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Sample records for rohu labeo rohita

  1. Effects of cypermethrin on survival, morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early development.

    PubMed

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Zuberi, Amina; Azizullah, Azizullah; Khan Khattak, Muhammad Nasir

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub-lethal doses of Cypermethrin (CYP) on the survival and morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early developmental stages. Newly fertilized eggs were incubated in the presence of sub-lethal concentration of CYP (20% of LC50 i.e., 8.43?gL(-1)) in a well designed flow through system. Increased mortality was found with increase in exposure time. Deformities like eroded yolk and margins, elongated yolk sac, larvae with short tail, no eyes or larvae with zigzag movement and paralyzed larvae were observed in CYP treated group from blastula to fry stage. The activities of antioxidant like Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Lactoperoxidase (LPO) were decreased from 24 to 96h in the control group whereas increased in CYP treated group. The Glutathione reducatse (GR) activity was also increased with time in both the control and treated groups; however, the activity was significantly higher in CYP treated group. Similarly, the whole body cortisol level showed an increasing trend with time in both control and treated groups. However, in CYP exposed group the cortisol level was considerably higher after 24h exposure but statistically comparable to the control group after 96h. It can be concluded from the present results that CYP even at very low concentration adversely affects the early development of L.rohita and enhances mortality. The obtained results reveal that CYP may affect the wild population of fish by inducing oxidative stress and modulating stress response during early ontogenesis. PMID:26408976

  2. Identification of Deleterious Mutations in Myostatin Gene of Rohu Carp (Labeo rohita) Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Mohapatra, Shibani D.; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A) of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P) were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies.

  3. The ?-actin gene promoter of rohu carp (Labeo rohita) drives reporter gene expressions in transgenic rohu and various cell lines, including spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Mohanta, Ramya; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandanpawar, Priyanka

    2015-06-01

    We previously characterized the ?-actin gene promoter of Indian domesticated rohu carp (Labeo rohita) and made a reporter construct via fusion to green fluorescence protein (GFP) cDNA. In this study, the same construct was used to breed transgenic rohu fish. About 20% of the transgenic offspring showed ubiquitous expression of the reporter GFP gene. In a few of the transgenic fish, we documented massive epithelial and/or muscular expression with visible green color under normal light. The expression of GFP mRNA was higher in the muscle tissue of transgenic fish than in that of non-transgenic fish. A highly efficient nucleofection protocol was optimized to transfect proliferating spermatogonial cells of rohu using this reporter construct. The ?-actin promoter also drove expressions in HEK293 (derived from human embryonic kidney cells), K562 (human leukemic cells) and SF21 (insect ovarian cells) lines. These findings imply conserved regulatory mechanisms of ?-actin gene expression across eukaryotes. Furthermore, the isolated ?-actin promoter with consensus regulatory elements has the potential to be used in generating transgenic carp with genes of interest and in basic biology research. PMID:26204405

  4. Molecular characterization of two kiss genes and their expression in rohu (Labeo rohita) during annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Sengupta, Sushmita; Nayak, Madhusmita; Samanta, Mrinal; Sahoo, Lakshman; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin is an important regulator of reproduction in mammals and presumably non-mammalian species. In the Indian subcontinent, rohu (Labeo rohita) is a commercially important seasonal breeder freshwater fish species, but till date, the expression of kisspeptin gene during different phases of annual reproductive cycle has not been investigated. To address this, we cloned and characterized kiss1 and kiss2 full-length cDNA by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and analyzed their expressions in brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay at various gonadal developmental stages of the annual reproductive cycle. Full-length rohu kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA encodes 116 and 125 amino acids respectively, and in the adult fish, they were widely expressed in brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, muscle, kidney, intestine and eye. In male, kiss1 mRNA in brain and testis showed the highest level of expression during meiosis division of the gonad. The kiss2 mRNA revealed the highest expression during recrudescence stages in the brain, spermiation stages in pituitary and post-spawning stages in testes. In females, significantly (p<0.05) a higher level of kiss1 transcript was expressed in brain and ovary, in the full grown oocyte stages, whereas during pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages in pituitary. The kiss2 gene expression was almost similar at various gonadal developmental stages in the brain and ovary, but, highest expression was detected in full grown oocyte stages in the pituitary. These results together may suggest the involvement of two kiss genes in the control of seasonal gonadal development in rohu. PMID:26506261

  5. A linkage map of transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms in rohu (Labeo rohita) and QTL associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Production of carp dominates world aquaculture. More than 1.1 million tonnes of rohu carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), were produced in 2010. Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis in rohu, and is a major problem for carp production worldwide. There is a need to better understand the genetic mechanisms affecting resistance to this disease, and to develop tools that can be used with selective breeding to improve resistance. Here we use a 6 K SNP array to genotype 21 full-sibling families of L. rohita that were experimentally challenged intra-peritoneally with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci associated with disease resistance. Results In all, 3193 SNPs were found to be informative and were used to create a linkage map and to scan for QTL affecting resistance to A. hydrophila. The linkage map consisted of 25 linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid chromosomes in L. rohita. Male and female linkage maps were similar in terms of order, coverage (1384 and 1393 cM, respectively) and average interval distances (1.32 and 1.35 cM, respectively). Forty-one percent of the SNPs were annotated with gene identity using BLAST (cut off E-score of 0.001). Twenty-one SNPs mapping to ten linkage groups showed significant associations with the traits hours of survival and dead or alive (P <0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Of the SNPs showing significant or suggestive associations with the traits, several were homologous to genes of known immune function or were in close linkage to such genes. Genes of interest included heat shock proteins (70, 60, 105 and “small heat shock proteins”), mucin (5b precursor and 2), lectin (receptor and CD22), tributyltin-binding protein, major histocompatibility loci (I and II), complement protein component c7-1, perforin 1, ubiquitin (ligase, factor e4b isoform 2 and conjugation enzyme e2 c), proteasome subunit, T-cell antigen receptor and lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase. Conclusions A panel of markers has been identified that will be validated for use with both genomic and marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of L. rohita to A. hydrophila. PMID:24984705

  6. Acute and subchronic toxicity of aflatoxin B1 to rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Mukherjee, S C; Nayak, S K; Dey, S

    2001-05-01

    Pathological alterations in various organs of rohu (L. rohita) fingerlings following acute (0, 7.50, 11.25 and 13.75 mg/kg body weight) and subchronic (0, 1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg body weight) single i.p. aflatoxin B1 exposure for 10 and 90 days, respectively, were investigated. Mortality (dose-dependent) was marked only during acute toxicosis. The changes observed in various organs were dose and time dependent. The acute dose groups revealed toxic changes viz., necrotic and vascular changes in liver and gill lamellae; meningitis, congestion in brain, degeneration and inflammatory reaction in heart along with degenerative to necrotic changes in kidney tubules and sloughing of the intestinal mucosa. During subchronic exposure to this toxin, preneoplastic lesions in liver along with changes in spleen, intestine, gill and pancreas were recorded. With low doses of aflatoxin, the fish did not reveal any mortality or external signs other than catchexia and increased pigmentation on scales. In composite culture practice of Indian major carps, this could be of economic significance. PMID:11510129

  7. Contamination of metals in different tissues of rohu (Labeo rohita, Cyprinidae) collected from the Indian River Ganga.

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

    2013-07-01

    In the present paper, accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) was determined in different tissues (skin, muscles, liver, gills, kidney and brain) of rohu (Labeo rohita) collected from the River Ganga in Varanasi, India. Concentrations of Cu (except gills), Fe and Cr (except brain for Cr) in most of the tissues were above the permissible safe limits for human consumption suggested by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1983). Concentrations of all metals were higher in River Ganga fish than those from the University fish farm. With the exception of Zn in skin, muscle and brain tissue, the studied metals were bioaccumulated in all tissues. The total metal accumulation or metal pollution index was highest in liver (20.80.50) followed by kidney (16.80.44), gills (15.20.15), muscles (12.10.08), skin (10.50.53) and brain (7.00.02). PMID:23666260

  8. Expression analysis of heat shock protein genes during Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu, Labeo rohita, with special reference to molecular characterization of Grp78.

    PubMed

    Das, Sweta; Mohapatra, Amruta; Sahoo, P K

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) genes are stress-related genes that activate the host immune system during infection. Hsp genes expression in fish, studied during bacterial infections, is mostly confined to Hsp70 and Hsp90. The present study is an expression analysis of seven Hsp genes: Apg2, Hsp90, Hsp70, glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70), Grp75, and Hsp30 during Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu, Labeo rohita. Forty-eight rohu juveniles were challenged with 3??10(7)cfu bacteria per 20g of body weight intraperitoneally. The expression of these genes was studied in infected liver, anterior kidney, and spleen tissues of rohu at different time periods: 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72h, 7, and 15days post-infection by qPCR. The Hsp gene modulation was greater in liver as compared to spleen and kidney tissues. Induced expression of Apg2, Hsp90, Grp78, Grp75, and Hsc70 was noticed during peak periods (3 to 24h post-challenge) of bacterial infectivity. Hsp70 was found to be down-regulated during the process of infection. In contrast to the other six genes, Hsp30 showed a variable expression pattern in all three tissues. Grp78 was found to be the most highly (1,587-fold) expressed gene in liver at 12h post-challenge. Further, molecular characterization of Grp78 revealed it to be a highly conserved Hsp gene, essential not only during infection but also during early developmental stages of rohu, and its expression was noticed in all organs studied except in gill tissues, which indicated its potential immune regulatory role during infection process. PMID:25037476

  9. Four pro-inflammatory cytokines of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early developmental stages, their tissue distribution and expression by leucocytes upon in-vitro stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dash, P; Patel, S; Dixit, A; Garg, L C; Sahoo, P K

    2015-12-01

    Cytokines are important components of both adaptive and innate immunity, and are required to initiate and regulate immune responses following infection. The ontogeny and tissue specific distribution of four pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), IL-8 and IL-1? in rohu (Labeo rohita), and their responses by leucocytes from anterior-kidney/head-kidney (HKLs), spleen (SPLs) and peripheral blood (PBLs) following stimulation with concanavalin A (ConA), ConA with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (ConA/PMA) and formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells (FAH) were studied. In ontogeny study, mRNA levels of IL-6 and IL-1? were evident in unfertilized egg stages of L.rohita whereas IL-8 and TNF-? transcripts were found from 1 to 3h post-fertilization (hpf) onwards till day 15 post-fertilization, respectively. Basal level of all four cytokines was observed in all twelve tissues (eye, brain, heart, gill, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, spleen, liver, skin, muscle, hindgut and foregut) of L.rohita juveniles. Expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were found to be the highest in liver and heart tissues, respectively, while TNF-? transcripts were high in anterior kidney and liver tissues. Transcripts of IL-1? showed high expression in muscle, heart and spleen. Upon invitro stimulation of leucocytes, there was variable up-regulation of all the four cytokines following different treatments throughout the experimental time period. Induction of cytokines was more pronounced in PBLs stimulated with FAH compared to other stimuli. However, an up-regulated IL-8 expression was evident in all the leucocytes following stimulation with FAH thus indicating IL-8 could be used as an indicator or indirect marker to monitor vaccine status or health status of L.rohita during bacterial infection. PMID:26518505

  10. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16 GB, 72 bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  11. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  12. Genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Labeo rohita using Alkaline Single-cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Ali, Rahat; Ali, Tayyaba; Mobeen, Ameena

    2014-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide of organophosphate group, which causes severe toxicological effects in non target aquatic organisms especially in fish. In the present study the genotoxic effects of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were observed in the erythrocytes and gill cells of Labeo rohita (commonly known as rohu) using the Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the behavior of the fish were also investigated. The 96 h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos, estimated by Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) in static bioassay, was found to be 442.8 µg/L. On the basis of LC50 value, the fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (SL-I ∼221.4 µg/L, SL- II ∼110.7 µg/L and SL-III ∼73.8 µg/L) for 96 h. Blood and gill samples were collected at every 24 h and were subjected to the Comet assay. The observed DNA damage was concentration dependent and time dependent and those levels of DNA damage in between the tested concentrations and times were significantly different (p < 0.01). It was also found that the gill cells are more sensitive to chlorpyrifos, though; it revealed more DNA damage as compared to the erythrocytes of fish. Fish exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos showed different neurotoxic behavioral responses. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos is a genotoxic and neurotoxic insecticide causing DNA damage and neurotoxic effects in Labeo rohita. PMID:24524247

  13. Modulation of digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae fed ascorbic acid enriched zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Gopa; Mukhopadhyay, P K; Ayyappan, S

    2008-04-01

    The effect of supplementation of ascorbic acid through enriched zooplankton [10%, 20% and 30% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) inclusion in diet of zooplankton] on different digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae was studied from 4 day to 15 day post hatch. Ascorbic acid (AA) content in different groups of unenriched (8.6+/-0.71) and enriched zooplankton were, 750+/-29.3, 1409.1+/-45.5, 2009.21+/-199.2 mug/g respectively on dry matter basis with differences (P<0.05) between the treatments. A difference (P<0.05) was found in tissue AA level in different dietary groups. Low amylase, protease, lipase and alkaline phosphatase activities were present in rohu larvae from the mouth opening stage which showed increasing trend with the age of larvae and increasing dietary AA content. A clear dose-dependent modulation of digestive enzyme activities in response to 10%, 20% and 30% AP enriched zooplankton feeding was evidenced from positive correlations between dietary AA content with magnitude of elevation of enzyme activity in different groups. There were 57, 55, 29.2 and 2 fold increases in amylase activity; 7.35, 7.02, 4.43 and 2.73 fold increases in protease activity; 45.636, 41.50, 19.83 and 13.69 fold increases in lipase activity and 6, 5, 3, and 2 fold increases in alkaline phosphatase activity observed in the 15th day post hatch larvae fed 20%, 30%, 10%AP enriched and normal zooplankton respectively, than 4-day post hatch larvae of the respective groups. Enzyme activities were also positively correlated with specific growth rates of wet weight of rohu larvae at the 15th day post hatch. Increased AA might have played an important role in advancing morphological transformation of the digestive tract, protecting gastric mucosa and accelerating growth by the process of tissue formation, which necessitated the requirement of more nutrient thereby, increasing digestive enzyme activity. The regulatory role of AA in the modulation of different digestive enzymes activity and its physiological consequences of nutrient digestibility and utilization during ontogenesis could be extrapolated for better nutrient management of the larvae. PMID:18329933

  14. Antagonistic Activity of Cellular Components of Potential Probiotic Bacteria, Isolated from the Gut of Labeo rohita, Against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Sen, Shib Sankar; Vinumonia, J; Banu, B Nazeema; Jena, Prasant Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic activity against A. hydrophila was determined. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed that R1, R2, and R5 were Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Bacillus subtilis VSG1, respectively. Four different fractions of cellular components (i.e. the whole-cell product, heat-killed whole-cell product [HKWCP], intracellular product [ICP], and extracellular product) of these selected strains were effective in an in vitro sensitivity test against 6 A. hydrophila strains. Among the cellular components, the ICP of R1, HKWCP of R2, and ICP of R5 exhibited the strongest antagonistic activities, as evidenced by their inhibition zones. The antimicrobial compounds from these selected cellular components were partially purified by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their properties were analysed. The ranges of pH stability of the purified compounds were wide (3.0-10.0), and compounds were thermally stable up to 90 °C. Considering these results, isolated probiotic strains may find potential applications in the prevention and treatment of aquatic aeromonosis. PMID:26781682

  15. Response of the chromatophores in relation to the healing of skin wounds in an Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Rai, A K; Srivastava, N; Nigam, A K; Kumari, U; Mittal, S; Mittal, A K

    2012-06-01

    Chromatophores show significant changes during healing of skin wounds in Labeo rohita (Common Name--Rohu). Wound area can be divided into regions I, II and III. After infliction of wound, skin colour becomes significantly dark by 2h that is gradually restored by 2d. In regions II and III at 5 min, epidermal melanophores appear with beaded dendrites. In these regions at 2h and in region I at 6h, epidermal melanophores appear small, rounded or irregular shaped having dendritic processes with aggregated melanosomes. Subsequently, melanophores appear having elongated dendrites with dispersed or aggregated melanosomes. At 24h, clusters of pigmented bodies appear in regions I and II. These bodies increase up to 2d, and then diminish gradually and disappear by 8d. Changes in dermal melanophores in region II at 5 min indicate the onset of degeneration. Degenerating melanophores increase up to 12h, then gradually decline, and disappear by 4d. Simultaneously, stellate melanophore reappear, gradually increase and appear like control by 8d. Dermal melanophores in region III at different intervals appear stellate. In region I stellate dermal melanophores appear at 4d. Stellate melanophores in all regions show different distribution of dispersed or aggregated melanosomes. With the appearance of dermal melanophores, highly refractive, crystalline structures, possibly the refractive platelets of the iridophores, are visualized around them. At subsequent intervals, these are frequently observed. This study provides interesting insights in injury induced changes in chromatophores in fish. The findings could be considered useful in perception of intriguing features in the development of pigment research in future. PMID:22321648

  16. Antigen adsorbed calcium phosphate nanoparticles stimulate both innate and adaptive immune response in fish, Labeo rohita H.

    PubMed

    Behera, Truptimayee; Swain, Priyabrat

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an antigen/protein delivery was explored in a fish model Labeo rohita H. S-layer protein (of Aeromonas hydrophila) adsorbed on nano sized calcium phosphate particles elicited both innate and adaptive immune parameters which persisted up to 63 days of post immunization through parenteral immunization and gave cross protections. PMID:21889128

  17. Genomic cloning and sequence analysis of Interleukin-10 from Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Karan, Sweta; Kaushik, Himani; Saini, Nipun; Sahoo, Pramod K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in inflammation, immunoregulation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, it is our interest to isolate, clone, sequence and characterize IL-10 gene from the fish Labeo rohita (Lr). The gene was amplified using genomic DNA isolated from head kidney with primers designed on conserved sequence homologues of fishes belonging to Cyprinidae family. The gLrIL-10 is 1467 nucleotides long with five exons and four introns sharing the same organization as of mammalian IL-10 genes. An open reading frame of 537 bp was found to encode a putative 179 amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids with conserved signature sequence motif. Sequence analysis showed similarity with the IL-10 from most fresh water fishes of Cyprinidae family. LrIL-10 has 27.2 % identity and 54.95 % similarity with the human IL-10. Sequence analysis followed by phylogenetic studies showed highest identity with Catla catla (98%) followed by Cyprinus carpio (93%), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (89%) and is distantly related to human, rhesus monkey and frog. These data from primary sequence characterization may be used to further understand transcriptional regulation and functional characterization of LrIL-10 in relation to species-specific molecular immunology. Abbreviations IL-10 - Interleukin-10, Lr - Labeo rohita, nt - nucleotides. PMID:25489171

  18. Identification of MDP (muramyl dipeptide)-binding key domains in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-2) receptor of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Jitendra; Swain, Banikalyan; Sahoo, Bikash R; Dikhit, Manas R; Basu, Madhubanti; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-08-01

    In lower eukaryotes-like fish, innate immunity contributed by various pattern recognition receptor (PRR) plays an essential role in protection against diseases. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic PRR that recognizes MDP (muramyl dipeptide) of the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as ligand and activates signalling to induce innate immunity. Hypothesizing a similar NOD2 signalling pathway of higher eukaryotes, the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of rohu (Labeo rohita) was stimulated with MDP. The data of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed MDP-mediated inductive expression of NOD2 and its down-stream molecule RICK/RIP2 (receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-2). This observation suggested the existence of MDP-binding sites in rohu NOD2 (rNOD2). To investigate it, 3D model of ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of rNOD2 (rNOD2-LRR) was constructed following ab initio and threading approaches in I-TASSER web server. Structural refinement of the model was performed by energy minimization, and MD (molecular dynamics) simulation was performed in GROMACS (Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulations). The refined model of rNOD2-LRR was validated through SAVES, ProSA, ProQ, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers, and molecular docking with MDP was carried out in GOLD 4.1. The result of docking identified LRR3-7 comprising Lys820, Phe821, Asn822, Arg847, Gly849, Trp877, Trp901 and Trp931 as MDP-binding critical amino acids in rNOD2. This is the first study in fish to provide an insight into the 3D structure of NOD2-LRR region and its important motifs that are expected to be engaged in MDP binding and innate immunity. PMID:23255217

  19. Recovery of Schistosoma haematobium ovum from Labeo rohita: first report from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, M M; Nazir, M M; Lashari, M H; Akhtar, S; Khosa, M A; Aziz, M; Zahid, H; Ali, S; Muneeb, M; Malik, A; Haider, S; Zafar, Z

    2015-09-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma that can infect humans and animals. S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi all causes intestinal schistosomiasis except S. haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis. It is only specie which effects urinary system, it can affect liver, heart, lungs also but very rarely. Schistosoma haematobium is endemic to over 50 countries in Africa and the Middle East and Western Asia and may be fatal in HIV positive people. A number of reports from the African countries like Nigeria have been reported. A few cases are reported but in Pakistan it has never been reported before in native people. It is first time reported in Pakistan in the intestine of Rahu (Labeo rohita). The purpose of this study is to elaborate the approach of zoonotic agent by various other routes including the commonly available fish. PMID:26695198

  20. Plasmid-mediated dimethoate degradation by Bacillus licheniformis isolated from a fresh water fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F-) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686

  1. Physico-chemical characterization and biological response of Labeo rohita-derived hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S; Mondal, A; Mandal, N; Mondal, B; Mukhopadhyay, S S; Dey, A; Singh, S

    2014-07-01

    The chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterials. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses of fish scale materials reveal the different phase changes with temperature and find out the suitable calcination temperatures. The composition and structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powders are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The EDX as well as chemical analysis of fish scale-derived apatite materials confirms that the Ca/P ratio is 1.71. The compressive stress, hardness and porosity have been evaluated on sintered HAp biomaterials. The cell attachment on HAp surfaces, cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay, which are carried out in RAW macrophage-like cell line media demonstrate good biocompatibility. The histological analysis also supports the bioaffinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface. PMID:24288117

  2. Physiological changes in Labeo rohita during nitrite exposure: detoxification through dietary vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Ciji, Alexander; Sahu, Narottam Prasad; Pal, Asim Kumar; Akhtar, Mohammad Shahbaz

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of sub-lethal nitrite-nitrogen exposure on Labeo rohita. Fishes fed with different levels of vitamin E (VE) for 60days were exposed to nitrite for another 45days with same feeding regime. There were four treatment groups, viz., VE100-N, VE100+N, VE150+N and VE300+N. After 45days of exposure, lowest specific growth rate was observed in VE100+N and highest in VE100-N. Reno-somatic index and methaemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. Highest Hb and Hct were observed in VE100-N and significantly decreased upon nitrite exposure. Significant differences were observed in the activities of catalase and SOD as well as serum potassium and chloride levels among different treatments. However, serum calcium and osmolality was not significantly varied. Nitrite exposure caused marked increase in nitrite concentration in gill, liver and muscle. In liver and muscle dietary supplementation of higher amounts of VE found to reduce nitrite accumulation. It was noticed that nitrite exposure has adversely affected growth, haematological variables, ionic balance and dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE found to overcome the adverse effects of nitrite-nitrogen. Detoxification of nitrite by methaemoglobin reductase system was enhanced by dietary supplementation of additional amounts of VE. PMID:23727021

  3. The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

  4. Behavioral and respiratory dysfunction in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) under malathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vineetkumar K; David, M

    2008-01-01

    A short term definitive test by static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC50) of the commercial grade organophosphate insecticide malathion (50% EC) in the freshwater edible fish, Labeo rohita. Carp fingerlings were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations (6.0 to 10.1 microL/L) of malathion. The acute toxicity value was found to be 9.0 microL/L and one tenth of LC50 (0.9 microL/L) was selected for sub acute studies. Behavioral patterns and oxygen consumption were studied in lethal (1, 2, 3, and 4 d) and sublethal concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 d). Carp in toxic media exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, hyperexcitability, and loss of equilibrium and sinking to the bottom, which might be due to the inactivation of acetylcholine esterase activity, resulting in excess accumulation of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses leading to hyperstimulation. Variation in oxygen consumption (70.39% to 80.50%/4.45% to 21.35%) was observed in both lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion, respectively. Such alterations in oxygen consumption may be due to respiratory distress because of impairment in oxidative metabolism. Fish at sub lethal concentrations were found under stress, but that was not fatal. PMID:19024933

  5. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6?mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45?mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5?mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45?mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F?) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54?kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54?kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686

  6. Effect of cellular products of potential probiotic bacteria on the immune response of Labeo rohita and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immunological efficacy of cellular components from the potential probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis VSG1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 was evaluated in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL phosphate-buffer solution (PBS) containing 0.1 mg of any of the following cellular components: intercellular products (ICPs) of VSG1 (BS-ICPs), heat-killed whole cell products of VSG2 (PA-HKWCPs), or ICPs of VSG3 (LP-ICPs). Fish injected with 0.1 mL PBS served as the control. Various immunological parameters, including the expression of immune-related genes, were measured 14 and 21 days post-immunization. The fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded up to 21 days post-infection. The results revealed that administration of cellular components significantly increased the activity of serum lysozyme and the alternative complement pathway, phagocytosis, and respiratory bursts throughout the experimental period. Total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels were significantly higher in experimental groups than in the control up to 14 days post-immunization, and decreased thereafter. With respect to immune-related genes, IL-1β, COX-2, iNOS, and IL-10 were highly (P < 0.05) up-regulated in fish immunized with cellular components, compared to the control. The expression of TNF-α and NF-κB was up-regulated in immunized fish up to 14 days post-immunization. Interestingly, fish immunized with LP-ICPs exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge relative percent survival (83.32%), followed by PA-HKWCPs (66.66%), and BS-ICPs (50%). These results indicate that cellular components of probiotic bacteria can influence immune responses, enhance disease protection, and stimulate immune-related gene expression in rohu. Hence, these cellular components may be useful as adjuvants for vaccines in aquaculture. PMID:26282681

  7. Scales of freshwater fish Labeo rohita as bioindicators of water pollution in Tung Dhab Drain, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of municipal wastewater on scale morphology of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6, or 35.4%) of municipal wastewater for durations of 15, 30, and 60 d. Recovery experiments were also performed for a duration of 60 d. Scales were extracted after respective exposure periods, cleaned, and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Results showed concentration- and exposure duration-dependent alterations in the morphology of scales. Severe damage was observed at the anterior and posterior portions of scales in the form of lepidontal breakage and uprooting, destructions at the base of circuli and radii along with complete structural loss in the focal region and adjacent circuli and radii, and alterations in structure of tubercles. Data indicate that scales of fish L. rohita may be employed as bioindicators of water pollution and could be incorporated into water monitoring surveillance. PMID:25734766

  8. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  9. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.

    2015-02-01

    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  10. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  11. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of malathion induces significant cellular, biochemical and histological alterations in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subrata; Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of malathion, an organophosphate pesticide, raises the possibility of its undesirable toxicity to non-target organisms. Agricultural run-off and vector control sprays are the major sources of exposure to this pesticide for aquatic organisms. Some earlier studies have reported the presence of malathion at concentrations ranging from 18.12?g/L to 105.2?g/L in various water samples. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that these sub-lethal yet environmentally significant concentrations of malathion has serious toxicological implications on the fingerlings of Labeo rohita. Exposure to increasing concentration of malathion (10, 50 and 100?g/L) was reflected in the serum concentration of the pesticide and also in the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in fish brains. Increased abnormalities in liver function test coupled with a rise in the oxidative stress response were observed in gills, liver and kidney. However, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities like superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase by malathion exposure suggested a hormetic response. Tissue injury due to malathion was evident from the morphological and nuclear anomalies in the H-E stained sections of gill, liver and kidney. Cell cycle analysis of these organs further fortified the histopathological findings. This study elucidates the sub-lethal toxicity of environmentally relevant malathion concentrations on Labeo rohita which indicates the potential health hazard posed to human beings consuming this fish. This calls for careful application of malathion in areas adjoining to inland fisheries. PMID:26778434

  12. In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3% oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754

  13. FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

  14. Computational analysis of transcriptome of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) for functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeo rohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita. PMID:23275698

  15. Ultrastructural observations on sporogenesis of Myxobolus Kwangsiensis Hsieh, Gong & Xiao from the kidney of dace Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wu-Han; Xie, Xing-Ren; Gong, Xiao-Ning

    1996-09-01

    The early stages and capsulogenetic stages of sporogenesis of Myxobolus kwangsiensis were studied in detail by electron microscopy. M. kwangsiensis is an intracellular myxosporean infecting the epithelial cells of kidney tubules of young dace Labeo rohita. The M. kwangsiensis sporogensis presents the typical features of myxosporea. The initial stages are multinucleate primary cells, with one primary cell typically enclosing one secondary cell. The secondary cells are formed directly by cytokinesis inside the primary cells. The primary cell participates in the formation of the secondary cell nucleus. The nuclear division of primary cell is asynchronous by amitosis. The parasitic organisms may degenerate inside the epithelial cells at any stage. The modes of sporoblast formation, the typical features of myxosporea and the cause of its degradation are discussed.

  16. Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP), as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet), on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA) were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P < 0.05) in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) was also downregulated (P < 0.5) after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival) compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita. PMID:26649325

  17. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita--towards to identify novel probiotics against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116

  18. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  19. Behavioral and morphological endpoints: as an early response to sublethal malathion intoxication in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vineetkumar K; David, Muniswamy

    2010-04-01

    A short-term definitive test by the static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC(50)) of commercial-grade organophosphate insecticide, malathion (50% EC) on the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations of malathion for 96 hours. The acute toxicity (LC(50)) of malathion was found to be 4.5 microg/L. One tenth (1/10, 0.45 microg/L) of the acute toxicity value was selected as the sublethal concentration for subacute studies. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration for 1, 5, 10, and 15 days and allowed to recover in toxicant-free medium for 15 days. Behavioral responses and morphological deformities were studied in the experimental tenures. Fish in toxic media exhibited irregular, random, circular swimming movements, hyperexcitability, loss of equilibrium, and sinking to the bottom. Caudal bending was the prime morphological malformation. The behavioral and morphological deformities were due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Inhibition of AChE activity results in excess accumulation of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, leading to hyperstimulation and cessation of neuronal transmission (i.e., paralysis). The carp were found under stress, but mortality was insignificant at the sublethal concentration tested. Impaired behavioral responses and morphological deformities were observed during recovery. This may be a consequence due to inhibition of brain and muscular AChE by malaoxon, via the biotransformation of sequestered malathion. PMID:20307142

  20. Dietary inclusion of protease producing novel Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium as a probiotic enhances immune responses in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, C; Dillibabu, V; Madhuri, Dash-Koney; Priya, D Mohana; Nagalakshmi, C; Sekaran, G

    2014-04-01

    Abstract: This study stresses the key role which can be played by Tannery Fleshing (TF) hydrolyzing probiotic Pontibacter spp. in aqua feed formulation and identifies the probiotic strains in the fish gut capable of enhancing the overall growth and immune responses. Probiotics included are Pontibacter species (Pb) and Bacillus megaterium (BM) wherein Lactobacillus (LB) served as control. Experimental diets includes tannery fleshing (TF1), TF+LB strain (TF2), TF+BM strain (TF3), TF+Pb strain (TF4), Fishmeal+BM(TF5), Fishmeal+Pb and Control fish meal based diet (TF6). Compared with control, total weight gain (TWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in fish fed with diets supplemented with probiotics were significantly increased (p < 0.05). NBT, lysozyme activity, total protein and globulin content were highest in TF4 diet. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, TF4 recorded highest survival and TF1 lowest survival in comparison with the control. Growth and related parameters reveals the effective utilization potential of tannery fleshing probiotic as a feed source. Comparative studies with standard fish meal diets reveals that the fish fed with Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium included feeds enhanced both assimilating capacity and immunological responses in Labeo rohita. PMID:25911831

  1. Activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor signaling in Labeo rohita by iE-DAP and identification of ligand-binding key motifs in NOD1 by molecular modeling and docking.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Bej, Aritra; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-07-01

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor recognizes various pattern-associated structures of microbes through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and activates signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. This report describes the activation of NOD1 receptor signaling by gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (or ?-D-Glu-mDAP [iE-DAP]) in a commercially important fish species, rohu (Labeo rohita). It also described critical motifs in the NOD1-LRR domain that could be involved in binding iE-DAP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The activation of NOD1 receptor signaling was studied by injecting iE-DAP, and analysis of tissue samples for NOD1 and receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase (RICK) expression was done by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. To identify ligand-binding motifs in NOD1, the 3D model of NOD1-LRR was generated, followed by a 6-ns molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular docking of LPS with NOD1-LRR was executed at the Hex and PatchDock servers, and iE-DAP and poly I:C in the AutoDock 4.2, FlexX 2.1, Glide 5.5, and GOLD 4.1 programs. The results of qRT-PCR revealed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of NOD1 and RICK expression. Molecular docking revealed that the amino acid residues at LRR1-2, LRR3-7, and LRR8-9 could be involved in poly I:C, LPS, and iE-DAP binding, respectively. In fish, this is the first report describing the 3D structure of NOD1-LRR and its critical ligand-binding motifs. PMID:23657901

  2. Effect of alternate day feeding strategy of sub-optimal protein level on haemato-biochemical responses in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Jain, K K; Munilkumar, S; Sahu, N P; Siddaiah, G M; Saha, H

    2012-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 60?days to delineate the effect of alternate day feeding strategy of sub-optimal protein level on haematological parameters, serum parameters and phagocyte respiratory burst activity (NBT) in Labeo rohita juveniles. One hundred and thirty-five fingerlings (1.87??0.01-2.26??0.05?g) were distributed in triplicate groups of each treatment, and fish were fed at 5% body weight daily. Three experimental isocaloric (401.32-410.28?kcal/100?g) diets of 30%, 25%, and 20% crude protein designated as diet A, diet B, and diet C respectively, were prepared, using locally available feed ingredients. Three different feeding schedules of normal protein diet continuously (diet A-30%), alternate feeding of 1-day diet A followed by 1-day diet B (1A/1B) and alternate feeding of 1-day diet A followed by 1-day diet C (1A/1C) were tested. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p?Labeo rohita juveniles. PMID:21883499

  3. Isolation of potential probiotic Bacillus spp. and assessment of their subcellular components to induce immune responses in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974

  4. Effect of dietary leucine on the growth parameters and expression of antioxidant, immune, and inflammatory genes in the head kidney of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-09-15

    The present investigation evaluated the effects of dietary leucine (Leu) on growth performance, head kidney antioxidant status, and gene expression in Labeo rohita juveniles. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Leu at 0.75 (control), 1.7, 3.2, 4.6, 6.3, and 7.6 g Leu kg(-1) of feed for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, appropriate Leu supplementation significantly enhanced the percent weight gain (PWG), feed intake (FI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P<0.05) but decreased the plasma ammonia content (PAC) (P<0.05). Similarly, optimal Leu supplementation stimulated head kidney glutathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as compared to the control group; however, a reverse trend was observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, relative gene-expression levels of lysozyme, complement C3, ?-microglobulin, immunoglobulin-M, SOD, GPx, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), natural killer-cell enhancing factor ? (NKEF-?), and toll-like receptor-22 (TLR22) in the head kidney were enhanced (P<0.05) at leucine levels of 4.6 g kg(-1) of feed. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and interleukin 1? (IL-1?) in head kidney were down-regulated by Leu supplementation. Collectively, our results revealed that appropriate Leu supplementation improved fish growth and antioxidant capacity, and regulated the mRNA levels of related signalling molecules in L. rohita juveniles. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG, PER, and PAC, the optimum dietary leucine requirements of L. rohita juveniles were estimated to be 4.7, 4.5, and 4.8 g kg(-1) of feed. PMID:26187441

  5. Mitigation of immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary gelatinized starch in Labeo rohita fingerlings by elevation of rearing temperature within optimum range.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shivendra; Sahu, N P; Gal, Denes

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the strategy to mitigate the immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of gelatinized starch in fingerling of Labeo rohita. Fingerlings were either maintained at ambient water temperature (26C) or exposed to 32C for one week and then subjected to 26C for four weeks. Both groups were fed with isoproteinous (30% crude protein) diets containing gelatinized (G) or non-gelatinized (NG) starch. After 5 weeks of feeding trial, fingerlings were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. Serum cortisol and glucose content was significantly (p<0.05) higher in G starch fed group and decreased with the increase in temperature from 26 to 32C, which was consistent for next four week after decrease in temperature from 32 to 26C. Lower respiratory burst activity and serum total protein and globulin content in G starch fed group at 26C significantly (p<0.05) increased after elevation of temperature from 26 to 32C and levelled off to NG starch fed group. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of G starch fed group was significantly higher in group reared at 32C compared to 26C. After challenge, fish fed G starch showed lower survival rate than that of fish fed NG starch. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32C) for one week significantly increased the survival rate of G starch fed group and levelled off to NG starch fed group. The results of this study indicated that dietary G starch may cause metabolic stress of fingerling L.rohita, as might consequently lead to the decrease antioxidant abilities, depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A.hydrophila infection. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32C) for one week mitigate immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary G starch. PMID:26475365

  6. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. PMID:26327113

  7. GnIH and GnRH expressions in the central nervous system and pituitary of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita during ontogeny: An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; Palande, Nikhil V; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. In 2000, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brain of other vertebrates. We show for the first time GnIH immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and pituitary during development of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and compare it with the localization of GnRH. GnIH and GnRH immunoreactivities were observed from the olfactory system to spinal cord throughout development. In the brain, both neuropeptides were localized in the telencephalon, diencephalon including the preoptic area and rhombencephalon. The localization of GnIH and GnRH in the pituitary suggests that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of pituitary hormones by an autocrine manner during development. In addition, the presence of GnIH and GnRH in several other brain regions including the olfactory system suggests their involvement in the regulation of other physiological functions. PMID:24955881

  8. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-15

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945

  9. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita

    2014-10-01

    In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.

  10. Dietary intake of trace elements from highly consumed cultured fish (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) and human health risk implications in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Saiful; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Bhattacharjee, Lalita

    2015-06-01

    Concentrations of fourteen trace elements (essential and toxic) in the composite samples (collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh) of three highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) of all the studied elements was estimated on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by Bangladeshi households (mean fish consumption of 49.5 g person(-1) d(-1)). The studied fish species pose no risk with respect to the EDI of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Se, Cu, Mo, Mn, Sb, Ba, V, and Ag. Among the three studied fishes O. mossambicus showed higher content of dietary arsenic (1.486 mg kg(-1)). From the human health point of view, this study showed that the inhabitants in the arsenic-contaminated area, who consume arsenic-contaminated water with fish (especially for O. mossambicus), are exposed chronically to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. PMID:25747154

  11. Ecological risk assessment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita: Hematology, ionoregulation and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N

    2015-10-01

    The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms. PMID:26094035

  12. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2015-07-15

    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  13. Effect of guava leaves on the growth performance and cytokine gene expression of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). Among the immune parameters examined, lysozyme levels (79.5 ± 5.1 U mL(-1)), leukocyte phagocytic activity (52 ± 4.3%), and alternative complement pathway activity (ACP) (186.1 ± 8.3 U mL(-1)) were significantly high (P < 0.05) in G2 fed group; there was, however, no significant effect of guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. PMID:26093209

  14. Neuroanatomical localization of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the central nervous system of carp, Labeo rohita during post-embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Palande, Nikhil V; Sinh, Dharmendra P

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemically diffusible molecular messenger playing various roles in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the key enzyme in synthesis of NO. The neuroanatomical distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was studied and developing stages of Labeo rohita such as hatchlings (10-15mm), frys (15-35mm), semi-fingerlings (35-65mm), fingerlings (65-100mm) and adults (350-370mm) were used. In the telencephalon, nitrergic cells were observed in both pallial and subpallial regions along with entopeduncular nucleus suggesting the involvement of NO in the control of sensory functions throughout the development. In the diencephalon, nNOS positive neurons were localized in the nucleus preopticus periventricularis and preopticus parvocellularis throughout development while nucleus preopticus magnocellularis was found immunopositive only in adult specimens who suggest the involvement of NO in the hormonal regulation. nNOS immunoreaction was also noted in suprachaismatic nucleus, habenula, lateral tuberal nucleus, paraventricular organ and anterior division of preglomerular nucleus throughout development. In the mesencephalic region, nNOS immunoreactivity was seen in the optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, nucleus of median longitudinal fascicle and occulomotor nucleus indicate the role of NO in integration of visual inputs and modulates motor control of the eyes and movements. Caudally, in the rhombencephalon, the cerebellum, the nucleus reticularis, the octaval nucleus and the motor nucleus of vagal nerve were nNOS positive during development. nNOS reactive cells and fibers were noted in the spinal motor column, thus suggesting a role of NO in gestation and startle response from early development. PMID:26143285

  15. Heat-killed whole-cell products of the probiotic Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2 strain affect invitro cytokine expression in head kidney macrophages of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2016-03-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the efficiency of heat-killed whole-cell products (HKWCPs) of probiotic Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2 strain in stimulating the cytokine responses in the head kidney (HK) macrophages of Labeo rohita. The HK macrophages were incubated with HKWCPs or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the responses of cytokine genes, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1?, IL-p35, IL-12p40, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-alpha (IFN-?), and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) at 2, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72h post-stimulation (hps). Among proinflammatory cytokines, significantly higher expression of IL-1? and TNF-? was observed at 8-24 hps, and 2-16 hps with HKWCPs, respectively, as compared to controls. However, COX-2 and NF-?B displayed strong expression (P<0.05) at 2-8 hps, and 8, 16 and 72 hps with HKWCPs, respectively. Antiviral cytokines IFN-? and IFN-? displayed strong expression (P<0.05) at 8-24 hps, and 2, 24 and 48 hps with HKWCPs, respectively. Expressions of cell-mediated immune factor genes (IL-12p35 and IL-12p40) were also significantly upregulated at various time points, except IL-12p40at 72 hps, in HK macrophages stimulated with HKWCPs. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated (P<0.05) at 2-24 hps HKWCPs, compared to controls. Enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production) and humoral (lysozyme) immune parameters of treated HK macrophages confirmed the induction of inflammatory response. Thus, our results indicated that HKWCPs of probiotic P.aeruginosa VSG2 had greater potential for stimulating the invitro expression of cytokines in fish and that these HKWCPs may be used as vaccine adjuvants in aquaculture. PMID:26876356

  16. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 13 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  17. Beneficial effects of dietary probiotics mixture on hemato-immunology and cell apoptosis of Labeo rohita fingerlings reared at higher water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Prusty, Ashisa K; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.30.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg(-1)). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31C+BF+PM), T3(34C+BF+PM), T4(37C+BF+PM), T5(28C+BF), T6(31C+BF), T7(34C+BF) and T8(37C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34-37C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

  18. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.30.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg?1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31C+BF+PM), T3(34C+BF+PM), T4(37C+BF+PM), T5(28C+BF), T6(31C+BF), T7(34C+BF) and T8(37C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (3437C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

  19. In situ kinetics of renal ?-glucuronidase in teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Chilke, Arun M

    2010-12-01

    ?-glucuronidase is the lysosomal enzyme that increases in the tissues of animals in response to xenobiotics entering the body. Kidney is one of the organs where all the xenobiotics can be carried along with the blood for filtration, and therefore, this enzyme may be present in large amount. Ours is probably the first attempt in the teleost to study the kinetics of enzyme ?-glucuronidase. It has been observed that this enzyme exhibits highest activity at pH 5 in the solution of 0.1 M acetate buffer at 38C. Enhanced activity was noted at 52C. However, activity starts declining up to 70C, but above this temperature, the enzyme activity is completely inhibited, indicating heat-stable behavior. Five hours incubation at 38C was the maximum time required to accomplish the reaction. The increase both in the substrate and in the enzyme concentration increased the reaction velocity. The Vmax and Michaelis constant (Km) recorded in the present study are 8.83 ?g/h and 1.33 mM. The present study will have importance in understanding the basic health of fish. PMID:19946795

  20. Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method

    PubMed Central

    Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha

    2013-01-01

    The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3?M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse. PMID:23533718

  1. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8min and cook value of 66min, with a total process time of 41.7min at 121.1C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  2. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India. PMID:25895267

  3. Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

  4. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  5. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U.dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U.dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U.dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U.dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L.victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U.dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U.dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A.hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U.dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L.victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A.hydrophila). PMID:25827627

  6. Newly identified gene muscle segment homeobox C may play a role in intermuscular bone development of Hemibarbus labeo.

    PubMed

    Lv, Y P; Yao, W J; Chen, J; Bao, B L

    2015-01-01

    Intermuscular bones, ossified from tendons within the myosepta, occur only in teleost fish. Current understanding of the homology and origins of intermuscular bones in fishes is based mainly on morphological data. To date, there is no published data regarding molecular mechanisms of intermuscular bone formation. In this study, we cloned the gene muscle segment homeobox C (MsxC). MsxC potentially plays a role in intermuscular bone development of Hemibarbus labeo, an important species of cyprinid fish in the Chinese aquaculture industry. Sequence analysis of MsxC revealed motifs characteristic of the homeobox domain family. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that MsxC was primarily expressed in the myosepta and brain. MsxC was expressed in the myosepta from 26 to 41 days after hatching (DAH); this coincided with the onset of intermuscular bone ossification, which occurred between 35 and 62 DAH. Evidence for localization of MsxC expression by in situ hybridization correlated with its detection by quantitative real-time PCR. In vertebrates, MsxC plays a role in the regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation during bone formation. We therefore conclude that MsxC may have a role in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during intermuscular bone formation in H. labeo. PMID:26400363

  7. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie

    2008-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  8. Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Haq, S; Srivastava, H C; Sharma, V P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable. PMID:23703433

  9. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 m sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  10. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

  11. Distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river and the fish Labeo victorianus in Tanzania and possible risks for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Mataba, Gordian Rocky; Verhaert, Vera; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river. Samples of surface water, sediment and fish were collected up- and downstream of the North Mara Gold Mine (Tanzania) and following trace elements were analysed: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Trace element concentrations in surface water were below or near the detection limit. Regarding the sediments, relative high concentrations of arsenic at all sites and high levels of mercury at a site downstream of the mine where artisanal mining is performed were observed. Trace element concentrations in Ningu fish tissues (Labeo victorianus) were comparable to slightly higher than levels in fishes from unpolluted environments. For none of the measured human health risk by consumption of fish from the Thigithe river is expected when the Tanzanian average amount of 17g/day is consumed. However, for Hg and As the advised maximum daily consumption of Ningu fish was lower than 100g. As a result fishermen and people living along the shores of the river consuming more fish than the average Tanzanian fish consumption set by the FAO (2005) are possibly at risk. PMID:26780131

  12. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of two heavy metal salts in a fish cell line (RF).

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mukunda; Yadav, Kamalendra; Dubey, Akhilesh; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Konwar, Rituraj; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, Naresh S; Lakra, Wazir S

    2014-01-01

    Labeo rohita (rohu) is one of most important of Indian major carps, which is highly ranked among the important freshwater aquaculture species in the world. Heavy metals are major risk factors for aquatic health, which are biomagnified through the food chain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different divalent salts of two heavy metals, such as zinc (ZnCl(2), ZnSO(4) and ZnNO(3)) and cadmium (CdCl(2) and CdSO(4)), in an established fish cell line, RF developed from fin tissue of L. rohita. The RF cell line was used for assessment of heavy metal cytotoxicity through various endpoint assays, including maximum tolerated dose (MTD) determination, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, and Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) assay. Results revealed that these heavy metal salts were cytotoxic to the RF cell line at varied concentrations. MTD values were found to be 1.563, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5 and 25?mg/L for CdCl(2), CdSO(4), ZnCl(2), Zn(NO(3))(2) and ZnSO(4), respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values calculated by MTT, NR and CB assay were 53.83??7.02, 58.03??9.12 and 79.20??15.27 for ZnSO(4), 26.44??7.01, 36.60??7.82 and 155.6??14.75 for Zn(NO(3))(2), 20.26??17.95, 16.94??7.05 and 87.54??7.58 for ZnCl(2), 5.166??0.57, 15??1 and 41.80??8.38 for CdSO(4) and 4.966??0.56, 9.56??1.73 and 20.93??4.47 for CdCl(2). This study establishes the RF cell line as an in vitro tool for assessment and monitoring of heavy metal concentration in the aquatic environment. PMID:23829824

  14. Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds. PMID:23285303

  15. A cost benefit analysis of fish culture strategy towards the control of mansonioides in Shertallai, Kerala state.

    PubMed

    Panicker, K N; Jayasree, M; Krishnamoorthy, K

    1992-05-01

    The cost benefit analysis of fish culture as a means for vector control towards the containment of Brugian filariasis in Shertallai, a highly endemic tract for this disease in Kerala was carried out. While the financial gain accrued to the community was to the tune of Rs. 1,82,052 in ponds (under monoculture) with Chinese grass carp from 763 ponds, it was Rs. 1,83,740 from 1000 ponds under polyculture with Catla catla, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita, Labeo fimbriatus, Cirrhina mrigala and Ctenopharyngodon idella (Chinese grass carp). Monoculture with Giant gourami (Osphronemous goramy) fetched an income of Rs. 7,654 to the community from 128 ponds. A marked reduction in weed reinfestation/vector breeding was observed in ponds under fish culture than other without fishes. The study clearly indicates that fish culture is an ideal strategy for Mansonioides control as it can bring perceptible benefits to the community. PMID:1506068

  16. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  17. Ecotoxicological effects of jute retting on the survival of two freshwater fish and two invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debjit Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2008-04-01

    Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW. PMID:18157635

  18. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2010-04-01

    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  19. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila outer membrane protein 48 (Omp48) induces a protective immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Khushiramani, Rekha Matlani; Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Akash, Naviledasappa; Deepanjali, Appunni; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-05-01

    The gene coding for an outer membrane protein Omp48 of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from an infected fish was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of nucleotide sequence showed the omp48 gene to be an adhesin encoding a protein of 426 amino acids with high identity to the omp48 gene of Aeromonas veronii, another fish pathogen. The gene belonged to the maltoporin group of porins and had high similarity to LamB porins of A. hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The expressed purified recombinant protein had an estimated molecular weight of 48kDa. Further, rabbit hyperimmune sera against the recombinant protein reacted with A. hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria and A. veronii whole cell proteins at the region of 48kDa, in western blotting. The recombinant protein was immunogenic in the fish Labeo rohita Hamilton. Fish immunized with recombinant protein, when challenged with virulent A. hydrophila and another bacterial fish pathogen, Edwardsiella tarda, showed relative percent survivals of 69 and 60, respectively. Our results suggest that Omp48 of A. hydrophila could be used as a potential vaccine candidate for protection not only against A. hydrophila infection, but also against the fish pathogen E. tarda. PMID:22564558

  1. Distributions of metals in the food web of fishponds of Kolleru Lake, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Ghosh, Lopa; Giri, B S; Ayyappan, S

    2009-05-01

    The distributions of trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr Mn, Zn and Cu) in water, sediment, plankton and four fish species (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Pangasius pangasius and Cirrhinus mrigala) from fishponds of Kolleru Lake, India were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of lead (0.01-0.03mg/l) and copper (0.01-0.08mg/l) in water and cadmium (3.0-9.0mg/kg), chromium (47-211mg/kg) and copper (10-64mg/kg) in sediment were above the EPA threshold effects level (TEL) and are of biological concern. The abundance orders of metals were Mn>Cd>Cu>Pb in water, Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu >Pb>Cd in sediment and Cu>Mn>Cr>Zn>Pb>Cd in plankton. The concentrations of the metals in the muscles of these four fish species apparently decrease in the order Zn>Cu>Cr>Mn=Pb>Cd and were well below WHO permissible limits that were safe for human consumption. PMID:19070365

  2. Dynamics of toxic heavy metals in different compartments of a highly urbanized closed aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bina; Kumar, Rahul; Rani, Manviri; Agarwal, Tripti

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the dynamics of chromium, nickel, copper and lead among the different components namely water, surface sediments, submerged and free floating macrophytes and fish of the twin manmade lakes, Upper and Lower lakes, of Bhopal (M.P., India). Some basic parameters of water and sediment have also been studied. The basin of the lake system is densely populated and the water is used for various purposes including drinking. Ni and Pb along with nitrate in both lakes are significantly higher than the drinking water quality criteria of USEPA. The concentration of the metals in the sediments is noticeably higher than that present in the adjoining rock, particularly Ni and Pb. There is a significant uptake of metals by the macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata) and fish (Labeo rohita and Oreochromis niloticus) mainly in summer. The fish of Lower lake (O. niloticus) is unfit for human consumption. The data have been statistically treated. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to define the origin of metals and to assess the relationship among the sites. Overall the Lower lake is more polluted than the Upper lake. In aggregate, the lake system is under an environmental stress due to certain practices. PMID:22290427

  3. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage. PMID:24741158

  4. Lipotropes promote immunobiochemical plasticity and protect fish against low-dose pesticide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Muthappa, N A; Gupta, Subodh; Yengkokpam, Sona; Debnath, Dipesh; Kumar, Neeraj; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay B

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of different lipotropes in modulating immunity and biochemical plasticity under conditions of sublethal low-dose pesticide-induced stress in fish. Labeo rohita fish fingerlings were divided in two sets with one set of fish continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan (1/10th of 96-h LC50) for 21days, the other was unexposed, and both sets of fish were fed with practical diets supplemented with either 2% lecithin, 0.5% betaine, or 0.1% choline and compared against unsupplemented diet. Low-dose endosulfan exposure had adverse effects (P?rohita fingerlings even when continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan. PMID:23666764

  5. The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

  6. A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-06-15

    Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents. PMID:25791885

  7. Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Exogenous Trypsin Biomimics Zymogen-Like Enzyme in Fish Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind R.; Ferosekhan, S.; Kothari, Dushyant C.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare trypsin can be favored as a dietary supplement in animals and humans. PMID:24040333

  8. Identification and immunogenic potential of B cell epitopes of outer membrane protein OmpF of Aeromonas hydrophila in translational fusion with a carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous and virulent bacterial pathogen, affects a variety of fishes, including Labeo rohita. Existing treatment strategies comprise antibiotic therapies and attenuated bacterial strain-based vaccines. No functional subunit vaccine has been available until now. Given their key role in determining pathogenicity, outer membrane proteins have been successfully explored as potential vaccine candidates. We have devised a direct strategy for eliminating non-specific responses by selectively aiming the immune response against specific immunodominant epitopes of the outer membrane protein F (OmpF) of A. hydrophila (AhOmpF). Five putative epitopes of AhOmpF predicted in silico were genetically conjugated with heat labile enterotoxin chain B of E. coli (LTB). Recombinant fusion proteins expressed in E. coli were purified from solubilized inclusion bodies and refolded. The fusion protein retained GM1 ganglioside receptor binding activity of LTB, indicating proper folding. Four of the five fusion proteins were found to be highly immunogenic. Of the four proteins, antisera against the fusion protein (anti-rEpiF1) harboring 66-80 amino acid residues of the OmpF gave maximum cross-reactivity with the targeted rOmpF in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was able to recognize both fusion partners-rOmpF and rLTB-in Western blot. Antibody isotyping of the antisera and cytokine array analysis of the culture supernatants of splenocytes from sensitized mice manifested a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with a bias toward Th2. Anti-rEpiF1 antibodies were able to bind to the cell membrane of live A. hydrophila cells and agglutinate them. Our results thus suggest that the OmpF epitope (66-80) in fusion with a carrier protein is a promising vaccine candidate against A. hydrophila. PMID:25636835

  9. New host record of five Flavobacterium species associated with tropical fresh water farmed fishes from North India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Yellow pigmented, filamentous, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genus Flavobacterium are commonly associated with infections in stressed fish. In this study, inter-species diversity of Flavobacterium was studied in apparently healthy freshwater farmed fishes. For this, ninety one yellow pigmented bacteria were isolated from skin and gill samples (n = 38) of three farmed fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio. Among them, only twelve bacterial isolates (13.18%) were identified as Flavobacterium spp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests, partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, all the 12 isolates were 97.6-100% similar to six different formally described species of genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis grouped these strains into six different clades. Of the 12 isolates, six strains (Fl9S1-6) grouped with F. suncheonense, two strains (Fl6I2, Fl6I3) with F. indicum and the rest four strains (Fl1A1, Fl2G1, Fl3H1 and Fl10T1) clustered with F. aquaticum, F. granuli, F. hercynium and F. terrae, respectively. None of these species except, F. hercynium were previously reported from fish. All the isolated Flavobacterium species possessed the ability of adhesion and biofilm formation to colonize the external surface of healthy fish. The present study is the first record of tropical freshwater farmed fishes as hosts to five environmentally associated species of the Flavobacterium. PMID:26691454

  10. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96% degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process. PMID:26300362

  11. Surface microstructural features of scales in relation to toxic stress of Basic Violet-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of the scales of Labeo rohita on exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of Basic Violet-1 (an important textile and hair colorant). The dye induced loosening of the scales and caused breakage and disorganization of lepidonts. Erosion of lepidonts occurred mostly in the fish exposed to 0.20 and 0.40 mg/L dye, during acute exposure and to 0.0225 and 0.045 mg/L dye, during the subchronic exposure. However, lepidonts were sloughed off from their sockets in 0.60 and 0.80 mg/L dye during acute exposure and in 0.09 mg/L dye during the subchronic exposure. Circuli, the base that provides anchorage to the lepidonts, got damaged, and tubercles responsible for coloration of a fish became atrophied with an increase in the duration of exposure. The results of the present investigation clearly indicated that exposure to Basic Violet-1 (BV-1) even at a concentration as low as 0.0225 mg was responsible for deleterious changes in the scale morphology of the test fish after 150 days of exposure. Similar changes were observed in the scales of the dead fish also. It can thus be suggested that this noninvasive technique is very helpful for evaluating the health status of an aquatic body. At the same time, the changes in ultramorphology of scales can act as an early indicator of the stress of very minute doses of dyes and even the scales of a dead fish can act as indicators of the untoward changes that would have occurred in the environment of the fish before death. PMID:26432273

  12. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  13. Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Pal, Moumita; Ghosh, Santinath; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Ghosh, Mahua

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. The results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of Hg, and approximately 50-84% of Hg was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length (age) was found. Wallago attu possessed the highest amount of organic mercury in their muscle tissues, and it was 0.93??0.61 ?g Hg/g of wet weight. Whereas in small-sized fishes Eutropiichthys murius, Puntius sarana, Cirrhinus mrigala, Mystus vittatus or Mystus gulio, and Tilapia mossambicus, it was below the detection limit. Contamination in Catla catla (0.32??0.11), Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (0.26??0.07 ?g Hg/g), Chitala chitala (0.25??0.18), Rita rita (0.34??0.14), and Ompok pabda (0.26??0.04) was also above the 0.25 ?g Hg/g of wet weight, the limit set by the PFA for the maximum level for consumption of fish exposed to MeHg. Though in Labeo rohita (0.12??0.03), Mastacembelus armatus (0.17??0.02), Pangasius pangasius (0.12??0.16), Bagarius bagarius (0.12??0.01), and Clupisoma garua (0.1??0.01), concentration was below the recommended level, in Lates calcarifer (0.23??0.0) and Mystus aor (0.23??0.1), it was threatening. Interestingly, a low concentration of Hg was found in post-monsoon samples. PMID:21713467

  14. A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.

    2015-06-01

    Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40 °C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100 °C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents.

  15. Use of the non-toxic cryoprotectant trehalose enhances recovery and function of fish embryonic stem cells following cryogenic storage.

    PubMed

    Dash, Surjya N; Routray, Padmanav; Dash, Chadananda; Guru, Bhikari C; Swain, Priyabrata; Sarangi, Niranjan

    2008-12-01

    Fish embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from of blastulae (64 cell stage embryo) of Labeo rohita were propagated in culture and retained their ES cell-like properties after cryogenic storage (-196 degrees C, i.e., liquid nitrogen). Toxic effect of DMSO (dimethyl sulphoxide) on stem cells during preservation process has been reported to restrict therapeutic applications. In this study we reduced the concentration of DMSO and added the non-toxic cryoprotective agent (CPA) trehalose. Cryopreservation of ES cell colonies was done at 5, 25 and 52 passages with 0.2 M trehalose and 0.8 M (DMSO). A combination of both the cryoprotective agents (non-toxic and toxic) demonstrated better survival and recovery of ES cells than the DMSO used alone. Use of this CPA combination in the freezing media gave an optimum viability of more than 83 % in a slow freezing protocol. Trehalose showed a definite advantage over DMSO in terms of viability and intactness of ES cell colonies with evenly distributed morphology. There was no significant difference observed in the expression levels of cell surface markers like stage specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) between early and late passages after 60 days of post-thawing. More than 90 % of the ES cell colonies showed extensive expression of ALP and positive expression of SSEA-1 from an early stage of ES cells culture up to passage 52 (in our study) in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and without feeder cells. Further, thawed ES cells showed a normal karyotype and maintained an undifferentiated state through out the study. This study on ES cell cryopreservation and subsequent retention of stem cell properties without feeder cells using a non-toxic cryoprotectant trehalose would be highly useful for future in vitro differentiation, manipulation of fish ES cells and as a model for mammalian ES cell culture. PMID:19075757

  16. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (1012 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures. PMID:25182443

  18. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  19. The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callic Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Dur, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (4038'N-044'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

  20. Purification and characterization of fish liver ferritins.

    PubMed

    Geetha, C; Deshpande, V

    1999-07-01

    Ferritin from the liver of fresh, salt and brackish water fishes was purified by thermal denaturation of liver homogenate followed by ammonium sulphate fractionation and Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration. Yield and iron content of purified fish ferritins were 0.016-0.026 mg/g of wet tissue and 4-14%, respectively. The iron content of ferritins from marine and brackish species was higher than from fresh water species. The phosphate/iron ratio ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 and was higher than mammalian ferritins. The fish ferritins have 5-6% neutral carbohydrate. Native gel electrophoresis and molecular weight analysis revealed the presence of a monomeric ferritin. SDS-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed a single protein band of 21 kDa suggesting the presence of similar sized subunits in the native structure of fish ferritins. Isoelectric focusing revealed microheterogeneity with five to seven bands of pI values between 4.1 and 7.0. Variations in the amino acid composition were observed. Proline and arginine were not detected in murrel and salmon species, respectively. High proline and low tyrosine contents were recorded for perch ferritin. Immunological studies by non-competitive indirect ELISA revealed varying degrees of cross-reactivity. Mammalian ferritins exhibited a moderate cross-reactivity with anti-fish ferritin. On the contrary, very low or no cross-reactivity was observed between fish ferritin and anti-mammalian ferritin. Ferritins from bony fishes such as murrel and rohu exhibited a high degree of cross-reactivity with anti-shark ferritin. However, a moderate cross-reactivity was observed between shark and anti-murrel ferritin. Ferritin from marine bony fishes, salmon and mackerel and perch (brackish) showed a low to very low cross-reactivity with both the antisera. PMID:10481257

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in edible fish species from Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huma, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the accumulation of trace metals in the liver, kidney, gills, muscles, and skin of four edible fish species (Tor putitora, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo calbasu, and Channa punctatus) of Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan. The fish samples were collected in the pre-monsoon (May 2008) and post-monsoon (October 2007) seasons and were analyzed for heavy metals by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Kidney and liver showed relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The accumulation of metals in the different organs of the fish (skin, muscles, and gills) in post-monsoon was higher than in pre-monsoon. In pre-monsoon, the metals followed the trend Zn > Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Mn > Co > Cu > Cd > Li, while in the post-monsoon season, the trend was Fe > Pb > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Co > Mn > Cd > Li. The concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in the muscle of all fish species were higher than the WHO guideline values of heavy metals in fishes for human consumption except in T. putitora. Cu level was nearly equal to the WHO maximum levels in C. mrigala and L. calbasu, while it was lower in T. putitora and C. punctatus. It is strongly advocated that risk assessment studies should be conducted and there is an urgent need for water quality restoration and management of Rawal Lake Reservoir. PMID:23884877

  2. Phylogeny and polyploidy: resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion. PMID:25698355

  3. Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus - a review.

    PubMed

    Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat

    2014-05-01

    Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

  4. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemari

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus. PMID:25119364

  5. Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat

    2014-01-01

    Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

  6. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river. PMID:26339622

  7. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Campbell LM; Osano O; Hecky RE; Dixon DG

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g(-1). The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g(-1). In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g(-1)), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g(-1), THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g(-1) for at-risk groups.

  8. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurlie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  9. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river. PMID:26339622

  10. Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives. PMID:24191617

  11. Aquatic fungi associated with seven species of Nile fishes (Egypt).

    PubMed

    el-Hissy, F T; Khallil, A R; el-Nagdy, M A

    1989-01-01

    Ten identified species in addition to 2 unidentified species of Achlya and Pythium which belong to seven zoosporic fungal genera (aquatic freshwater fungi) were recovered during this investigation. The fish species with most zoosporic fungi (5 species and 3 genera) was Tilapia nilotica. The fish species with least fungi were Bagrus bayad and Syndontis schall (yielded only one species each). Mormyrus kannum did not give any zoosporic fungal species. Some aquatic fungi emerged only from internal organs of some fish species. 46 species belonging to 22 terrestrial fungal genera were also recovered during this work. The broadest spectrum (15 species) was recorded in the second external wash water (WE2) of Mormyrus kannum and the narrowest spectrum (2 species) in the second internal wash water (WI2) of Schilbe mystus and with the scales of Labeo niloticus. First wash water of internal organs (WI1) of Tilapia nilotica yielded the highest total count (6.95% of total count) and the second wash water of internal organs (WI2) of Schilbe mystus yielded the lowest total count (0.34% of total count). Nile water sample (NW) yielded 3.67% of total fungi and eight species which belong to seven genera. Aspergillus was the most common (31 out of 31 samples) and yielded 52.40% of total fungi. It was represented by 12 species and one variety of A. flavus var. columnaris (broadest spectrum). Penicillium was represented by 7 species and found in 19 out of 31 samples yielding 11.02% of total fungi. PMID:2618196

  12. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability in a Massively Perturbed System: The Fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gownaris, Natasha J.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ojwang, William O.; Michener, Robert; Kaufman, Les

    2015-01-01

    Background and Trophic Diversity Study Lake Turkana is an understudied desert lake shared by Kenya and Ethiopia. This system is at the precipice of large-scale changes in ecological function due to climate change and economic development along its major inflowing river, the Omo River. To anticipate response by the fish community to these changes, we quantified trophic diversity for seven ecological disparate species (Alestes baremose, Hydrocynus forskalli, Labeo horie, Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall, and Tilapia zillii) using stable isotopes. Based on their marked morphological differentiation, we postulated that dietary niches of these species would be similar in size but show little overlap. The degree of trophic diversity varied greatly among the species studied, refuting our hypothesis regarding dietary niche size. Oreochromis niloticus and L. niloticus had the highest trophic diversity and significantly larger dietary niches than T. zillii, A. baremose and H. forskalli. Low overlap among the dietary niches of the seven species, with the exception of the synodontid catfish S. schall, is consistent with our second hypothesis. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability Breeding vulnerability was highest among those species with the lowest trophic diversity. We predict that in suffering two strikes against them, A. baremose, H. forskalli, T. zillii, and L. horie will be most affected by the highly altered Lake Turkana ecosystem and that O. niloticus, L. niloticus and S. schall will be least affected. Low vulnerability among O. niloticus and L. niloticus is promising for the future of the lake’s fishery, but the third most important fishery species (L. horie) will be highly vulnerable to impending ecosystem change. T. zillii should be treated as separate from O. niloticus in the fishery given higher sensitivity and a different ecological role. We see potential for expansion of the fishery for S. schall but don’t recommend the development of a fishery for A. baremose and H. forskalli. PMID:25992561

  13. Twelve myxosporean species of the family Myxobolidae infecting freshwater fishes of the River Nile, Egypt, with the description of four novel species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; El-Ganainy, Sahar; Ahmed, Manal; Gamal, Shams; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Myxosporidian parasites infecting fish are very dangerous parasites causing severe damage to a large number of economically important fishes especially in aquaculture. A survey of myxosporean parasites infecting four species of fishes from the River Nile in Egypt is conducted. One hundred and ninety-five out of 316 fish specimens with a percentage of 61.7% were found to be naturally infected with these parasites. Light microscopic examination of different tissues revealed the presence of 12 myxosporean species belonging to the family Myxobolidae. Four of the identified species are novel and the other eight species are redescribed. Myxidium sp.nov. a coelozoic species inhabiting the gallbladder of Labeo niloticus with its mature spores float free in bile was detected. These spores possess a fusiform, straight, or slightly crescentic shape with less pointed ends and two equal polar capsules. Three novel histozoic Myxobolus species infecting Oreochromis niloticus were identified. Myxobolus sp(1).nov. is a species inhabiting kidney tissue with ovoid spores exhibiting a small intercapsular appendix. Myxobolus sp(2).nov. and Myxobolus sp(3).nov. recovered from kidney and intestinal tissues. Spores of Myxobolus sp(2).nov. are elliptical in shape with an anterior end wider than posterior one. Their two polar capsules are ovoid to pyriform occupied nearly the first third of the spore body. Spores of Myxobolus sp(3).nov. are broader than long with nearly rounded or ovoid two polar capsules. Eight species of the recovered myxosporean parasites are redescribed, Myxobolus niloticus Fahmy et al., 1971 from pectoral, dorsal, and tail fins of L. niloticus, Henneguya suprabranchiae Landsberg, 1987, and Henneguya branchialis Ashmawy et al., 1989 are recovered from the gills and suprabranchial organ of the catfish Clarias gariepinus, respectively, Myxobolus naffari Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 1998 and Myxobolus imami Ali et al., 2002 are found in the kidney of Barbus bynni and L. niloticus, Myxobolus caudatus Ali et al. & Parasitol Res (2002) from Tail fin of B. bynni, Myxobolus fomenai Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 2008 from kidney and intestinal tissues of O. niloticus, Thelohanellus niloticus Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 2012 are observed in the gills of L. niloticus. PMID:25952702