Sample records for rohu labeo rohita

  1. Comparative fatty acid profiles of wild and farmed tropical freshwater fish rohu (Labeo rohita).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prakash; Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Ranjan, Jayant; Kithsiri, H M P; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati

    2010-09-01

    The proximate composition of the whole body and the fatty acid composition of the liver, muscle, eye and brain of wild and cultured rohu (Labeo rohita) were analyzed. The cultured species was found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid contents than its wild counterpart. The saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid contents were significantly higher in the cultured species, whereas the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels were higher in the wild species. Fatty acids C16:0 and C18:1 n-9 were the principal fatty acids of the SFAs and MUFAs, respectively, identified in the analyses. Docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were the predominant PUFAs in both groups, and all three were found to be present at significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels in the wild species. Erucic acid (C22:1 n-9), which was the predominant fatty acid (30.76%) in the feed, was detected only at low levels in muscle (0.30%), liver (1.04%) and eye (1.28%) of cultured fish tissue. PMID:19288256

  2. Effects of day and night on swimming, grazing and social behaviours of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in simulated ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mustafizur Rahman; Marc Verdegem; Qtae Jo

    2008-01-01

    Diel rhythmicity of grazing, swimming, resting and social interactions of rohu (Labeo rohita) (weight 66.5¿68.3 g) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (79.9¿82.0 g) were observed in 1 m2 simulated ponds using video images. Fish behaviour was monitored during a full 24-h period, starting at 08:00 hours with a 15-min recording, which was repeated every 3 h. Rohu spent more time

  3. Identification of reproduction-related genes and SSR-markers through expressed sequence tags analysis of a monsoon breeding carp rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh K; Panda, Soumya P; Panda, Sujata; Das, Paramananda; Meher, Prem K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang J; Eknath, Ambekar E; Nandi, Samiran

    2013-07-15

    Labeo rohita (Ham.) also called rohu is the most important freshwater aquaculture species on the Indian sub continent. Monsoon dependent breeding restricts its seed production beyond season indicating a strong genetic control about which very limited information is available. Additionally, few genomic resources are publicly available for this species. Here we sought to identify reproduction-relevant genes from normalized cDNA libraries of the brain-pituitary-gonad-liver (BPGL-axis) tissues of adult L. rohita collected during post preparatory phase. 6161 random clones sequenced (Sanger-based) from these libraries produced 4642 (75.34%) high-quality sequences. They were assembled into 3631 (78.22%) unique sequences composed of 709 contigs and 2922 singletons. A total of 182 unique sequences were found to be associated with reproduction-related genes, mainly under the GO term categories of reproduction, neuro-peptide hormone activity, hormone and receptor binding, receptor activity, signal transduction, embryonic development, cell-cell signaling, cell death and anti-apoptosis process. Several important reproduction-related genes reported here for the first time in L. rohita are zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, aquaporin-12, spermine oxidase, sperm associated antigen 7, testis expressed 261, progesterone receptor membrane component, Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of 8 known and 8 unknown transcripts during preparatory and post-spawning phase showed increased expression level of most of the transcripts during preparatory phase (except Neuropeptide Y) in comparison to post-spawning phase indicating possible roles in initiation of gonad maturation. Expression of unknown transcripts was also found in prolific breeder common carp and tilapia, but levels of expression were much higher in seasonal breeder rohu. 3631 unique sequences contained 236 (6.49%) putative microsatellites with the AG (28.16%) repeat as the most frequent motif. Twenty loci showed polymorphism in 36 unrelated individuals with allele frequency ranging from 2 to 7 per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.096 to 0.774 whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.109 to 0.801. Identification of 182 important reproduction-related genes and expression pattern of 16 transcripts in preparatory and post-spawning phase along with 20 polymorphic EST-SSRs should be highly useful for the future reproductive molecular studies and selection program in Labeo rohita. PMID:23583682

  4. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  5. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  6. Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-05-01

    Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (<500 nm) and could be successfully endocyted in the body. Despite low antigen loading in PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for Freund's adjuvant (for stimulating antibody response) to overcome many side effects offering long lasting immunity. Our encouraging results suggest that PLA/PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system could be a novel antigen carrier for parenteral immunization in fish. PMID:25689492

  7. Evaluation of corn steep liquor as a supplementary feed for Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep G. Chovatiya; Sujata S. Bhatt; Amita R. Shah

    2011-01-01

    The effects of corn steep liquor (CSL), a by-product of corn starch industry, in the fish diet at 25% (D1), 50% (D2) and 75%\\u000a (D3) replacement of fish meal are investigated on the growth of Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings. Formulated feeds were iso-nitrogenous (39% crude protein) and iso-energetic (15.8 kJ\\/g). The CSL is found\\u000a to be rich in protein (43.48%), lactic

  8. Analysis of immune-related ESTs and differential expression analysis of few important genes in lines of rohu (Labeo rohita) selected for resistance and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Das, Sweta; Chhottaray, Chiranjibi; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, P K

    2014-11-01

    A total of 137,629 contigs generated via de novo transcriptome assembly from resistant and susceptible lines of rohu (first generation) raised against aeromoniasis were further analyzed in terms of defence-related genes. Out of 1,939 contigs showing homology to genes involved in immune processes, 1,866 were further categorised into different functional subgroups. Comparative analysis revealed five genes for the first time in any carp species out of which apolipoprotein h, septin 4 isoform 3 and septin isoform cra_c were identified for the first time in fish. Differential expression analysis of ten genes viz., heat shock proteins (Hsps) (Hsp30, Hsp70 and Hsp90), serum lectin isoform 1 (SLI1), linker histone H1M (LHH1M), NAD(P)H quinone 1 (NQO1), zona pellucida 2 (ZP2) and three unknown genes that were highly up-expressed in first generation resistant line fish from mRNA-seq coverage data, was carried out using susceptible and resistant individuals of the second generation selected populations in eight different tissues viz. liver, kidney, intestine, gill, brain, spleen, skin and muscle using qPCR. Significant up-regulation in Hsp90, NQO1, C_116914 and C_22454 in specific tissues of resistant line and variable expression in Hsp30 and LHH1M genes in different tissues of both lines were noticed. The expression of Hsp70 was lower in many tissues of the resistant line than in susceptible line rohu. The expression of ZP2, SLI1 and C_94589 genes was not significantly different in terms of fold difference between the two lines. Differentially expressed genes need further characterisation to explore their role in resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu. PMID:25081649

  9. Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sethuramalingam, T A; Haniffa, M A

    2002-01-01

    Six sets of feeding experiments were carried out using formulated diets containing prawn head waste (PW), chicken intestine waste (CW), banana flower (BF), cauliflower waste (CAU) Dolicos lab lab (DLL) and groundnut leaf (GNL) in four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60%) to assess the pattern of distribution and activities of digestive enzymes like cellulase, amylase, maltase, invertase, protease and lipase in the digestive tracts of Labeo rohita fingerlings. A control group of fish was fed with diets containing antibiotics to destroy the digestive tract microflora which may induce digestive functions. In general, the activity of digestive enzymes depended on the amount and type of the ingredients present in the diets ingested by the fish. Test animals showed both endogenous and bacterial cellulase activities which suggests the necessity for including cellulose (plant protein source) as dietary ingredient. Occurrence of higher amount of cellulase in the foregut and amylase in the fore and midgut influenced by DNL and GNL diets revealed the possibility of including less than 40% of the respective ingredients in the diet of rohu. Maltase and invertase were highly influenced by GNL, DLL and BF diets than PW and CW diets. More than 40% inclusion of PW and CW was found to increase protease and lipase secretion in the midgut and hindgut regions. The higher secretion of lipase in the midgut suggested the physiological versatility for lipid digestion in rohu fingerlings. PMID:12561975

  10. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P<0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. PMID:24502533

  11. Establishment and characterization of permanent cell line from gill tissue of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and its application in gene expression and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Sundar Raj, N; Madan, N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2013-02-01

    Rohu gill cell line (LRG) was established from gill tissue of Indian major carp (Labeo rohita), a freshwater fish cultivated in India. The cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10 % foetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been sub-cultured more than 85 passages over a period of 2 years. The LRG cell line consists of both epithelial and fibroblastic-like cells. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 22 to 32 °C, the optimum temperature being 28 °C. The growth rate of gill cells increased as the FBS proportion increased from 2 to 20 % at 28 °C. The plating efficiency was also high (34.37 %). The viability of the LRG cell line was 70-80 % after 6 months of storage in liquid nitrogen. The karyotype analysis revealed a diploid count of 50 chromosomes. The gill cells of rohu were successfully transfected with pEGFP-N1. Amplification of mitochondrial Cox1 gene using primers specific to L. rohita confirmed the origin of this cell line from L. rohita. The cytotoxicity of malathion was assessed in LRG cell line using multiple endpoints such as 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Acute toxicity assay on fish was conducted by exposing L. rohita for 96 h to malathion under static conditions. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with r (2)?=?0.946-0.990 for all combinations between endpoints employed. Linear correlations between each in vitro effective concentration 50 and the in vivo lethal concentration 50 data were highly significant. PMID:23224722

  12. Effect of solvents on in vitro pesticides inhibition of atpase in certain tissues of Labeo rohita

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Dalela; S. K. Bansal; A. K. Gupta; S. R. Verma

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of solvents on the pesticide inhibition of ATPase in the gills and brains of a freshwater teleost Labeo rohita after in vitro treatment with chlordane (an organochlorine pesticide) and MetasystoxR (an organophosphate) pesticide after dissolving in different organic solvents viz. benzene, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMS), and acetone\\/ethanol (1:1) mixture. The

  13. Oxidative stress in freshwater fish, Labeo rohita as a biomarker of malathion exposure.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vineetkumar K; David, Muniswamy

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effect of lethal (4.5 ?g/l) and sublethal (0.45 ?g/l) malathion levels on oxidative stress responses of the freshwater edible fish, Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to lethal (1-4 days) and sublethal (1, 5, 10, and 15 days) periods. In the present study, catalase and protease activity, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, and free amino acids levels increased in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of fish exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion except protein content. Time- and concentration-dependent induction/reduction of the above parameters by lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion was observed in the tissues (the gill, liver, and kidney) of L. rohita. Thus, the results clearly infer oxidative damage and decline in antioxidant defense due to malathion-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23836428

  14. Genomic cloning and sequence analysis of Interleukin-10 from Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Karan, Sweta; Kaushik, Himani; Saini, Nipun; Sahoo, Pramod K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in inflammation, immunoregulation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, it is our interest to isolate, clone, sequence and characterize IL-10 gene from the fish Labeo rohita (Lr). The gene was amplified using genomic DNA isolated from head kidney with primers designed on conserved sequence homologues of fishes belonging to Cyprinidae family. The gLrIL-10 is 1467 nucleotides long with five exons and four introns sharing the same organization as of mammalian IL-10 genes. An open reading frame of 537 bp was found to encode a putative 179 amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids with conserved signature sequence motif. Sequence analysis showed similarity with the IL-10 from most fresh water fishes of Cyprinidae family. LrIL-10 has 27.2 % identity and 54.95 % similarity with the human IL-10. Sequence analysis followed by phylogenetic studies showed highest identity with Catla catla (98%) followed by Cyprinus carpio (93%), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (89%) and is distantly related to human, rhesus monkey and frog. These data from primary sequence characterization may be used to further understand transcriptional regulation and functional characterization of LrIL-10 in relation to species-specific molecular immunology. Abbreviations IL-10 - Interleukin-10, Lr - Labeo rohita, nt - nucleotides. PMID:25489171

  15. Impact of industrial effluents on the biochemical composition of fresh water fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Muley, D V; Karanjkar, D M; Maske, S V

    2007-04-01

    In acute toxicity (96 hr) experiment the fingerlings of freshwater fish Labeo rohita was exposed to tannery, electroplating and textile mill effluents. The LC0 and LC50 concentrations were 15% and 20% for tannery effluents, 3% and 6% for electroplating effluents and 18% and 22% for textile mill effluents respectively. It was found that, electroplating effluent was more toxic than tannery and textile mill wastes. After acute toxicity experiments for different industrial effluents, various tissues viz. gill, liver, muscle and kidney were obtained separately from control, LC0 and LC50 groups. These tissues were used for biochemical estimations. The glycogen content in all the tissues decreased considerably upon acute toxicity of three industrial effluents except muscle in LC50 group of tannery effluent and kidney in LC50 group of textile mill effluent, when compared to control group. The total protein content decreased in all tissues in three effluents except gills in LC50 group of tannery effluent, kidney in LC50 group of electroplating effluent and kidney in LC0 group of textile mill effluent. In general total lipid content decreased in all tissues after acute exposure when compared to control group. The results obtained in the present study showed that, the industrial effluents from tannery, electroplating and textile mills caused marked depletion in biochemical composition in various tissues of the fish Labeo rohita after acute exposure. PMID:17915759

  16. The study of the changes in the thermal properties of Labeo rohita bones due to arsenic exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Vijayasundaram; V. Ramasamy; P. L. R. M. Palaniappan

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in the thermal properties of control, arsenic exposed and DMSA treated Labeo rohita bones by using thermo analytical techniques. The result shows that the mass loss due to the thermal decomposition occurs\\u000a in three distinct steps due to loss of water, organic and inorganic materials. The arsenic exposed bones present a different\\u000a thermal behaviour compared

  17. Some quality aspects of fish patties prepared from an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, G K; Thind, S S

    2008-05-01

    Six different types of fish patties were prepared from de-boned meat of three weight groups (250 500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, using two extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). The weight of the fish and the type of the extender affected the nutritional quality of the patties. Cooking lowered the crude protein but increased the total lipid, total soluble sugars, and contents of the patties. Cooking yield increased with an increase in the weight of the fish. Similarly, the use of corn flour as the extender resulted in a higher cooking yield and higher fat retention capacity than boiled potato. The type of extender had no effect on the water-holding capacity of the patties. The weight of the fish and the extender had no significant effect on appearance, colour, flavour, taste, and the overall acceptability of the product. However, the patties prepared from 250-500 g and 501-750 g weight groups with corn flour as the extender had a significantly higher score for their texture. The total plate count suggested that the patties were safe (from microbiological point of view) up to a storage period of 80 days. PMID:17852491

  18. Gill lesions in the major carp, Labeo rohita exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Sampoorani, V; Kavitha, M; Ramasamy, V K; Chandrakala, A; Aruna, K C

    2004-07-01

    The major carp, Labeo rohita were exposed to (0.873%) lethal and sublethal (0.073%) concentrations of tannery effluent for 24h and 40 days respectively under static bioassay condition. The surface architecture of gill revealed severe damages such as : fusion and clumping in the middle and distal parts of the primary lamellae, swelling and deterioration of the cells. The interlamellar space was filled either with hyperplastic epithelial or mucous cells. Secondary lamellae lost their identity and appeared finger like in structure in the lethal concentration and necrosis was observed in the primary and secondary epithelium. Swelling of primary and secondary epithelial cells was evident in sublethal concentration. PMID:15847345

  19. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.

    2015-02-01

    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  20. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  1. Isolation of potential probiotic Bacillus spp. and assessment of their subcellular components to induce immune responses in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974

  2. Ecological risk assessment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita: Hematology, ionoregulation and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N

    2015-10-01

    The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms. PMID:26094035

  3. Effect of water extract of the bark of Buchanania lanzan linn. on behaviour and chromatophores of a fresh water fish, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, U S; Rathod, V; Vankhede, G N

    2001-07-01

    Fish exposed to 150 ppm and 250 ppm doses saparately, showed eratic swimming with hyper-excitability, spiralling, convulsion and mortality. However at 350 ppm dose fish became lethargic and steady at the bottom of aquarium. This behaviour appears to be due to sedative effects of fish implicating the phychoactive nature of the plant B. Ianzan. At 150 ppm to 350 ppm doses, fish scale changed from reticulate to punctate chromatophores; and treated fish when transferred to fresh water, were slowly regained to normal behaviour after 96 h exposure. Hence doses regaining from 150 ppm to 350 ppm is considered to be psychoative in nature. In higher doses 450 ppm and 550 ppm fish could survive only 76 h and 4.30 h respectively and then died indicating toxicity of plant for the said doses. It is found that scale present on its body is most suitable test system for the study of psychoactivity and toxicity of plant extracts on fish, Labeo rohita. PMID:12017267

  4. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-01

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

  5. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-15

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945

  6. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2015-07-15

    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  7. Beneficial effects of dietary probiotics mixture on hemato-immunology and cell apoptosis of Labeo rohita fingerlings reared at higher water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Prusty, Ashisa K; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg(-1)). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34-37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

  8. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  9. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen of higher thermal stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Falguni Pati; Basudam Adhikari; Santanu Dhara

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in animal body and widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, its applicability is severely limited due to high cost. Fish processing waste, which otherwise cause serious environmental pollution, is a promising cost effective collagen source. In the present study, collagen was isolated from scales of Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla

  10. Branchial and renal pathology in the fish exposed chronically to methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejendra S. Gill; Jagdish C. Pant; Hema Tewari

    1988-01-01

    Pathological manifestations causally related to pesticide poisoning have been described in both surficial and internal tissues of the fishes (Eller 1971; Couch 1975; Anees 1978). Konar (1970) observed extensive nuclear degeneration in liver, intestinal tract, and kidney of the rohu, Labeo rohita exposed to sublethal levels of heptachlor. Agallol and thiodan evoked histopathological disorders in the widowtetra, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Amminikutty

  11. In vivo effect on ATPase in certain tissues of labeo rohita and Saccobranchus fossilis , following Chronic Chlordane Intoxication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Verma; S. K. Bansal; A. K. Gupta; R. C. Dalela

    1978-01-01

    Voluminous information is available on the residual toxicity and the other environmental impacts of the pesticides, but there is little information available on the mechanism of toxic action os the organochlorine pesticides especially on studies concerning active transport across cellular membranes. One of the initial efforts to explain the action of DDT in active transport was made by MATSUMURA et

  12. Observation on prevalence of ectoparasites in carp fingerlings in two districts of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been carried out to find out the prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings during different months of the year 2008-2009. Four groups of ectoparasites viz. myxozoan, ciliophoran, monogenean and crustacean were recorded from 400 fingerlings of Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla), Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), Bata (Labeo bata), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Lata (Channa punctatus) collected from different ponds of Nadia and Hooghly district of West Bengal from June 2008 to May 2009. The highest prevalence (51.66%) of infection has been recorded in ciliophorans and the lowest was in crustacean (17.5%) between the months of December and February. The highest ectoparasitic prevalence (36.85%) was recorded during winter season (December-February) while the lowest prevalence (9.16%) recorded during rainy season (June-August). PMID:21526033

  13. Physiological dysfunction of the haemopoietic system in a fresh water teleost, Labeo rohita , following chronic chlordane exposure. Part II — Alterations in certain organic components and serum electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Bansal; S. R. Verma; A. K. Gupta; R. C. Dalela

    1979-01-01

    Clinical chemical analysis used in mammaliam studies are highly developed amd reliable, but omly modest application of the principles and methods bave been extended te the realm of aquatic organisms. However, there is accumulating evidence that valid and useful analytical relations can be drawn between biochemical - physialsgical factors and pathology of an aquatic species. Physiological changes in the blod

  14. Structural insights of rohu TLR3, its binding site analysis with fish reovirus dsRNA, poly I:C and zebrafish TRIF.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash R; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Maharana, Jitendra; Dikhit, Manas R; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2012-11-01

    In response to double stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in fish activates signaling like human, and induces innate immunity. This suggested the existence of dsRNA binding domains in fish TLR3 as reported in higher vertebrates. In in silico analysis, leucine rich repeat (LRR) regions (4-6, 13-14, 20-22), and LRR (8-15, 17-24) were identified as key domains in rohu TLR3 as poly I:C and dsRNA of fish reovirus (AGCRV,VHSV and IHNV) binding regions. 3D-models of rohu TLR3-TIR and zebrafish TRIF were generated by homology and ab initio modeling respectively, and their interacting domains were predicted. This is the first report of TLR3 modeling in fish. PMID:22705475

  15. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India. PMID:25895267

  16. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa. I. Winter survey versus summer survey comparison from Labeo capensis (Smith, 1841) and Labeo umbratus (Smith, 1841) hosts.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-03-01

    Indigenous South African Labeo spp. show promise with regard to development of semi-intensive aquaculture, yet little research on their monogenean fauna has been conducted. Ecological aspects of monogenean fauna of the moggel Labeo umbratus (Smith 1841) and the Orange River mudfish Labeo capensis (Smith 1841), as recorded during both winter and summer sampling surveys, are reported here. Fish were collected using gill nets, euthanized and gills removed and examined to both quantify parasite numbers and distribution on the gills. Results obtained support the hypothesis that gill site preference is not due to active choice for a particular attachment site, but rather a result of water flow over gills during respiration in conjunction with fish behaviour and habitat use. Interaction between individual elements investigated (temperature effects, parasite population dynamics and host population dynamics) may be largely responsible for seasonal differences in infection statistics of monogenean parasites. Such interactions should be investigated in future large scale ecological studies, in combination with experimental studies, to further elucidate these effects. PMID:24570046

  17. Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

  18. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen of higher thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Adhikari, Basudam; Dhara, Santanu

    2010-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in animal body and widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, its applicability is severely limited due to high cost. Fish processing waste, which otherwise cause serious environmental pollution, is a promising cost effective collagen source. In the present study, collagen was isolated from scales of Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla (Catla). It is first time that these species are used as sources of collagen. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed maximum demineralization achieved after 48h of EDTA treatment of intact scale. The isolated protein was confirmed as collagen by different physico-chemical techniques like FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and CD. Further amino acid analysis corroborates isolation of type I collagen. A major characteristic of obtained collagen was found to have denaturation temperature (T(d)) of 36.5 degrees C, which is promising as an advantage for biomedical application due to closeness in T(d) to mammalian collagen. PMID:20116238

  19. Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Haq, S; Srivastava, H C; Sharma, V P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable. PMID:23703433

  20. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie

    2008-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  1. Distribution and organization of different cells lining the olfactory epithelium of the Indian minor carp, Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822): a light and scanning electron microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saroj Kumar; Chakrabarti, Padmanabha

    2011-07-15

    The olfactory epithelium of adult Labeo bata (Hamilton) has been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The oval shaped olfactory rosette consists of 26 to 28 primary lamellae arranged on both side of the median leaf like raphe. The middle dorsal portion of the lamellae is provided with linguiform processes. This linguiform process is occupied by sensory epithelium and characterized by the presence of two types of receptor cells, ciliated and with microvillous cells. The apical and basal part of the olfactory lamellae are covered with non-sensory epithelium. The non-sensory epithelium is made up of stratified epithelial cells and mucous cells. The surface of the non-sensory epithelium is represented by stratified epithelial cells which are provided with unbranched microridges arranged in a concentric whorl. Variations in the cellular organization in the sensory and non-sensory olfactory epithelium have been highlighted in reference to the olfactory sense of the fish concerned. PMID:22308657

  2. A comparative study of COI and 16 S rRNA genes for DNA barcoding of cultivable carps in India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Mausumee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Lakshman; Das, Paramananda

    2015-02-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, 16?S rRNA has also been advocated for DNA barcoding in many animal species. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16?S rRNA in discriminating six cultivable carp species: Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo fimbriatus, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba from India. Analysis of partial sequences of these two gene fragments from 171 individuals indicated close genetic relationship between Catla catla and Labeo rohita. The results of the present study indicated COI to be more useful than 16?S rRNA for DNA barcoding of Indian carps. PMID:24047160

  3. Phytase-Producing Rhodococcus sp. (MTCC 9508) from Fish Gut: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argha Khan; Sudipta Mandal; Dhritiman Samanta; Soumendranath Chatterjee; Koushik Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Isolation and enumeration of autochthonous heterotrophic gut microbiota from four carps (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Labeo bata) has been carried out. Gut isolates were analyzed qualitatively for extracellular amylase, protease, cellulase and lipase\\u000a producing capacities and four superior isolates were further studied for phytase producing capabilities. The isolate CC1.1\\u000a (Rhodococcus sp. MTCC 9508) isolated from C. catla

  4. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labeo bata cultivated in sewage-fed fish farms.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, S N; Banerjee, S K

    2007-02-01

    Determination of genotoxic effect in fish, micronucleus test as well as the study of the abnormal shape of nuclei is a suitable measure, in which the presence or absence of genotoxins can be detected in water. In the present study, micronuclei and abnormal nuclei frequencies were scored in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of the fish Labeo bata grown in the sewage-fed fish farms of East Calcutta wetlands. Three experimental sites were chosen, namely, Bantala, Chowbaga and Chingrihata (basically these sites have sewage-fed fishponds), which were compared with fishponds of no sewage influence as the control area. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) were noticed for micronucleus frequencies in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of experimental fishes, where kidney erythrocytes showed an increased value than gill erythrocytes without any statistical differences. The frequencies of nuclear abnormalities such as necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, notch nucleated cells and binucleated cells were also counted separately for gill and kidney erythrocytes, in which significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05) increased values were obtained in comparison to control populations. These genotoxicity results confirmed that the sewage-fed ponds contain genotoxic metals such as Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe through wastewater and sludge because of the direct use of sewage water without pretreatment which may lead to health risks among humans through chronic consumption of fish from these experimental fish ponds. Other vertebrates grown in sewage-fed ponds may also suffer a certain amount of genotoxic substances. PMID:17034922

  5. The effect of endrin on the histopathological changes in the liver of Channa punctatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Sastry; S. K. Sharma

    1978-01-01

    A number of workers have investigated the toxicity of organochlorine pesticides to fishes and of these endrin has rece?8 much attention. HOLMBERG et al. (1972) reported enlargement of liver associated with disturbed liver function in Anguilla anguilla. In Labeo rohita, KONAR (1970) observed pathological changes in liver and kidney with heptochlor poisoning. FERGUSON et al. (1955), SAANIN (1960) and TARZWELL

  6. Comparative Study of the Blood Biochemistry of Three Species of Indian Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Das

    1961-01-01

    Samples of three species of Indian carp, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, and Labeo rohita, were examined when they were 480 days old by biochemical tests and electrophoresis of the blood and plasma. The three species did not differ significantly in total plasma protein (micro-Kjeldahl), relative amounts of total plasma protein and total lipoprotein, and plasma albumin. Significant differences were found

  7. Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds. PMID:23285303

  8. Fish-Borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Cultured and Wild-Caught Freshwater Fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

  9. Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in cultured and wild-caught freshwater fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phan, Van Thi; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-11-01

    Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

  10. Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.

    PubMed

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  11. Cloning, nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analyses, and tissue-specific expression of the transferrin gene in Cirrhinus mrigala infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Mohanty, B R; Kumari, Jaya; Barat, A; Sarangi, N

    2009-11-01

    Transferrin partial complementary DNAs were cloned from the livers of five species in four genera of Indian carps (Indian major carp species: Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala; medium carp: Puntius sarana; minor carp: Labeo bata) subsequent to polymerase chain reaction amplification with published heterologous primers or self-designed primers derived from conserved regions of transferrin cDNA sequences. The partial transferrin cDNAs of the five species of carps had sizes from 624 to 633bp (487bp for L. rohita) and encoded an open reading frame consisting of 206-211 (162 for L. rohita) amino acids. The alignments of carp cDNA sequences showed 85-97% homology and 71-93% homology in deduced amino acid sequences. A phylogenetic tree of amino acid sequences of transferrin cDNAs from carps showed that the relationship among the four genera of Indian carps is well correlated with that derived from classic morphologic analyses. The hypothesized cleavage site and interdomain bridge of transferrin molecule were predicted for the above carp species and interestingly the cleavage site amino acid sequence was found to be conserved among all the carps. To study the tissue-specific expression of the transferrin gene, various tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, brain, muscle, testis, heart, intestine, gill and fin) from apparently healthy (control), moribund and survived C. mrigala experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila infection were analyzed. Transferrin mRNA was detected only in liver RNA and to lesser extent in brain tissue out of the 10 tissues analyzed irrespective of bacterial infection. PMID:18718662

  12. First evidence of comparative responses of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) to relatively resistant and susceptible Indian farmed carps to Argulus siamensis infection.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Chakrapani, V; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) is present in teleost but not in mammals. Among Indian farmed carps, Catla catla is relatively more resistant than Labeo rohita to Argulus siamensis lice infection. TLR22 is believed to be associated with innate immunity against ectoparasite infection. To investigate the TLR22 mediated immunity against argulosis, we have cloned and characterized TLR22 genes of L. rohita (rTLR22) and C. catla (cTLR22). The full-length cDNAs of rTLR22 and cTLR22 contained an open reading frame of 2838 and 2841 nucleotides, respectively; bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically rTLR22/cTLR22 was most closely related to Cyprinus carpio (common carp) counterpart, having highest sequence identity of 86.0%. The TIR domain remained highly conserved with 90% identity within freshwater fishes. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the rTLR22/cTLR22 genes are encoded by uninterrupted exons. The co-habitation challenge study with A. siamensis infection confirmed that C. catla is comparatively more resistant than L. rohita. Further, comparative mRNA expression profile in immune relevant tissues also suggested about the participatory role of TLR22 during lice infection. However, TLR22 might not solely be involved in conferring relative resistance among carp species against argulosis. PMID:24998226

  13. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  14. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

  15. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.

    2015-06-01

    Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40 °C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100 °C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents.

  17. Detection of pesticide residues in muscles, liver and fat of 3 species of Labeo found in Kalri and Haleji lakes.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Tasneem A; Naqvi, S N H; Siddiqui, P A; Azmi, M A

    2005-06-01

    The pesticide residues which were detected in fish tissues are DDT, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin and deltamethrin. In total 45 samples were taken out of which 18 were found positive. Out of 18 samples DDT was found in 10 samples in small quantities. DDE was found in 12 samples in higher quantities, aldrin was found in 10 samples and dieldrin was found in 2 samples in small quantities. Deltamethrin was found in 7 samples and malathion in none. Slightly more number of residues were found in Kalri lake samples. However, quantity of pesticides was higher in Haleji lake due to polluted nature of water while number of pesticides was more in Kalri lake water, possibly due to the surrounding adjacent agricultural farms. Higher level of GPT, GOT and ALP was found in samples with higher accumulation of pesticide residues. This possibly indicates a correlation between exposure of pesticide and increased level of the 3 enzymes. PMID:16334280

  18. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  19. Prevalence of zoonotic trematodes in fish from a Vietnamese fish-farming community.

    PubMed

    Chi, Tran T K; Dalsgaard, Anders; Turnbull, James F; Tuan, Pham A; Murrell, K Darwin

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) metacercariae was investigated in fish farmed by rural households in Nghe An Province, located in northern Vietnam. In total, 716 fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 6 carp species, i.e., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix), and roha (Labeo rohita), collected from 53 fish farms were examined. The overall prevalence of FZT metacercariae was 44.6%, ranging from 12.5% to 61.0% in fish species collected from grow-out ponds, which are the production system for growing fish from fingerling size to market size. The overall prevalence was 43.6% in fingerlings cultured in nurseries, ranging from 7.4% to 62.8% for different fish species. The FZT species recovered were heterophyids and echinostomatids and included Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Stellantchas musfalcatus, and Echinochasmus japonicus, all of which are intestinal flukes in humans, other mammals, and birds. This is the first report of H. yokogawai and E. japonicus in fish in Vietnam, and the first record for S. falcatus in northern Vietnam. Although a previous cross-sectional survey of the people living in these fish farm households revealed a very low prevalence of FZTs (< 1%), our results demonstrate that intestinal flukes are common in farmed fish in this area, suggesting that reservoir hosts such as dogs, cats, and pigs are more important in sustaining the life cycles of these flukes in fish farms than human hosts. This has implications for the effectiveness of control programs focused mainly on treatment of humans. PMID:18564743

  20. Identification and immunogenic potential of B cell epitopes of outer membrane protein OmpF of Aeromonas hydrophila in translational fusion with a carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous and virulent bacterial pathogen, affects a variety of fishes, including Labeo rohita. Existing treatment strategies comprise antibiotic therapies and attenuated bacterial strain-based vaccines. No functional subunit vaccine has been available until now. Given their key role in determining pathogenicity, outer membrane proteins have been successfully explored as potential vaccine candidates. We have devised a direct strategy for eliminating non-specific responses by selectively aiming the immune response against specific immunodominant epitopes of the outer membrane protein F (OmpF) of A. hydrophila (AhOmpF). Five putative epitopes of AhOmpF predicted in silico were genetically conjugated with heat labile enterotoxin chain B of E. coli (LTB). Recombinant fusion proteins expressed in E. coli were purified from solubilized inclusion bodies and refolded. The fusion protein retained GM1 ganglioside receptor binding activity of LTB, indicating proper folding. Four of the five fusion proteins were found to be highly immunogenic. Of the four proteins, antisera against the fusion protein (anti-rEpiF1) harboring 66-80 amino acid residues of the OmpF gave maximum cross-reactivity with the targeted rOmpF in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was able to recognize both fusion partners-rOmpF and rLTB-in Western blot. Antibody isotyping of the antisera and cytokine array analysis of the culture supernatants of splenocytes from sensitized mice manifested a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with a bias toward Th2. Anti-rEpiF1 antibodies were able to bind to the cell membrane of live A. hydrophila cells and agglutinate them. Our results thus suggest that the OmpF epitope (66-80) in fusion with a carrier protein is a promising vaccine candidate against A. hydrophila. PMID:25636835

  1. Introduction to Monte Carlo algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauth, Werner

    These lectures that I gave in the summer of 1996 at the Beg-Rohu (France) and Budapest summer schools discuss the fundamental principles of thermodynamic and dynamic Monte Carlo methods in a simple and light-weight fashion. The key-words are Markov chains, sampling, detailed balance, a priori probabilities, rejections, ergodicity, "Faster than the clock algorithms".

  2. Observations on two new species of Myxobolus Butschli, 1882 from minor carps of Tripura, India.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Remya; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Santosh, B

    2013-04-01

    Tripura is a north-eastern state of India with a total geographical area of 10,491 sq.km. Labeo bata, L. calbasu, L. gonius of the genus Labeo Cuvier and Cirrhinus reba of genus Cirrhinus Oken are the most popular and commercially important native minor carps of the state. During a detailed survey on the protozoan parasites of the minor carps of Tripura, two new species of myxozoan (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida) parasites Myxobolus tripurensis sp.n. and Myxobolus potularis sp.n. were encountered on the gill filaments of the host fishes. Distinctive characteristics of the plasmodia and the spores have been described. PMID:24431542

  3. Evidence of a chemical defence mechanism in the echiuran worm Bonellia viridis Rolando (Echiura: Bonelliidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Schembri; V. Jaccarini

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of chemical defence in the echiuran Bonellia viridis is provided by investigating the palatability of Bonellia tissues to the shrimp Palaemon elegans, the teleosts Oblada melanura and Mugil labeo, and the anthozoan Anemonia sulcata. Bonellia tissues are shown to be highly distasteful to the shrimp. The results with the teleosts and the anthozoan are less clear?cut

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures. PMID:25182443

  5. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  6. Occurrence of Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Bhowmik, Biplab

    2012-04-01

    Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) ?m in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) ?m and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) ?m in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238

  7. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus. PMID:25119364

  8. An assessment of the DNA barcodes of Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Freshwater fishes in India are poorly known and plagued by many unresolved cryptic species complexes that masks some latent and endemic species. Limitations in traditional taxonomy have resulted in this crypticism. Hence, molecular approaches like DNA barcoding, are needed to diagnose these latent species. We have analyzed 1383 barcode sequences of 175 Indian freshwater fish species available in the databases, of which 172 sequences of 70 species were generated. The congeneric and conspecific genetic divergences were calculated using Kimura's 2 parameter distance model followed by the construction of a Neighbor Joining tree using the MEGA 5.1. DNA barcoding principle at its first hand approach, led to the straightforward identification of 82% of the studied species with 2.9% (S.E=0.2) divergence between the nearest congeners. However, after validating some cases of synonymy and mislabeled sequences, 5% more species were found to be valid. Sequences submitted to the database under different names were found to represent single species. On the other hand, some sequences of the species like Barilius barna, Barilius bendelisis and Labeo bata were submitted to the database under a single name but were found to represent either some unexplored species or latent species. Overall, 87% of the available Indian freshwater fish barcodes were diagnosed as true species in parity with the existing checklist and can act as reference barcode for the particular taxa. For the remaining 13% (21 species) the correct species name was difficult to assign as they depicted some erroneous identification and cryptic species complex. Thus, these barcodes will need further assay and inclusion of barcodes of more specimens from same and sister species. PMID:24378233

  9. Organochlorine insecticide residues in African Fauna: 1971-1995.

    PubMed

    Wiktelius, S; Edwards, C A

    1997-01-01

    Organochlorine insecticides (OCLs), which were introduced in the decade following World War II, were used extensively in Europe, the U.S., and other developed countries into the 1970s. However, data began to accumulate on their persistence in soils and aquatic sediments, their potential to be taken up into animal tissues and to bioconcentrate in birds and mammals in the higher tropic levels of food chains and even in humans. As a result, registration authorities phased out their use progressively, in Europe and the U.S., from 1973 onward. However, the production of OCLs in developed countries and their use in developing countries continued through the 1970s and 1980s into the 1990s because they were, no longer under patent agreement, were inexpensive to manufacture, and were very effective in pest control. In Africa, the use of OCLs continued well into the 1990s for the control of mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and desert locusts as well as to combat various crop, animal, and human pests. Some of these uses involved extensive spraying of large areas of nonagricultural land, thereby exposing many groups and species of wildlife to their residues. Although there is some evidence of a gradual decline in the use of OCLs in Africa, they are still being used in appreciable quantities. During the past 25 yr, there have been 50 published reports of OCL residues in the various groups of invertebrate and vertebrate animals constituting the African fauna. These have been based on a diverse range of surveys, target animals, sampling methods, and analytical techniques. Moreover, they are extremely regionally-biased, the most intense surveys being in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Egypt, and South Africa. DDT was the most commonly used OCL, accounting for about half the total use, followed closely by dieldrin and HCH. Birds and fish have been sampled most intensively, with relatively few studies on other taxa. We reviewed the OCL residue data on African fauna from these reports and summarized the maximum and mean residues in the various groups of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, residues in the fauna were the greatest for DDT, followed in turn by those of dieldrin, HCH, endosulfan, and endrin, with small amounts of aldrin and toxaphene being found in some animals. There were relatively few reports of OCL residues in terrestrial invertebrates and virtually none in aquatic invertebrates. Only a few reports demonstrated OCL residues in terrestrial vertebrates, although high levels of DDT, dieldrin, and HCH were found in crocodile eggs and large residues of dieldrin occurred in bats, squirrels, and monkeys. Considerable OCL residues were reported in a few species of fish, especially Barbus, Clarias, Hydrocynus, Labeo, Sarotherodon, Epiplatys, and Synodontis. These residues were at levels that could have caused chronic toxicity or behavioral changes. The calculated maximum and mean OCL residues in the various elements of the African fauna until 1995 were compared with those calculated for corresponding faunal groups in Europe and the U.S. from their development and introduction up to 1973. The OCL residues reported in African fauna between 1971 and 1975 tended to be significantly higher overall than those published for Europe and the U.S. In particular, residues of DDT and dieldrin in African birds and their eggs were greater than those that had been incriminated as causing significant eggshell thinning and reproductive failure in European and U.S. aquatic and terrestrial birds up to 1973. Additionally, high DDT and dieldrin residues were reported from some species of African fish at levels that could potentially affect their reproduction, have chronic toxic and behavioral effects, and even drastically affect populations. Holistic case studies on the use of OCLs to control tsetse flies and desert locusts were discussed. OCL levels in trophic levels of fauna associated with Lake Kariba (between Zambia and Zimbabwe) were summarized. (AB PMID:9216256