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Iced rohu (Labeorohita) brought from other states of India to Tripura (ROS) was compared with rohu produced locally in Tripura (RTR) by analyzing the microbiological quality characteristics in relation to public health significance. Results showed that the total plate count (TPC) was highest in the gill and intestine (10-10 CFU g) and lowest in the muscle (10-10 CFU g)
The crustacean ectoparasite, Argulus poses one of the major threats to carp culture due to absence of any suitable control measure. The study was undertaken to determine the expression of immune-related genes in three major immunocompetent organs viz., kidney, skin and liver of rohu (Labeorohita) during experimental freshwater lice Argulus siamensis infection. Results showed that the expression of TLR
Two new cell lines, designated RE and CB, were derived from the eye of rohu, Labeorohita, and the brain of catla, Catla catla, respectively. The cell lines were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. The RE cell line was sub-cultured for more than 70 passages and the CB cell line for more than 35 passages. The RE cells are rounded and consist predominantly of epithelial cells. The CB cell line consists of predominantly fibroblastic-like cells. Both cell lines are able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of the cells increased as the foetal bovine serum concentration increased from 2% to 20% at 28 degrees C, with optimum growth at concentrations of 15% or 20% foetal bovine serum. The cells were successfully cryopreserved and revived at different passage levels. The cell lines were not susceptible to four marine fish viruses. Extracellular products from Aeromonas sp. were toxic to the cell lines. When the cells were transfected with plasmid eukaryotic green fluorescent protein (pEGFP [Clontech, Carlsbad, CA, USA]) vector DNA, a significant fluorescent signal was observed suggesting that these cell lines could be a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA from rohu and catla confirmed that the cell lines originated from these fish species. The cell lines were further characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:19236559
Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Chandra, V; Sudhakaran, R; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Babu, V Sarath; Ramesh, B; Hameed, A S Sahul
The crustacean ectoparasite, Argulus poses one of the major threats to carp culture due to absence of any suitable control measure. The study was undertaken to determine the expression of immune-related genes in three major immunocompetent organs viz., kidney, skin and liver of rohu (Labeorohita) during experimental freshwater lice Argulus siamensis infection. Results showed that the expression of TLR 22-like, lysozyme G and ?2-microglobulin genes in kidney was significantly (P ? 0.05) down-regulated in lice-infected fish. On the other hand, no significant difference (P>0.05) in CXCa, lysozyme C, TNF? and complement component 3 (C3) expression was found between uninfected control and different degrees of lice infected fish. In the skin, the expression of TLR 22-like and TNF? genes were significantly up-regulated whereas that of C3 was significantly (P ? 0.05) down-regulated in lice-infected fish with respect to control fish. The expression of CXCa, lysozyme C and transferrin was not detected in the skin samples of fish. In the liver, the expression of CXCa, lysozyme G, ?2-microglobulin and transferrin was significantly (P?0.05) up-regulated in lice-infected fish with respect to control fish whereas expression of C3 was significantly (P ? 0.05) down-regulated in lice-infected fish. The expression of TLR 22-like, lysozyme C, TNF? genes was not detected in the liver samples of fish. This study indicates that majority of the genes showed down-regulation in kidney tissue whereas up-regulation in liver and skin tissues except C3 in Argulus-infected fish. We show that infection with this parasite irrespective of intensity can also result in immune gene expression changes in tissues situated away from the site of parasite attachment and feeding. The information obtained here could be useful towards understanding the susceptibility of rohu to argulosis and mechanisms involved in protection of rohu to ectoparasitic infections, which is causing immense economic losses to freshwater aquaculture sector. PMID:21051150
Determining the genetic structure is essential for developing conservation and stock improvement plans. Four dinucleotide\\u000a microsatellite loci were analysed to reveal population genetic structure of the Indian major carp,Labeorohita collected from three major rivers namely the Halda, the Jamuna, and the Padma in Bangladesh. The four loci were polymorphic\\u000a (P\\u000a 95) in all the populations. The populations varied in
Labeorohita (Ham.) also called rohu is the most important freshwater aquaculture species on the Indian sub continent. Monsoon dependent breeding restricts its seed production beyond season indicating a strong genetic control about which very limited information is available. Additionally, few genomic resources are publicly available for this species. Here we sought to identify reproduction-relevant genes from normalized cDNA libraries of the brain-pituitary-gonad-liver (BPGL-axis) tissues of adult L. rohita collected during post preparatory phase. 6161 random clones sequenced (Sanger-based) from these libraries produced 4642 (75.34%) high-quality sequences. They were assembled into 3631 (78.22%) unique sequences composed of 709 contigs and 2922 singletons. A total of 182 unique sequences were found to be associated with reproduction-related genes, mainly under the GO term categories of reproduction, neuro-peptide hormone activity, hormone and receptor binding, receptor activity, signal transduction, embryonic development, cell-cell signaling, cell death and anti-apoptosis process. Several important reproduction-related genes reported here for the first time in L. rohita are zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, aquaporin-12, spermine oxidase, sperm associated antigen 7, testis expressed 261, progesterone receptor membrane component, Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of 8 known and 8 unknown transcripts during preparatory and post-spawning phase showed increased expression level of most of the transcripts during preparatory phase (except Neuropeptide Y) in comparison to post-spawning phase indicating possible roles in initiation of gonad maturation. Expression of unknown transcripts was also found in prolific breeder common carp and tilapia, but levels of expression were much higher in seasonal breeder rohu. 3631 unique sequences contained 236 (6.49%) putative microsatellites with the AG (28.16%) repeat as the most frequent motif. Twenty loci showed polymorphism in 36 unrelated individuals with allele frequency ranging from 2 to 7 per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.096 to 0.774 whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.109 to 0.801. Identification of 182 important reproduction-related genes and expression pattern of 16 transcripts in preparatory and post-spawning phase along with 20 polymorphic EST-SSRs should be highly useful for the future reproductive molecular studies and selection program in Labeorohita. PMID:23583682
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate or non-specific immunity. Among various types of TLRs, TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, the genetic material or replicative intermediate of many RNA viruses and triggers TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? dependent signalling pathway to induce type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we cloned and characterized full-length TLR3 cDNA in rohu (Labeorohita), that comprised of 2,619 bp nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 873 amino acid with the estimated molecular mass of 98.57 kDa. The constitutive expression of TLR3 gene was detected in all embryonic developmental stages and in various organs/tissues of rohu fingerlings. In vivo tissue specific modulation of TLR3, type I IFN, Mx (myxovirus-resistant protein) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR following intravenous injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic analogue of viral dsRNA. A significant relationship of TLR3 induction, and type I IFN, Mx, IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression were observed in majority of the treated fish tissues, as compared to their control. Together, these data highlight the important role of TLR3 in recognizing dsRNA, and in augmenting the innate immunity in fish in response to viral infections. PMID:23065215
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and is a member of NOD like receptor (NLR) family. It senses a wide range of bacteria and viruses or their products and is involved in innate immune responses. In this report, NOD-2 gene was cloned and characterized from rohu (Labeorohita) which is highly commercially important fish species in the Indian subcontinent. The full length rohu NOD-2 (rNOD-2) cDNA comprised of 3176 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2949 bp encoding a polypeptide of 982 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 109.65 kDa. The rNOD-2 comprised two N-terminal CARD domains (at 4-91 aa and 111-200 aa), one NACHT domain (at 271-441 aa) and seven C-terminal leucine rich repeat (LRR) regions. Phylogenetically, rNOD-2 was closely related to grass carp NOD-2 (gcNOD2) and exhibited significant similarity (94.2%) and identity (88.6%) in their amino acids. Ontogeny analysis of rNOD-2 showed its constitutive expression across the developmental stages, and highlighted the embryonic innate defense system in fish. Tissue specific analysis of rNOD-2 by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed its wide distribution; highest expression was in liver followed by blood. In response to PGN and LTA stimulation, Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda infection, and poly I:C treatment, expression of rNOD-2 and its associated downstream molecules RICK and IFN-? were significantly enhanced in the treated fish compared to control. These findings suggested the key role of NOD-2 in augmenting innate immunity in fish in response to bacterial and viral infection. This study may be helpful for the development of preventive measures against infectious diseases in fish. PMID:21767564
Swain, B; Basu, M; Sahoo, B R; Maiti, N K; Routray, P; Eknath, A E; Samanta, M
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. Among various TLR types, TLR2 is involved in recognizing specific microbial structures such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), zymosan etc., and after binding them it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce various cytokines. In this report, TLR2 gene was cloned and characterized in rohu (Labeorohita), which is highly commercially important fish species in the farming-industry of Indian subcontinent. Full-length rohu TLR2 (rTLR2) cDNA comprised of 2691 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2379 bp encoding a polypeptide of 792 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 90.74 kDa. Structurally, it comprised of one leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) each at N-terminal (LRR-NT; 44-55 aa) and C-terminal (LRR-CT; 574-590 aa), 21 LRRs in between C and N-terminal, one trans-membrane (TM) domain (595-612 aa), and one TIR domain (645-790 aa). Phylogenetically, rohu TLR2 was closely related to common carp and exhibited significant similarity (93.1%) and identity (88.1%) in their amino acids. During embryogenesis, rTLR2 expression was detected as early as ?7 h post fertilization indicating its importance in embryonic innate immune defense system in fish. Basal expression analysis of rTLR2 showed its constitutive expression in all the tissues examined, highest was in the spleen and the lowest was in the eye. Inductive expression of TLR2 was observed following zymosan, PGN and LTA exposure and Streptococcus uberis and Edwardsiella tarda infections. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, in various organs was significantly enhanced by ligands exposure and bacterial infections, and was correlated with inductive expression of TLR2. In vitro studies showed that PGN treatment induced TLR2, MyD88 and TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) expression, NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa B) activation and IL-8 expression. Blocking NF-?B resulted in down-regulation of PGN mediated IL-8 expression indicating the involvement of NF-?B in IL-8 induction. Together, these findings highlighted the important role of TLR2 in immune surveillance of various organs, and in augmenting innate immunity in fish in response to pathogenic invasion. This study will be helpful in developing preventive measures against infectious diseases in fish. PMID:22173272
Single-species groups of fry of the planktivorous, filter-feeding carps (silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, rohuLabeorohita and catla Catla catla) were exposed to the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum to assess if they could detect or ingest unattached bacteria. The results indicate that planktivorous carp fry are able to ingest unattached bacteria and that the numbers ingested increase
Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, a field study was conducted to investigate the hematological\\u000a parameters of wild population of rohu, Labeorohita (Ham). The following aspects were evaluated in blood: hemoglobin content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC)\\u000a count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunomodulator in endotherms. The experiment was carried out to study the immunosuppressive nature of AFB1 in one ectothermic species of Indian major carp. Graded levels (0, 1.25, 5.00mg\\/kg of body weight) of purified AFB1 were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected into rohu (Labeorohita) fingerlings weighing 30–50g, and the fish were observed for a period of
Selection for disease resistance in fish may be performed directly on basis of survival data obtained in controlled challenge trials, or indirectly using information from immunological or molecular markers linked to differential survival. In the present study, several key innate immune parameters were measured in aeromoniasis resistant and susceptible lines of rohuLabeorohita to assess their suitability as immune
P. K. Sahoo; P. R. Rauta; B. R. Mohanty; K. D. Mahapatra; J. N. Saha; M. Rye; A. E. Eknath
A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to delineate the main effect of water soaking of plant ingredients, phytase, cellulase, and their interactions on the growth and digestive enzyme activities of Labeorohita fingerlings. Two basal diets were prepared using water-soaked (S) or unsoaked (US) plant-based ingredients. Feed of US ingredients was supplemented with phytase (U kg(-1)) and cellulase (%) at the level of 0, 0 (C(us)); 500, 0 (T(1)); 0, 0.2 (T(2)); 500, 0.2 (T(3)), and feed of S ingredients at 0, 0 (C(s)); 500, 0 (T(4)); 0, 0.2 (T(5)), and 500, 0.2 (T(6)), respectively. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings were randomly distributed into eight treatments, each with three replicates. Soaking of the ingredients for 24 h significantly reduced the tannin content. However, feeding of S diets did not improve the fish growth. Highest performance was recorded in the T(3) group. A significant interaction between dietary phytase and cellulase was observed for apparent net protein utilization. Tissue crude protein, ether extract, and ash content of the fingerlings were observed highest in the T(3) group. Activities of amylase, protease, and lipase were recorded highest in the T(3) group. Results suggested that soaking of plant-based ingredients reduces tannin content; however, growth and digestive enzyme activities of group fed soaked diet were not improved, possibly due to leaching of soluble nutrients. Probably, a shorter duration soaking may be effective in reducing tannin content and avoiding nutrients leaching. PMID:21611720
Xavier, Biji; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Jain, K K; Misra, Sougat; Dalvi, R S; Baruah, Kartik
The effect of water pH on certain haematological parameters was studied in the three species of Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeorohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) for 21 days by subjecting fingerlings of these fishes to acidic (pH 5.5, 6.5) and alkaline (pH 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0) water, control groups were maintained at neutral pH. A change
The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf) gene containing an evolutionary conserved BTB (bric-a-brac/tramtrack/broad complex) domain plays a key role in self-renewal of mammalian spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) via recruiting transcriptional co-repressors. Little is known about the function of Plzf in vertebrate, especially in fish species. To gain better understanding of its role in fishes, we have cloned Plzf from the testis of Labeorohita (rohu), a commercially important freshwater carp. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2004bp translatable to 667 amino acids (aa) containing a conserved N-terminal BTB domain and C-terminal C(2)H(2)-zinc finger motifs. L. rohita Plzf, which is phylogenetically related to Danio rerio counterpart, abundantly expressed in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). A three-dimensional (3D) model of BTB domain of Plzf protein was constructed by homology modeling approach. Molecular docking on this 3D structure established a homo-dimer between two BTB domains creating a charged pocket containing conserved aa residues: L33, C34, D35 and R49. Thus, Plzf of SSC is structurally and possibly functionally conserved. The conserved aa residues in the cleft resulting from Plzf BTB self-association are likely to be the binding platform for interaction with recruited co-repressor peptides. The identified Plzf could be the first step towards exploring its role in rohu SSC behavior. PMID:21798210
On examining 144 specimens of Labeorohita (Ham.) for parasites occurrence; as many as 34 fish were found positive to harbour ciliophorans (Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifilis Fouquet, 1876), monogeneans (Haplocleidus vachi Tripathi, 1959 and Dactylogyrus glossogobii Jain, 1960), trematode (Allocreadium mahaseri Pandey, 1939), nematode (Camallanus (Zeylanema) anabantis Pearse, 1933) and acanthocephalan (Sachalinorhynchus sp). Highest prevalence was shown by platyhelminthes
Rohu gill cell line (LRG) was established from gill tissue of Indian major carp (Labeorohita), a freshwater fish cultivated in India. The cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10 % foetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been sub-cultured more than 85 passages over a period of 2 years. The LRG cell line consists of both epithelial and fibroblastic-like cells. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 22 to 32 °C, the optimum temperature being 28 °C. The growth rate of gill cells increased as the FBS proportion increased from 2 to 20 % at 28 °C. The plating efficiency was also high (34.37 %). The viability of the LRG cell line was 70-80 % after 6 months of storage in liquid nitrogen. The karyotype analysis revealed a diploid count of 50 chromosomes. The gill cells of rohu were successfully transfected with pEGFP-N1. Amplification of mitochondrial Cox1 gene using primers specific to L. rohita confirmed the origin of this cell line from L. rohita. The cytotoxicity of malathion was assessed in LRG cell line using multiple endpoints such as 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Acute toxicity assay on fish was conducted by exposing L. rohita for 96 h to malathion under static conditions. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with r (2)?=?0.946-0.990 for all combinations between endpoints employed. Linear correlations between each in vitro effective concentration 50 and the in vivo lethal concentration 50 data were highly significant. PMID:23224722
Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Sundar Raj, N; Madan, N; Sahul Hameed, A S
Two yolk proteins (YP1 and YP2) from the ovaries of Indian major carp, Labeorohita were isolated by gel filtration and partially\\u000a characterized by the use of hydroxyapatite ultrogel column in conjunction with native PAGE. On native PAGE YP1 gave a single\\u000a protein band, whereas YP2 of gel filtration revealed the contamination of YP1, which was removed by adsorption chromatography
The present study assessed the use of Bacillus subtilis in fish as a probiotic. The bacterium was administered orally at three different doses 0.5×107 (T2), 1×107 (T3), 1.5×107 (T4) cfu\\/g feed to Labeorohita for two weeks. The positive control group (T1) and negative control group (T5,) were fed feed without B. subtilis for the same period. On the 15th
Rajesh Kumar; S. C. Mukherjee; Ritesh Ranjan; S. K. Nayak
The efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin via oral and parenteral routes and their prophylactic effects against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeorohita was studied. Doramectin and ivermectin were fed once to L. rohita sub-adults naturally infested with A. siamensis parasites at graded levels of 1000, 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight and 500, 300 and 200 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The mean time of clearance of parasites was 24 ± 0.149 h for 1000 and 24 ± 0.210 h for 750 ?g of doramectin/kg body weight fish, however, the dose of 1,000 ?g resulted in adverse reactions and mortality in fish. A single dose of 500?g/kg body weight of ivermectin also cleared the infestation in 24 ± 0.258 h. In second experiment, L. rohita naturally infested with A. siamensis were administered with doramectin and ivermectin intramuscularly as single dose of 200, 150 and 100 ?g/kg body weight. Both doramectin and ivermectin at 200 ?g/kg body weight cleared the infestation in 4 ± 0.149 and 4 ± 0.258 h respectively, however, those resulted in adverse reactions viz., black pigmentation, lethargy and poor appetite in fish. The mean time of clearance of parasites from fish was 6 ± 0.210 and 12 ± 0.314 h for doramectin and ivermectin, respectively, when given at a lower dose of 150 ?g/kg body weight. The prophylactic effects of both drugs were also evaluated by challenging naïve rohu with metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis after feeding the fish single dose of the doramectin and ivermectin at 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of both the drugs were found to last for 17-18 days. The effects of bath treatment with doramectin and ivermectin at different concentrations on adult A. siamensis and metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis were also evaluated. The results suggested that ivermectin could act more rapidly compared to doramectin. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin and ivermectin upon their administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impacts of their usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of these drugs for control of parasitic infections. PMID:22673107
Hemaprasanth, K P; Kar, Banya; Garnayak, S K; Mohanty, J; Jena, J K; Sahoo, P K
This study examined the effect of lethal (4.5 ?g/l) and sublethal (0.45 ?g/l) malathion levels on oxidative stress responses of the freshwater edible fish, Labeorohita. Fish were exposed to lethal (1-4 days) and sublethal (1, 5, 10, and 15 days) periods. In the present study, catalase and protease activity, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, and free amino acids levels increased in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of fish exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion except protein content. Time- and concentration-dependent induction/reduction of the above parameters by lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion was observed in the tissues (the gill, liver, and kidney) of L. rohita. Thus, the results clearly infer oxidative damage and decline in antioxidant defense due to malathion-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23836428
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an antigen/protein delivery was explored in a fish model Labeorohita H. S-layer protein (of Aeromonas hydrophila) adsorbed on nano sized calcium phosphate particles elicited both innate and adaptive immune parameters which persisted up to 63 days of post immunization through parenteral immunization and gave cross protections. PMID:21889128
Laboratory evaluations were made to assess the toxicological and biochemical effect of cypermethrin on fingerlings of common edible freshwater culture carp (Labeorohita). There was a significant negative (P < 0.05) correlation observed between effective doses of cypermethrin and exposure periods; that is, LC?? values decreased from 0.323??g/L (6?h) to ?>?0.278??g/L (12?h), ?>?0.240??g/L (18?h) and >0.205??g/L (24?h). Exposure to sublethal doses of cypermethrin for 24?h and 96?h exposure period caused significant (P < 0.05) time- and dose-dependent alterations in total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, and lactate level and in the activity of enzyme protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases, acetylcholinesterase, and cytochrome oxidase in liver and muscle tissues of fish. Thus, cypermethrin has potent piscicidal activity against fingerlings of fish Labeorohita and adversely affects their behavioural patterns, shifting aerobic pathway of fish respiration towards anaerobic pathway and also inhibiting energy production by suppressing ATP synthesis. PMID:22666103
In lower eukaryotes-like fish, innate immunity contributed by various pattern recognition receptor (PRR) plays an essential role in protection against diseases. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic PRR that recognizes MDP (muramyl dipeptide) of the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as ligand and activates signalling to induce innate immunity. Hypothesizing a similar NOD2 signalling pathway of higher eukaryotes, the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of rohu (Labeorohita) was stimulated with MDP. The data of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed MDP-mediated inductive expression of NOD2 and its down-stream molecule RICK/RIP2 (receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-2). This observation suggested the existence of MDP-binding sites in rohu NOD2 (rNOD2). To investigate it, 3D model of ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of rNOD2 (rNOD2-LRR) was constructed following ab initio and threading approaches in I-TASSER web server. Structural refinement of the model was performed by energy minimization, and MD (molecular dynamics) simulation was performed in GROMACS (Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulations). The refined model of rNOD2-LRR was validated through SAVES, ProSA, ProQ, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers, and molecular docking with MDP was carried out in GOLD 4.1. The result of docking identified LRR3-7 comprising Lys820, Phe821, Asn822, Arg847, Gly849, Trp877, Trp901 and Trp931 as MDP-binding critical amino acids in rNOD2. This is the first study in fish to provide an insight into the 3D structure of NOD2-LRR region and its important motifs that are expected to be engaged in MDP binding and innate immunity. PMID:23255217
Cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (c-AAT) was purified up to 203- and 120-fold, from the liver of two freshwater teleosts Clarias batrachus (air-breathing, carnivorous) and Labeorohita (water-breathing, herbivorous), respectively. The enzyme from both fish showed similar elution profiles on a DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange column. SDS-PAGE of purified enzymes revealed two subunits of 54 and 56 kDa, in both fish. The apparent
Anand S. Srivastava; Ichiro Oohara; Tohru Suzuki; Steve Shenouda; Surender N. Singh; Dharam P. Chauhan; Ewa Carrier
Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world. Despite its use, the toxicity of OTC to freshwater fish has been scarcely investigated. In this study, Labeorohita were exposed to different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mg L(-1)) of OTC. Based on the survival-to-mortality ratio, an 80 mg L(-1) concentration was selected for sublethal toxicity analysis. Fish were exposed to the above-mentioned concentration for a period of 25 days, during which fish were killed at the end of every 5 days to analyse certain hematological and enzymological parameters. During the exposure period, a mixed trend was observed in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cellular Hb, and mean cellular Hb concentration, whereas decreased red blood cell count and increased white blood cell was noted. A biphasic trend was observed in the enzymatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the vital organs (gill, liver and muscle) of fish. The alterations of these parameters lead to the conclusion that these parameters may be used as biomarkers in monitoring OTC toxicity in aquaculture and fisheries farms. PMID:23192588
Ambili, T R; Saravanan, M; Ramesh, M; Abhijith, D B; Poopal, R K
Six different types of fish patties were prepared from de-boned meat of three weight groups (250 500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) of an Indian major carp, Labeorohita, using two extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). The weight of the fish and the type of the extender affected the nutritional quality of the patties. Cooking lowered the crude protein but increased the total lipid, total soluble sugars, and contents of the patties. Cooking yield increased with an increase in the weight of the fish. Similarly, the use of corn flour as the extender resulted in a higher cooking yield and higher fat retention capacity than boiled potato. The type of extender had no effect on the water-holding capacity of the patties. The weight of the fish and the extender had no significant effect on appearance, colour, flavour, taste, and the overall acceptability of the product. However, the patties prepared from 250-500 g and 501-750 g weight groups with corn flour as the extender had a significantly higher score for their texture. The total plate count suggested that the patties were safe (from microbiological point of view) up to a storage period of 80 days. PMID:17852491
Sehgal, H S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, G K; Thind, S S
The effect of mercuric chloride on the histo-morphology and bioaccumulation in the kidney of an Indian major carp, Labeorohita (Hamilton) were examined after exposing the fish (15-20 cm) to three sublethal concentrations (0.033, 0.066 and 0.132 mg/L) of HgCl(2) for 30 days. Mercury deposition in kidney tissues had increased significantly with dose and exposure duration dependant manner. Several histological changes were noted in the kidney of all treated groups in compare to control group. PMID:22810019
A five-week experiment was conducted to delineate stress-mitigating effects of three different methyl donors in Labeorohita fingerlings subjected to endosulfan toxicity. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric feed were prepared with and without supplementation of methyl donors. The feed were basal or control diet (i.e., without methyl donor supplementation), feed supplemented with choline, feed supplemented with betaine and feed supplemented with lecithin. Two hundred and twenty-five fishes were distributed randomly in five treatment groups each with three replicates. The experimental setup were normal water (without endosulfan) and fed with control diet (control group), endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (T?), endosulfan-treated water and fed with choline supplemented feed (T?), endosulfan-treated water and fed with betaine supplemented feed (T?) and endosulfan-treated water and fed with lecithin-supplemented feed (T?). The level of endosulfan in endosulfan treated water was maintained at the level of 1/10 of LC??, that is, 0.2 ppb. During the experiment, growth performances, metabolic enzyme activity and histological examination were done to assess the effect of treatments. The growth performance (percentage weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio) and nutrient digestibility were significantly different (P<0.01) in lecithin, betaine and choline fed group when compared to endosulfan-exposed group fed with basal diet. The liver LDH and MDH activity were significantly (P<0.01) improved in the groups fed with methyl donor supplemented diet. The liver AST and ALT, brain AChE and muscle ALT did not change with supplementation in the diet, but muscle ALT and G6PDH significantly (P<0.01) changed with supplementation. The gill and liver ATPase and intestinal ALP were significantly (P<0.01) noticeably changed in supplemented group. After endosulfan exposure, histopathology alter like slight large vacuolation in hepatocyte and lipoid vacuole were observed and with supplementation normal appearance of liver were observed. The chromosome aberration (karyotype) was observed in endosulfan-exposed group. The result obtained in present study concluded that inclusion of methyl donors, particularly lecithin and betaine, in feed as nutritional supplements has a potential stress-mitigating effect in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:22160664
Kumar, Neeraj; Jadhao, S B; Chandan, N K; Kumar, Kundan; Jha, A K; Bhushan, S; Kumar, Saurav; Rana, R S
Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeorohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.
A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeorohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita.
Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeorohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in ?-helical and random coil structures and an increase in ?-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.
A feeding trail of 60 days was conducted for delineating the effect of dietary aflatoxin (AFB1) with or without supplementation of a mixture of mould inhibitor (0.25% clove oil + 0.32% sodium propionate) on haematology, respiratory burst activity and histology of Labeorohita fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fishes (avg. wt. 1.48-1.54 g) were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups. Eight experimental diets with four different levels of aflatoxin (0, 10, 20 and 40 ppb) with or without mould inhibitor were prepared. Haematological parameters like total serum protein, albumin, globulin and A:G ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced with increasing levels of aflatoxin in the diet. However, supplementation of mould inhibitor showed enhanced values when compared to non-supplemented counter parts suggesting ameliorating effects of mould inhibitor on aflatoxin. Total leucocyte count was higher in aflatoxin-treated groups. Histological observations were complementary to haematological parameters. Respiratory burst activity was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in higher aflatoxin-treated groups but not affected significantly (P > 0.05) due to inclusion of inhibitor alone and/or interaction of aflatoxin level and inhibitor in the diet. From this study, it was concluded that up to 20 ppb aflatoxin level in the diet the haemato-immunological parameters are protected. PMID:20803068
Mohapatra, S; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Prusty, A K; Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Shivendra
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor recognizes various pattern-associated structures of microbes through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and activates signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. This report describes the activation of NOD1 receptor signaling by gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (or ?-D-Glu-mDAP [iE-DAP]) in a commercially important fish species, rohu (Labeorohita). It also described critical motifs in the NOD1-LRR domain that could be involved in binding iE-DAP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The activation of NOD1 receptor signaling was studied by injecting iE-DAP, and analysis of tissue samples for NOD1 and receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase (RICK) expression was done by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. To identify ligand-binding motifs in NOD1, the 3D model of NOD1-LRR was generated, followed by a 6-ns molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular docking of LPS with NOD1-LRR was executed at the Hex and PatchDock servers, and iE-DAP and poly I:C in the AutoDock 4.2, FlexX 2.1, Glide 5.5, and GOLD 4.1 programs. The results of qRT-PCR revealed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of NOD1 and RICK expression. Molecular docking revealed that the amino acid residues at LRR1-2, LRR3-7, and LRR8-9 could be involved in poly I:C, LPS, and iE-DAP binding, respectively. In fish, this is the first report describing the 3D structure of NOD1-LRR and its critical ligand-binding motifs. PMID:23657901
The effects of dietary Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG-2 supplementation on innate immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in Labeorohita. Fish were fed for 60 days with control diet or 3 experimental diets containing P. aeruginosa VSG-2 at 10(5), 10(7), and 10(9) cfu g(-l), respectively. Various innate immune parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila 60 days post-feeding and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-infection. Dietary supplementation of P. aeruginosa VSG-2 significantly increased serum lysozyme and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst activity in head kidney macrophages of L. rohita throughout the experimental period. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased after 60 days in the groups fed diets containing 10(7) and 10(9) cfu g(-1) P aeruginosa. Serum IgM levels were significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the control group after 30 days of feeding; however, the opposite result was observed at 60 days. Moreover, fish fed diets containing 10(7) and 10(9) cfu g(-1)P. aeruginosa had significantly higher post-challenge survival rates against A. hydrophila infection. Further, P. aeruginosa VSG-2 was found to be safe for mammals. These results indicate that dietary P. aeruginosa VSG-2 supplementation at 10(7) cfu g(-1) can effectively improve innate immunity and disease resistance in L. rohita. PMID:22465361
In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeorohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of ?-sheet structure.
The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeorohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in NBT levels, myeloperoxidase activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antiprotease activity when compared to the control group. The weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of fishes fed with andrographolide were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) differed compared with control. Dietary andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher RPS (74.06%) against A. hydrophila infection than control. The results revealed that andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:23973382
Nitric oxide (NO) is well demonstrated to act as a neuronal messenger in neurotransmission in vertebrate animals. We are for the first time reporting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the Mauthner cells (MC) of the carp, Labeorohita brain during post-embryonic development. The NADPH-d and nNOS-positive MC were seen intensely labeled in all young stages on either side of the ventricle in the hindbrain. In adult, these cells were moderately stained with NADPH-d but not with nNOS. Further, the morphometeric analysis of the staining intensities showed the decrease in the optical densities of the MC as the development progresses. The gradual increase in cell diameter was evident from hatchling to adult (18-22 ?m to 98-106 ?m), while the nuclear diameter remained nearly unchanged (10-12 ?m to 18-20 ?m). In fishes, MC are known to be involved in the control of startle response. The NADPH-d enzymatic activity seen in the MC of early development may play an important role to activate the startle response to fast escape from the predators and unfavorable environmental conditions to survive during early phase of life. As nNOS is absent in the adult MC, we assume that the adult MC express a different splice variant of nNOS which is detected by NADPH-d, but not by the currently used antibody. Hence, the presence of nNOS (enzyme required for the synthesis of NO) in the MC suggests the involvement of NO in neurotransmission to generate the startle response rapidly. Furthermore, we also suggest that NO may be involved in other aspects such as pathway finding, neuronal cell migration, signaling and refinement during the development of the brain of L. rohita. PMID:21132510
Different forms of C-reactive proteins (CRPs) have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the sera of Labeorohita confined in freshwater (CRP(N)) and water polluted with nonlethal doses of cadmium (CRP(Cd)) or mercury (CRP(Hg)). CRP(N), CRP(Cd), and CRP(Hg) show remarkable differences in their electrophoretic mobility but exhibit strong immunological cross reactivity. All these CRPs exhibit variable agglutination properties with erythrocytes from diverse sources in presence of Ca+2, which could be inhibited by a variety of sugars showing specificity for galactose. Inhibition results show that the potency of galactose as an inhibitor increases about 4 fold in the process of transformation of CRP(N) to CRP(Cd) and CRP(Hg). In case of CRP(N), Gal beta(1 --> 1) Gal and oNO2 phenyl beta-Gal show highest inhibitory potency while oNO2-phenyl beta-Gal is the most potent inhibitor for CRP(Cd) and CRP(Hg) but the potency of Gal beta(1 --> 1) Gal reduced drastically. 6-phosphate D-Gal and stachyose are 20 times weaker inhibitors than D-Gal for induced CRP mediated agglutination, in contrast, these sugars are only 6 times weaker for CRP(N). Dissociation constants of the binding of CRP(N) with phosphoryl choline (PC) and galactose are about 9 mM and PC binding causes a change in the alpha and beta conformations of these CRPs. PMID:11003559
Different forms of C-reactive proteins have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by calcium dependent affinity chromatography on a phosphorylcholine (PC)-Sepharose column from the sera of Labeorohita confined in fresh water (CRP(N)) and water polluted with sublethal doses of cadmium (CRP(Cd)), mercury (CRP(Hg)), phenol (CRP(Ph)), and hexachlorocyclohexane (CRP(Hx)), which elevate serum CRP levels by three- to fivefold. On native PAGE, induced forms of CRP show remarkable differences in their electrophoteric mobility indicating differences in molecular mass, charge, and/or shape. Kinetic studies reveal the appearance of a pollutant specific molecular variant, which replaces the normal form at the peak of induction. Studies on amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, isoelectric focusing, binding to PC, C-polysaccharide (CPS) & lectins, and secondary structures of the purified CRPs, indicate, that, they differ significantly from each other, but grossly share the common properties of a CRP, including pentraxin, structure revealed by electron microscopy. PMID:11747291
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeorohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5% of the diet). PMID:23504103
A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase), and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeorohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles (2.53 +/- 0.04 g) were randomly distributed into six treatment groups each with three replicates. Six semi-purified diets containing NG and G cornstarch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100) were prepared viz., T1 (100% NG, 0% G starch), T2 (80% NG, 20% G starch), T3 (60% NG, 40% G starch), T4 (40% NG, 60% G starch), T5 (20% NG, 80% G starch), and T6 (0% NG, 100% G starch). Dietary G:NG starch ratio had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the glycolytic enzymes, the highest activities were observed in the T6 group and lowest in the T1 group. On the contrary, the gluconeogenic enzymes, the glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase activities in the organs, liver and kidney were recorded highest in the T1 group and lowest in the T6 group. The liver aspartate amino transferase activity showed an increasing trend with the decrease in the dietary G level. However, the muscle aspartate amino transferase activity was not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by the type of dietary starch. The alanine amino transferase activity in both liver and muscle showed an increasing trend with the decrease in the dietary G level. The liver and muscle malate dehydrogenase activities were lowest in the T6 group and highest in the T1 group. Results suggest that NG (100%) starch diet significantly induced more the enzyme activities of amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and TCA cycle, whereas partial or total replacement of raw starch by gelatinized starch increased the glycolytic enzyme activity. PMID:19340598
Kumar, Vikas; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Kumar, Shivendra; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Ranjan, Jayant; Baruah, Kartik
Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2–30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME=2905–2935 kcal\\/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeorohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds
P. V Rangacharyulu; S. S Giri; B. N Paul; K. P Yashoda; R. Jagannatha Rao; N. S Mahendrakar; S. N Mohanty; P. K Mukhopadhyay
Aspects of the life history of Labeo cylindricus in Lake Chicamba, a man made hydroelectric dam in central Mozambique were investigated. L. cylindricus was found to be a potadrometic, synchronous spawner concentrating in river mouths prior to migrating up flowing rivers in January to spawn. Length-at-(50%)-maturity was attained at a fork length (FL) of 96?mm for males and 98?mm for
Chemical pesticides are used globally on an increasing scale in copious quentities te increase agricultural output. Public health use of these pesticides accounts for about 10 per cent of annual production, the remainder being used in agriculture, forestry, horticulture and the prevention and storage of food products. Their contribution te increased agricultural production and prevention of untold misery in many
S. K. Bansal; S. R. Verma; A. K. Gupta; R. C. Dalela
Synopsis We investigated aspects of the reproductive biology of the cyprinid fish, Labeo victorianus, locally known as ningu, in the Kagera and Sio Rivers, Uganda. These rivers represent the last remaining refuges for this species within Uganda. L. victorianus is a highly fecund, potamodrometic fish that migrates upstream to spawn. Spawning is generally synchronised with the bimodal water level maxima
Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeorohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016
Fermented fish-offal (FO) meal was used as a protein supplement to replace fishmeal (FM) in the formulation of experimental diets for the Indian minor carp Labeo bata. The two supplementary diets, one containing 25% FM plus 25% FO and the other containing 20% FM and 30% FO, showed significantly higher digestibility, growth, and protein deposition than the reference diet containing
Recently a new group of circoviruses have been detected in tissues of Barbel fish and European catfish in Hungary. In our study circovirus genomes were screened in eight additional fish species for the detection and characterization of circoviruses. Two species of these bore circoviral sequences based on conventional PCR assay targeting the replication-associated protein coding gene fragments. Interestingly, the methods successfully used before failed to amplify other parts of the circular viral genome, suggesting the presence of partial, integrated genetic elements in the genome of the host. The successfully sequenced fragments of the Indian rohu (Labeorohita) encoded mutations which may cause frameshifts or termination in the coding region described previously in other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses presumed that integration of the viral genetic elements might have progressed concurrently or following the diversification of cyprinid fish. Further studies on the nature of whole circovirus genomes and integrated elements may help to understand their potential role and evolution in different fish species. PMID:23780219
A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeorohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.
The levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg are estimated by atomic absorption in the muscle of six commercial species of fish belonging to five freshwater lakes of Pakistan. The species included Mastacembelus armatus, Tor putitura, Mystus seenghala, Wallago attu, Catla catla and Labeorohita. The fish were procured in comparable weight ranges so
Survey on Trichodinid ciliophorans from the fresh water fishes of Manipur revealed three known species of the genus Tripartiella from the gills of major carps Labeorohita (Hamilton); Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton); Catla catla and Ciprinus carpio. These are redescribed in this communication. PMID:23542123
Abstract Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeorohita) (49.1%) (p?0.001). The density of FZT metacercariae in fish from canals (0.56 metacercariae/g) was significantly higher (p?0.001) than that in fish from ponds (0.03 metacercariae/g). The frequent occurrence of intestinal flukes in all fish types indicates that wild-caught and cultured fish are equally at risk of infection with FZT, particularly in species commonly used in Nam Dinh to prepare raw fish dishes. These results underscore the need for greater awareness of the risk from raw fish dishes among public health agencies and consumers.
Ersb?ll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders
Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeorohita) (49.1%) (p?0.001). The density of FZT metacercariae in fish from canals (0.56 metacercariae/g) was significantly higher (p?0.001) than that in fish from ponds (0.03 metacercariae/g). The frequent occurrence of intestinal flukes in all fish types indicates that wild-caught and cultured fish are equally at risk of infection with FZT, particularly in species commonly used in Nam Dinh to prepare raw fish dishes. These results underscore the need for greater awareness of the risk from raw fish dishes among public health agencies and consumers. PMID:20370427
Phan, Van Thi; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders
Spawning biology and spawn fishery of three valuable species of Indian major carps,Catla catla, Labeorohita andCirrhinus mrigala, in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh, were studied in 1978. The major carps spawned only in the Sonairchar oxbow-bend from\\u000a April to June on or near the dates of the full moon and the new moon. The tide was then at its
Chu-fa Tsai; M. Nazrul Islam; Rezaul Karim; K. U. M. Shahidur Rahman
The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeorohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9–9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3–5.7(5 ± 0.98) ?m in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar
Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeorohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species. PMID:23587674
Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S
A comprehensive icthyoparasotological survey among estuarine and freshwater fishes of West Bengal, India revealed Trichodinella sunderbanensis sp. nov. and Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961 from an estuarine fish Mystus gulio (Hamilton, 1822) from the Vidyadhari river; Trichodina nandusi sp. nov. from a freshwater fish, Nandus nandus (Hamilton-Buchanan); Chilodonella hexasticha (Kiernik, 1909) Kahl, 1931 from freshwater fishes Labeorohita (Hamilton, 1822); and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 from the Rupnarayan river. Taxonomic description of all the species based on wet silver nitrate impregnation method along with additional comments based on scanning electron microscopic descriptions of T. nandusi sp. nov. are also provided in this paper. Prevalence rate, morphometric parameters and comparisons with closely related species are also discussed. PMID:23269510
Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeorohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW. PMID:18157635
Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeorohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)); Bou-Olayan, A.H.
Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeorohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare trypsin can be favored as a dietary supplement in animals and humans. PMID:24040333
Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeorohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.
Recognising the importance of fish in the Bangladeshi diet, the objective of the present study was to screen commonly consumed fish species for vitamin A content to evaluate the potential of fish as a vitamin A source in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A deficiency. Samples of 26 commonly consumed fish species and one crustacean were collected in Kishoreganj and Mymensingh, Bangladesh. To obtain edible parts, the fish were cleaned by Bangladeshi women according to traditional practices. Distribution of vitamin A in parts of the fish and the effect of the cleaning practices on the vitamin A content in#10; edible parts were assessed. The content of vitamin A compounds was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The vitamin A content in small fish ranged from 2680 retinol equivalents (RE)/100 g raw edible parts in mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) to 20 RE/100 g raw edible parts in chata (Colisa lalia; an alternative scientific name is Colisa lalius). The vitamin A content in cultured species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), rui (Labeorohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was low, <30 RE/100 g raw edible parts. In mola, 90% of the vitamin A was found in the eyes and viscera. The vitamin A content in the screened fish species was highly variable, by more than a factor of 100. The existence of commonly consumed fish in Bangladesh belonging to the categories of very high and high vitamin A content offers a great unexploited potential for food-based strategies to improve the vitamin A intake by promoting the production and consumption of these species. PMID:12396468
Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeorohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare trypsin can be favored as a dietary supplement in animals and humans.
A series of 18 alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation in the gas phase (H(DP)) in the range 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH...U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with 3 alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV, only the ROH...U- minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in the range 14.3-14.8 eV, two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO-...HU* and ROH...U- structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH...U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO-...HU*. PMID:16852671
Hara?czyk, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej; Radisic, Dunja; Stokes, Sarah T; Bowen, Kit H
This study investigated freshwater fish for their current infection status with metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea. Twenty-one species of freshwater fish (n = 677) were collected from 34 regions nationwidely from February 2007 to June 2008. They were individually examined by digestion technique. Eight species of freshwater fish from 17 different regions were recognized positive for the metacercariae of C. sinensis. The positive rates (range of metacercariae number per fish) of fish by the species were as follows: 48% (1-1,142) in Pseudorasbora parva, 60% (1-412) in Pungtungia herzi, 15.7% (1-23) in Pseudogobio esocinus, 29% (1-7) in Acheilognathus intermedia, 21% (1-4) in Odontobutis interrupta, 33% (1-6) in Zacco temmincki, 3.6% (1-4) in Zacco platypus, and 26.3% (1) in Hemibarbus labeo. The two species, P. parva and P. herzi, are able to be the index fish for estimation of C. sinensis transmission in a certain locality. Still several species of freshwater fish are briskly transmitting C. sinensis infection in many riverside areas of southern Korea.
Kim, Eun-Min; Kim, Jae-Lip; Choi, Sung Yil; Kim, Jae-Whan; Kim, Siwon; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Lee, Soon-Hyung
Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) ?m in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) ?m and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) ?m in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238
Efficacy of doramectin administered via oral and parenteral routes against experimentally induced and natural infections of the copepod parasite Lernaea cyprinacea in carps was studied. Administration of doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kg b.wt. of fish for 10 days effectively controlled experimentally induced Lernaea infection in Labeo fimbriatus fingerlings within an average of 19 days of post-treatment as compared to the normal course of 41 days. Similarly, doramectin given through feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish for 10 days was equally effective in controlling natural infection of this parasite in the underyearlings of Catla catla and L. fimbriatus. Intramuscular administration of doramectin at 200microg/kgb.wt. of fish effectively removed adult Lernaea infection in L. fimbriatus as early as 18 days of treatment as compared to the time period of 43 days taken by the untreated fish to get rid of the infection. Single intramuscular administration of the drug was more effective against the parasite than its administration in multiple divided doses. In all cases, doramectin did not cause any noticeable adverse reactions or toxicity to the fish host. In view of the handling associated stress and other operational difficulties involved, a single intramuscular administration of the drug at 200microg/kgb.wt. is suggested for treatment of heavily infected adults and brood stock of carps. Doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish is best suited for treatment of Lernaea infection in young fish including fingerlings. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin upon its administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impact of its usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of this drug for control of parasitic infections of aquatic organisms. PMID:18650018
Hemaprasanth, K P; Raghavendra, A; Singh, Ravinder; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R