE-DAP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The activation of NOD1 receptor signaling was studied by injecting iE-DAP, and analysis of tissue samples for NOD1 and receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase (RICK) expression was done by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. To identify ligand-binding motifs in NOD1, the 3D model of NOD1-LRR was generated, followed by a 6-ns molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular docking of LPS with NOD1-LRR was executed at the Hex and PatchDock servers, and iE-DAP and poly I:C in the AutoDock 4.2, FlexX 2.1, Glide 5.5, and GOLD 4.1 programs. The results of qRT-PCR revealed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of NOD1 and RICK expression. Molecular docking revealed that the amino acid residues at LRR1-2, LRR3-7, and LRR8-9 could be involved in poly I:C, LPS, and iE-DAP binding, respectively. In fish, this is the first report describing the 3D structure of NOD1-LRR and its critical ligand-binding motifs. PMID:23657901

Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Bej, Aritra; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

2013-07-01

28

Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).  

PubMed

Abstract The present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate) in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. The 96?h LC50 value of potassium dichromate estimated was 118?mg?L(-1) by probit analysis using SPSS (version 16.0) software. Based on 96?h LC50 value, three sublethal test concentrations of potassium dichromate (29.5, 59.0 and 88.5?mg?L(-)(1)) were selected and specimens were exposed in vivo to these test concentrations for 96?h. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of potassium dichromate were evaluated in gill and blood cells using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. In general, significant (p?

Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Pavan; Dabas, Anurag

2015-01-01

29

Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

2014-08-01

30

Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

2013-08-01

31

In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

2014-04-01

32

Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.  

PubMed

In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945

Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita

2014-10-15

33

GnIH and GnRH expressions in the central nervous system and pituitary of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita during ontogeny: An immunocytochemical study.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. In 2000, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brain of other vertebrates. We show for the first time GnIH immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and pituitary during development of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and compare it with the localization of GnRH. GnIH and GnRH immunoreactivities were observed from the olfactory system to spinal cord throughout development. In the brain, both neuropeptides were localized in the telencephalon, diencephalon including the preoptic area and rhombencephalon. The localization of GnIH and GnRH in the pituitary suggests that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of pituitary hormones by an autocrine manner during development. In addition, the presence of GnIH and GnRH in several other brain regions including the olfactory system suggests their involvement in the regulation of other physiological functions. PMID:24955881

Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; Palande, Nikhil V; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-06-20

34

Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita

2014-10-01

35

Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg?1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.

2014-01-01

36

Beneficial effects of dietary probiotics mixture on hemato-immunology and cell apoptosis of Labeo rohita fingerlings reared at higher water temperatures.  

PubMed

Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg(-1)). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34-37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Prusty, Ashisa K; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N

2014-01-01

37

Characterization of IgM of Indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish IgM antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian major carps (IMC), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified by affinity chromatography. The heavy and light chain of IgM of all the three species of IMC were about 88 and 26kDa, respectively. Anti-fish IgM antibody against all the three species were

Manas Ranjan Bag; M. Makesh; K. V. Rajendran; S. C. Mukherjee

2009-01-01

38

Description of a new species of Labeo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the lower Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new labeonine cyprinid, Labeo fulakariensis, is described from material recently collected in rapids on the lower Congo River near the mouth of the Foulakari River, a large north bank tributary, in the Republic of Congo, and from the Yelala rapids in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The new species is readily distinguished from other Congolese Labeo except L. greenii

SINASELI M. TSHIBWABWA; ROBERT C. SCHELLY

39

Gill asymmetry in Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), often used as indicator of environmental stress, was evaluated in gill rakers and filaments of Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria. Mean length and weight of 13.68 +/- 1.28 cm and 59.40+17.48 g were respectively recorded. The gill rakers (t = -0.919) and filaments (t = -1.150) from both sides were not significantly different. The gill filaments recorded (0.31 +/- 2.42) higher incidence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) compared with the gill rakers (0.21 +/- 1.58), signifying developmental interference in the population. Fish size and sex were observed to exert minimal influence on FA. PMID:17357414

Ayoade, A A; Sowunmi, A A; Nwachukwu, H I

2004-03-01

40

Identification of promoter within the first intron of Plzf gene expressed in carp spermatogonial stem cells.  

PubMed

Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in survival and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells including embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in mammals. Its cDNA was characterized and expression in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu (Labeo rohita), a farmed carp, was documented. In teleost, the information on its promoter activity is lacking. Here, we have isolated, sequenced and performed the first characterization of regulatory elements for Plzf being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu. About 3.2 kb of 5'-flanking region, relative to ATG start codon, derived by genome walking was sequenced. The 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis not only mapped the transcriptional start site but also detected non-coding exons. Interestingly, computational analysis detected several putative regulatory elements including TATA-box positioned in the first intron. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for serially deleted constructs to measure their promoter activities. The region containing putative TATA- and CAAT-boxes including GC-rich motif, positioned within first intron, was identified as a potential promoter; but its full promoter activity was dependent on upstream region containing a putative Evi-1-like element. Moreover, our findings also identified a region acting as transcriptional repressor. These findings could be used as roadmap for future understandings of its regulated expression during male germ cell development in fish species. PMID:24990695

Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Barman, Hirak Kumar

2014-10-01

41

Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa. I. Winter survey versus summer survey comparison from Labeo capensis (Smith, 1841) and Labeo umbratus (Smith, 1841) hosts.  

PubMed

Indigenous South African Labeo spp. show promise with regard to development of semi-intensive aquaculture, yet little research on their monogenean fauna has been conducted. Ecological aspects of monogenean fauna of the moggel Labeo umbratus (Smith 1841) and the Orange River mudfish Labeo capensis (Smith 1841), as recorded during both winter and summer sampling surveys, are reported here. Fish were collected using gill nets, euthanized and gills removed and examined to both quantify parasite numbers and distribution on the gills. Results obtained support the hypothesis that gill site preference is not due to active choice for a particular attachment site, but rather a result of water flow over gills during respiration in conjunction with fish behaviour and habitat use. Interaction between individual elements investigated (temperature effects, parasite population dynamics and host population dynamics) may be largely responsible for seasonal differences in infection statistics of monogenean parasites. Such interactions should be investigated in future large scale ecological studies, in combination with experimental studies, to further elucidate these effects. PMID:24570046

Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

2014-03-01

42

Characterization of IgM of Indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish IgM antibodies.  

PubMed

Indian major carps (IMC), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified by affinity chromatography. The heavy and light chain of IgM of all the three species of IMC were about 88 and 26kDa, respectively. Anti-fish IgM antibody against all the three species were raised in mice and the reaction of anti-fish IgM antibodies with IgM of all the three species of IMC were studied by Western blot. The anti-fish IgM antibodies reacted strongly with the heavy chain of the same species against which it was raised while the reactions with the heavy chain of other species were milder indicating some degree of epitope sharing among the heavy chains of IgM of IMCs. However, there was no cross-reaction with the light chain of any of the IgM. PMID:19063976

Bag, Manas Ranjan; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V; Mukherjee, S C

2009-02-01

43

Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.  

PubMed

We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

2011-06-01

44

Fish-Borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Cultured and Wild-Caught Freshwater Fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

2010-01-01

45

Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1?g\\/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500pg\\/ml), and

Asamanja Chattoraj; Sharmistha Bhattacharyya; Dipanjan Basu; Shelley Bhattacharya; Samir Bhattacharya; Saumen Kumar Maitra

2005-01-01

46

The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  

PubMed

The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati

2014-05-01

47

Ecotoxicological effects of jute retting on the survival of two freshwater fish and two invertebrates.  

PubMed

Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW. PMID:18157635

Mondal, Debjit Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava

2008-04-01

48

Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

1994-11-01

49

Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.  

PubMed

In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

2014-04-01

50

Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Exogenous Trypsin Biomimics Zymogen-Like Enzyme in Fish Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare trypsin can be favored as a dietary supplement in animals and humans. PMID:24040333

Singh, Arvind R.; Ferosekhan, S.; Kothari, Dushyant C.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

2013-01-01

51

The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)  

SciTech Connect

Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

Alam, M.K.

1991-01-01

52

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

2013-01-01

53

Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.  

PubMed

This 3?×?3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 ?g/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 ?g/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 ?g/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 ?g/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 ?g/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 ?g/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 ?g/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 ?g/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

2015-02-01

54

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures. PMID:25182443

Elhadi, Nasreldin

2014-01-01

55

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. PMID:21429127

Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

2011-01-01

56

Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.  

PubMed

A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

2013-04-01

57

The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra

2014-06-01

58

Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.  

PubMed

Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus. PMID:25119364

Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

2014-09-01

59

First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

2009-06-01

60

Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus – a review  

PubMed Central

Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat

2014-01-01

61

Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g(-1). The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g(-1). In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g(-1)), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g(-1), THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g(-1) for at-risk groups. PMID:12810322

Campbell, L M; Osano, O; Hecky, R E; Dixon, D G

2003-01-01

62

Heavy metal accumulation in edible fish species from Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe the accumulation of trace metals in the liver, kidney, gills, muscles, and skin of four edible fish species (Tor putitora, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo calbasu, and Channa punctatus) of Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan. The fish samples were collected in the pre-monsoon (May 2008) and post-monsoon (October 2007) seasons and were analyzed for heavy metals by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Kidney and liver showed relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The accumulation of metals in the different organs of the fish (skin, muscles, and gills) in post-monsoon was higher than in pre-monsoon. In pre-monsoon, the metals followed the trend Zn > Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Mn > Co > Cu > Cd > Li, while in the post-monsoon season, the trend was Fe > Pb > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Co > Mn > Cd > Li. The concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in the muscle of all fish species were higher than the WHO guideline values of heavy metals in fishes for human consumption except in T. putitora. Cu level was nearly equal to the WHO maximum levels in C. mrigala and L. calbasu, while it was lower in T. putitora and C. punctatus. It is strongly advocated that risk assessment studies should be conducted and there is an urgent need for water quality restoration and management of Rawal Lake Reservoir. PMID:23884877

Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huma, Yasmin

2014-01-01

63

Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives. PMID:24191617

Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

2012-06-15