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Sample records for rohu labeo rohita

  1. Effects of pretreatments and salt concentration on rohu (Labeo rohita) roes for preparation of roe pickle.

    PubMed

    Balaswamy, K; Prabhakara Rao, P G; Rao, D G; Jyothirmayi, T

    2010-03-01

    In India, fish egg (roes) is the underutilized rich source of protein and essential fatty acids. An attempt was made to utilize the roes for the preparation of pickle product. Roes of rohu (Labeo rohita) were subjected to pretreatments such as pasteurization and blanching in varying molar concentrations of salt solutions to improve the texture and sensory quality. Losses in protein content and absorption of salt by roes were assessed in both pasteurized and blanched roes for processing them into roe pickle. The pasteurized roes were very soft coupled with high fishy odour. Roes blanched in 1M NaCl solution were found to be good in taste in terms of salt, minimum loss in protein content and reduced fishy odour. The blanched roes were used to prepare fish roe pickle. The pickle was analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, microbial and sensory quality during storage. The roe pickle packed in glass bottle was shelf-stable and scored good for sensory characteristics of flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability during a storage period of 6 months at room temperature (28 ± 2°C). PMID:23572628

  2. Effects of cypermethrin on survival, morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early development.

    PubMed

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Zuberi, Amina; Azizullah, Azizullah; Khan Khattak, Muhammad Nasir

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub-lethal doses of Cypermethrin (CYP) on the survival and morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early developmental stages. Newly fertilized eggs were incubated in the presence of sub-lethal concentration of CYP (20% of LC50 i.e., 8.43 μg L(-1)) in a well designed flow through system. Increased mortality was found with increase in exposure time. Deformities like eroded yolk and margins, elongated yolk sac, larvae with short tail, no eyes or larvae with zigzag movement and paralyzed larvae were observed in CYP treated group from blastula to fry stage. The activities of antioxidant like Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Lactoperoxidase (LPO) were decreased from 24 to 96 h in the control group whereas increased in CYP treated group. The Glutathione reducatse (GR) activity was also increased with time in both the control and treated groups; however, the activity was significantly higher in CYP treated group. Similarly, the whole body cortisol level showed an increasing trend with time in both control and treated groups. However, in CYP exposed group the cortisol level was considerably higher after 24 h exposure but statistically comparable to the control group after 96 h. It can be concluded from the present results that CYP even at very low concentration adversely affects the early development of L. rohita and enhances mortality. The obtained results reveal that CYP may affect the wild population of fish by inducing oxidative stress and modulating stress response during early ontogenesis. PMID:26408976

  3. Expressed sequences and polymorphisms in rohu carp (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) revealed by mRNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, Pramoda K; Baranski, Matthew; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra N; Das, Sweta; Mishra, Yashowant; Das, Paramanandra; Barman, Hirak K; Eknath, Ambekar E

    2012-10-01

    Expressed genes and polymorphisms were identified in lines of rohu Labeo rohita selected for resistance or susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila, an important bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis. All animals were grown in a common environment and RNA from ten individuals from each line pooled for Illumina mRNA-seq. De novo transcriptome assembly produced 137,629 contigs with 40× average coverage.Forty-four percent of the assembled sequences were annotated with gene names and ontology terms. Of these, 3,419 were assigned biological process terms related to "stress response" and 1,939 "immune system". Twenty-six contigs containing 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to map to the Cyprinus carpio mitochondrial genome and over 26,000 putative SNPs and 1,700 microsatellite loci were detected. Seventeen percent of the 100 transcripts with coverage data most indicative of higher-fold expression(>5.6 fold) in the resistant line pool showed homology to major histocompatibility (MH), heat shock proteins (HSP)30, 70 and 90, glycoproteins or serum lectin genes with putative functions affecting immune response. Forty-one percent of these 100 transcripts showed no or low homology to known genes. Of the SNPs identified, 96 showing the highest allele frequency differences between susceptible and resistant line fish included transcripts with homology to MH class I and galactoside-binding soluble lectin, also with putative functions affecting innate and acquired immune response. A comprehensive sequence resource for L. rohita, including annotated microsatellites and SNPs from a mixture of A. hydrophila-susceptible and -resistant individuals, was created for subsequent experiments aiming to identify genes associated with A. hydrophila resistance. PMID:22298294

  4. Antiproliferative, ACE-inhibitory and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from rohu (Labeo rohita) roe (egg) prepared by gastrointestinal proteases.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we have reported the chemical composition, molecular mass distribution and antioxidant activity of rohu roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antiproliferative, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from rohu (Labeo rohita) roe proteins, prepared by gastrointestinal proteases (pepsin and trypsin), were investigated. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The results showed that the pepsin hydrolysate possessed dose dependent inhibitory effect on Caco-2 cell line. Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates displayed ACE-inhibitory activity in vitro. The ACE-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate generated by pepsin (47 ± 1.7 %, at 1 mg/ml) is higher than that obtained by trypsin (36 ± 3.2 %). Additionally, the undigested rohu roe proteins and its hydrolysates exhibited functional properties. Solubilities of the hydrolysates were above 81 ± 9.2 % at all pH values tested. Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates showed good foaming capacity (45-211 %) and emulsification activity (4-29 m(2)/g). The foaming abilities and emulsifying activity index (EAI) were affected by pH. The results suggest that protein hydrolysates from rohu roe could be useful in food industry for various applications. PMID:26604407

  5. Identification of Deleterious Mutations in Myostatin Gene of Rohu Carp (Labeo rohita) Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Mohapatra, Shibani D.; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A) of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P) were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies. PMID:27019850

  6. A linkage map of transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms in rohu (Labeo rohita) and QTL associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Production of carp dominates world aquaculture. More than 1.1 million tonnes of rohu carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), were produced in 2010. Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis in rohu, and is a major problem for carp production worldwide. There is a need to better understand the genetic mechanisms affecting resistance to this disease, and to develop tools that can be used with selective breeding to improve resistance. Here we use a 6 K SNP array to genotype 21 full-sibling families of L. rohita that were experimentally challenged intra-peritoneally with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci associated with disease resistance. Results In all, 3193 SNPs were found to be informative and were used to create a linkage map and to scan for QTL affecting resistance to A. hydrophila. The linkage map consisted of 25 linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid chromosomes in L. rohita. Male and female linkage maps were similar in terms of order, coverage (1384 and 1393 cM, respectively) and average interval distances (1.32 and 1.35 cM, respectively). Forty-one percent of the SNPs were annotated with gene identity using BLAST (cut off E-score of 0.001). Twenty-one SNPs mapping to ten linkage groups showed significant associations with the traits hours of survival and dead or alive (P <0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Of the SNPs showing significant or suggestive associations with the traits, several were homologous to genes of known immune function or were in close linkage to such genes. Genes of interest included heat shock proteins (70, 60, 105 and “small heat shock proteins”), mucin (5b precursor and 2), lectin (receptor and CD22), tributyltin-binding protein, major histocompatibility loci (I and II), complement protein component c7-1, perforin 1, ubiquitin (ligase, factor e4b isoform 2 and conjugation enzyme e2 c), proteasome subunit, T-cell antigen receptor and

  7. Acute and subchronic toxicity of aflatoxin B1 to rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Mukherjee, S C; Nayak, S K; Dey, S

    2001-05-01

    Pathological alterations in various organs of rohu (L. rohita) fingerlings following acute (0, 7.50, 11.25 and 13.75 mg/kg body weight) and subchronic (0, 1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg body weight) single i.p. aflatoxin B1 exposure for 10 and 90 days, respectively, were investigated. Mortality (dose-dependent) was marked only during acute toxicosis. The changes observed in various organs were dose and time dependent. The acute dose groups revealed toxic changes viz., necrotic and vascular changes in liver and gill lamellae; meningitis, congestion in brain, degeneration and inflammatory reaction in heart along with degenerative to necrotic changes in kidney tubules and sloughing of the intestinal mucosa. During subchronic exposure to this toxin, preneoplastic lesions in liver along with changes in spleen, intestine, gill and pancreas were recorded. With low doses of aflatoxin, the fish did not reveal any mortality or external signs other than catchexia and increased pigmentation on scales. In composite culture practice of Indian major carps, this could be of economic significance. PMID:11510129

  8. Role of HSP70 in cytoplasm protection against thermal stress in rohu, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V

    2014-12-01

    To understand the function of HSP70 of Labeo rohita (LrHSP70) in cellular protection, LrHSP70 ORF cDNA was inserted into the plasmid of pET-32a(+) or pEGFP-L1. Then, the recombinant plasmids were transformed or transfected into Escherichia coli cells, mouse myeloma cells (MPC-11) or fish hepatoma cells (PLHC-1). Western blot results revealed that LrHSP70 was expressed in E. coli cells and molecular weight was estimated to be 70 kDa. In cells, LrHSP70 was over-expressed following thermal or cold stress. Results revealed that LrHSP70 protected prokaryotic cells against thermal or cold extremes as well as played the same role in MPC-11 and PLHC-1 cells. After heat treatment at 42 °C for 1 h, the viability of the cell was declined considerably. PLHC-1 cells with pEGFP-L1/LrHSP70 exhibited a higher survival rate (50%) than wild-type cells (18%) or cells with only pEGFP-L1 (21.2%). When the time lag extended to 2 h, the survival rates were 30%, 3.4% and 5.3% respectively. The present study revealed that LrHSP70 plays an important role in response to thermal and cold stress in fish. PMID:25240978

  9. Aeromonas hydrophila OmpW PLGA Nanoparticle Oral Vaccine Shows a Dose-Dependent Protective Immunity in Rohu (Labeo rohita).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Paul, Joydeb; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes high mortality in different fish species and at different growth stages. Although vaccination has significantly contributed to the decline of disease outbreaks in aquaculture, the use of oral vaccines has lagged behind the injectable vaccines due to lack of proven efficacy, that being from primary immunization or by use of boost protocols. In this study, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW) of A. hydrophila was cloned, purified, and encapsulated in poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for oral vaccination of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton). The physical properties of PLGA NPs encapsulating the recombinant OmpW (rOmpW) was characterized as having a diameter of 370-375 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 53% and -19.3 mV zeta potential. In vitro release of rOmpW was estimated at 34% within 48 h of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. To evaluate the efficacy of the NP-rOmpW oral vaccine, two antigen doses were orally administered in rohu with a high antigen (HiAg) dose that had twice the amount of antigens compared to the low antigen (LoAg) dose. Antibody levels obtained after vaccination showed an antigen dose dependency in which fish from the HiAg group had higher antibody levels than those from the LoAg group. The antibody levels corresponded with post challenge survival proportions (PCSPs) and relative percent survival (RPS) in which the HiAg group had a higher PCSP and RPS than the LoAg group. Likewise, the ability to inhibit A. hydrophila growth on trypticase soy agar (TSA) by sera obtained from the HiAg group was higher than that from the LoAg group. Overall, data presented here shows that OmpW orally administered using PLGA NPs is protective against A. hydrophila infection with the level of protective immunity induced by oral vaccination being antigen dose-dependent. Future studies should seek to optimize the antigen dose and duration of oral immunization in rohu in order to

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila OmpW PLGA Nanoparticle Oral Vaccine Shows a Dose-Dependent Protective Immunity in Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Paul, Joydeb; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes high mortality in different fish species and at different growth stages. Although vaccination has significantly contributed to the decline of disease outbreaks in aquaculture, the use of oral vaccines has lagged behind the injectable vaccines due to lack of proven efficacy, that being from primary immunization or by use of boost protocols. In this study, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW) of A. hydrophila was cloned, purified, and encapsulated in poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for oral vaccination of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton). The physical properties of PLGA NPs encapsulating the recombinant OmpW (rOmpW) was characterized as having a diameter of 370–375 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 53% and −19.3 mV zeta potential. In vitro release of rOmpW was estimated at 34% within 48 h of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. To evaluate the efficacy of the NP-rOmpW oral vaccine, two antigen doses were orally administered in rohu with a high antigen (HiAg) dose that had twice the amount of antigens compared to the low antigen (LoAg) dose. Antibody levels obtained after vaccination showed an antigen dose dependency in which fish from the HiAg group had higher antibody levels than those from the LoAg group. The antibody levels corresponded with post challenge survival proportions (PCSPs) and relative percent survival (RPS) in which the HiAg group had a higher PCSP and RPS than the LoAg group. Likewise, the ability to inhibit A. hydrophila growth on trypticase soy agar (TSA) by sera obtained from the HiAg group was higher than that from the LoAg group. Overall, data presented here shows that OmpW orally administered using PLGA NPs is protective against A. hydrophila infection with the level of protective immunity induced by oral vaccination being antigen dose-dependent. Future studies should seek to optimize the antigen dose and duration of oral immunization in rohu in order to

  11. Identification of reproduction-related genes and SSR-markers through expressed sequence tags analysis of a monsoon breeding carp rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh K; Panda, Soumya P; Panda, Sujata; Das, Paramananda; Meher, Prem K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang J; Eknath, Ambekar E; Nandi, Samiran

    2013-07-15

    Labeo rohita (Ham.) also called rohu is the most important freshwater aquaculture species on the Indian sub continent. Monsoon dependent breeding restricts its seed production beyond season indicating a strong genetic control about which very limited information is available. Additionally, few genomic resources are publicly available for this species. Here we sought to identify reproduction-relevant genes from normalized cDNA libraries of the brain-pituitary-gonad-liver (BPGL-axis) tissues of adult L. rohita collected during post preparatory phase. 6161 random clones sequenced (Sanger-based) from these libraries produced 4642 (75.34%) high-quality sequences. They were assembled into 3631 (78.22%) unique sequences composed of 709 contigs and 2922 singletons. A total of 182 unique sequences were found to be associated with reproduction-related genes, mainly under the GO term categories of reproduction, neuro-peptide hormone activity, hormone and receptor binding, receptor activity, signal transduction, embryonic development, cell-cell signaling, cell death and anti-apoptosis process. Several important reproduction-related genes reported here for the first time in L. rohita are zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, aquaporin-12, spermine oxidase, sperm associated antigen 7, testis expressed 261, progesterone receptor membrane component, Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of 8 known and 8 unknown transcripts during preparatory and post-spawning phase showed increased expression level of most of the transcripts during preparatory phase (except Neuropeptide Y) in comparison to post-spawning phase indicating possible roles in initiation of gonad maturation. Expression of unknown transcripts was also found in prolific breeder common carp and tilapia, but levels of expression were much higher in seasonal breeder rohu. 3631 unique sequences contained 236 (6.49%) putative microsatellites with the AG (28.16%) repeat as the most

  12. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  13. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16 GB, 72 bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  14. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  15. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  16. Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-05-01

    Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (<500 nm) and could be successfully endocyted in the body. Despite low antigen loading in PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for

  17. Low-depth shotgun sequencing resolves complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Das, Sofia P; Bit, Amrita; Patnaik, Siddhi; Sahoo, L; Meher, P K; Jayasankar, P; Saha, T M; Patel, A B; Patel, Namrata; Koringa, P; Joshi, C G; Agarwal, Suyash; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya; Kushwaha, B; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, N S; Iquebal, M A; Jaiswal, Sarika; Kumar, Dinesh; Jena, J K; Das, P

    2016-09-01

    Labeo rohita, popularly known as rohu, is a widely cultured species in whole Indian subcontinent. In the present study, we used in-silico approach to resolve complete mitochondrial genome of rohu. Low-depth shotgun sequencing using Roche 454 GS FLX (Branford, Connecticut, USA) followed by de novo assembly in CLC Genomics Workbench version 7.0.4 (Aarhus, Denmark) revealed the complete mitogenome of L. rohita to be 16 606 bp long (accession No. KR185963). It comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 putative control region. The gene order and organization are similar to most vertebrates. The mitogenome in the present investigation has 99% similarity with that of previously reported mitogenomes of rohu and this is also evident from the phylogenetic study using maximum-likelihood (ML) tree method. This study was done to determine the feasibility, accuracy and reliability of low-depth sequence data obtained from NGS platform as compared to the Sanger sequencing. Thus, NGS technology has proven to be competent and a rapid in-silico alternative to resolve the complete mitochondrial genome sequence, thereby reducing labors and time. PMID:26260184

  18. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the putative T cells of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Sanjay C; Rathore, Gaurav; Punia, Peyush; Sood, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we have described the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against thymocytes of rohu, Labeo rohita. MAbs were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with freshly isolated and nylon wool column enriched mononuclear cells of thymus. Positive clones against thymocytes were screened by cellular ELISA. The hybridoma showing strong reactivity with nylon wool enriched mononuclear cells, and non-reactivity with a rohu thymus macrophage cell line and rohu serum was selected and subjected to single cell cloning by limiting dilution. The MAbs secreted by a positive clone were designated as E6 MAb. Western blotting of reduced protein from enriched thymocytes showed that E6 reacted with a 166.2 kDa polypeptide and belongs to the IgG1 subclass. Flow cytometric analysis of gated lymphocytes, revealed that the percentage of E6 positive (E6+) cells in thymus (n = 5, 720.4 ± 79.70 g) was 89.7 %. Similarly, the percentage of E6+ cells in kidney, spleen and blood (n = 5) was 6.71, 1.71 and 1.88 %, respectively. In indirect immunoperoxidase test, E6+ cells appeared to be lymphoid cells with a high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio and were densely packed in the central region of thymus whereas, a few cells were found to be positive in kidney and spleen sections. E6 MAb also reacted with a small population of lymphocytes in blood smear. This MAb appears to be a suitable marker for T lymphocytes and can be a valuable tool in studying immune response and ontogeny of L. rohita immune system. PMID:25749913

  19. Immunoglobulin (Ig) D in Labeo rohita is widely expressed and differentially modulated in viral, bacterial and parasitic antigenic challenges.

    PubMed

    Basu, Madhubanti; Lenka, Saswati S; Paichha, Mahismita; Swain, Banikalyan; Patel, Bhakti; Banerjee, Rajanya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Surajit; Samanta, Mrinal

    2016-10-15

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in protecting host against diverse pathogenic invasion and diseases. Among all Ig isotypes, IgD is the most recently-evolved and enigmatic molecule detected in all vertebrates species except birds. In South-East Asia, Labeo rohita (rohu) is the leading candidate fish species for freshwater aquaculture, and this article describes about IgD gene expression in rohu following viral, bacterial and parasitic antigenic challenges. The partial cDNA (761bp) of Labeo rohita-IgD (LrIgD) was cloned and submitted in the GenBank with the accession no KT883581. Phylogenetically, LrIgD was closely related to grass carp IgD. Analysis of LrIgD gene expression in juveniles by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay revealed gradual increase in IgD expression with the advancement of time. In the healthy rohu fingerlings, LrIgD expression occurred predominantly in kidney followed by liver and spleen. In response to rhabdoviral antigenic stimulation, LrIgD expression was significantly enhanced in all tested tissues. In bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infection, transcripts of LrIgD increased more dramatically in liver followed by kidney and gill. In parasitic (Argulus) infection, most significant expression of IgD was noted in the skin, followed by kidney, liver, spleen and gill. These results collectively suggest the key role of IgD in the immune response of rohu during viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. PMID:27590429

  20. Analysis of immune-related ESTs and differential expression analysis of few important genes in lines of rohu (Labeo rohita) selected for resistance and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Das, Sweta; Chhottaray, Chiranjibi; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, P K

    2014-11-01

    A total of 137,629 contigs generated via de novo transcriptome assembly from resistant and susceptible lines of rohu (first generation) raised against aeromoniasis were further analyzed in terms of defence-related genes. Out of 1,939 contigs showing homology to genes involved in immune processes, 1,866 were further categorised into different functional subgroups. Comparative analysis revealed five genes for the first time in any carp species out of which apolipoprotein h, septin 4 isoform 3 and septin isoform cra_c were identified for the first time in fish. Differential expression analysis of ten genes viz., heat shock proteins (Hsps) (Hsp30, Hsp70 and Hsp90), serum lectin isoform 1 (SLI1), linker histone H1M (LHH1M), NAD(P)H quinone 1 (NQO1), zona pellucida 2 (ZP2) and three unknown genes that were highly up-expressed in first generation resistant line fish from mRNA-seq coverage data, was carried out using susceptible and resistant individuals of the second generation selected populations in eight different tissues viz. liver, kidney, intestine, gill, brain, spleen, skin and muscle using qPCR. Significant up-regulation in Hsp90, NQO1, C_116914 and C_22454 in specific tissues of resistant line and variable expression in Hsp30 and LHH1M genes in different tissues of both lines were noticed. The expression of Hsp70 was lower in many tissues of the resistant line than in susceptible line rohu. The expression of ZP2, SLI1 and C_94589 genes was not significantly different in terms of fold difference between the two lines. Differentially expressed genes need further characterisation to explore their role in resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu. PMID:25081649

  1. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P<0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. PMID:24502533

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional assessment of the myosin light polypeptide chain 2 (mylz2) promoter of farmed carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Ramya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-08-01

    We cloned the 5'-flanking region (1.2 kb) of a muscle-specific gene, encoding myosin light chain 2 polypeptide (mylz2) of a farmed carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). Sequence analysis using TRANSFAC-database search identified the consensus cis acting regulatory elements of TATA-box and E (CANNTG)-box, including the monocyte enhancer factor 2 motif, implying that it is likely to be a functional promoter. The proximal promoter (~620 bp) was highly homologous with that of Danio rerio (zebrafish) as compared to Channa striatus (snakehead murrel) counterparts and showed less identity with Sparus auratus (gilthead sea bream), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Direct muscular (skeletal) injection of the construct containing the mylz2 promoter (0.6 kb) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene showed efficient expression in L. rohita, validating its functional activity. Further, the functional activity was confirmed by the observation that this promoter drove GFP expression in the skeletal muscle of transgenic rohu. The promoter may have potential applications for value-addition in ornamental fishes and studying gene regulatory functions. PMID:24740361

  3. Application of calcined waste fish (Labeo rohita) scale as low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, R; Bepari, S; Banerjee, A

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of converting waste Rohu fish (Labeo rohita) scale into a high-performance, reusable, low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a significant portion of the main component of fish scale i.e. HAP (hydroxyapatite) could be transformed into β-tri-calcium phosphate when calcined above 900°C for 2 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) morphology studies of the calcined scale depicted a fibrous layer of porous structure; while a BET surface area of 39 m(2)/g was measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimal parametric conditions viz. methanol/oil molar ratio, 6.27:1, calcination temperature, 997.42°C and catalyst concentration, 1.01 wt.% of oil corresponding to a maximum FAME yield of 97.73%. Reusability results confirmed that the prepared catalyst could be reemployed up to six times, procreating a potentially applicable avenue in biodiesel synthesis. PMID:21094040

  4. Antagonistic Activity of Cellular Components of Potential Probiotic Bacteria, Isolated from the Gut of Labeo rohita, Against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Sen, Shib Sankar; Vinumonia, J; Banu, B Nazeema; Jena, Prasant Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic activity against A. hydrophila was determined. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed that R1, R2, and R5 were Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Bacillus subtilis VSG1, respectively. Four different fractions of cellular components (i.e. the whole-cell product, heat-killed whole-cell product [HKWCP], intracellular product [ICP], and extracellular product) of these selected strains were effective in an in vitro sensitivity test against 6 A. hydrophila strains. Among the cellular components, the ICP of R1, HKWCP of R2, and ICP of R5 exhibited the strongest antagonistic activities, as evidenced by their inhibition zones. The antimicrobial compounds from these selected cellular components were partially purified by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their properties were analysed. The ranges of pH stability of the purified compounds were wide (3.0-10.0), and compounds were thermally stable up to 90 °C. Considering these results, isolated probiotic strains may find potential applications in the prevention and treatment of aquatic aeromonosis. PMID:26781682

  5. Low pH, dissolved oxygen and high temperature induces Thelohanellus rohita (myxozoan) infestation in tropical fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Saha, Himadri; Saha, Ratan K; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-10-01

    In Labeo rohita, myxozoan infection is very common and here occurrence and distribution of myxozoan gill parasites were studied with an objective to evaluate the relationship between myxozoan infections with different abiotic factors. All ponds were infected with myxozoan infection. Sampling of water and fish was done fortnightly and soil sample on monthly basis for about 6 months. L. rohita is infected with the one myxozoan species Thelohanellus rohita. The first, second and third gill arches showed higher distribution of myxozoans than the fourth one. Posterior hemibranch of second gill arch was the most preferred site for parasite attachment. The mean intensity of parasite was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the size class of 8-9 cm in comparison to the other size classes. There were profound variability in the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of gill myxosoporeans from three ponds. During the start of the sampling, myxozoans were present in all the ponds but their intensity varied in different ponds. These may be due to the variability in the abiotic factors of individual ponds. Most importantly acidic pH, lower DO and higher temperature promote myxozoan infestation and their propagation. Low soil pH is also seen to enhance their propagation. Our data clearly highlighted that prevalence, intensity and abundance of T. rohita strongly influenced by the above environmental parameters and suggested that its life cycle is probably effected by their change; our hypothesis must be regarded as speculative as long as further detail study is not carried out. PMID:24431581

  6. Immunotoxicological effects of cadmium on Labeo rohita, with emphasis on the expression of HSP genes.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure (28 days) to a sub-lethal concentration of cadmium (Cd) (0.65 mg CdCl2 L(-1)) on the immune responses and expression of immune-related and heat shock protein (HSP) genes in Labeo rohita, an important aquacultured fish species. Among the immune parameters studied, significantly lower lysozyme activity was observed in fish 28 days post-exposure (dpe) to Cd as compared to control fish. Alternative complement pathway activity was slightly higher in the Cd-exposed group at 2 dpe than in controls, and this activity declined gradually thereafter. The phagocytic activity and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were insignificantly lower in the Cd-exposed group at all assessed time points than in controls. Among serum enzymatic activities, peroxidase activity was always higher in the Cd-exposed group than in controls, but the increase was insignificant at all assessed time points. Additionally, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the Cd-exposed group at 14 and 28 dpe. Immune and HSP gene expression patterns were observed in kidney and liver tissues, respectively, by RT-PCR, and HSPs were further analysed by immunoblotting. Cd had an immunosuppressive effect, leading to down-regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and IFN-γ. However, Cd exposure led to the up-regulation of HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSP78, and HSP90, indicating Cd-induced cellular stress. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the immunotoxic effect of Cd. Cd exposure makes Labeo rohita immunocompromised, and this could subsequently increase the disease susceptibility of Labeo rohita. PMID:26994673

  7. Ultrastructural alterations in the gills of Labeo rohita fingerlings exposed to thermal extremes.

    PubMed

    Das, T; Sahu, N P; Chakraborty, S K; Chatterjee, N; Mohammed, M S; Dalvi, R S; Baruah, K; Pal, A K

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the cellular alterations in the gill of Labeo rohita exposed to lethal temperature maxima (LTM ax ) and lethal temperature minima (LTM in ) by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Acclimation of advanced fingerlings of L. rohita was carried out at 26°C for 30 days. Acclimated fish were subjected to a constant rate of increase or decrease in temperature (0.3°C/min) until the LTM ax and LTM in values were reached. Dissected gills were processed for TEM, both at the end of acclimation period at ambient temperature (26°C) and at lethal temperatures. Results indicated that at ambient temperature, the gill tissues appeared normal. However, significant changes were observed at lethal temperatures. The gill tissues at lethal temperature maxima showed severely damaged lamellae, with more vacuolated space. At lethal temperature minima, gill tissues showed increased density of mitochondria. Our prima-facie report indicated that L. rohita exposed to lethal temperatures exhibited marked ultrastructural changes in the gills. PMID:23480531

  8. Physiological responses of dietary tryptophan fed Labeo rohita to temperature and salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M S; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Ciji, A; Meena, D K; Das, P

    2013-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the possible effects of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) in Labeo rohita based on growth performance and physio-biochemical responses. In the experiment I, a 60-day feeding trial was carried out to elucidate the effects of dietary TRP enrichment on growth performance and physio-biochemical responses. In the experiment II, the TRP pre-fed L. rohita, from experiment I, was exposed to temperature and salinity stress to evaluate stress-mitigating efficacy of TRP. In L. rohita, dietary supplementation of TRP showed significant effect on weight gain percentage and feed conversion ratio but not on blood glucose. A significant increase in RNA content and RNA/DNA ratio upon TRP supplementation was observed and was positively correlated with growth performance. The results of experiment II indicated that weight gain percentage, serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly reduced in groups that were exposed to temperature and salinity stress and fed diets without TRP supplementation. However, dietary supplementation of TRP significantly augmented weight gain percentage in stress-exposed groups. Tryptophan supplementation helped in bringing back T3 and T4 levels comparable with control. A significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, Adenosine triphosphatase, blood glucose and serum cortisol was observed in temperature- and salinity-exposed groups fed without TRP-supplemented diets. However, TRP supplementation was found to be effective in restoring the above parameters. The results of these experiments suggest that dietary TRP supplementation augments growth, lowers energy demand and helps in mitigating thermal and salinity stress in L. rohita. PMID:23186225

  9. The sympathetic neuro-melanophore transmission in a fresh-water Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Patil, S; Jain, A K

    1989-01-01

    Adrenaline was effective in aggregating the melanosomes both in innervated as well as denervated melanophores. Isotonic KCl could induce pigment aggregation only in innervated melanophores. Adrenaline- and K+-induced pigment aggregation response in these melanophores was blocked by phentolamine: propranolol failed to do so. It is suggested that the chromatic nerves in the fish, Labeo rohita are adrenergic and via post-synaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, control the melanosome aggregation. PMID:2550366

  10. Apolipoprotein A-I in Labeo rohita: Cloning and functional characterisation reveal its broad spectrum antimicrobial property, and indicate significant role during ectoparasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Amruta; Karan, Sweta; Kar, Banya; Garg, L C; Dixit, A; Sahoo, P K

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the most abundant and multifunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) having a major role in lipid transport and potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. In this study, a complete CDS of 771 bp of Labeo rohita (rohu) ApoA-I (LrApoA-I) encoding a protein of 256 amino acids was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Tissue specific transcription analysis of LrApoA-I revealed its expression in a wide range of tissues, with a very high level of expression in liver and spleen. Ontogenic study of LrApoA-I expression showed presence of transcripts in milt and 3 h post-fertilization onwards in the larvae. The expression kinetics of LrApoA-I was studied upon infection with three different types of pathogens to elucidate its functional significance. Its expression was found to be up-regulated in the anterior kidney of L. rohita post-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Similarly following poly I:C (poly inosinic:cytidylic) stimulation, the transcript levels increased in both the anterior kidney and liver tissues. Significant up-regulation of LrApoA-I expression was observed in skin, mucous, liver and anterior kidney of the fish challenged with the ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Immunomodulatory effect of recombinant LrApoA-I (rApoA-I) produced in Escherichia coli was demonstrated against A. hydrophila challenge in vivo. L. rohita administered with rApoA-I at a dose of 100 μg exhibited significantly higher protection (∼55%) upon challenge with A. hydrophila 12 h post-administration of the protein, in comparison to that observed in control group, along with higher level of expression of immune-related genes. The heightened expression of ApoA-I observed post-infection reflected its involvement in immune responses against a wide range of infections including bacterial, viral as well as parasitic pathogens. Our results also suggest the possibility of using rApoA-I as an immunostimulant, particularly rendering protection

  11. The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

  12. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F−) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686

  13. Scales of freshwater fish Labeo rohita as bioindicators of water pollution in Tung Dhab Drain, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of municipal wastewater on scale morphology of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6, or 35.4%) of municipal wastewater for durations of 15, 30, and 60 d. Recovery experiments were also performed for a duration of 60 d. Scales were extracted after respective exposure periods, cleaned, and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Results showed concentration- and exposure duration-dependent alterations in the morphology of scales. Severe damage was observed at the anterior and posterior portions of scales in the form of lepidontal breakage and uprooting, destructions at the base of circuli and radii along with complete structural loss in the focal region and adjacent circuli and radii, and alterations in structure of tubercles. Data indicate that scales of fish L. rohita may be employed as bioindicators of water pollution and could be incorporated into water monitoring surveillance. PMID:25734766

  14. Role of Bacillus subtilis VSG4-derived biosurfactant in mediating immune responses in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to isolate biosurfactant from CO2-sequestering Bacillus subtilis VSG4 and to evaluate its immunostimulatory effect in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the water-soluble fraction of purified biosurfactant at 50 (S50), 100 (S100), 200 (S200), or 300 (S300) μg mL(-1). Fish injected with PBS served as controls. Various immunological parameters, including immune-related gene expression, were measured at 14, 21, and 28 days post administration (dpa). At 28 dpa, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded up to 14 days. Among the immune parameters tested, lysozyme levels (36.32 ± 1.79 U mL(-1)), alternative complement pathway activity (76.26 ± 2.18 U mL(-1)), phagocytic activity (32.18 ± 0.67%), and serum bactericidal activity (73.2 ± 4.7%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the S200 group at 21 dpa than in the controls. Respiratory burst activity (0.386 ± 0.008 OD630nm) was the highest in the S200 group at 28 dpa. Of the immune-related genes examined, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were significantly down-regulated in the S200 and S300 groups. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) as well as IKB-α was higher (P < 0.05) in the S100‒S300 groups at 21 dpa. The expression of NF-κB p65, IKK-β, MAPKp38, and Myd88 was down-regulated in the treated groups when compared to the controls. Fish in the S200 group exhibited the highest post-challenge relative survival rate (67.88%). Collectively, these results suggest that secondary metabolite (biosurfactant) isolated from B. subtilis VSG4 at 200 μg mL(-1) can positively influence immune responses, enhance disease resistance, and stimulate immune-related gene expression in L. rohita. PMID:27079425

  15. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3% oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754

  17. Effect of arsenic and chromium on the serum amino-transferases activity in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Prabhath, N Arun; Raghavender, M; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661

  18. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Arun Prabhath, N.; Raghavender, M.; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661

  19. FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

  20. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  1. Efficacy of water hyacinth compost in nursery ponds for larval rearing of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Sahu, A K; Sahoo, S K; Giri, S S

    2002-12-01

    The use of water hyacinth compost as manure in nursery ponds for larval rearing of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita was studied. Better performance with regard to growth and survivability of the larvae was recorded in the ponds treated with water hyacinth compost (Group A) than in either the ponds treated with inorganic fertilizers (Group B) or the ponds where no treatment was applied (Group C). The average percentages of survival in Groups A, B and C were 14.3, 11.2 and 5.0, respectively. Thus about 186% increase in the survivability was recorded in the ponds treated with water hyacinth compost (P < 0.01), whereas the increase was about 124% in the ponds treated with only inorganic fertilizers, when compared with the ponds which were without any treatment. PMID:12365499

  2. Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP), as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet), on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA) were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P < 0.05) in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) was also downregulated (P < 0.5) after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival) compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita. PMID:26649325

  3. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita--towards to identify novel probiotics against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic characterization and optimization of Pb(II) biosorption by fish (Labeo rohita) scales.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Raziya; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar

    2008-08-15

    The present study reports the use of locally available fish (Labeo rohita) scales for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption (196.8 mg g(-1)) occurred at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption was found to be pH, dose, initial metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed dependent while particle size and temperature independent. Experimental data of Pb(II) biosorption onto fish scales fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model in comparison to the model of Langmuir. The fast adsorption process in first 30 min followed by subsequent slow adsorption rate was suitably described by pseudo-second order model. In addition, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical pretreatments on surface properties of fish scales by the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis. Physical pretreatments resulted in partial degradation of some functional groups. Alkaline pretreatments of fish scales did not have any significant influence on the nature of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) uptake, while acidic pretreatments resulted in degeneration of the most of functional groups on biosorbent cell wall. FTIR analysis confirmed the involvement of amino, carboxylic, phosphate and carbonyl groups in Pb(II) biosorption by fish scales. PMID:18242826

  5. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  6. Acute effects of hexavalent chromium on survival, oxygen consumption, hematological parameters and some biochemical profiles of the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, S S

    2005-12-01

    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were performed adopting renewal bioassay technique (USEPA, 1975) over a period of 96 h, using different concentrations of potassium dichromate to the fish and the 96 h LC[50] value was found to be 111.45 mg/l (Cr(+6) as 39.40 mg/l). ANOVA results showed that the normal respiratory activity of the fish was significantly affected and there is a depression in the metabolic rate at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure. The metal also induced significant decrease (p<0.001) in the hematological parameters of the fish like total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percent and absolute value Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) both at the end of 24h and 96 h exposure indicating anemia. Appreciable decline in the biochemical profiles such as total glycogen, total lipids and total protein contents of the fish was also observed. However, the decrease in protein content was significant only at the end of 96 h. This study reflects the extent of the toxic effects of hexavalent chromium and the metal induced cumulative deleterious effects at various functional levels in the widely consumed freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. PMID:16819101

  7. Bioconcentration of zinc and its effect on the biochemical constituents of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Nishanth, T.; Renju, V. B.

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeo rohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of β-sheet structure.

  8. In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

  9. Molecular identification of a new myxozoan, Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting scales of Labeo rohita Hamilton in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection. PMID:27330981

  10. Isolation of potential probiotic Bacillus spp. and assessment of their subcellular components to induce immune responses in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974

  11. Microbial levan in the diet of Labeo rohita Hamilton juveniles: effect on non-specific immunity and histopathological changes after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Dalvi, R; Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S C

    2008-09-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the immuno-protective effect of microbial levan on Labeo rohita juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Six purified diets were prepared with different levels of microbial levan: control (no levan), T1 (Basal + 0.25%), T2 (Basal + 0.50%), T3 (Basal + 0.75%), T4 (Basal + 1%) and T5 (Basal + 1.25%), fed to six groups of fish in triplicate. Among the treatment groups the haemoglobin content and total leucocyte count were increased with a dietary supplementation of levan at 1% or more. An increasing trend for total erythrocyte count was observed with increasing level of dietary levan. Lower levan-supplemented groups showed a higher albumin/globulin ratio. As the levan supplementation was increased, there was a gradual increase in serum lysozyme activity and respiratory burst activity [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay] reduction values. The highest lysozyme activity and NBT were observed in the T5 group although this was similar to the T4 group (P > 0.05). No significant histo-architectural changes were associated with dietary levan levels. After challenge with A. hydrophila, moderately degenerated hepatocytes, oedema and leucocytic infiltration in parenchymatous tissues, and extensive haemorrhage and haemosiderosis in the kidney were observed in the control group. However, the T5 group supplemented with 1.25% levan showed infiltrating leucocytes in the liver while the kidney showed only moderate degeneration of renal tubules. The relative survival per cent of juveniles after challenge with A. hydrophila was the highest in the T5 group followed by T4. This suggests that microbial levan at 1.25% can be used as dietary immunostimulant for L. rohita juveniles. PMID:18786027

  12. Mitigation of immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary gelatinized starch in Labeo rohita fingerlings by elevation of rearing temperature within optimum range.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shivendra; Sahu, N P; Gal, Denes

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the strategy to mitigate the immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of gelatinized starch in fingerling of Labeo rohita. Fingerlings were either maintained at ambient water temperature (26 °C) or exposed to 32 °C for one week and then subjected to 26 °C for four weeks. Both groups were fed with isoproteinous (30% crude protein) diets containing gelatinized (G) or non-gelatinized (NG) starch. After 5 weeks of feeding trial, fingerlings were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. Serum cortisol and glucose content was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in G starch fed group and decreased with the increase in temperature from 26 to 32 °C, which was consistent for next four week after decrease in temperature from 32 to 26 °C. Lower respiratory burst activity and serum total protein and globulin content in G starch fed group at 26 °C significantly (p < 0.05) increased after elevation of temperature from 26 to 32 °C and levelled off to NG starch fed group. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of G starch fed group was significantly higher in group reared at 32 °C compared to 26 °C. After challenge, fish fed G starch showed lower survival rate than that of fish fed NG starch. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32 °C) for one week significantly increased the survival rate of G starch fed group and levelled off to NG starch fed group. The results of this study indicated that dietary G starch may cause metabolic stress of fingerling L. rohita, as might consequently lead to the decrease antioxidant abilities, depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32 °C) for one week mitigate immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary G starch. PMID:26475365

  13. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. PMID:26327113

  14. Pinocembrin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in Labeo rohita macrophages via the suppression of the NF-κB signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-09-01

    Pinocembrin is a flavonoid that has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of pinocembrin in a fish cell line, we investigated its ability to regulate the inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS (1 μg mL(-1)) in the presence or absence of pinocembrin. We examined the inhibitory effect of pinocembrin on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of pinocembrin on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of pinocembrin on pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK, JNK, and p38 was analysed by western blot. Pinocembrin inhibited LPS-induced productions of NO and PGE2, and also markedly inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression levels decreased significantly, while IL-10 mRNA expression increased (P < 0.05) with pinocembrin pre-treatment. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that pinocembrin decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. Pinocembrin suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPK in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. Further, pinocembrin significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity via the attenuation of IκBα degradation. Taken together, pinocembrin reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the suppression of ERK and p38

  15. Ecological risk assessment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita: Hematology, ionoregulation and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N

    2015-10-01

    The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms. PMID:26094035

  16. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-01

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

  17. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-15

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945

  18. Colour changes in Labeo rohita (Ham.) due to pigment translocation in melanophores, on exposure to municipal wastewater of Tung Dhab drain, Amritsar, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of municipal wastewater of Tung Dhab drain on morphology of scale melanophores in freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Ham.). Chronic, non-renewal toxicity tests were performed with sub lethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6 and 35.4%) of wastewater for exposure durations of 15, 30 and 60 days. Recovery experiments were also performed for duration of 60 days. The scales were removed, processed and diameters of melanophores were measured using an ocular micrometer. The results showed concentration and duration dependent changes in melanophore morphology (size and dendricity) in experimental fish as compared to control fish. The values of mean melanophore size index (MMSI) varied from 5.37 ± 0.49 (17.7%) to 12.12 ± 0.81 (35.5%) in comparison to control values of 4.32 ± 0.32 and 4.55 ± 0.29 for 15 and 60 days respectively. The recovery experiments suggested that observed dark colouration due to pigment translocation is reversible, even after chronic exposure for 60 days. PMID:25723343

  19. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2015-07-15

    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  20. Effect of guava leaves on the growth performance and cytokine gene expression of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). Among the immune parameters examined, lysozyme levels (79.5 ± 5.1 U mL(-1)), leukocyte phagocytic activity (52 ± 4.3%), and alternative complement pathway activity (ACP) (186.1 ± 8.3 U mL(-1)) were significantly high (P < 0.05) in G2 fed group; there was, however, no significant effect of guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive

  1. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  2. Neuroanatomical localization of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the central nervous system of carp, Labeo rohita during post-embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Palande, Nikhil V; Sinh, Dharmendra P

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemically diffusible molecular messenger playing various roles in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the key enzyme in synthesis of NO. The neuroanatomical distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was studied and developing stages of Labeo rohita such as hatchlings (10-15mm), frys (15-35mm), semi-fingerlings (35-65mm), fingerlings (65-100mm) and adults (350-370mm) were used. In the telencephalon, nitrergic cells were observed in both pallial and subpallial regions along with entopeduncular nucleus suggesting the involvement of NO in the control of sensory functions throughout the development. In the diencephalon, nNOS positive neurons were localized in the nucleus preopticus periventricularis and preopticus parvocellularis throughout development while nucleus preopticus magnocellularis was found immunopositive only in adult specimens who suggest the involvement of NO in the hormonal regulation. nNOS immunoreaction was also noted in suprachaismatic nucleus, habenula, lateral tuberal nucleus, paraventricular organ and anterior division of preglomerular nucleus throughout development. In the mesencephalic region, nNOS immunoreactivity was seen in the optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, nucleus of median longitudinal fascicle and occulomotor nucleus indicate the role of NO in integration of visual inputs and modulates motor control of the eyes and movements. Caudally, in the rhombencephalon, the cerebellum, the nucleus reticularis, the octaval nucleus and the motor nucleus of vagal nerve were nNOS positive during development. nNOS reactive cells and fibers were noted in the spinal motor column, thus suggesting a role of NO in gestation and startle response from early development. PMID:26143285

  3. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg−1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

  4. Effects of intracellular products of Bacillus subtilis VSG1 and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 on cytokine responses in the head kidney macrophages of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-12-01

    The efficiency of intracellular products (ICPs) of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis VSG1 and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 in stimulating cytokine responses in the head kidney (HK) macrophages of Labeo rohita was investigated. The HK macrophages were incubated with ICPs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the responses of cytokine genes, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-1 (IFN-1), and IFN-γ were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-stimulation (hps). Among the proinflammatory cytokines, a strong increase in the gene expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was displayed mainly at 2-6 hps with ICPs, as compared to that of the positive control (LPS) or the negative control (PBS) (P < 0.05). However, COX-2 and NF-κB showed higher expression at 2 and 24 hps, and 6-24 hps with ICPs, respectively. Antiviral cytokines IFN-1 and IFN-γ displayed strong expressions (P < 0.05) at 6-12 hps, and 12-24 hps with ICPs, respectively. Upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was recorded at 6-24 hps with ICPs, as compared to that controls. Expressions of cell-mediated immune factor genes (IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-18) were also significantly upregulated at different time points, except 48 hps, in HK macrophages stimulated with ICPs. Furthermore, enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay) and humoral (lysozyme) immune parameters in stimulated cells confirmed the induction of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the results of this in vitro study indicate that the ICPs of B. subtilis VSG1 or L. plantarum VSG3 have great potential for stimulating the cytokine responses in fish, and are thereby potential immunostimulants to fish. Further studies could be conducted to explore its suitability as an adjuvant vaccine in aquaculture. PMID:26520566

  5. Effects of water borne iron on spawn of Indian major carps (Catla catla (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)).

    PubMed

    Debnath, Mitra; Saha, Ratan Kumar; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Saikia, Dipangka; Saha, Himadri

    2012-12-01

    Effects of water-borne iron on Indian major carps spawn were evaluated in the present study. Ferrous sulphate was used to prepare different test iron concentrations. Mrigal had the lowest 96 h LC(50) value of 0.30 ± 0.06 mg L(-1) while rohu had the highest value of 0.73 ± 0.06 mg L(-1) of iron. Accumulation of iron in mrigal spawn was highest whereas it was lowest in catla. Abnormal behaviour and reduced growth were observed in chronic toxicity. Application factors were calculated to establish acceptable ranges and safe levels. PMID:23052582

  6. Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method

    PubMed Central

    Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha

    2013-01-01

    The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3 M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4°C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse. PMID:23533718

  7. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  8. Establishing targeted carp TLR22 gene disruption via homologous recombination using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in gene editing techniques have not been exploited in farmed fishes. We established a gene targeting technique, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Labeo rohita, a farmed carp (known as rohu). We demonstrated that donor DNA was integrated via homologous recombination (HR) at the site of targeted double-stranded nicks created by CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease. This resulted in the successful disruption of rohu Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene, involved in innate immunity and exclusively present in teleost fishes and amphibians. The null mutant, thus, generated lacked TLR22 mRNA expression. Altogether, this is the first evidence that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a highly efficient tool for targeted gene disruption via HR in teleosts for generating model large-bodied farmed fishes. PMID:27079451

  9. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  10. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India. PMID:25895267

  11. Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

  12. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa. I. Winter survey versus summer survey comparison from Labeo capensis (Smith, 1841) and Labeo umbratus (Smith, 1841) hosts.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-03-01

    Indigenous South African Labeo spp. show promise with regard to development of semi-intensive aquaculture, yet little research on their monogenean fauna has been conducted. Ecological aspects of monogenean fauna of the moggel Labeo umbratus (Smith 1841) and the Orange River mudfish Labeo capensis (Smith 1841), as recorded during both winter and summer sampling surveys, are reported here. Fish were collected using gill nets, euthanized and gills removed and examined to both quantify parasite numbers and distribution on the gills. Results obtained support the hypothesis that gill site preference is not due to active choice for a particular attachment site, but rather a result of water flow over gills during respiration in conjunction with fish behaviour and habitat use. Interaction between individual elements investigated (temperature effects, parasite population dynamics and host population dynamics) may be largely responsible for seasonal differences in infection statistics of monogenean parasites. Such interactions should be investigated in future large scale ecological studies, in combination with experimental studies, to further elucidate these effects. PMID:24570046

  13. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets. PMID:20369287

  14. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie

    2008-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  16. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  17. Integrated circoviral rep-like sequences in the genome of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Enikő; Székely, Csaba; Lőrincz, Márta; Cech, Gábor; Tuboly, Tamás; Singh, Hridaya Shanker; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2013-10-01

    Recently a new group of circoviruses have been detected in tissues of Barbel fish and European catfish in Hungary. In our study circovirus genomes were screened in eight additional fish species for the detection and characterization of circoviruses. Two species of these bore circoviral sequences based on conventional PCR assay targeting the replication-associated protein coding gene fragments. Interestingly, the methods successfully used before failed to amplify other parts of the circular viral genome, suggesting the presence of partial, integrated genetic elements in the genome of the host. The successfully sequenced fragments of the Indian rohu (Labeo rohita) encoded mutations which may cause frameshifts or termination in the coding region described previously in other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses presumed that integration of the viral genetic elements might have progressed concurrently or following the diversification of cyprinid fish. Further studies on the nature of whole circovirus genomes and integrated elements may help to understand their potential role and evolution in different fish species. PMID:23780219

  18. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen of higher thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Adhikari, Basudam; Dhara, Santanu

    2010-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in animal body and widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, its applicability is severely limited due to high cost. Fish processing waste, which otherwise cause serious environmental pollution, is a promising cost effective collagen source. In the present study, collagen was isolated from scales of Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla (Catla). It is first time that these species are used as sources of collagen. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed maximum demineralization achieved after 48h of EDTA treatment of intact scale. The isolated protein was confirmed as collagen by different physico-chemical techniques like FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and CD. Further amino acid analysis corroborates isolation of type I collagen. A major characteristic of obtained collagen was found to have denaturation temperature (T(d)) of 36.5 degrees C, which is promising as an advantage for biomedical application due to closeness in T(d) to mammalian collagen. PMID:20116238

  19. Characterization of mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 genes in wild Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and mapping of natural genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    We characterized mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) 6 and 8 genes in Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and determined genetic variation in wild populations across the natural distribution in Indian rivers. A total of 206 individuals were sampled from 11 riverine sites belonging to distinct geographical locations covering five major river basins. Sequencing of 842 base pairs of ATPase 6/8 revealed 21 haplotypes with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.1250 (River Satluj) to 0.8846 (River Bhagirathi). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data revealed significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.192, p < 0.0001) which was indicative of moderate level of genetic structuring in the wild L. calbasu populations. The patterns of genetic divergence and haplotype network of mtDNA revealed distinct clades present in Indian rivers. The analysis of data demonstrated the potential of ATPase 6/8 genes in determining the genetic diversity and indicated considerable sub-structuring in wild calbasu populations present in different rivers. PMID:25630739

  20. Genetic variation in Labeo fimbriatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) populations as revealed by partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Swain, Subrat Kumar; Bej, Dillip; Das, Sofia Priyadarsani; Sahoo, Lakshman; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Pratap Chandra; Das, Paramananda

    2016-05-01

    Labeo fimbriatus, a medium sized carp is assessed as a commercially important aquaculture species in Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of four Indian riverine populations of L. fimbriatus have been evaluated using partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA. Sequencing and analysis of this gene from 108 individuals defined 7 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.067 to 0.405 and 0.00023 to 0.03231, respectively. The Mahanadi population had the highest π level. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 47.36% of genetic variation contained within population and 53.76% of genetic variation among groups. Pairwise FST analysis indicated that there was little or no genetic differentiation among populations (-0.0018 to 04572) from different geographical regions except Mahanadi population. The Mahanadi population can be considered as a separate stock from rest three riverine populations. Accordingly, the genetic information generated from this study can be implemented while taking decision in formulating base population for the sustainable selective breeding programs of this species. PMID:25329277

  1. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

  2. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176

  3. Distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river and the fish Labeo victorianus in Tanzania and possible risks for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Mataba, Gordian Rocky; Verhaert, Vera; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river. Samples of surface water, sediment and fish were collected up- and downstream of the North Mara Gold Mine (Tanzania) and following trace elements were analysed: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Trace element concentrations in surface water were below or near the detection limit. Regarding the sediments, relative high concentrations of arsenic at all sites and high levels of mercury at a site downstream of the mine where artisanal mining is performed were observed. Trace element concentrations in Ningu fish tissues (Labeo victorianus) were comparable to slightly higher than levels in fishes from unpolluted environments. For none of the measured human health risk by consumption of fish from the Thigithe river is expected when the Tanzanian average amount of 17 g/day is consumed. However, for Hg and As the advised maximum daily consumption of Ningu fish was lower than 100g. As a result fishermen and people living along the shores of the river consuming more fish than the average Tanzanian fish consumption set by the FAO (2005) are possibly at risk. PMID:26780131

  4. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste. PMID:27146546

  5. Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in cultured and wild-caught freshwater fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phan, Van Thi; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-11-01

    Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p < 0.001). The density of FZT metacercariae in fish from canals (0.56 metacercariae/g) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that in fish from ponds (0.03 metacercariae/g). The frequent occurrence of intestinal flukes in all fish types indicates that wild-caught and cultured fish are equally at risk of infection with FZT, particularly in species commonly used in Nam Dinh to prepare raw fish dishes. These results underscore the need for greater awareness of the risk from raw fish dishes among public health agencies and consumers. PMID:20370427

  6. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  7. Variation in susceptibility pattern of fish to Argulus siamensis: Do immune responses of host play a role?

    PubMed

    Kar, Banya; Moussa, Cisse; Mohapatra, Amruta; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar

    2016-05-15

    Branchiuran ectoparasites of the genus Argulus can have extensive damaging effects on cultured fish. There exist no systematic studies that evaluate susceptibility or resistance of various carp species to Argulus sp. and the underlying mechanisms. The present study aimed at identifying the most susceptible and resistant cultured species, studying settlement and survival of parasite on these species, and finally unravelling the variations of immune response in both resistant and susceptible species. Fish from eight species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Carassius auratus, Labeo fimbriatus) were individually challenged with metanauplii of A. siamensis (100 metanauplii/fish) before rearing them in single tank in triplicate for 45 days. Based on the observed parasite load on each species, L. rohita was found to be the most susceptible and C. idella the resistant species. The settlement and survival of the parasite on L. rohita and C. idella was compared at 24, 48, 72 and 96h post experimental infection. Survival was significantly low at 72h onwards in C. idella indicating it is an unsuitable/poorly preferred host for A. siamensis. The inflammatory responses which are known to be related to susceptibility were analysed. Individuals of both the species were exposed to A. siamensis (100 parasites/fish), and after 24h and 3 d, skin samples directly from the attachment site and non-attachment sites were assessed for transcriptomic profiles of selected innate defence genes. Artificial skin abrasion permitted comparisons between abrasion associated injury and louse-associated injury. The inflammatory responses varied significantly between both species indicating their role in determining susceptibility of a host to A. siamensis. The expression of major histocompatibility class II and matrix metalloproteinase 2 was significantly higher in C. idella compared to L. rohita and therefore

  8. Assessment of mosquito larvicidal potency of cyclic lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis strains.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2006-02-01

    In this study, mosquito larvicidal potency of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) secreted by two Bacillus subtilis strains were determined. LC50 of the crude CLPs secreted by B. subtilis DM-03 and DM-04 strains against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus was 120.0+/-5.0 and 300.0+/-8.0mg/l respectively post 24 h of treatment. Physico-chemical factors such as pH of water, incubation temperature, heating and exposure to sunlight hardly influenced the larvicidal potency of these CLPs. Present study provided the evidence that B. subtilis lipopeptides were safe to Indian major carp Labeo rohita, a non-target aquatic organism. These properties of B. subtilis CLPs can be exploited for the formulation of a safer, novel biopesticide for effective control of mosquito larvae. PMID:16316617

  9. Ecotoxicological effects of jute retting on the survival of two freshwater fish and two invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debjit Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2008-04-01

    Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW. PMID:18157635

  10. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2010-04-01

    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  11. Heavy metals in eight edible fish species from two polluted tributaries (Aik and Palkhu) of the River Chenab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Abdul; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2011-12-01

    Concentration of heavy metals (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu)) was determined in the liver, gills, kidneys, and muscles of eight edible fish species (Channa punctata, Cirrhinus reba, Labeo rohita, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus cavasius, Oreochromis niloticus, Puntius sophore, and Wallago attu) from upstream and downstream zones of the Nullah Aik and Palkhu tributaries of the River Chenab located in the Sialkot district known for its tanning industries worldwide. The pattern of metal accumulation in studied organs was in the order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. Liver showed greater metal accumulation, followed by gills, kidneys, and muscles. Accumulation of Pb and Cr was significantly different in organs between upstream and downstream zones. Accumulation was greater in fish species dwelling downstream, indicating impairment of ambient stream water due to untreated discharge of industrial and municipal effluents into studied streams. Highest concentration of Pb and Cr and lowest of Cd was detected in H. fossilis whereas Cu showed higher concentration and Cr lowest concentration in P. sophore. In contrast, lower concentration of Pb and Cu was recorded in M. cavasius, O. niloticus, and W. attu. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Cu were higher in pre-monsoon compared to post-monsoon season. Measured concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in muscles of species such as C. punctata, W. attu, L. rohita, P. sophore, and O. niloticus were above permissible limits of heavy metals for human consumption, indicating potential health risks. Therefore, these fish species from studied locations should be avoided for human diet. PMID:21424780

  12. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  13. First report on fish cysteine as a biomarker of contamination in the River Chenab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Bilal; Sultana, Tayyaba; Sultana, Salma; Mahboob, Shahid; Farooq, Muhammad; Al-Ghanim, Khalid; Nadeem, Shahid

    2016-08-01

    The eastern and southern parts of the Faisalabad city produce considerable quantities of industrial and municipal pollutants, much of which is drained into the River Chenab, reducing the productivity of fauna and flora in the river. This study was aimed to determine whether cysteine is useful as a biomarker of exposure to polluted fresh water. The amino acid profile of fish muscle was analyzed by paper chromatography in Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita from the River Chenab to determine habitat related variations due to the pollution from industrial and domestic sources. C. mrigala showed higher level of metal contamination in muscle tissues for Sn, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cd when compared to L. rohita. Both fish species collected from polluted areas of the river Chenab showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of metals in comparison to upstream and farmed fish. Farmed C. mrigala showed cysteine concentrations in the muscle tissue as 22 ± 1 mg/g dry weight, but concentrations increased to 45 ± 2 mg/g dry weight for fish from a mildly polluted section of the river, and further increased to 83 ± 2 mg/g dry weight in more heavily polluted sections. Cysteine concentration in farmed L. rohita was detected as 28 ± 2 and 25 ± 4 mg/g dry weight, respectively for farmed fish and fish from a mildly polluted section of the river, and then increased to 94 ± 3 mg/g dry weight for fish from highly polluted water. C. mrigala from a mildly polluted area of the river also had higher levels of cysteine in the muscle, along with increases in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine. Elevated concentrations of cysteine seem to be associated with a threat to these fish species in polluted sections of the river, and thus may be used as a biomarker. PMID:27117257

  14. Fish erythrocytes as biomarkers for the toxicity of sublethal doses of an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate poikilocytosis in Labeo rohita (an important food fish) as an early indicator of stress due to an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535). This dye was observed to be very toxic to test fish (96 h LC50 as0.45 mg/L dye). Fish were given short-term (96 h) and subchronic (150 days) exposures to the dye, and poikilocytosis was recorded under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light microscopy helped in identification of micronuclei along with irregularities, notches, blebs, lobes, crenation, clumps, chains, spherocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis in erythrocytes. However, SEM indicated shrinkage, oozing of cytoplasm, and several new abnormal shapes including marginal foldings, discocytes, keratocytes, dacrocytes, degmacytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, protuberances, stomatocytes, drepanocytes, holes in the membrane, stippling/spicules, crescent-shaped cells, triangular cells, and pentagonal cells. Earlier studies speculated changes in the membrane to be responsible for clumping and chaining of erythrocytes, whereas the present SEM study clearly indicates that oozing out of cytoplasm is also responsible for the formation of chains and clumps. This study also shows that erythrocytes exhibit pathological symptoms before the appearance of other external symptoms such as abnormal behavior or mortality of fish. There was a dose- and duration-dependent increase; therefore, poikilocytosis, especially echinocytes, spherocytes, and clumps, can act as a biomarker for the stress caused by azo dyes. PMID:25434363

  15. Evaluation of pollution of Ganga River water using fish as bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

    2016-08-01

    Ganga River, life line of millions of people got heavily polluted due to uncontrolled anthropogenic activities. To monitor the effect of pollution of the river on its aquatic life, a field study was conducted by analyzing the different biomarker enzymes and biochemical parameters in the various tissues (muscles, liver, gills, kidney, brain, and skin) of the Indian major carp Labeo rohita collected from the River Ganga from different study sites of Varanasi district. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and level of lipid peroxidation were found to be higher in the fish collected from the river showing pollutant-induced oxidative stress in the fish. Disturbed health status of the river fish was also manifested by increased activities of aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Concentration of nutritionally important biomolecules (proteins, lipids, and moisture) and energy value were also found to be significantly lower in the tissues of the River fish indicating its decreased nutritional value due to oxidative stress caused by different pollutants. PMID:27370309

  16. Mercury contamination in some marine biota species from Khuzestan shore, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghoob; Saadatmand, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, concentrations of mercury (Hg) were analyzed in some marine biota species (fish, shrimp, and crab) from Khuzestan shore, north part of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The results indicated that concentrations of Hg in the fish and crustacean were different among the species and tissues. Liver in fish and hepatopancreas in crustacean exhibited higher Hg concentration than the other tissues. The highest concentration of Hg was detected in Acanthopagrus latus liver (1.37 µg/g), followed by Labeo rohita (0.87 µg/g), Johnius belangerii (0.79 µg/g), and Barbus grypus (0.69 µg/g), respectively. Also the highest Hg concentrations were detected in shrimp species, Penaeus semisulcatus hepatopancreas (0.95 µg/g), followed by blue crab Portunus pelagicus (0.76 µg/g) and Metapenaues affinis (0.64 µg/g), respectively. The comparison indicated that benthic species were more contaminated than were other pelagic species. The results indicated that highest concentrations of Hg between different stations were detected in Musa estuary. The Hg concentration in all species were low than standards, expect in A. latus and P. semisulcatus collected from Musa estuary (S4). The variation in Hg levels among the species is likely to have resulted from metal bioavailability, changes in tissue composition, habitat,s and locations. PMID:25500758

  17. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage. PMID:24741158

  18. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption. PMID:27386308

  19. Dynamics of toxic heavy metals in different compartments of a highly urbanized closed aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bina; Kumar, Rahul; Rani, Manviri; Agarwal, Tripti

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the dynamics of chromium, nickel, copper and lead among the different components namely water, surface sediments, submerged and free floating macrophytes and fish of the twin manmade lakes, Upper and Lower lakes, of Bhopal (M.P., India). Some basic parameters of water and sediment have also been studied. The basin of the lake system is densely populated and the water is used for various purposes including drinking. Ni and Pb along with nitrate in both lakes are significantly higher than the drinking water quality criteria of USEPA. The concentration of the metals in the sediments is noticeably higher than that present in the adjoining rock, particularly Ni and Pb. There is a significant uptake of metals by the macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata) and fish (Labeo rohita and Oreochromis niloticus) mainly in summer. The fish of Lower lake (O. niloticus) is unfit for human consumption. The data have been statistically treated. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to define the origin of metals and to assess the relationship among the sites. Overall the Lower lake is more polluted than the Upper lake. In aggregate, the lake system is under an environmental stress due to certain practices. PMID:22290427

  20. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata. PMID:21167285

  3. Lipotropes promote immunobiochemical plasticity and protect fish against low-dose pesticide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Muthappa, N A; Gupta, Subodh; Yengkokpam, Sona; Debnath, Dipesh; Kumar, Neeraj; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay B

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of different lipotropes in modulating immunity and biochemical plasticity under conditions of sublethal low-dose pesticide-induced stress in fish. Labeo rohita fish fingerlings were divided in two sets with one set of fish continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan (1/10th of 96-h LC50) for 21 days, the other was unexposed, and both sets of fish were fed with practical diets supplemented with either 2 % lecithin, 0.5 % betaine, or 0.1 % choline and compared against unsupplemented diet. Low-dose endosulfan exposure had adverse effects (P < 0.05/P < 0.01) on hematological profile (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit), serum protein (total protein, albumin, and globulin) and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglyceride), anti-oxidative status (ascorbic acid content of muscle, liver, brain, and kidney and activity of anti-oxidative enzymes: catalase and superoxide dismutase), neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle and brain), immunological attributes (WBC count, albumin to globulin ratio, phagocytic activity, and serum cortisol), and metabolic plasticity as revealed from enzyme activities (muscle lactate dehydrogenase, liver and kidney glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase-G6PDH activity). Dietary lipotropes prevented these effects completely or partially and the effects were lipotrope dependent. Kinetics (maximum velocity value V max, catalytic efficiency and Michaelis constant K m) of G6PDH enzyme from crude extracts of liver and kidney indicated inhibition due to endosulfan but lipotropes could protect enzyme and showed a stabilizing effect. The supplements also helped maintain integrity of histoarchitecture of the hepatocytes in endosulfan-exposed fish to a great extent. Feeding lipotropes to fish reared in endosulfan-free water also improved hematological and serum protein and lipid profiles and were immunostimulatory. In conclusion, dietary lipotropes, especially betaine and

  4. Cross-priming of microsatellite loci in subfamily cyprininae (family Cyprinidae): their utility in finding markers for population genetic analysis in three Indian major carps.

    PubMed

    Masih, Prachi; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Das, Rakhi; Gupta, Arti; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Srivastava, Rohit; Chauhan, U K; Jena, J K; Lal, Kuldeep K

    2014-08-01

    This study is aimed to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and establish their potential for population genetics studies in three carp (family cyprinidae; subfamily cyprininae) species, Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala through use of cyprinid primers. These species have high commercial value and knowledge of genetic variation is important for management of farmed and wild populations. We tested 108 microsatellite primers from 11 species belonging to three different cyprinid subfamilies, Cyprininae, Barbinae and Leuciscinae out of which 63 primers (58.33%) successfully amplified orthologous loci in three focal species. Forty-two loci generated from 29 primers were polymorphic in these three carp species. Sequencing of amplified product confirmed the presence of SSRs in these 42 loci and orthologous nature of the loci. To validate potential of these 42 polymorphic loci in determining the genetic variation, we analyzed 486 samples of three focal species collected from Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems. Results indicated significant genetic variation, with mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 6.80 to 14.40 and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.50 to 0.74 in the three focal species. Highly significant (P < 0.00001) allelic homogeneity values revealed that the identified loci can be efficiently used in population genetics analysis of these carp species. Further, thirty-two loci from 19 primers were useful for genotyping in more than one species. The data from the present study was compiled with cross-species amplification data from previous results on eight species of subfamily cyprininae to compare cross-transferability of microsatellite loci. It was revealed that out of 226 heterologous loci amplified, 152 loci that originated from 77 loci exhibited polymorphism and 45 primers were of multispecies utility, common for 2-7 species. PMID:24792330

  5. Surface microstructural features of scales in relation to toxic stress of Basic Violet-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of the scales of Labeo rohita on exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of Basic Violet-1 (an important textile and hair colorant). The dye induced loosening of the scales and caused breakage and disorganization of lepidonts. Erosion of lepidonts occurred mostly in the fish exposed to 0.20 and 0.40 mg/L dye, during acute exposure and to 0.0225 and 0.045 mg/L dye, during the subchronic exposure. However, lepidonts were sloughed off from their sockets in 0.60 and 0.80 mg/L dye during acute exposure and in 0.09 mg/L dye during the subchronic exposure. Circuli, the base that provides anchorage to the lepidonts, got damaged, and tubercles responsible for coloration of a fish became atrophied with an increase in the duration of exposure. The results of the present investigation clearly indicated that exposure to Basic Violet-1 (BV-1) even at a concentration as low as 0.0225 mg was responsible for deleterious changes in the scale morphology of the test fish after 150 days of exposure. Similar changes were observed in the scales of the dead fish also. It can thus be suggested that this noninvasive technique is very helpful for evaluating the health status of an aquatic body. At the same time, the changes in ultramorphology of scales can act as an early indicator of the stress of very minute doses of dyes and even the scales of a dead fish can act as indicators of the untoward changes that would have occurred in the environment of the fish before death. PMID:26432273

  6. New host record of five Flavobacterium species associated with tropical fresh water farmed fishes from North India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Yellow pigmented, filamentous, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genus Flavobacterium are commonly associated with infections in stressed fish. In this study, inter-species diversity of Flavobacterium was studied in apparently healthy freshwater farmed fishes. For this, ninety one yellow pigmented bacteria were isolated from skin and gill samples (n = 38) of three farmed fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio. Among them, only twelve bacterial isolates (13.18%) were identified as Flavobacterium spp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests, partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, all the 12 isolates were 97.6-100% similar to six different formally described species of genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis grouped these strains into six different clades. Of the 12 isolates, six strains (Fl9S1-6) grouped with F. suncheonense, two strains (Fl6I2, Fl6I3) with F. indicum and the rest four strains (Fl1A1, Fl2G1, Fl3H1 and Fl10T1) clustered with F. aquaticum, F. granuli, F. hercynium and F. terrae, respectively. None of these species except, F. hercynium were previously reported from fish. All the isolated Flavobacterium species possessed the ability of adhesion and biofilm formation to colonize the external surface of healthy fish. The present study is the first record of tropical freshwater farmed fishes as hosts to five environmentally associated species of the Flavobacterium. PMID:26691454

  7. Monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Singh, Akhilesh; Rathore, Gaurav

    2012-12-15

    Serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus (Cb-Ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. Under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, Cb-Ig was composed of a heavy (H) chain (68.7 kDa) and two light (L) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kDa). Purified Cb-Ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated E4 MAb that belonged to IgG1 subclass. In Western blotting, this MAb showed binding to H chain of purified Cb-Ig and putative H chains in reduced sera of C. batrachus, Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. However, no binding was observed with serum protein of Labeo rohita and Channa striata. Cross-reactivity of anti-Cb-Ig MAb was observed with serum of C. batrachus, C. gariepinus and H. fossilis in competitive ELISA. In immunoblotting of non-reduced Cb-Ig with E4 MAb, four bands assumed to be tetrameric, trimeric, dimeric and monomeric form were observed. In flow cytometric analysis of the gated lymphocytes, the number of surface Ig-positive (Ig+) cells in blood, spleen, kidney and thymus of C. batrachus was determined to be 50.1 ± 3.1, 55.1 ± 3.36, 42.4 ± 4.81 and 5.1 ± 0.89%, respectively, using E4 MAb. Ig+ cells were also demonstrated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of spleen, kidney, thymus and smears of blood mononuclear cells in indirect immunoperoxidase test. The developed MAb was employed to detect pathogen-specific immunoglobulins in the sera of C. batrachus immunized with killed Edwardsiella tarda, by an indirect ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can be useful tool in immunological research and assays. PMID:23000018

  8. Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Exogenous Trypsin Biomimics Zymogen-Like Enzyme in Fish Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind R.; Ferosekhan, S.; Kothari, Dushyant C.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare

  9. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  10. Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Pal, Moumita; Ghosh, Santinath; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Ghosh, Mahua

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. The results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of Hg, and approximately 50-84% of Hg was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length (age) was found. Wallago attu possessed the highest amount of organic mercury in their muscle tissues, and it was 0.93 ± 0.61 μg Hg/g of wet weight. Whereas in small-sized fishes Eutropiichthys murius, Puntius sarana, Cirrhinus mrigala, Mystus vittatus or Mystus gulio, and Tilapia mossambicus, it was below the detection limit. Contamination in Catla catla (0.32 ± 0.11), Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (0.26 ± 0.07 μg Hg/g), Chitala chitala (0.25 ± 0.18), Rita rita (0.34 ± 0.14), and Ompok pabda (0.26 ± 0.04) was also above the 0.25 μg Hg/g of wet weight, the limit set by the PFA for the maximum level for consumption of fish exposed to MeHg. Though in Labeo rohita (0.12 ± 0.03), Mastacembelus armatus (0.17 ± 0.02), Pangasius pangasius (0.12 ± 0.16), Bagarius bagarius (0.12 ± 0.01), and Clupisoma garua (0.1 ± 0.01), concentration was below the recommended level, in Lates calcarifer (0.23 ± 0.0) and Mystus aor (0.23 ± 0.1), it was threatening. Interestingly, a low concentration of Hg was found in post-monsoon samples. PMID:21713467

  11. Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

    2015-02-01

    This 3 × 3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 μg/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 μg/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 μg/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 μg/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 μg/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 μg/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 μg/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 μg/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures. PMID:25182443

  13. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. PMID:21429127

  14. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis (Cypriniformes, Barbinae, Acrossocheilus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Shiqi; Du, Zongjun; Xie, Meng; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; He, Tao; Ren, Hongmei; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis collected from the Qingyi River is determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. yunnanensis is a circular molecule of 16,596 bp in length, and all genes showed the typical gene arrangement conforming to the vertebrate consensus. The 13 protein-coding genes of A. yunnanensis and other 21 Barbinae species from 3 genera were used for phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The topology demonstrated the genus Acrossocheilus is relatively close to the Labeo than Garra, the A. yunnanensis may have a common ancestor with A. monticola, where both belong to the non-barred group. PMID:26024134

  16. The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

  17. Physico-chemical aspects of solubility of myosin in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Das, M; Chattoraj, D K

    1989-10-01

    Solubility of fish (Labio rohita) myosin has been studied at varying temperatures in presence of various inorganic salts like NaCl, KCl, NaBr, Na2SO4, KI, and organic solutes like sucrose and urea. The effect of pH on the solubility has also been studied both in absence and presence of NaCl. Thermal denaturation temperatures of myosin in presence of NaCl, KCl, NaBr and Na2SO4 were found to be 40 degrees, 40 degrees, 45 degrees and 50 degrees C respectively. Thermodynamic parameters like changes in standard free energy (delta G degrees), enthalpy (delta H degrees) and entropy (delta S degrees) for precipitation of myosin from solution phase to gel phase have been evaluated and the physico-chemical aspects have been critically discussed. The average delta G degrees for gel formation varied only between -30 and -40 kJ/mole of myosin, although the nature of solutes, temperature and folding state of protein have been grossly altered. A compensation effect has also been exhibited from the linear plot of average values of delta H degrees against T delta S degrees for various solutes. PMID:2628269

  18. Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2012-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area. PMID:21647772

  19. Occurrence of Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Bhowmik, Biplab

    2012-04-01

    Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) μm in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) μm and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) μm in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238

  20. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river. PMID:26339622

  1. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus. PMID:25119364

  2. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  3. Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from

  4. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability in a Massively Perturbed System: The Fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gownaris, Natasha J.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ojwang, William O.; Michener, Robert; Kaufman, Les

    2015-01-01

    Background and Trophic Diversity Study Lake Turkana is an understudied desert lake shared by Kenya and Ethiopia. This system is at the precipice of large-scale changes in ecological function due to climate change and economic development along its major inflowing river, the Omo River. To anticipate response by the fish community to these changes, we quantified trophic diversity for seven ecological disparate species (Alestes baremose, Hydrocynus forskalli, Labeo horie, Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall, and Tilapia zillii) using stable isotopes. Based on their marked morphological differentiation, we postulated that dietary niches of these species would be similar in size but show little overlap. The degree of trophic diversity varied greatly among the species studied, refuting our hypothesis regarding dietary niche size. Oreochromis niloticus and L. niloticus had the highest trophic diversity and significantly larger dietary niches than T. zillii, A. baremose and H. forskalli. Low overlap among the dietary niches of the seven species, with the exception of the synodontid catfish S. schall, is consistent with our second hypothesis. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability Breeding vulnerability was highest among those species with the lowest trophic diversity. We predict that in suffering two strikes against them, A. baremose, H. forskalli, T. zillii, and L. horie will be most affected by the highly altered Lake Turkana ecosystem and that O. niloticus, L. niloticus and S. schall will be least affected. Low vulnerability among O. niloticus and L. niloticus is promising for the future of the lake’s fishery, but the third most important fishery species (L. horie) will be highly vulnerable to impending ecosystem change. T. zillii should be treated as separate from O. niloticus in the fishery given higher sensitivity and a different ecological role. We see potential for expansion of the fishery for S. schall but don’t recommend the development of

  5. Twelve myxosporean species of the family Myxobolidae infecting freshwater fishes of the River Nile, Egypt, with the description of four novel species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; El-Ganainy, Sahar; Ahmed, Manal; Gamal, Shams; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Myxosporidian parasites infecting fish are very dangerous parasites causing severe damage to a large number of economically important fishes especially in aquaculture. A survey of myxosporean parasites infecting four species of fishes from the River Nile in Egypt is conducted. One hundred and ninety-five out of 316 fish specimens with a percentage of 61.7% were found to be naturally infected with these parasites. Light microscopic examination of different tissues revealed the presence of 12 myxosporean species belonging to the family Myxobolidae. Four of the identified species are novel and the other eight species are redescribed. Myxidium sp.nov. a coelozoic species inhabiting the gallbladder of Labeo niloticus with its mature spores float free in bile was detected. These spores possess a fusiform, straight, or slightly crescentic shape with less pointed ends and two equal polar capsules. Three novel histozoic Myxobolus species infecting Oreochromis niloticus were identified. Myxobolus sp(1).nov. is a species inhabiting kidney tissue with ovoid spores exhibiting a small intercapsular appendix. Myxobolus sp(2).nov. and Myxobolus sp(3).nov. recovered from kidney and intestinal tissues. Spores of Myxobolus sp(2).nov. are elliptical in shape with an anterior end wider than posterior one. Their two polar capsules are ovoid to pyriform occupied nearly the first third of the spore body. Spores of Myxobolus sp(3).nov. are broader than long with nearly rounded or ovoid two polar capsules. Eight species of the recovered myxosporean parasites are redescribed, Myxobolus niloticus Fahmy et al., 1971 from pectoral, dorsal, and tail fins of L. niloticus, Henneguya suprabranchiae Landsberg, 1987, and Henneguya branchialis Ashmawy et al., 1989 are recovered from the gills and suprabranchial organ of the catfish Clarias gariepinus, respectively, Myxobolus naffari Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 1998 and Myxobolus imami Ali et al., 2002 are found in the kidney of Barbus bynni and L. niloticus

  6. The fish fauna of Anambra river basin, Nigeria: species abundance and morphometry.

    PubMed

    Odo, Gregory Ejikeme; Didigwu, Nwani Christopher; Eyo, Joseph Effiong

    2009-01-01

    The fish yields of most Nigeria inland waters are generally on the decline for causes that may range from inadequate management of the fisheries to degradation of the water bodies. Sustainable exploitation requires knowledge of the ichthyofaunal composition in the water bodies. We did a survey of fish species in Anambra river basin for 22 months. Fish samples were collected using four different gears -hook and line of size 13, caste nets, gill nets, and cages of mesh sizes of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm each. We recorded 52 fish species belonging to 17 families: 171, 236, and 169 individuals at Ogurugu, Otuocha, and Nsugbe stations respectively. Two families, Characidae, 19.5%, and Mochokidae, 11.8%, constituted the dominant fish families in the river. The dominant fish species were Citherinus citherius, 9.02%, and Alestes nurse, 7.1%. Other fish species with significant abundance were Synodontis clarias 6.9%, Macrolepidotus curvier 5.7%, Labeo coubie 5.4%, Distichodus rostrtus 4.9%, and Schilbe mystus 4.5%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Citharinus citharius dorsal fins 20, anal fins 30, caudal fins 21, pectoral fins, 9 and 8 ventral fins, and Alestes nurse 10 dorsal fins, 14 anal fins, 31 caudal fins, 7 pectoral fins and 6 ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are Citharinus citharius total length 300 mm, standard length 231 mm, head length 69 mm, body length 101 mm, body girth 176 mm, body weight 900 mg. Alestes nurse total length 200, standard length 140 mm, head length 60 mm, body length 80 mm, body girth 120 mm, body weight 400 mg. The most abundant animal utilizing the basin was Ardea cinerea (D3) with 22.2% occurrence (D4) and this was followed by Caprini with 13.51%, and Varanus niloticus, 10.04%. The least abundant animals utilizing basin were Chephalophus rufilatus, and Erythrocebus patas, with 0.58% each of occurrence. PMID:19637699

  7. Organochlorine insecticide residues in African Fauna: 1971-1995.

    PubMed

    Wiktelius, S; Edwards, C A

    1997-01-01

    maximum and mean residues in the various groups of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, residues in the fauna were the greatest for DDT, followed in turn by those of dieldrin, HCH, endosulfan, and endrin, with small amounts of aldrin and toxaphene being found in some animals. There were relatively few reports of OCL residues in terrestrial invertebrates and virtually none in aquatic invertebrates. Only a few reports demonstrated OCL residues in terrestrial vertebrates, although high levels of DDT, dieldrin, and HCH were found in crocodile eggs and large residues of dieldrin occurred in bats, squirrels, and monkeys. Considerable OCL residues were reported in a few species of fish, especially Barbus, Clarias, Hydrocynus, Labeo, Sarotherodon, Epiplatys, and Synodontis. These residues were at levels that could have caused chronic toxicity or behavioral changes. The calculated maximum and mean OCL residues in the various elements of the African fauna until 1995 were compared with those calculated for corresponding faunal groups in Europe and the U.S. from their development and introduction up to 1973. The OCL residues reported in African fauna between 1971 and 1975 tended to be significantly higher overall than those published for Europe and the U.S. In particular, residues of DDT and dieldrin in African birds and their eggs were greater than those that had been incriminated as causing significant eggshell thinning and reproductive failure in European and U.S. aquatic and terrestrial birds up to 1973. Additionally, high DDT and dieldrin residues were reported from some species of African fish at levels that could potentially affect their reproduction, have chronic toxic and behavioral effects, and even drastically affect populations. Holistic case studies on the use of OCLs to control tsetse flies and desert locusts were discussed. OCL levels in trophic levels of fauna associated with Lake Kariba (between Zambia and Zimbabwe) were summarized. (AB