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The potential of periphyton-based culture of two Indian major carps, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of periphyton, grown on bamboo substrates, on growth and production of two Indian major carps, rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia, Labeo gonius (Linnaeus), were studied at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. For each species, five ponds were provided with bamboo substrates and five ponds without substrate (control). Ponds were stocked at a rate of 10 000 ha1

M. E. Azim; M. A. Wahab; Dam van A. A; M. C. M. Beveridge; M. C. J. Verdegem



Expression of immune-related genes in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) by experimental freshwater lice Argulus siamensis (Wilson) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crustacean ectoparasite, Argulus poses one of the major threats to carp culture due to absence of any suitable control measure. The study was undertaken to determine the expression of immune-related genes in three major immunocompetent organs viz., kidney, skin and liver of rohu (Labeo rohita) during experimental freshwater lice Argulus siamensis infection. Results showed that the expression of TLR

Shailesh Saurabh; B. R. Mohanty; P. K. Sahoo



Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow manure, urea and triple super phosphate. Rohu was stocked in all ponds at a

M. M. Rahman; M. C. J. Verdegem; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; M. A. Wahab; A. Milstein; J. A. J. Verreth



A linkage map of transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms in rohu (Labeo rohita) and QTL associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila  

PubMed Central

Background Production of carp dominates world aquaculture. More than 1.1 million tonnes of rohu carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), were produced in 2010. Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis in rohu, and is a major problem for carp production worldwide. There is a need to better understand the genetic mechanisms affecting resistance to this disease, and to develop tools that can be used with selective breeding to improve resistance. Here we use a 6 K SNP array to genotype 21 full-sibling families of L. rohita that were experimentally challenged intra-peritoneally with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci associated with disease resistance. Results In all, 3193 SNPs were found to be informative and were used to create a linkage map and to scan for QTL affecting resistance to A. hydrophila. The linkage map consisted of 25 linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid chromosomes in L. rohita. Male and female linkage maps were similar in terms of order, coverage (1384 and 1393 cM, respectively) and average interval distances (1.32 and 1.35 cM, respectively). Forty-one percent of the SNPs were annotated with gene identity using BLAST (cut off E-score of 0.001). Twenty-one SNPs mapping to ten linkage groups showed significant associations with the traits hours of survival and dead or alive (P <0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Of the SNPs showing significant or suggestive associations with the traits, several were homologous to genes of known immune function or were in close linkage to such genes. Genes of interest included heat shock proteins (70, 60, 105 and “small heat shock proteins”), mucin (5b precursor and 2), lectin (receptor and CD22), tributyltin-binding protein, major histocompatibility loci (I and II), complement protein component c7-1, perforin 1, ubiquitin (ligase, factor e4b isoform 2 and conjugation enzyme e2 c), proteasome subunit, T-cell antigen receptor and lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase. Conclusions A panel of markers has been identified that will be validated for use with both genomic and marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of L. rohita to A. hydrophila. PMID:24984705



Expression of immune-related genes in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) by experimental freshwater lice Argulus siamensis (Wilson) infection.  


The crustacean ectoparasite, Argulus poses one of the major threats to carp culture due to absence of any suitable control measure. The study was undertaken to determine the expression of immune-related genes in three major immunocompetent organs viz., kidney, skin and liver of rohu (Labeo rohita) during experimental freshwater lice Argulus siamensis infection. Results showed that the expression of TLR 22-like, lysozyme G and ?2-microglobulin genes in kidney was significantly (P ? 0.05) down-regulated in lice-infected fish. On the other hand, no significant difference (P>0.05) in CXCa, lysozyme C, TNF? and complement component 3 (C3) expression was found between uninfected control and different degrees of lice infected fish. In the skin, the expression of TLR 22-like and TNF? genes were significantly up-regulated whereas that of C3 was significantly (P ? 0.05) down-regulated in lice-infected fish with respect to control fish. The expression of CXCa, lysozyme C and transferrin was not detected in the skin samples of fish. In the liver, the expression of CXCa, lysozyme G, ?2-microglobulin and transferrin was significantly (P?0.05) up-regulated in lice-infected fish with respect to control fish whereas expression of C3 was significantly (P ? 0.05) down-regulated in lice-infected fish. The expression of TLR 22-like, lysozyme C, TNF? genes was not detected in the liver samples of fish. This study indicates that majority of the genes showed down-regulation in kidney tissue whereas up-regulation in liver and skin tissues except C3 in Argulus-infected fish. We show that infection with this parasite irrespective of intensity can also result in immune gene expression changes in tissues situated away from the site of parasite attachment and feeding. The information obtained here could be useful towards understanding the susceptibility of rohu to argulosis and mechanisms involved in protection of rohu to ectoparasitic infections, which is causing immense economic losses to freshwater aquaculture sector. PMID:21051150

Saurabh, Shailesh; Mohanty, B R; Sahoo, P K



Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic and vitamin C on the immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunostimulatory effect of probiotics and vitamin C has been established in many systems including fish. An investigation was carried out to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a probiotic bacterium “Bacillus subtilis”, vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl polyphosphate and their combination on the immune response of Indian major carp, rohu, (Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings fed for

S. K. Nayak; P. Swain; S. C. Mukherjee



Water soaking and exogenous enzyme treatment of plant-based diets: effect on growth performance, whole-body composition, and digestive enzyme activities of rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings.  


A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to delineate the main effect of water soaking of plant ingredients, phytase, cellulase, and their interactions on the growth and digestive enzyme activities of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Two basal diets were prepared using water-soaked (S) or unsoaked (US) plant-based ingredients. Feed of US ingredients was supplemented with phytase (U kg(-1)) and cellulase (%) at the level of 0, 0 (C(us)); 500, 0 (T(1)); 0, 0.2 (T(2)); 500, 0.2 (T(3)), and feed of S ingredients at 0, 0 (C(s)); 500, 0 (T(4)); 0, 0.2 (T(5)), and 500, 0.2 (T(6)), respectively. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings were randomly distributed into eight treatments, each with three replicates. Soaking of the ingredients for 24 h significantly reduced the tannin content. However, feeding of S diets did not improve the fish growth. Highest performance was recorded in the T(3) group. A significant interaction between dietary phytase and cellulase was observed for apparent net protein utilization. Tissue crude protein, ether extract, and ash content of the fingerlings were observed highest in the T(3) group. Activities of amylase, protease, and lipase were recorded highest in the T(3) group. Results suggested that soaking of plant-based ingredients reduces tannin content; however, growth and digestive enzyme activities of group fed soaked diet were not improved, possibly due to leaching of soluble nutrients. Probably, a shorter duration soaking may be effective in reducing tannin content and avoiding nutrients leaching. PMID:21611720

Xavier, Biji; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Jain, K K; Misra, Sougat; Dalvi, R S; Baruah, Kartik



Immune responses and protective efficacy of recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR)-based vaccine of Aeromonas hydrophila with a modified adjuvant formulation in rohu (Labeo rohita).  


Despite the importance and success of developing a candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the vaccine-induced immunoprotection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, primarily due to lack of information on most of the immune related genes of the species. In this study, a novel candidate antigen recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR) of A. hydrophila was evaluated as a vaccine candidate along with a modified adjuvant formulation. Protective efficacy of the rOmpR immunization was assessed in terms of survival against A. hydrophila challenge as well as modulation of immune response in vaccinated fish after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h and 10 days post-injection (using immune gene expression analysis) and 10, 28, 56 and 140 days post-injection (serum immune parameter analysis). The generated immune response was compared with a formalin-killed A. hydrophila antigen preparation using mineral oil only and modified adjuvant alone. We report a variable up-regulation of the immune-related genes viz., lysozyme G, complement factor 4, immunoglobulin M, ?2-microglobulin, major histocompatibility complex I and II, and interleukin-1? in anterior kidney and spleen tissues at early time points post-immunization in all the groups, when compared to the control fish. The vaccinated fish also showed an increase in serum natural hemolysin titer, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities, and antibody titer irrespective of vaccine formulations as compared to control fish on days 10, 28 and 56. However, the increase in the serum parameters was more pronounced on day 140 in rOmpR-modified adjuvant injected group, indicating the modulatory role of this new vaccine formulation. Upon challenge with live A. hydrophila on days 56 and 140 post-immunization, significantly reduced percent mortality was noted in the group immunized with modified adjuvant based rOmpR vaccine formulation. Taken together, our results suggest that rOmpR along with modified adjuvant could potentially be used as a vaccine formulation to handle A. hydrophila infection on a long-term basis. PMID:24937805

Dash, P; Sahoo, P K; Gupta, P K; Garg, L C; Dixit, A



Isolation of enriched carp spermatogonial stem cells from Labeo rohita testis for in vitro propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro culture system for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a powerful tool for exploring molecular mechanisms of male gametogenesis and gene manipulation. Very little information is available for fish SSC biology. Our aim was to isolate highly pure SSCs from the testis of commercially important farmed carp, Labeo rohita. The minced testis of L. rohita was dissociated with

R. P. Panda; H. K. Barman; C. Mohapatra



Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.  


Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50 ) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P < 0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. PMID:24502533

Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan



Isolation and characterization of head kidney derived macrophages of Labeo rohita.  


Macrophages play a significant role in non-specific defense mechanisms of all vertebrates against pathogens. One critical element in the area of fish immunology is the unavailability of in-vitro model of immune cells. Therefore, it is essential to develop methods for harvesting and culture of macrophages for assessing innate immune functions of rohu, Labeo rohita, an important culture fish of India. Head kidney leukocytes from were isolated by density gradient sedimentation, so as to exclude other cells. Among isolated leukocytes, only macrophages showed the unique property of sustained adherence on plastic surfaces. These cells exhibited optimum growth at 28 degrees C in L-15 containing 20% FBS. Cultured head kidney macrophages (HKM) demonstrated the property of phagocytosis as evidenced by engulfment of yeast cells. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (20 microg/ml) resulted in functional activation of macrophages as seen by enhanced reactive oxygen and nitrite production; and lysosomal enzyme activity. These results show that in-vitro model of HKM cells can be used to study the role of macrophages in innate immune responses against various immunomodulators. PMID:25204072

Awasthi, Abhishek; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, P K; Rebello, S C; Khan, M Y; Lakra, W S



Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue-level expression of complement C3 of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).  


Complement component C3 plays a central role in all known complement activation pathways. In the present study, we cloned, sequenced and analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence of Labeo rohita complement C3 (LRC3). The expression pattern of complement C3 mRNA in different tissues of healthy rohu and after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated using real-time PCR. The LRC3 cDNA sequence of rohu comprised of 5081 bp encoding a predicted protein of 1645 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence had the characteristic domain architecture. About eight domains specific to complement C3 are present in the sequence starting from signal peptide to netrin C345C (NTR) domain. The post-translational processing signal sequence (RKRR), the C3-convertase cleavage site sequence (LAR) and the canonical thiol-ester motif (GCGEQ) were found to be conserved in the LRC3. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the highest expression of C3 in liver and extra-hepatic expression of C3 was also observed in all the tissues studied. A. hydrophila challenge resulted in significant up-regulated expression of C3 transcripts in both liver and kidney at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. PMID:25038278

Pushpa, K; Gireesh-Babu, P; Rajendran, K V; Purushothaman, C S; Dasgupta, S; Makesh, M



Molecular cloning, characterization and functional assessment of the myosin light polypeptide chain 2 (mylz2) promoter of farmed carp, Labeo rohita.  


We cloned the 5'-flanking region (1.2 kb) of a muscle-specific gene, encoding myosin light chain 2 polypeptide (mylz2) of a farmed carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). Sequence analysis using TRANSFAC-database search identified the consensus cis acting regulatory elements of TATA-box and E (CANNTG)-box, including the monocyte enhancer factor 2 motif, implying that it is likely to be a functional promoter. The proximal promoter (~620 bp) was highly homologous with that of Danio rerio (zebrafish) as compared to Channa striatus (snakehead murrel) counterparts and showed less identity with Sparus auratus (gilthead sea bream), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Direct muscular (skeletal) injection of the construct containing the mylz2 promoter (0.6 kb) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene showed efficient expression in L. rohita, validating its functional activity. Further, the functional activity was confirmed by the observation that this promoter drove GFP expression in the skeletal muscle of transgenic rohu. The promoter may have potential applications for value-addition in ornamental fishes and studying gene regulatory functions. PMID:24740361

Mohanta, Ramya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Impact of Cypermethrin on Behavioural Responses in the Freshwater Teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static renewal bioassay test was conducted to determine the toxicity of technical grade (92.25% purity) insecticide cypermethrin on the freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita. Fishes were exposed to variou s concentrations of pyrithroid insecticide cypermethrin for 96 h and the percent mortality was recorded. The LC50 value was found to be 4.0 µg L? and one seventh of LC (0.57 µg

S. R. Marigoudar; R. Nazeer Ahmed; M. David


Efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.  


The efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin via oral and parenteral routes and their prophylactic effects against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita was studied. Doramectin and ivermectin were fed once to L. rohita sub-adults naturally infested with A. siamensis parasites at graded levels of 1000, 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight and 500, 300 and 200 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The mean time of clearance of parasites was 24 ± 0.149 h for 1000 and 24 ± 0.210 h for 750 ?g of doramectin/kg body weight fish, however, the dose of 1,000 ?g resulted in adverse reactions and mortality in fish. A single dose of 500?g/kg body weight of ivermectin also cleared the infestation in 24 ± 0.258 h. In second experiment, L. rohita naturally infested with A. siamensis were administered with doramectin and ivermectin intramuscularly as single dose of 200, 150 and 100 ?g/kg body weight. Both doramectin and ivermectin at 200 ?g/kg body weight cleared the infestation in 4 ± 0.149 and 4 ± 0.258 h respectively, however, those resulted in adverse reactions viz., black pigmentation, lethargy and poor appetite in fish. The mean time of clearance of parasites from fish was 6 ± 0.210 and 12 ± 0.314 h for doramectin and ivermectin, respectively, when given at a lower dose of 150 ?g/kg body weight. The prophylactic effects of both drugs were also evaluated by challenging naďve rohu with metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis after feeding the fish single dose of the doramectin and ivermectin at 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of both the drugs were found to last for 17-18 days. The effects of bath treatment with doramectin and ivermectin at different concentrations on adult A. siamensis and metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis were also evaluated. The results suggested that ivermectin could act more rapidly compared to doramectin. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin and ivermectin upon their administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impacts of their usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of these drugs for control of parasitic infections. PMID:22673107

Hemaprasanth, K P; Kar, Banya; Garnayak, S K; Mohanty, J; Jena, J K; Sahoo, P K



Phylogenetic Relationship of Cultured and Wild Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala Based on Muscles Proteins Profile in Different Weight Groups: A New Tool in Phylogenetic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic heterogeneity and polymorphism in muscle proteins present in the meat of wild and cultured Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was performed using SDS–PAGE. Cultured L. rohita and C. mrigala possessed more proteins than those in the wild ones and were dependent on their weight. Un-weighed pair group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis delineated a 50% linkage distance. Fish

S. Mahboob; M. Farooq; S. Mahmood; N. Nasir; S. Sultana; A. S. Chaudhry; A. S. Al-Akel; H. F. Alkahem Al-Balawi; F. Al-Misned; K. A. Al-Ghanim



Cypermethrin induced: In vivo inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase activity in functionally different tissues of the freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cypermethrin at different concentrations and exposure periods were investigated on the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita, to establish inhibitory effect of pesticide on acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity and associated behavioral changes. Fish were exposed to 1\\/7th (0.57 µg L) and 1\\/12th (0.33 µg L) of the lethal concentration (4 µg L) of cypermethrin for a period of 1, 7,

S. R. Marigoudar; R. Nazeer Ahmed; M. David



The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati



Parasitic incidence in a cyprinid fish Labeo rohita (Ham.) at river Song in Doon valley (Uttarakhand).  


On examining 144 specimens of Labeo rohita (Ham.) for parasites occurrence; as many as 34 fish were found positive to harbour ciliophorans (Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifilis Fouquet, 1876), monogeneans (Haplocleidus vachi Tripathi, 1959 and Dactylogyrus glossogobii Jain, 1960), trematode (Allocreadium mahaseri Pandey, 1939), nematode (Camallanus (Zeylanema) anabantis Pearse, 1933) and acanthocephalan (Sachalinorhynchus sp). Highest prevalence was shown by platyhelminthes (18.75%) followed by ciliophorans (10.41%), nematode (4.16%) and acanthocephalan (2.77%) in succession. Maximum mean intensity and abundance has been shown by C. (Zeylanema) anabantis Pearse, 1933 while the monogenean H. vachi was on the 2nd rank. On the other hand, the least intensity and abundance was shown by Ichthyophthirius multifilis. The prevalence was recorded more in monsoon (52.77%) followed by post-monsoon (22.22%), summer (19.44%) and winter (8.33%) in succession. Further, the unit-wise intensity of parasites was recorded more in males than the females. PMID:23542706

Upadhyay, Jayti; Jauhari, R K; Pemola Devi, N



Behavioral and respiratory dysfunction in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) under malathion intoxication.  


A short term definitive test by static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC50) of the commercial grade organophosphate insecticide malathion (50% EC) in the freshwater edible fish, Labeo rohita. Carp fingerlings were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations (6.0 to 10.1 microL/L) of malathion. The acute toxicity value was found to be 9.0 microL/L and one tenth of LC50 (0.9 microL/L) was selected for sub acute studies. Behavioral patterns and oxygen consumption were studied in lethal (1, 2, 3, and 4 d) and sublethal concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 d). Carp in toxic media exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, hyperexcitability, and loss of equilibrium and sinking to the bottom, which might be due to the inactivation of acetylcholine esterase activity, resulting in excess accumulation of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses leading to hyperstimulation. Variation in oxygen consumption (70.39% to 80.50%/4.45% to 21.35%) was observed in both lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion, respectively. Such alterations in oxygen consumption may be due to respiratory distress because of impairment in oxidative metabolism. Fish at sub lethal concentrations were found under stress, but that was not fatal. PMID:19024933

Patil, Vineetkumar K; David, M



Behavioural and histopathological effects of azodye on kidney and gills of Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


The present paper emphasizes on the histopathological effects of an azo dye, Direct Green 6 on the kidney and gills of Labeo rohita by light microscopy. Fingerlings were exposed to sublethal concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm) of dye for 5, 10 and 15 days to study histopathological changes. No histopathological changes were seen in the kidney and gills of control fingerlings. Unlike control fingerlings, both the target organs showed some histopathological changes. Fingerlings exposed to 2.5 ppm concentration of the dye showed shrinkage of glomerulus, increased peritubular space, decreased lumen while 5.0 ppm produced haemorrhage in the interstitial tissue and mild degeneration in the kidney. Necrosis in the tubular epithelium, distruction of cell membrane and loss of cellular cytoplasm were observed in kidney of fingerlings exposed to 10 ppm dye concentration. Gills of fingerlings exposed to 2.5 ppm of dye showed aneurism and mild degenerated central axis. 5 ppm of dye concentration produced remarkable changes like epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, enlarged and vacuolated cartilage cells. Haemorrhagic tip, fusion and curling of secondary gill lamellae and at some places complete removal of them were also observed in gills of fingerlings exposed to 10 ppm. PMID:24620571

Barot, J; Bahadur, A



Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6?mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45?mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5?mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45?mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F?) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54?kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54?kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686



Fish cholinesterases as biomarkers of sublethal effects of organophosphorus and carbamates in tissues of Labeo rohita.  


Organophosphates and carbamates are major agrochemicals that strongly affect different neuroenzymes and the growth of various fish species. Here, we study the effect of sublethal concentrations of profenofos and carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and the associated health risk in fish. Labeo rohita fingerlings were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of profenofos and carbofuran. The minimum cholinesterase activities in the brain, gills, muscle, kidney, liver, and blood were after exposure to profenofos (0.06 mg/L). The minimum AChE and BuChE activities in the brain, gills, muscle, kidney, liver, and blood were after exposure to carbofuran (0.28 and 0.198 mg/L). Exposure to both types of pesticides affected the functions of these organs, including metabolism and neurotransmission, to various extents at different exposure concentrations. These findings suggest that they are required to be properly monitored in the environment, to reduce their toxic effects on nontarget organisms. PMID:24357265

Ghazala; Mahboob, Shahid; Ahmad, L; Sultana, S; Alghanim, K; Al-Misned, F; Ahmad, Z



Inhibition of ATPase activity in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) exposed to sodium cyanide.  


Present study concerns the effect of sodium cyanide on the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Fishes were exposed to lethal (0.32?mg/L) and sublethal (0.064?mg/L) concentrations of sodium cyanide. The effect of intoxication was studied on Na(+)K(+)ATPase, Mg(+2)ATPase and Ca(2+)ATPase in various physiological tissues (gill, liver, and muscle) at the end of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days of lethal and 5, 10 and 15 days of sublethal exposure periods. Sodium cyanide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ATPase activity of the fish. Inhibition of the ATPase blocked the active transport system of the gill epithelial as well as chloride cells, and thus altered the osmo-regulatory mechanism of the fish. The value of the measured responses as an indicator of stress caused by water contamination discussed. The results confirm that ATPase levels significantly decreased in treated fish, indicating that ATPases could be used as sensitive and useful biomarkers for cyanide pollution. PMID:21777177

Dube, Praveen N; Hosetti, Basaling B



Dietary choline, betaine and lecithin mitigates endosulfan-induced stress in Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


A five-week experiment was conducted to delineate stress-mitigating effects of three different methyl donors in Labeo rohita fingerlings subjected to endosulfan toxicity. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric feed were prepared with and without supplementation of methyl donors. The feed were basal or control diet (i.e., without methyl donor supplementation), feed supplemented with choline, feed supplemented with betaine and feed supplemented with lecithin. Two hundred and twenty-five fishes were distributed randomly in five treatment groups each with three replicates. The experimental setup were normal water (without endosulfan) and fed with control diet (control group), endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (T?), endosulfan-treated water and fed with choline supplemented feed (T?), endosulfan-treated water and fed with betaine supplemented feed (T?) and endosulfan-treated water and fed with lecithin-supplemented feed (T?). The level of endosulfan in endosulfan treated water was maintained at the level of 1/10 of LC??, that is, 0.2 ppb. During the experiment, growth performances, metabolic enzyme activity and histological examination were done to assess the effect of treatments. The growth performance (percentage weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio) and nutrient digestibility were significantly different (P<0.01) in lecithin, betaine and choline fed group when compared to endosulfan-exposed group fed with basal diet. The liver LDH and MDH activity were significantly (P<0.01) improved in the groups fed with methyl donor supplemented diet. The liver AST and ALT, brain AChE and muscle ALT did not change with supplementation in the diet, but muscle ALT and G6PDH significantly (P<0.01) changed with supplementation. The gill and liver ATPase and intestinal ALP were significantly (P<0.01) noticeably changed in supplemented group. After endosulfan exposure, histopathology alter like slight large vacuolation in hepatocyte and lipoid vacuole were observed and with supplementation normal appearance of liver were observed. The chromosome aberration (karyotype) was observed in endosulfan-exposed group. The result obtained in present study concluded that inclusion of methyl donors, particularly lecithin and betaine, in feed as nutritional supplements has a potential stress-mitigating effect in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:22160664

Kumar, Neeraj; Jadhao, S B; Chandan, N K; Kumar, Kundan; Jha, A K; Bhushan, S; Kumar, Saurav; Rana, R S



The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in ?-helical and random coil structures and an increase in ?-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.



FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.



Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.  


Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin. PMID:24432546

Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena



Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeo rohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key\\u000a metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6\\u000a phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase),\\u000a and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeo rohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles

Vikas Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Shivendra Kumar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Jayant Ranjan; Kartik Baruah



Variability in antioxidant/detoxification enzymes of Labeo rohita exposed to an azo dye, acid black (AB).  


The aim of the present study was to evaluate effect of a highly toxic azo dye, acid black (AB) (CI: 20470, 96h LC50=10mg/L) on the biochemical responses of Labeo rohita. Antioxidant/detoxification enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in liver, kidney, gill, muscle and brain of L. rohita after 96h exposure to 6mg/L (LC10), 8mg/L (LC30) and 10mg/L (LC50) of dye with an aim to find out the target tissue and biomarker enzyme for AB. The fish were then kept for a recovery period of 90days, and activity of the selected enzymes was determined at the end of this period. Present dye altered the activities of all these enzymes in the selected tissues of the experimental fish in a dose-dependent manner. SOD was the maximally affected enzyme, and liver was the most affected tissue. The results indicate that AB is very toxic to L. rohita as there was a significant effect of even 6mg/L dose of the dye and the toxicity prolonged for a long time because the fish was not able to recover from the stress even 90days after the exposure. The study suggests that SOD can be used as a biomarker enzyme and liver is the target tissue for AB. PMID:25277676

Kaur, Satinder; Kaur, Arvinder



Methyl donors potentiates growth, metabolic status and neurotransmitter enzyme in Labeo rohita fingerlings exposed to endosulfan and temperature.  


A 2-month preliminary study was conducted to delineate the effect of dietary methyl donors (choline, betaine, and lecithin) on the growth performance and metabolic status of Labeo rohita fingerlings subjected to endosulfan alone and in combination with elevated temperature. Four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets viz. basal diet, betaine-supplemented diet, choline-supplemented diet and lecithin-supplemented diet were prepared and fed to the different experimental groups throughout the experimental period as per the design. Two hundred and seventy fingerlings (average weight 7.95 ± 0.04 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups each having three replicates. The experimental groups were as follows: fish subjected to normal water (without endosulfan) and fed with control diet (control group T(0)), fish subjected to endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (T(1)), fish subjected to concurrent exposure of endosulfan and elevated temperature and fed with control diet (T(2)), fish subjected to endosulfan and elevated temperature and fed with choline-supplemented diet (T(3)), fish subjected to endosulfan and temperature and fed with betaine-supplemented feed (T(4)), and fish subjected to endosulfan and temperature and fed with lecithin-supplemented feed (T(5)). The result shows that in both the groups, that is, endosulfan exposed and concurrent exposure to endosulfan and elevated temperature group of L. rohita the growth performance like percentage weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rates were significantly different (P < 0.01) when fed with supplemented diet compared with control fed group. The liver LDH and MDH activity were significantly lower in lecithin, betaine, and choline fed groups. The muscle AST as well as G6PDH, AST, and ALT did not vary but liver ALT, gill and liver ATPase, intestine ALP, muscle and liver glycogen varied significantly with dietary supplementation. The liver and gill glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly lower in methyl donors-supplemented groups and brain AChE activity showed lower inhibition in supplemented groups in both endosulfan alone and concurrently exposed endosulfan and temperature groups. The result obtained in this study concludes that inclusion of methyl donors, particularly lecithin and betaine in feed as nutritional supplements have potential to improve growth and stress mitigating effect in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:22367487

Kumar, Neeraj; Jadhao, S B; Jha, A K; Kumar, Kundan; Chandan, N K; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Aklakur, Md; Kumar, Saurav; Rana, R S



Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic characterization and optimization of Pb(II) biosorption by fish (Labeo rohita) scales.  


The present study reports the use of locally available fish (Labeo rohita) scales for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption (196.8 mg g(-1)) occurred at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption was found to be pH, dose, initial metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed dependent while particle size and temperature independent. Experimental data of Pb(II) biosorption onto fish scales fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model in comparison to the model of Langmuir. The fast adsorption process in first 30 min followed by subsequent slow adsorption rate was suitably described by pseudo-second order model. In addition, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical pretreatments on surface properties of fish scales by the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis. Physical pretreatments resulted in partial degradation of some functional groups. Alkaline pretreatments of fish scales did not have any significant influence on the nature of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) uptake, while acidic pretreatments resulted in degeneration of the most of functional groups on biosorbent cell wall. FTIR analysis confirmed the involvement of amino, carboxylic, phosphate and carbonyl groups in Pb(II) biosorption by fish scales. PMID:18242826

Nadeem, Raziya; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar



Behavioral and morphological endpoints: as an early response to sublethal malathion intoxication in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.  


A short-term definitive test by the static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC(50)) of commercial-grade organophosphate insecticide, malathion (50% EC) on the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations of malathion for 96 hours. The acute toxicity (LC(50)) of malathion was found to be 4.5 microg/L. One tenth (1/10, 0.45 microg/L) of the acute toxicity value was selected as the sublethal concentration for subacute studies. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration for 1, 5, 10, and 15 days and allowed to recover in toxicant-free medium for 15 days. Behavioral responses and morphological deformities were studied in the experimental tenures. Fish in toxic media exhibited irregular, random, circular swimming movements, hyperexcitability, loss of equilibrium, and sinking to the bottom. Caudal bending was the prime morphological malformation. The behavioral and morphological deformities were due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Inhibition of AChE activity results in excess accumulation of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, leading to hyperstimulation and cessation of neuronal transmission (i.e., paralysis). The carp were found under stress, but mortality was insignificant at the sublethal concentration tested. Impaired behavioral responses and morphological deformities were observed during recovery. This may be a consequence due to inhibition of brain and muscular AChE by malaoxon, via the biotransformation of sequestered malathion. PMID:20307142

Patil, Vineetkumar K; David, Muniswamy



Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.



Mercuric chloride induced toxicity responses in the olfactory epithelium of Labeo rohita (Hamilton): a light and electron microscopy study.  


Bioaccumulation of mercury and histomorphological changes in the olfactory epithelium of Labeo rohita were investigated after exposing the fish to two sublethal concentrations of HgCl? (66 and 132 ?g/L) for 15 and 30 days. Mercury deposition increased in the tissue significantly (p < 0.05) with dose- and duration-dependent manner. Severe damage to the olfactory epithelium was evident. When fish exposed to 66 ?g/L for 15 days, the histology of olfactory epithelium exhibited that mucous cell proliferation was upregulated and cell size was significantly increased from the control. Similar trends were found in 30 days exposure in both treated groups. Histology showed that mercury induced degeneration of columnar sensory cells, supporting cells and ciliated non-sensory cells and induced basal cell proliferation. Basal cell hyperplasia led to form intraepithelial proliferative lesion, thickening of epithelium, basal lamina disruption and cyst formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mercury exposure at 66 ?g/L caused clumping and loss of cilia, erosion in microridges on the supporting cells and proliferation of mucous cell opening. Complete degeneration of ciliated cells and cyst formation was observed in the fish when exposed to 132 ?g/L HgCl?. This result suggests that prolonged exposure to mercury might cause irreversible damage to the olfactory epithelium and impair the olfactory function of fish. PMID:23807681

Ghosh, Debasree; Mandal, Dipak Kumar



Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita



Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility  

PubMed Central

Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan



Duckweed ( Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal as a source of feedstuff in formulated diets for rohu ( Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish intestinal bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.2 kcalg?1 approximately) diets were formulated including raw and fermented duckweed (Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) intestine and having extracellular amylolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activities was used for leaf meal fermentation for 15 days

A Bairagi; K Sarkar Ghosh; S. K Sen; A. K Ray



In situ kinetics of renal ?-glucuronidase in teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


?-glucuronidase is the lysosomal enzyme that increases in the tissues of animals in response to xenobiotics entering the body. Kidney is one of the organs where all the xenobiotics can be carried along with the blood for filtration, and therefore, this enzyme may be present in large amount. Ours is probably the first attempt in the teleost to study the kinetics of enzyme ?-glucuronidase. It has been observed that this enzyme exhibits highest activity at pH 5 in the solution of 0.1 M acetate buffer at 38°C. Enhanced activity was noted at 52°C. However, activity starts declining up to 70°C, but above this temperature, the enzyme activity is completely inhibited, indicating heat-stable behavior. Five hours incubation at 38°C was the maximum time required to accomplish the reaction. The increase both in the substrate and in the enzyme concentration increased the reaction velocity. The Vmax and Michaelis constant (Km) recorded in the present study are 8.83 ?g/h and 1.33 mM. The present study will have importance in understanding the basic health of fish. PMID:19946795

Chilke, Arun M



Cloning of cDNA and prediction of peptide structure of Plzf expressed in the spermatogonial cells of Labeo rohita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf) gene containing an evolutionary conserved BTB (bric-a-brac\\/tramtrack\\/broad complex) domain plays a key role in self-renewal of mammalian spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) via recruiting transcriptional co-repressors. Little is known about the function of Plzf in vertebrate, especially in fish species. To gain better understanding of its role in fishes, we have cloned Plzf from the

Chinmayee Mohapatra; Hirak Kumar Barman; Rudra Prasanna Panda; Sunil Kumar; Varsha Das; Ramya Mohanta; Shibani Dutta Mohapatra; Pallipuram Jayasankar



Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?  


Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans. PMID:25130903

Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E



Ultrastructural characteristics and histological impacts of Myxobolus naffari (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting Nile labeo Labeo niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae).  


We describe the ultrastructural characteristics and histological impacts of Myxobolus naffari Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 1998, which infects the Nile fish Labeo niloticus. The prevalence of infection was 65%, with the maximum rate occurring during winter and a lower rate during summer. The histological impacts were manifested as a fusion of the gill epithelia, hyperplasia at the ends of the plasmodia, and atrophy of the external surface of the plasmodia. The ultrastructural study revealed that the plasmodial wall was composed of a single unit membrane and bound externally by a thick layer of collagen fibers. The earliest recognizable stage was the disporous pansporoblast. The development of the parasite was asynchronous, with mature and immature spores randomly distributed throughout the plasmodium. PMID:20815329

Abdel-Baki, A S; Sakran, T; Fayed, H; Zayed, E



Modulation of key metabolic enzyme of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juvenile: effect of dietary starch type, protein level and exogenous ?-amylase in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to delineate the effect of both gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) corn with or\\u000a without supplementation of exogenous ?-amylase, either at optimum (35%) or sub-optimum (27%) protein levels, on blood glucose,\\u000a and the key metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, HK), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase, G6Pase and fructose-1,6\\u000a bisphosphatase, FBPase), lipogenesis (glucose-6 phaosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD) and

Shivendra Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Vidya Sagar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Kartik Baruah



Identification of promoter within the first intron of Plzf gene expressed in carp spermatogonial stem cells.  


Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in survival and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells including embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in mammals. Its cDNA was characterized and expression in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu (Labeo rohita), a farmed carp, was documented. In teleost, the information on its promoter activity is lacking. Here, we have isolated, sequenced and performed the first characterization of regulatory elements for Plzf being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu. About 3.2 kb of 5'-flanking region, relative to ATG start codon, derived by genome walking was sequenced. The 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis not only mapped the transcriptional start site but also detected non-coding exons. Interestingly, computational analysis detected several putative regulatory elements including TATA-box positioned in the first intron. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for serially deleted constructs to measure their promoter activities. The region containing putative TATA- and CAAT-boxes including GC-rich motif, positioned within first intron, was identified as a potential promoter; but its full promoter activity was dependent on upstream region containing a putative Evi-1-like element. Moreover, our findings also identified a region acting as transcriptional repressor. These findings could be used as roadmap for future understandings of its regulated expression during male germ cell development in fish species. PMID:24990695

Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.  


Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M



Ovarian development in Labeo dyocheilus (McClelland) during active reproductive phase under captive and wild conditions.  


Ovarian development in Labeo dyocheilus was assessed during active reproductive phase under ambient environmental conditions in captivity and wild. Increasing day length and water temperature seemed favourable for ovarian development in female L. dyocheilus under both conditions. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) was lower in May and higher in July in captivity (6.168 and 13.366) and wild (5.798 and 16.166) respectively Ovarian development started little bit in advance in captivity with late yolk vesicle stage oocyte in May when yolk globule stage oocytes were prominent in wild. Fully grown oocytes with germinal vesicle migration (GVM) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stages were observed in July in both conditions. Degree of transformation of developing oogonials into advance stage oocytes was observed to be better in wild fish compared to captivity reared ones. The histophysiological changes in liver corresponded well to the progression of ovarian development. Successive granulation and vacuolization of hepatocyte cytoplasm were indicative of augmented synthetic activity and probably mobilization of energy content for oocyte growth. These observations indicated that normal ovarian development of L. dyocheilus under captivity in Tarai region of Uttarakhand would be useful for success of its seed production in captivity for stock augmentation in wild or species diversification in aquaculture. PMID:18831368

Singh, Ajeet; Singh, I J; Ram, R N; Kushwaha, B



Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie



Thelohanellus niloticus sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of the Nile carp Labeo niloticus from the River Nile, Egypt.  


In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Thelohanellus niloticus sp. nov., a new myxozoan belonging to genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting the gills of Labeo niloticus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae), were described for the first time from the River Nile at El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Forty-one out of 78 (52.6 %) of the examined fish were infected. The infection was observed as irregular, milky whitish, cyst-like plasmodia (up to 0.8 mm in diameter) attached to the gill filaments of the host fish. These plasmodia contained tear-shaped myxospores with slightly tapering anterior and rounded posterior ends. Each spore has a single pyriform polar capsule. Spores measured about 23.3?±?0.3 (20.4-27.1) ?m long and 13.4?±?0.4 (11.5-14.2) ?m wide. The polar capsule was 11.7?±?0.3 (9.2-12.5) ?m long and 4.7?±?0.3 (3.5-6.2) ?m wide, containing a polar filament coiled perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the spore body making eight turns. Occasionally, an oblong, irregular-shaped mass of protoplasm with a slightly oval nucleus (1.4 ?m in diameter) and a small iodinophilous vacuole measured 0.85?±?0.2 ?m (0.73-1.2 ?m) were observed in the spore. Due to the lack of the second polar capsule characterizing Myxobolus sp., the present parasite is placed within the genus Thelohanellus. Based on morphological differences (compared with other members of Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933) and the host specificity, this species is described as a new one of the genus Thelohanellus recorded for the first time in Egypt. PMID:23073570

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; El-Ganainy, Sahar; Gamal, Shams



Toxicity of textile waste to some teleost fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

LC50 values for different periods, acute toxicity ranges and presumable harmless concentrations, along with relative susceptibility of a few freshwater teleost fish to textile waste have been determined. The presumable harmless concentration to regulate the disposal of this waste was 1.1254, 0.4966, 0.9912, 1.0157, and 1.086% by volume for fish, Saccobranchus fossilis, Labeo rohita, Notopterus notopterus, Colisa fasciatus, and Ophiocephalus

S. R. Verma; A. K. Tyagi; R. C. Dalela



Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  


The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah



Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah



The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  


The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati



Characterization and physical mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in Indian major carps (Pisces, Cyprinidae).  


Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species. PMID:23587674

Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S



Studies on Trichodinid and Chilodonellid Ciliophorans (Protozoa: Ciliophora) in the Indian freshwater and estuarine fishes with description of Trichodinella sunderbanensis sp. nov. and Trichodina nandusi sp. nov.  


A comprehensive icthyoparasotological survey among estuarine and freshwater fishes of West Bengal, India revealed Trichodinella sunderbanensis sp. nov. and Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961 from an estuarine fish Mystus gulio (Hamilton, 1822) from the Vidyadhari river; Trichodina nandusi sp. nov. from a freshwater fish, Nandus nandus (Hamilton-Buchanan); Chilodonella hexasticha (Kiernik, 1909) Kahl, 1931 from freshwater fishes Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822); and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 from the Rupnarayan river. Taxonomic description of all the species based on wet silver nitrate impregnation method along with additional comments based on scanning electron microscopic descriptions of T. nandusi sp. nov. are also provided in this paper. Prevalence rate, morphometric parameters and comparisons with closely related species are also discussed. PMID:23269510

Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun



Ecotoxicological effects of jute retting on the survival of two freshwater fish and two invertebrates.  


Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW. PMID:18157635

Mondal, Debjit Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava



Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.  


In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?Labeo rohita (395 in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A



Lipotropes promote immunobiochemical plasticity and protect fish against low-dose pesticide-induced oxidative stress.  


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of different lipotropes in modulating immunity and biochemical plasticity under conditions of sublethal low-dose pesticide-induced stress in fish. Labeo rohita fish fingerlings were divided in two sets with one set of fish continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan (1/10th of 96-h LC50) for 21 days, the other was unexposed, and both sets of fish were fed with practical diets supplemented with either 2 % lecithin, 0.5 % betaine, or 0.1 % choline and compared against unsupplemented diet. Low-dose endosulfan exposure had adverse effects (P?rohita fingerlings even when continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan. PMID:23666764

Muthappa, N A; Gupta, Subodh; Yengkokpam, Sona; Debnath, Dipesh; Kumar, Neeraj; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay B



FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532



The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)  

SciTech Connect

Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

Alam, M.K.



Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382



Reproductive biology of four large riverine fishes (Cyprinidae) in a man-made lake, Orange River, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology ofBarbus holubi, B. kimberleyensis, Labeo capensis andL. umbratus was examined in a large reservoir on the Orange River, South Africa. The findings are integrated into the existing knowledge on largeBarbus andLabeo species, which coexist in most river systems in Africa and Asia.

T. Tómasson; J. A. Cambray; P. B. N. Jackson




Microsoft Academic Search

The salient features of the existing state of the fish seed industry, with special reference to food fishes, in different parts of India are described. Details of the Bengal trade in spawn and fry of the major carps like Catla, Rohu, Mrigal and Calbasu is detailed. Seed collection and stocking of carps such as Labsojmbri- atus and the transplanted Catla



The distribution and relative abundance of stream fishes in the upper Manyame River, Zimbabwe, in relation to land use, pollution and exotic predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the upper Manyame River catchment, middle Zambezi system, Zimbabwe, yielded a total of 22 fish species from 48 stations. The most widespread species (present at >20 stations) were Marcusenius macrolepidotus, Barbus paludinosus, Labeo cylindricus, Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia sparrmanii. The most numerous species (>10% of the total) were B. paludinosus, B. lineomaculatus and T. sparrmanii. A number

B Gratwicke; B E Marshall; T Nhiwatiwa




E-print Network

Salvelinus fontinalis HENDERSON (1962) qualifie également les cellules de la paroi des lobules de « lobules'espace extralobulaire). Il s'agit de : Esox lucius, Salvelinus willughbü et Labeo (MARSH!,r, et LOFTS, ig56 ; LOFTS et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.  


A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean



Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D



Occurrence of Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India.  


Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) ?m in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) ?m and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) ?m in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238

Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Bhowmik, Biplab



First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel



Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus - a review  

PubMed Central

Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine.

Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat



Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus - a review.  


Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat



Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.  


Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives. PMID:24191617

Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A



Efficacy of doramectin against natural and experimental infections of Lernaea cyprinacea in carps.  


Efficacy of doramectin administered via oral and parenteral routes against experimentally induced and natural infections of the copepod parasite Lernaea cyprinacea in carps was studied. Administration of doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kg b.wt. of fish for 10 days effectively controlled experimentally induced Lernaea infection in Labeo fimbriatus fingerlings within an average of 19 days of post-treatment as compared to the normal course of 41 days. Similarly, doramectin given through feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish for 10 days was equally effective in controlling natural infection of this parasite in the underyearlings of Catla catla and L. fimbriatus. Intramuscular administration of doramectin at 200microg/kgb.wt. of fish effectively removed adult Lernaea infection in L. fimbriatus as early as 18 days of treatment as compared to the time period of 43 days taken by the untreated fish to get rid of the infection. Single intramuscular administration of the drug was more effective against the parasite than its administration in multiple divided doses. In all cases, doramectin did not cause any noticeable adverse reactions or toxicity to the fish host. In view of the handling associated stress and other operational difficulties involved, a single intramuscular administration of the drug at 200microg/kgb.wt. is suggested for treatment of heavily infected adults and brood stock of carps. Doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish is best suited for treatment of Lernaea infection in young fish including fingerlings. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin upon its administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impact of its usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of this drug for control of parasitic infections of aquatic organisms. PMID:18650018

Hemaprasanth, K P; Raghavendra, A; Singh, Ravinder; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R



Hyaline-cell cartilage (chondroid) in the heads of teleosts.  


The structure and distribution of hyaline-cell cartilage (chondroid) (HCC) in the heads of teleosts has been studied in 48 species from 16 families. The tissue is pale-staining and has closely-packed, hyaline cells that are separated by a small quantity of matrix. The matrix has only a mild affinity for alcian blue and the cells are not shrunken within lacunae. Two subtypes of the tissue are here described--fibrohyaline-cell cartilage (chondroid) where collagen fibres are prominent in the matrix, and lipohyaline-cell cartilage where fat and hyaline cells are intermingled. An elastic hyaline-cell cartilage has been described previously. Associations of HCC with dense fibrous connective tissue, mucochondroid, hyaline cartilage and bone are described. Lists are provided of membrane and cartilages bones to which the tissue is attached and of species in which it is common. Suitable 'type examples' for reference and for further study include the cartilage in the rostral folds of the red-tailed black shark, Labeo bicolor and the flying fox, Epalzeorhynchus kalopterus. HCC occurs in lips and rostral folds, in pre-palatine and submaxillary menisci, in ligaments, at the anterior end of the basihyal, in the pectoral girdle, in adhesive discs, in gill arches, beneath the basioccipital chewing pad, in barbels, next to the facial nerve, around the olfactory region and in the core of the nasal skin flaps. It is a particularly important tissue in cyprinids and related fish, and enormous masses of it are present in the black shark, Morulius chrysophekadion and the Hong Kong pleco, Pseudogastromyzon myersi. It acts as a damper against the contractions of the heart or the pressure of occluding pharyngeal teeth, and it provides the mouth region of bottom-dwelling, algal eaters with flexible support. In relation to Schaffer's classification of supporting tissues, I confirm a distinction between HCC and Zellknorpel. PMID:2916751

Benjamin, M