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Comparative fatty acid profiles of wild and farmed tropical freshwater fish rohu ( Labeo rohita )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate composition of the whole body and the fatty acid composition of the liver, muscle, eye and brain of wild and\\u000a cultured rohu (Labeo rohita) were analyzed. The cultured species was found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid contents than its wild counterpart. The saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid contents\\u000a were significantly higher in the cultured species,

Prakash Sharma; Vikas Kumar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Jayant Ranjan; H. M. P. Kithsiri; Gudipati Venkateshwarlu



Ontogeny and tissue-specific expression of innate immune related genes in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune response in fish represents an early and rapid defense against pathogens. The present study aims at looking into ontogeny of innate immune system in the teleost, Labeo rohita using RT-PCR based approach. Total RNA extracted from unfertilized and fertilized eggs, and hatchlings (hatched at 28 ± 2 °C) at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h, and 3, 7, 16, 21,

S. P. Nayak; B. R. Mohanty; J. Mishra; P. R. Rauta; A. Das; A. E. Eknath; P. K. Sahoo



Differential resistance to edwardsiellosis in rohu (Labeo rohita) families selected previously for higher growth and/or aeromoniasis-resistance.  


Selection in fish for disease resistance is one of the most useful approaches to solve disease problems. Genetic variation in resistance to edwardsiellosis in fullsib families of rohu, Labeo rohita was investigated in the present study. A large variation in the susceptibility pattern (0 to 94.74 percent survival) against Edwardsiella tarda challenge was observed among 57 families. Additive genetic variation showed a heritability of 0.38?±?0.08 across the year-class survival. The apparent resistant families showed more delayed mortality than the apparent susceptible ones. The cross-protection provided by aeromoniasis-resistant lines of rohu to edwardsiellosis was also studied to evaluate the possibility of selection for both diseases simultaneously. Challenge of F1-generation aeromoniasis-resistant and -susceptible lines with E. tarda showed significant difference in survival between the lines with higher percent survival in resistant line. This study suggests that direct selection method may be used reliably in selection programs and selection for multiple diseases simultaneously can be considered for rohu. PMID:22012677

Mohanty, B R; Sahoo, P K; Mahapatra, K D; Saha, J N



Gene structure and identification of minimal promoter of Pou2 expressed in spermatogonial cells of rohu carp, Labeo rohita.  


Mammalian Pou5f1 is a known transcriptional regulator involving maintenance of embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells. Little is known about teleost Pou2, an ortholog of mammalian Pou5f1. Evidences of discrepancy in expression pattern between fish species were documented. To better understand, we have cloned and characterized Pou2 gene of farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. It contained five exons with an open reading frame of 1419 bp long, translatable to 472 aa. A bipartite DNA binding domain termed POU domain, comprising of POU-specific and POU-homeo sub-domains, was identified. Rohu Pou2 is highly conserved with zebrafish counterpart, as evidenced by 92% overall sequence identity of deduced protein. The POU domain remained highly conserved (showing more than 90% identities) within fish species. Even though there is a divergence between Pou2 and Pou5f1, the common POU-specific domain remained conserved throughout eukaryotes indicating their possible involvements in common trans-activation pathway(s) between mammals and non-mammals. In support, we have provided evidence that Pou2 is indeed abundantly expressed in proliferating rohu spermatogonial cells and hence participates in stem cell maintenance. Its mRNA accumulation in the ovary supported about its maternal transmission with possible regulatory roles during embryogenesis. The 5'-flanking region (~2.7 kb) of rohu Pou2 was sequenced and computational analysis detected several putative regulatory elements. These elements have been conserved among fish species analysed. Luciferase assay identified a mammalian-type 'TATA-less promoter' capable of driving Pou2 gene transcription. These findings will help for future studies in elucidating participatory role of fish Pou2 in male germ cell development. PMID:24566687

Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohanta, Ramya; Saha, Ashis; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Effect of dietary Spirulina level on growth and chemical composition of carcass in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


An experiment was conducted in three different tanks for 45 days (T1, T2 and T3) to investigate the effect of dietary Spirulina level on growth and chemical composition of carcass in rohu, Labeo rohita. A diet having de-oiled rice bran(30%), rice polish (15%), de-oiled mustard oil cake(25%), Soya bean oil cake(10%) and de-oiled groundnut cake(20%) was provided to the control (i.e. 100% formulated feed), whereas in T2 95% formulated feed with 5% Spirulina and in T3 90% formulated feed with 10% Spirulina. Data were analysed with ANOVA (P < 0.05) and found significant. There was significant difference in the average final weight of the fish among treatments with highest in the T3 (11.28g) followed by T2 (8.32g) and T1 (7.51g). The higher SGR was recorded in T3 (2.17) followed by T2 (1.52) and T1 (1.28). There was significant difference in the average carcass composition of the fish among treatments with highest level in T3 followed by T2 and T1. PMID:24749207

Chandra, Gyan; Saxena, Amita



Contamination of metals in different tissues of rohu (Labeo rohita, Cyprinidae) collected from the Indian River Ganga.  


In the present paper, accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) was determined in different tissues (skin, muscles, liver, gills, kidney and brain) of rohu (Labeo rohita) collected from the River Ganga in Varanasi, India. Concentrations of Cu (except gills), Fe and Cr (except brain for Cr) in most of the tissues were above the permissible safe limits for human consumption suggested by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1983). Concentrations of all metals were higher in River Ganga fish than those from the University fish farm. With the exception of Zn in skin, muscle and brain tissue, the studied metals were bioaccumulated in all tissues. The total metal accumulation or metal pollution index was highest in liver (20.8 ± 0.50) followed by kidney (16.8 ± 0.44), gills (15.2 ± 0.15), muscles (12.1 ± 0.08), skin (10.5 ± 0.53) and brain (7.0 ± 0.02). PMID:23666260

Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K



Nutrient digestibility coefficients of some plant and animal proteins for rohu ( Labeo rohita)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent protein digestibility (APD), apparent lipid digestibility (ALD) and true protein digestibility (TPD) coefficients of some plant and animal protein were determined for fingerling rohu. The plant protein ingredients were incorporated as the sole source of protein into test diets giving 30% protein. Animal protein ingredients were included in test diets to give a 35% protein level. A protein free

M. A. Hossain; N. Nahar; M. Kamal



Identification of reproduction-related genes and SSR-markers through expressed sequence tags analysis of a monsoon breeding carp rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


Labeo rohita (Ham.) also called rohu is the most important freshwater aquaculture species on the Indian sub continent. Monsoon dependent breeding restricts its seed production beyond season indicating a strong genetic control about which very limited information is available. Additionally, few genomic resources are publicly available for this species. Here we sought to identify reproduction-relevant genes from normalized cDNA libraries of the brain-pituitary-gonad-liver (BPGL-axis) tissues of adult L. rohita collected during post preparatory phase. 6161 random clones sequenced (Sanger-based) from these libraries produced 4642 (75.34%) high-quality sequences. They were assembled into 3631 (78.22%) unique sequences composed of 709 contigs and 2922 singletons. A total of 182 unique sequences were found to be associated with reproduction-related genes, mainly under the GO term categories of reproduction, neuro-peptide hormone activity, hormone and receptor binding, receptor activity, signal transduction, embryonic development, cell-cell signaling, cell death and anti-apoptosis process. Several important reproduction-related genes reported here for the first time in L. rohita are zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, aquaporin-12, spermine oxidase, sperm associated antigen 7, testis expressed 261, progesterone receptor membrane component, Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of 8 known and 8 unknown transcripts during preparatory and post-spawning phase showed increased expression level of most of the transcripts during preparatory phase (except Neuropeptide Y) in comparison to post-spawning phase indicating possible roles in initiation of gonad maturation. Expression of unknown transcripts was also found in prolific breeder common carp and tilapia, but levels of expression were much higher in seasonal breeder rohu. 3631 unique sequences contained 236 (6.49%) putative microsatellites with the AG (28.16%) repeat as the most frequent motif. Twenty loci showed polymorphism in 36 unrelated individuals with allele frequency ranging from 2 to 7 per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.096 to 0.774 whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.109 to 0.801. Identification of 182 important reproduction-related genes and expression pattern of 16 transcripts in preparatory and post-spawning phase along with 20 polymorphic EST-SSRs should be highly useful for the future reproductive molecular studies and selection program in Labeo rohita. PMID:23583682

Sahu, Dinesh K; Panda, Soumya P; Panda, Sujata; Das, Paramananda; Meher, Prem K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang J; Eknath, Ambekar E; Nandi, Samiran



Effect of Achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achyranthes aspera seed was incorporated in the diets (at 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5%) of Labeo rohita, rohu fingerlings (3.0±0.4g). After 2weeks, the fish were immunized with heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila, and after a further 2weeks the rohu were experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140). After 7days blood and serum were sampled to determine superoxide anion production, bactericidal activity, lysozyme, serum

Y. Vasudeva Rao; B. K. Das; P. Jyotyrmayee; Rina Chakrabarti



Digestive proteases of three carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix: partial characterization and protein hydrolysis efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics and functional efficacy of digestive pro- teases of Catla catla, catla, Labeo rohita, rohu and Hyp- ophthalmichthys molitrix, silver carp were studied. Total protease activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rohu (1.219 ± 0.059 U mg protein)1 min)1) followed by silver carp (1.084 ± 0.061 U mg protein)1 min)1), and catla (0.193 ± 0.006 U mg protein)1




Selection for improved resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Indian major carp Labeo rohita: Survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection for disease resistance in fish may be performed directly on basis of survival data obtained in controlled challenge trials, or indirectly using information from immunological or molecular markers linked to differential survival. In the present study, several key innate immune parameters were measured in aeromoniasis resistant and susceptible lines of rohu Labeo rohita to assess their suitability as immune

P. K. Sahoo; P. R. Rauta; B. R. Mohanty; K. D. Mahapatra; J. N. Saha; M. Rye; A. E. Eknath



Evaluation of corn steep liquor as a supplementary feed for Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of corn steep liquor (CSL), a by-product of corn starch industry, in the fish diet at 25% (D1), 50% (D2) and 75%\\u000a (D3) replacement of fish meal are investigated on the growth of Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings. Formulated feeds were iso-nitrogenous (39% crude protein) and iso-energetic (15.8 kJ\\/g). The CSL is found\\u000a to be rich in protein (43.48%), lactic

Sandeep G. Chovatiya; Sujata S. Bhatt; Amita R. Shah



Immune responses and protective efficacy of recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR)-based vaccine of Aeromonas hydrophila with a modified adjuvant formulation in rohu (Labeo rohita).  


Despite the importance and success of developing a candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the vaccine-induced immunoprotection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, primarily due to lack of information on most of the immune related genes of the species. In this study, a novel candidate antigen recombinant outer membrane protein R (rOmpR) of A. hydrophila was evaluated as a vaccine candidate along with a modified adjuvant formulation. Protective efficacy of the rOmpR immunization was assessed in terms of survival against A. hydrophila challenge as well as modulation of immune response in vaccinated fish after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h and 10 days post-injection (using immune gene expression analysis) and 10, 28, 56 and 140 days post-injection (serum immune parameter analysis). The generated immune response was compared with a formalin-killed A. hydrophila antigen preparation using mineral oil only and modified adjuvant alone. We report a variable up-regulation of the immune-related genes viz., lysozyme G, complement factor 4, immunoglobulin M, ?2-microglobulin, major histocompatibility complex I and II, and interleukin-1? in anterior kidney and spleen tissues at early time points post-immunization in all the groups, when compared to the control fish. The vaccinated fish also showed an increase in serum natural hemolysin titer, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities, and antibody titer irrespective of vaccine formulations as compared to control fish on days 10, 28 and 56. However, the increase in the serum parameters was more pronounced on day 140 in rOmpR-modified adjuvant injected group, indicating the modulatory role of this new vaccine formulation. Upon challenge with live A. hydrophila on days 56 and 140 post-immunization, significantly reduced percent mortality was noted in the group immunized with modified adjuvant based rOmpR vaccine formulation. Taken together, our results suggest that rOmpR along with modified adjuvant could potentially be used as a vaccine formulation to handle A. hydrophila infection on a long-term basis. PMID:24937805

Dash, P; Sahoo, P K; Gupta, P K; Garg, L C; Dixit, A



Molecular characterization and expression of type-I interferon gene in Labeo rohita.  


Genes coding for type-I interferon (I-IFN) has been cloned from Labeo rohita, a commercially important and widely cultured fish in India and South East Asia. In the present study, full-length gene of I-IFN was amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that I-IFN consists of 1,786 bp genomic sequence with four introns and five exons and an ORF of 546 bp encoding for a putative protein of 181 amino acids. The mature protein has a molecular weight of 18.97 kDa and consists of 158 amino acids and a signal peptide of 23 amino acids at the N terminus. The sequence carries I-IFN signature motif, one glycosylation site, two conserved cystine amino acids and other conserved amino acids. The sequence showed highest similarity to that of Cyprinus carpio (84 %). In silico analysis of the rohu I-IFN protein was done using various bioinformatic tools. The constitutive expression of I-IFN gene was found to be more in spleen compared to gill and kidney in real time PCR assay. Expression of I-IFN increased about 20-fold in cultured kidney cell 2 h after induction with poly I:C and showed maximum expression at 8 h post-induction. PMID:24449367

Parhi, Janmejay; Mukherjee, S C; Saxena, Gopalkrishna; Sahoo, Lopamudra; Makesh, M



Family association between immune parameters and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.  


Seven innate immune parameters were investigated in 64 full-sib families (the offspring of 64 sires and 45 dams) from two year-classes of farmed rohu carp (Labeo rohita). Survival rates were also available from Aeromonas hydrophila infection (aeromoniasis) recorded in controlled challenge tests on a different sample of individuals from the same families. Due to strong confounding between the animal additive genetic effect and the family effects (common environmental+non-additive genetic), reliable additive (co)variance components and hence heritabilities and genetic correlations could not be obtained for the investigated parameters. Therefore, estimates of the association of challenge test survival with the studied immune parameters were obtained as product moment correlations between family least square means. These correlations revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) negative correlations of survival with bacterial agglutination titre (-0.48), serum haemolysin titre (-0.29) and haemagglutination titre (-0.34); and significant positive correlation with ceruloplasmin level (0.51). The correlations of survival to aeromoniasis with myeloperoxidase activity, superoxide production and lysozyme activity were found to be not significantly different from zero (p>0.05). Assuming that the negatively correlated candidate traits are not favourable as indirect selection criteria, the results suggest that ceruloplasmin level could potentially be a marker for resistance to aeromoniasis in rohu. The use of this immune parameter as an indirect selection criterion for increased resistance to aeromoniasis in rohu will, however, require that the parameter shows significant additive genetic variation and a significant genetic correlation with survival. Further studies are therefore needed to obtain a reliable heritability estimate for ceruloplasmin and its genetic correlation with survival from aeromoniasis. PMID:18486488

Sahoo, P K; Mahapatra, K Das; Saha, J N; Barat, A; Sahoo, M; Mohanty, B R; Gjerde, B; Odegård, J; Rye, M; Salte, R



Molecular cloning, characterization and functional assessment of the myosin light polypeptide chain 2 (mylz2) promoter of farmed carp, Labeo rohita.  


We cloned the 5'-flanking region (1.2 kb) of a muscle-specific gene, encoding myosin light chain 2 polypeptide (mylz2) of a farmed carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). Sequence analysis using TRANSFAC-database search identified the consensus cis acting regulatory elements of TATA-box and E (CANNTG)-box, including the monocyte enhancer factor 2 motif, implying that it is likely to be a functional promoter. The proximal promoter (~620 bp) was highly homologous with that of Danio rerio (zebrafish) as compared to Channa striatus (snakehead murrel) counterparts and showed less identity with Sparus auratus (gilthead sea bream), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Direct muscular (skeletal) injection of the construct containing the mylz2 promoter (0.6 kb) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene showed efficient expression in L. rohita, validating its functional activity. Further, the functional activity was confirmed by the observation that this promoter drove GFP expression in the skeletal muscle of transgenic rohu. The promoter may have potential applications for value-addition in ornamental fishes and studying gene regulatory functions. PMID:24740361

Mohanta, Ramya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Determination of Nutrient Digestibility and Amino Acid Availability of Various Feed Ingredients for Labeo rohita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, nitrogen free extract, gross energy and availability of amino acids in eight feed ingredients were determined for Labeo rohita fingerlings using chromic oxide as inert marker. The feed ingredients were meat meal, blood meal, corn gluten 60%, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, corn gluten 30%, coconut cake and sunflower meal. The apparent protein




Effects of polyherbal formulation 'ImmuPlus' on immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita at different stages of growth.  


A series of experiments were performed to determine the impact of polyherbal immunomodulatory formulation 'ImmuPlus' (AquaImmu) on growth, immunity and disease resistance of rohu (Labeo rohita), one of the Indian major carp at different stages of growth. Rohu larvae were fed on plankton, ImmuPlus-mixed compound feed, and plankton plus ImmuPlus-mixed compound feed (ImmuPlus added at three dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 g/kg feed) from 4th day of hatching to 14th day. ImmuPlus-mixed diets enhanced growth of larvae, survival and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, compared to only plankton-fed group. In two other experiments, advanced rohu larvae and fingerlings were fed with ImmuPlus-mixed compound feed (at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) for 15, 30 and 45 days. At the end of 45 days for advanced larvae and 30 days for fingerlings, the fish fed with ImmuPlus at 1.0 g/kg level showed significantly higher growth and disease resistance against A. hydrophila challenge. In a separate experiment, juveniles of rohu were fed with 1 g/kg of ImmuPlus incorporated feed for 15 and 30 days. At the end of the trial, the ImmuPlus fed fish showed enhanced non-specific immunity (as measured through nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assay, serum lysozyme activity, serum haemolysin titre and resistance against A. hydrophila challenge in non-vaccinated fish as well as specific immunity levels (as measured through bacterial agglutination titre against A. hydrophila in vaccinated fish). Incorporation of ImmuPlus at 1 g/kg level in the diet of rohu may be beneficial for enhancing disease resistance. PMID:17373376

Kumari, Jaya; Sahoo, P K; Giri, S S



Chronic toxic effects of quinalphos on some biochemical parameters in Labeo rohita (Ham.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide, quinalphos (1.12, 0.22 mg\\/l) on biochemical parameters of muscle and enzyme activities in brain, liver and kidney of the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita was studied after 15, 30 and 45 days. The muscle protein and RNA levels decreased whereas DNA levels and acid phosphatase were elevated. Similarly, alkaline

B. K Das; S. C Mukherjee



Effects of cypermethrin and carbofuran on certain hematological parameters and prediction of their recovery in a freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublethal effects of cypermethrin and carbofuran on hematological parameters and their complete recovery were studied in Labeo rohita as a function of exposure time. Exposure of Labeo rohita to sublethal levels of cypermethrin and carbofuran resulted in significantly (P<0.05) lower values for erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin content (Hb), and hematocrit compared with the control group. In contrast, there was a

S. Adhikari; B. Sarkar; A. Chatterjee; C. T. Mahapatra; S. Ayyappan



Low pH, dissolved oxygen and high temperature induces Thelohanellus rohita (myxozoan) infestation in tropical fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


In Labeo rohita, myxozoan infection is very common and here occurrence and distribution of myxozoan gill parasites were studied with an objective to evaluate the relationship between myxozoan infections with different abiotic factors. All ponds were infected with myxozoan infection. Sampling of water and fish was done fortnightly and soil sample on monthly basis for about 6 months. L. rohita is infected with the one myxozoan species Thelohanellus rohita. The first, second and third gill arches showed higher distribution of myxozoans than the fourth one. Posterior hemibranch of second gill arch was the most preferred site for parasite attachment. The mean intensity of parasite was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the size class of 8-9 cm in comparison to the other size classes. There were profound variability in the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of gill myxosoporeans from three ponds. During the start of the sampling, myxozoans were present in all the ponds but their intensity varied in different ponds. These may be due to the variability in the abiotic factors of individual ponds. Most importantly acidic pH, lower DO and higher temperature promote myxozoan infestation and their propagation. Low soil pH is also seen to enhance their propagation. Our data clearly highlighted that prevalence, intensity and abundance of T. rohita strongly influenced by the above environmental parameters and suggested that its life cycle is probably effected by their change; our hypothesis must be regarded as speculative as long as further detail study is not carried out. PMID:24431581

Saha, Himadri; Saha, Ratan K; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Kumar, Pankaj



Oxidative stress in freshwater fish, Labeo rohita as a biomarker of malathion exposure.  


This study examined the effect of lethal (4.5 ?g/l) and sublethal (0.45 ?g/l) malathion levels on oxidative stress responses of the freshwater edible fish, Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to lethal (1-4 days) and sublethal (1, 5, 10, and 15 days) periods. In the present study, catalase and protease activity, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, and free amino acids levels increased in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of fish exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion except protein content. Time- and concentration-dependent induction/reduction of the above parameters by lethal and sublethal concentrations of malathion was observed in the tissues (the gill, liver, and kidney) of L. rohita. Thus, the results clearly infer oxidative damage and decline in antioxidant defense due to malathion-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23836428

Patil, Vineetkumar K; David, Muniswamy



Transgene integration - an analysis in autotransgenic Labeo rohita Hamilton (Pisces: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic Labeo rohita founder population was analyzed for the presence of autotransgene having histone 3 promoter and growth hormone (GH) cDNA\\u000a (LRH3-GHcDNA) or total GH gene (LRH3-GH2.8) by PCR with transgene specific primers. Transgene specific amplification was seen\\u000a with LRH3-GHcDNA in five out of seven individuals and all three fishes with LRH3-GH2.8, indicating their transgenic nature.\\u000a Transgene integration was also

R. Rajesh; K. C. Majumdar




Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is an ubiquitous element present in various compounds throughout the earth's crust and it is identified as a human carcinogen. In this study, we focus on the arsenic induced biochemical changes in the liver tissues of freshwater fish Labeo rohita, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The spectrum of liver tissue is quite complex and contains several bands arising

V. VIJAYASUNDARAM; Annamalai Nagar



The immunomodulatory effects of tuftsin on the non-specific immune system of Indian Major carp, Labeo rohita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if injections of different dosages of tuftsin would enhance the immune response and disease resistance against the infections due to the opportunistic pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Hence, four different dosages of tuftsin in PBS suspension at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15mgkg?1 body weight of

C. K. Misra; B. K. Das; S. C. Mukherjee; P. K. Meher



Seasonal ovarian cycle in freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (Ham.) in Tarai region of Uttaranchal.  


Seasonal ovarian cycle, based on histophysiological changes, and correlative variations in liver were studied in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita reared in captivity under ambient environmental conditions in Tarai region of Uttaranchal. The oocyte features used for marking ovarian cycle included nuclear-ooplasmic ratio, yolk vesicle incorporation into ooplasm, number and size of nucleolus and differentiation of follicular layer. Based on these features the ovarian cycle in L. rohita was divided into five phases i.e. resting, preparatory, pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning/regression. The resting and preparatory phases were characterized by the dominating presence of chromatin-nucleolar and yolk-vesicle stage oocytes. The pre-spawning phase ovary was marked by the prevalence of yolk globule stage oocytes having cortical alveoli and differentiating follicular wall. The oocytes containing densely packed yolk-granules and large masses of yolk vesicles and also exhibiting germinal vesicle movement (GVM) signified the ovary of spawning phase. The ovary in regression phase contained pre-ovulatory atretic oocytes and significant number of oogonia. The histophysiological changes in liver showing augmented biosynthetic activity during preparatory and pre-spawning phases seemed well correlated with the gonadal development. The increasing water temperature and day-length apparently was favourable for the gonadal development in L. rohita. PMID:16334297

Singh, A K; Kumar, Anup; Singh, I J; Ram, R N



Selection for improved resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Indian major carp Labeo rohita: survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines.  


Selection for disease resistance in fish may be performed directly on basis of survival data obtained in controlled challenge trials, or indirectly using information from immunological or molecular markers linked to differential survival. In the present study, several key innate immune parameters were measured in aeromoniasis resistant and susceptible lines of rohu Labeo rohita to assess their suitability as immune markers for use in indirect selection for increased resistance. Experimental infection with Aeromonas hydrophila (9.55 × 10(6) cfu g(-1) fish) through the intraperitoneal route produced higher survival in the resistant line (73.33%) as compared to the susceptible line (16.67%). Blood and liver tissue samples from both lines were collected to study some of the innate immune parameters and immune-related gene expression. The respiratory burst activity of blood phagocytes, serum myeloperoxidase activity and ceruloplasmin level were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the resistant line compared to the susceptible line. Lower level of blood glucose and serum natural haemolysin titre were marked in the resistant line as compared to the susceptible line. No significant difference was measured in total serum protein concentration, antiprotease activity and bacterial agglutinin level between two lines, while the expression of transferrin, complement factor C3 and TLR 22-like transcripts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in liver samples of the susceptible line. However, no such difference was found in ?(2)-microglobulin and lysozyme gene expression between lines. The study demonstrated the possibility of using some of the investigated innate immune parameters as indirect marker traits for selection for improved resistance to aeromoniasis in rohu. PMID:21712094

Sahoo, P K; Rauta, P R; Mohanty, B R; Mahapatra, K D; Saha, J N; Rye, M; Eknath, A E



Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of roe protein hydrolysates of Channa striatus and Labeo rohita.  


Bioactive roe protein hydrolysates were prepared from Channa striatus (CRPH) and Labeo rohita (LRPH) and their functional and in vitro antioxidant properties evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis was 28.41% at 60min in channa and 18.85% in labeo roe concentrates at 90min. The yields of protein hydrolysates were 24.15% and 12.45% for channa and labeo roe protein concentrates, respectively. The protein content was identical (58%) in both roe protein hydrolysates. Protein solubility in channa was higher (90.48%) when compared to labeo (50.6%) at pH 12. Higher oil absorption capacity and foam stability were observed in CRPH and higher emulsifying capacity was found in LRPH. Smaller peptides of 12kDa were noted in both CRPH and LRPH. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in CRPH than in LRPH as seen from DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. PMID:22953883

Galla, Narsing Rao; Pamidighantam, Prabhakara Rao; Akula, Satyanarayana; Karakala, Balaswamy



The sympathetic neuro-melanophore transmission in a fresh-water Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).  


Adrenaline was effective in aggregating the melanosomes both in innervated as well as denervated melanophores. Isotonic KCl could induce pigment aggregation only in innervated melanophores. Adrenaline- and K+-induced pigment aggregation response in these melanophores was blocked by phentolamine: propranolol failed to do so. It is suggested that the chromatic nerves in the fish, Labeo rohita are adrenergic and via post-synaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, control the melanosome aggregation. PMID:2550366

Patil, S; Jain, A K



The study of the changes in the thermal properties of Labeo rohita bones due to arsenic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the changes in the thermal properties of control, arsenic exposed and DMSA treated Labeo rohita bones by using thermo analytical techniques. The result shows that the mass loss due to the thermal decomposition occurs\\u000a in three distinct steps due to loss of water, organic and inorganic materials. The arsenic exposed bones present a different\\u000a thermal behaviour compared

V. Vijayasundaram; V. Ramasamy; P. L. R. M. Palaniappan



Assessing metal, protein, and DNA profiles in Labeo rohita from the Indus River in Mianwali, Pakistan.  


This study assessed metals in water and different tissues of Labeo rohita and the impact of these metals on DNA and proteins as biomarkers of gills and muscles of these fish from three different polluted sites (reference or low = KW, medium = CH and high = SK) of the Indus River, Pakistan. The Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cr levels in water, gills, liver, muscles, and skin of these fish were compared with the international permissible levels. All metals except Pb and Hg in water were within the acceptable limits of drinking water. In contrast, the Mn, Hg, and Cr levels in the fish tissues were higher than their permissible limits for fish as a human food. Here, the gills contained higher metals than the other tissues. Different patterns of biomarkers were found in fish from these sites. While the gills did not show four protein bands (55, 30, 18.4, and 16.4 kDa), the muscles showed four new protein bands (100, 85, 45, and 20 kDa) for fish from the medium and high polluted sites as compared to the reference or low polluted site. The fish from the CH and SK sites of the Indus River contained low molecular weight DNA in their gills but high molecular weight DNA in their muscles when compared with the KW site. This study suggests that the proteins and DNA profiles of L. rohita could be used as biomarkers to assess the impact of potential environmental stressors such as metals on the freshwater systems. PMID:20461548

Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Jabeen, Farhat



Kinetic study of hepatic ?-glucuronidase in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


Liver is the metabolic factory and contains several valuable enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions. ?-glucuronidase is one of the well-known lysozymes that participates in the carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues of various vertebrates. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the kinetic properties of hepatic ?-glucuronidase of the Indian major carp (IMC), Labeo rohita. It was observed that the enzyme activity increased largely at pH 5 (0.1 M acetate buffer) when exposed to 38°C. However, the maximum activity was noticed at 52°C and later it started declined up to 70°C. It was also observed that with time the enzyme activity increased until substrate was completely used up. It has been concluded that it is a heat stable enzyme and cannot be destroyed at room temperature. Enzyme activity was observed to increase in response to increase in enzyme and substrate concentrations. The reaction velocity maxima (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were recorded using Lineweaver-Burk plot that was 18.182 ?g/h and 2.907 mM, respectively. PMID:20336485

Chilke, Arun M



Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6?mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45?mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5?mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45?mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F?) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54?kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54?kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid.



Innate immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita infected with oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces invadans.  


The fish pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a fish disease of international significance and reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In spite of the current and potential impact of A. invadans infection on fisheries and aquaculture sectors of the world, very little is known about the host-A. invadans interactions. In the present study, following experimental infection with A. invadans in one of the Indian major carps, Labeo rohita, sequential changes in various innate immune parameters were monitored. The results indicated that at early stages of infection, no significant changes in any of the studied innate immune parameters were observed. However, at the advanced stages of infection from 6 to 12 days post infection (dpi), the respiratory burst and alternate complement activity were significantly higher whereas lysozyme, antiproteases and ?-2 macroglobulin values were significantly lower than the control group and also from the infected group at earlier stages of infection. Since, the possibility of vaccination of fish against A. invadans appears remote due to difficulties in eliciting a specific antibody response, the information generated in the present study could be useful for developing strategies for improving resistance to A. invadans infection by stimulating the innate immunity through immunomodulation. PMID:24945572

Yadav, Manoj K; Pradhan, Pravata K; Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Verma, Dev K; Debnath, Chandan; Sahoo, Lopamudra; Chauhan, U K; Punia, Peyush; Jena, Joy K



Physiological changes in Labeo rohita during nitrite exposure: detoxification through dietary vitamin E.  


This study investigated the effect of sub-lethal nitrite-nitrogen exposure on Labeo rohita. Fishes fed with different levels of vitamin E (VE) for 60days were exposed to nitrite for another 45days with same feeding regime. There were four treatment groups, viz., VE100-N, VE100+N, VE150+N and VE300+N. After 45days of exposure, lowest specific growth rate was observed in VE100+N and highest in VE100-N. Reno-somatic index and methaemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. Highest Hb and Hct were observed in VE100-N and significantly decreased upon nitrite exposure. Significant differences were observed in the activities of catalase and SOD as well as serum potassium and chloride levels among different treatments. However, serum calcium and osmolality was not significantly varied. Nitrite exposure caused marked increase in nitrite concentration in gill, liver and muscle. In liver and muscle dietary supplementation of higher amounts of VE found to reduce nitrite accumulation. It was noticed that nitrite exposure has adversely affected growth, haematological variables, ionic balance and dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE found to overcome the adverse effects of nitrite-nitrogen. Detoxification of nitrite by methaemoglobin reductase system was enhanced by dietary supplementation of additional amounts of VE. PMID:23727021

Ciji, Alexander; Sahu, Narottam Prasad; Pal, Asim Kumar; Akhtar, Mohammad Shahbaz



Fish cholinesterases as biomarkers of sublethal effects of organophosphorus and carbamates in tissues of Labeo rohita.  


Organophosphates and carbamates are major agrochemicals that strongly affect different neuroenzymes and the growth of various fish species. Here, we study the effect of sublethal concentrations of profenofos and carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and the associated health risk in fish. Labeo rohita fingerlings were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of profenofos and carbofuran. The minimum cholinesterase activities in the brain, gills, muscle, kidney, liver, and blood were after exposure to profenofos (0.06 mg/L). The minimum AChE and BuChE activities in the brain, gills, muscle, kidney, liver, and blood were after exposure to carbofuran (0.28 and 0.198 mg/L). Exposure to both types of pesticides affected the functions of these organs, including metabolism and neurotransmission, to various extents at different exposure concentrations. These findings suggest that they are required to be properly monitored in the environment, to reduce their toxic effects on nontarget organisms. PMID:24357265

Ghazala; Mahboob, Shahid; Ahmad, L; Sultana, S; Alghanim, K; Al-Misned, F; Ahmad, Z



Physico-chemical characterization and biological response of Labeo rohita-derived hydroxyapatite scaffold.  


The chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterials. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses of fish scale materials reveal the different phase changes with temperature and find out the suitable calcination temperatures. The composition and structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powders are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The EDX as well as chemical analysis of fish scale-derived apatite materials confirms that the Ca/P ratio is 1.71. The compressive stress, hardness and porosity have been evaluated on sintered HAp biomaterials. The cell attachment on HAp surfaces, cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay, which are carried out in RAW macrophage-like cell line media demonstrate good biocompatibility. The histological analysis also supports the bioaffinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface. PMID:24288117

Mondal, S; Mondal, A; Mandal, N; Mondal, B; Mukhopadhyay, S S; Dey, A; Singh, S



Dietary choline, betaine and lecithin mitigates endosulfan-induced stress in Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


A five-week experiment was conducted to delineate stress-mitigating effects of three different methyl donors in Labeo rohita fingerlings subjected to endosulfan toxicity. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric feed were prepared with and without supplementation of methyl donors. The feed were basal or control diet (i.e., without methyl donor supplementation), feed supplemented with choline, feed supplemented with betaine and feed supplemented with lecithin. Two hundred and twenty-five fishes were distributed randomly in five treatment groups each with three replicates. The experimental setup were normal water (without endosulfan) and fed with control diet (control group), endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (T?), endosulfan-treated water and fed with choline supplemented feed (T?), endosulfan-treated water and fed with betaine supplemented feed (T?) and endosulfan-treated water and fed with lecithin-supplemented feed (T?). The level of endosulfan in endosulfan treated water was maintained at the level of 1/10 of LC??, that is, 0.2 ppb. During the experiment, growth performances, metabolic enzyme activity and histological examination were done to assess the effect of treatments. The growth performance (percentage weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio) and nutrient digestibility were significantly different (P<0.01) in lecithin, betaine and choline fed group when compared to endosulfan-exposed group fed with basal diet. The liver LDH and MDH activity were significantly (P<0.01) improved in the groups fed with methyl donor supplemented diet. The liver AST and ALT, brain AChE and muscle ALT did not change with supplementation in the diet, but muscle ALT and G6PDH significantly (P<0.01) changed with supplementation. The gill and liver ATPase and intestinal ALP were significantly (P<0.01) noticeably changed in supplemented group. After endosulfan exposure, histopathology alter like slight large vacuolation in hepatocyte and lipoid vacuole were observed and with supplementation normal appearance of liver were observed. The chromosome aberration (karyotype) was observed in endosulfan-exposed group. The result obtained in present study concluded that inclusion of methyl donors, particularly lecithin and betaine, in feed as nutritional supplements has a potential stress-mitigating effect in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:22160664

Kumar, Neeraj; Jadhao, S B; Chandan, N K; Kumar, Kundan; Jha, A K; Bhushan, S; Kumar, Saurav; Rana, R S



Hematological, biochemical and enzymological responses in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita induced by sublethal concentration of waterborne selenite exposure.  


Selenium (Se) pollution in aquatic ecosystem is an environmental issue throughout the world. Elevated concentrations of inorganic Se from agricultural and industrial processes may cause adverse biological effects in aquatic organisms such as fish. In the present study, Labeo rohita an Indian major carp were exposed to sublethal concentration of Se (sodium selenite) for 35days and certain hematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were estimated. The median lethal concentration of waterborne sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) to L. rohita was found to be 23.89mgL(-1) for 96h. During sublethal (2.38mgL(-1)) treatment, hematological and biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb) (except 14th day), hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte (RBC) count and protein levels were found to be decreased in Se treated fish whereas leucocyte (WBC) count and glucose level increased in Se treated fish throughout the study period. The enzymatic parameters such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were found to be increased in liver of Se treated fish L. rohita. A biphasic response was observed in the value of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The alterations of these parameters can be used as suitable biomarkers in monitoring of selenium in the aquatic environment and to protect aquatic life. PMID:24183823

Ramesh, Mathan; Sankaran, Marimuthu; Veera-Gowtham, Velusami; Poopal, Rama Krishnan



The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in ?-helical and random coil structures and an increase in ?-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.



Computational analysis of transcriptome of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) for functional annotation  

PubMed Central

A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeo rohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita.

Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar



FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.



Ultrastructural observations on sporogenesis of Myxobolus Kwangsiensis Hsieh, Gong & Xiao from the kidney of dace Labeo rohita  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages and capsulogenetic stages of sporogenesis of Myxobolus kwangsiensis were studied in detail by electron microscopy. M. kwangsiensis is an intracellular myxosporean infecting the epithelial cells of kidney tubules of young dace Labeo rohita. The M. kwangsiensis sporogensis presents the typical features of myxosporea. The initial stages are multinucleate primary cells, with one primary cell typically enclosing one secondary cell. The secondary cells are formed directly by cytokinesis inside the primary cells. The primary cell participates in the formation of the secondary cell nucleus. The nuclear division of primary cell is asynchronous by amitosis. The parasitic organisms may degenerate inside the epithelial cells at any stage. The modes of sporoblast formation, the typical features of myxosporea and the cause of its degradation are discussed.

Xiao, Wu-Han; Xie, Xing-Ren; Gong, Xiao-Ning



Vitamin D is not an essential nutrient for Rora (Labeo rohita) as a representative of freshwater fish.  


This investigation was directed towards finding the need of vitamin D for fish. The freshwater column feeder fish Labeo rohita (Rora) was used for the study. Early fry stage fish were divided into four experimental groups of 350 each: two groups were kept in natural light, while the other two were maintained under total darkness. One each of the light and dark-grown groups was supplied dietary vitamin D3 [1,650 i.u/kg diet], whereas the other groups were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for six months. The known vitamin D-related functions and growth parameters were studied in these four experimental groups of fish. The results showed that fish reared on vitamin D-deficient diet and in dark did not have even traces of liver vitamin D, indicating a state of vitamin D deficiency in these fish. No significant differences were observed in percent bone to body weight or dry matter of the vitamin D-deficient/supplemented groups of fish grown in light/dark. Further, it was also observed that there were no significant changes in bone and carcass ash or calcium and phosphorus content in response to vitamin D3 supplementation as compared to the groups which did not receive vitamin D3 (grown both in light and dark). Also, there was little change in several other parameters like carcass protein and lipid, mortality rates, hepatosomatic index, and feed efficiency between the vitamin D-deficient/supplemented groups of fish. Thus, these findings suggest that vitamin D may not be an essential nutrient for Rora (Labeo rohita) as a representative of freshwater fish. PMID:9675700

Ashok, A; Rao, D S; Raghuramulu, N



Yeast extract, brewer’s yeast and spirulina in diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings affect haemato-immunological responses and survival following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was conducted for 60days to study the immunomodulatory role of three different immunostimulants yeast extract (YE), brewer’s yeast (BY) and spirulina (SP) in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Four hundred and fifty fingerlings (avg. wt 3.35±0.15g) were randomly distributed in ten treatments and fed with either of ten iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric semi-purified diets, prepared with three incremental levels (1%,

Simi Rose Andrews; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; S. C. Mukherjee; Shivendra Kumar



Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeo rohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key\\u000a metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6\\u000a phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase),\\u000a and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeo rohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles

Vikas Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Shivendra Kumar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Jayant Ranjan; Kartik Baruah



Methyl donors potentiates growth, metabolic status and neurotransmitter enzyme in Labeo rohita fingerlings exposed to endosulfan and temperature.  


A 2-month preliminary study was conducted to delineate the effect of dietary methyl donors (choline, betaine, and lecithin) on the growth performance and metabolic status of Labeo rohita fingerlings subjected to endosulfan alone and in combination with elevated temperature. Four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets viz. basal diet, betaine-supplemented diet, choline-supplemented diet and lecithin-supplemented diet were prepared and fed to the different experimental groups throughout the experimental period as per the design. Two hundred and seventy fingerlings (average weight 7.95 ± 0.04 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups each having three replicates. The experimental groups were as follows: fish subjected to normal water (without endosulfan) and fed with control diet (control group T(0)), fish subjected to endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (T(1)), fish subjected to concurrent exposure of endosulfan and elevated temperature and fed with control diet (T(2)), fish subjected to endosulfan and elevated temperature and fed with choline-supplemented diet (T(3)), fish subjected to endosulfan and temperature and fed with betaine-supplemented feed (T(4)), and fish subjected to endosulfan and temperature and fed with lecithin-supplemented feed (T(5)). The result shows that in both the groups, that is, endosulfan exposed and concurrent exposure to endosulfan and elevated temperature group of L. rohita the growth performance like percentage weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rates were significantly different (P < 0.01) when fed with supplemented diet compared with control fed group. The liver LDH and MDH activity were significantly lower in lecithin, betaine, and choline fed groups. The muscle AST as well as G6PDH, AST, and ALT did not vary but liver ALT, gill and liver ATPase, intestine ALP, muscle and liver glycogen varied significantly with dietary supplementation. The liver and gill glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly lower in methyl donors-supplemented groups and brain AChE activity showed lower inhibition in supplemented groups in both endosulfan alone and concurrently exposed endosulfan and temperature groups. The result obtained in this study concludes that inclusion of methyl donors, particularly lecithin and betaine in feed as nutritional supplements have potential to improve growth and stress mitigating effect in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:22367487

Kumar, Neeraj; Jadhao, S B; Jha, A K; Kumar, Kundan; Chandan, N K; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Aklakur, Md; Kumar, Saurav; Rana, R S



Mercuric chloride induced toxicity responses in the olfactory epithelium of Labeo rohita (HAMILTON): a light and electron microscopy study.  


Bioaccumulation of mercury and histomorphological changes in the olfactory epithelium of Labeo rohita were investigated after exposing the fish to two sublethal concentrations of HgCl? (66 and 132 ?g/L) for 15 and 30 days. Mercury deposition increased in the tissue significantly (p < 0.05) with dose- and duration-dependent manner. Severe damage to the olfactory epithelium was evident. When fish exposed to 66 ?g/L for 15 days, the histology of olfactory epithelium exhibited that mucous cell proliferation was upregulated and cell size was significantly increased from the control. Similar trends were found in 30 days exposure in both treated groups. Histology showed that mercury induced degeneration of columnar sensory cells, supporting cells and ciliated non-sensory cells and induced basal cell proliferation. Basal cell hyperplasia led to form intraepithelial proliferative lesion, thickening of epithelium, basal lamina disruption and cyst formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mercury exposure at 66 ?g/L caused clumping and loss of cilia, erosion in microridges on the supporting cells and proliferation of mucous cell opening. Complete degeneration of ciliated cells and cyst formation was observed in the fish when exposed to 132 ?g/L HgCl?. This result suggests that prolonged exposure to mercury might cause irreversible damage to the olfactory epithelium and impair the olfactory function of fish. PMID:23807681

Ghosh, Debasree; Mandal, Dipak Kumar



Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).  


A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K



A study of the subchronic effects of arsenic exposure on the liver tissues of Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared technique.  


In this work, an attempt has been made to study the subchronic effects of arsenic exposure on the biochemical composition; mainly proteins of the liver tissues of Labeo rohita fingerlings by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique. The study was carried out using a Perkin Elmer-Spectrum Rx1 spectrometer. Because of arsenic exposure, significant reductions in the intensity as well as area of amide bands have been observed in the liver tissues. The decreased intensity of the amide bands could be interpreted as the result of alteration of the protein synthesis due to the high affinity of metal compounds towards different amino acid residues of proteins. Further, meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment shows the recovery of the protein content in the liver tissues. To confirm that the changes observed are only due to the bio-accumulation of arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the liver tissues of Labeo rohita was determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). It is observed that the arsenic level in the control tissues is found to be below detectable limit, whereas the arsenic exposed liver shows an accumulation of 66.68 ± 0.43 ?g/g and DMSA treatment reduces the arsenic content to 17.96 ± 0.19 ?g/g. In conclusion, this study gives clear evidence that the use of FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful approach to achieve more insight into the protein alterations caused by arsenic. PMID:20014409

Palaniappan, Pl R M; Vijayasundaram, V; Prabu, S Milton



Bioconcentration of zinc and its effect on the biochemical constituents of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita: An FT-IR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeo rohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the ?-helix and increasing the ?-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of ?-sheet structure.

Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Nishanth, T.; Renju, V. B.



Effect of multiple injections of beta-glucan on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Labeo rohita fingerlings.  


The purpose of this study was to determine if multiple injections of different dosages of beta-glucan derived from barley would enhance the immune response and disease resistance against infections due to opportunistic pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Hence, four different dosages of beta-glucan suspension in phosphate-buffered saline at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg kg(-1) body weight of fish were injected intraperitoneally to the fingerlings of Labeo rohita at two-week intervals for four times. After every two-week interval different serum biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters of fish were evaluated. At the end of immunostimulation trial of 56 days, fish were divided into four subgroups under each major treatment group for challenge through i.p injection and bath immersion with two pathogens, A. hydrophila and E. tarda. The mortality (%) and agglutinating antibody titre was recoded on 28th day post challenge. Most of the immune parameters such as leucocyte count, phagocytic ratio, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, complement activity, serum bactericidal activity were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced on 42 days after three i.p injections of 10 mg of beta-glucan kg(-1) body wt. Challenge study indicated least mortality in the group of fishes injected with medium dose of 10 mg of beta-glucan kg(-1) body wt. four times. Multiple injections of beta-glucan might have maintained the activation of phagocytic cells for a long period which in turn would lead to long-term protection in fishes. Thus, injections of 10 mg of beta-glucan kg(-1) body wt. for three times can be advocated to enhance the immune response of fish species under aquaculture. PMID:16039142

Misra, Chandra Kanta; Das, Basanta Kumar; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Pattnaik, Phalguni



Effect of dietary supplemented andrographolide on growth, non-specific immune parameters and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in NBT levels, myeloperoxidase activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antiprotease activity when compared to the control group. The weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of fishes fed with andrographolide were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) differed compared with control. Dietary andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher RPS (74.06%) against A. hydrophila infection than control. The results revealed that andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:23973382

Basha, Kusunur Ahamed; Raman, Ram Prakash; Prasad, Kurcheti Pani; Kumar, Kundan; Nilavan, Ezhil; Kumar, Saurav



Yeast extract, brewer's yeast and spirulina in diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings affect haemato-immunological responses and survival following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge.  


A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days to study the immunomodulatory role of three different immunostimulants yeast extract (YE), brewer's yeast (BY) and spirulina (SP) in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Four hundred and fifty fingerlings (avg. wt 3.35±0.15 g) were randomly distributed in ten treatments and fed with either of ten iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric semi-purified diets, prepared with three incremental levels (1%, 2% and 4%) of different immunostimulants except the control. Growth parameters did not vary significantly (p>0.05) among the experimental groups. Haematology and serum parameters was performed before Aeromonas hydrophila challenge whereas respiratory burst activity was analysed following challenge. The respiratory burst activity, total leucocyte count, serum total protein and globulin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in YE 1% supplemented group. The survival (%) after challenging with A. hydrophila was also highest in the YE fed groups. The results indicate that among the different sources and levels of immunostimulants, YE at lower inclusion level is more effective in promoting the immune status of L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:20825959

Andrews, Simi Rose; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Mukherjee, S C; Kumar, Shivendra



Effect of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal) root as a feed additive on immunological parameters and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings.  


The present study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root powder on immunological parameters and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila infections in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with dry diet containing 0 gkg(-1) (control), 1 gkg(-1) (T(1)), 2 gkg(-1) (T(2)) and 3 gkg(-1) (T(3)) W. somnifera root powder for 42 days. Immunological (NBT level, Phagocytic activity, total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity) parameters of fishes were examined at 0 days, 14 days, 28 days and 42 days of feeding. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and mortalities (%) were recorded over 14 days post-infection. The results demonstrate that fishes fed with W. somnifera root showed enhanced NBT level, Phagocytic activity, total Immunoglobulin level and lysozyme activity (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The survivability was higher in experimental diets than the control group. Dietary W. somnifera at the level of 2 gkg(-1) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher protection (RPS 42.85+/-0.65%) against A. hydrophila infection than control. The results suggest that the W. somnifera root powder have a stimulatory effect on immunological parameters and increases disease resistance in L. rohita fingerlings against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:20580830

Sharma, Arun; Deo, Ashutosh D; Riteshkumar, S Tandel; Chanu, Thongam Ibemcha; Das, Arabinda



In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.  


Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S



Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fish scales of Labeo rohita and their application as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.  


In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945

Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita



Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg?1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature.

Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.



Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan.  


An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5% of the diet). PMID:23504103

Ciji, A; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S



Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility.  


Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca (2+)-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1-3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan



Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40?ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20?ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, ?B-helix, ?C-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, ?B-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling.

Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal



Comparison of three plant substrates for enhancing carp growth through bacterial biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant substrates, sugarcane bagasse, paddy straw and dried Eichhornea, were compared for enhancing fish growth through bacterial biofilm development. The substrates were suspended in water supplemented with cowdung and urea. For comparison, control cisterns applied with only cowdung and urea were maintained. The cisterns were stocked with common carp (Cyprirrus carpio) and rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings at 10?000 ha?1.

M. R Ramesh; K. M Shankar; C. V Mohan; T. J Varghese



Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method  

PubMed Central

The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3?M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4°C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse.

Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha



Development of the Weberian apparatus in Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.).  


1. The lateral processes of the first two vertebrae are developed from the ossification of the mesenchyme. 2. The centra of the second and third vertebrae are fused together forming a composite structure. 3. The "transverse processes" of the fourth vertebrae are homologous with the pleural ribs. 4. The ossa suspensoria are developed from the lateral and ventromesial processes from the basiventrals and form a kind of arch over the dorsal aorta. 5. The dorsal cartilaginous mass arching over the anterior vertebrae is formed by the basidorsals of the second, third, and fourth vertebrae. 6. The "perineural cartilage" serves to protect the spinal cord in the absence of the true neural arch of the first vertebra. 7. The claustrum is formed by the mesenchymatous rudiments which are intercalated structures. The claustrum rudiments ossify and get associated with some cartilaginous structures comparable to the supradorsals of the first vertebra. 8. The scaphium originates by the fusion of basidorsals of the first vertebra with the independent mesenchymatous tissue choncha stapedis. 9. The intercalarium is formed by the fusion of the basidorsals of the second vertebra and interossicular ligament. 10. The tripus is of complex origin and is formed by the basiventrals of the third vertebra, an independent mesenchymatous rudiment and a small ossification of the interossicular ligament. PMID:907185

Kulshrestha, S K



Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.  


The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A



Description of a new species of Labeo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the lower Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new labeonine cyprinid, Labeo fulakariensis, is described from material recently collected in rapids on the lower Congo River near the mouth of the Foulakari River, a large north bank tributary, in the Republic of Congo, and from the Yelala rapids in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The new species is readily distinguished from other Congolese Labeo except L. greenii



Comparative susceptibility of carp fingerlings to Lernaea cyprinacea infection.  


Study was conducted to find out the comparative susceptibility of fingerlings of seven species of carps (Labeo fimbriatus, L. rohita, L. calbasu, Catla catla, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthamichthys molitrix) grown under both mono and polyculture to Lernaea cyprinacea infection. Under monoculture, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu, did not acquire Lernaea infection and were thus considered resistant, whereas C. idella, H. molitrix, C. catla and L. fimbriatus were susceptible. Even challenge with higher infective doses of copepodids under monoculture did not result in infection in the resistant fish species. The resistance of L. rohita and C. carpio to Lernaea infection under monoculture was not sustained when these two fish species were maintained in polyculture along with susceptible fish species. Labeo calbasu, even under polyculture, however, did not acquire Lernaea infection indicating that this fish species is the most resistant and least preferred host for this parasite. Similarly, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu when grown together in polyculture and exposed to a higher infective dose (120 copepodids/fish) also did not develop the infection. The possible reasons for differences in susceptibility shown by these carp species in monoculture and the loss of resistance by rohu and common carp while in polyculture with susceptible species are discussed. The ability of resistant fish species to prevent establishment of anchor worms on them under monoculture can be utilized to control this parasitic infection commonly encountered in culture ponds. PMID:21255932

Hemaprasanth; Singh, Ravinder; Raghavendra, A; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R; Eknath, A E



Ultrastructural characteristics and histological impacts of Myxobolus naffari (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting Nile labeo Labeo niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae).  


We describe the ultrastructural characteristics and histological impacts of Myxobolus naffari Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 1998, which infects the Nile fish Labeo niloticus. The prevalence of infection was 65%, with the maximum rate occurring during winter and a lower rate during summer. The histological impacts were manifested as a fusion of the gill epithelia, hyperplasia at the ends of the plasmodia, and atrophy of the external surface of the plasmodia. The ultrastructural study revealed that the plasmodial wall was composed of a single unit membrane and bound externally by a thick layer of collagen fibers. The earliest recognizable stage was the disporous pansporoblast. The development of the parasite was asynchronous, with mature and immature spores randomly distributed throughout the plasmodium. PMID:20815329

Abdel-Baki, A S; Sakran, T; Fayed, H; Zayed, E



Effect of Dactylogyrus catlaius (Jain 1961) infection in Labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822): innate immune responses and expression profile of some immune related genes.  


The monogenean ectoparasite, Dactylogyrus sp. is a major pathogen in freshwater aquaculture. The immune responses in parasitized fish were analyzed by quantitation of innate immune factors (natural agglutinin level, haemolysin titre, antiprotease, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities) in serum and immune-relevant gene expression in gill and anterior kidney. The antiprotease activity and natural agglutinin level were found to be significantly higher and lysozyme activity was significantly lower in parasitized fish. Most of the genes viz., beta2-microglobulin (beta2M), major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI), MHCII, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) in gill samples were significantly down-regulated in the experimental group. In the anterior kidney, the expression of superoxide dismutase and interleukin 1beta (IL1beta) were significantly up-regulated whereas a significant down regulation of MHCII and TNFalpha was also observed. The down-regulation of most of the genes viz, MHCI, beta2M, MHCII, TLR22 and TNFalpha in infected gills indicated a well evolved mechanism in this parasite to escape the host immune response. The modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by this parasite can be further explored to understand host susceptibility. PMID:24669670

Dash, Pujarini; Kar, Banya; Mishra, Arpita; Sahoo, P K



Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) of Labeo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from West African Coastal Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dactylogyrids from Labeo parvus Boulenger, 1902, L. alluaudi Pellegrin, 1933, and L. rouaneti, Daget, 1962, were studied in Atlantic coastal basins in West Africa. Nine species (6 new) of Dactylogyridae were found Dactylogyrus longiphallus Papema, 1973, D. falcilocus Guégan, Lambert, and Euzet, 1988, and Dog-elius kabaensis sp. n. from L. parvus populations in coastal rivers of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and




Analysis of lactate and malate dehydrogenase enzyme profiles of selected major carps of wetland of Calcutta.  


The East Calcutta Wetland (ECW), a Ramsar site in India, acts as the only sink for both city sewages as well as effluents from the surrounding small-scale industries and is alarmingly polluted with heavy metals. The three best edible major carp species rohu (Labeo rohita,), catla (Catla catla,) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala) were undertaken to monitor lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) to assess the effects of pollutants, if any. Crude tissue extracts were prepared from brain, eye, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney tissue respectively from each type of fish. No differences were not found in MDH of catla from both sites for all tissues analyzed in this study. Rohu also showed similar mobility for all tissues except for heart tissue which was distinctly different in fishes from ECW site than that of its counterpart from non ECW site. On the other hand, MDH of two tissues of mrigala, eye and muscle respectively showed different migration patterns. LDH profiles for all tissues of three fish species from both the sites were consistently similar, only the expression levels of muscle LDH of mrigala and kidney LDH of rohu varied little. PMID:23360005

Manna, Madhumita; Chakraborty, Priyanka



Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.  


Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders



Digestibility of Bamboo-Grown Periphyton by Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and Tor khudree) and Hybrid Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton development on bamboo substrate was quantified over six weeks in fertilized mud-bottomed cement tanks. Dry matter, ash and pigment content of periphyton were analyzed at weekly intervals. On a dry matter basis, periphyton production reached the maximum on the 21st day and showed a decline thereafter. Periphyton was scraped and fed ad libitum daily over 30 days to fingerlings

B. Gangadhara; P. Keshavanath; T. J. Ramesha; M. Priyadarshini



Two new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting an Indian major carp and a cat fish in wetlands of Punjab, India.  


A survey of parasites of freshwater fishes in Kanjali and Harike wetlands of Punjab (India) revealed the presence of two new myxosporean species belonging to the genus Myxobolus Bütschli (Winter (ed): Protozoa, 1882). Spores of the first species, M. saugati sp. nov. parasitizing scales of Labeo rohita (Cypriniformis: Cyprinidae) vern. rohu are characterized in having 'spores measuring 8.3 × 6.6 ?m in size, oval to spherical in valvular view having rounded anterior and posterior ends; polar capsules are two, equal, measuring 4.0 × 2.4 ?m, pyriform with distinct neck at the anterior end; an intercapsular process is absent'. Spores of the second species, Myxobolus szekeli sp. nov. parasitizing internal wall of stomach of Wallago attu (Cypriniformis: Siluridae) vern. mulle are '8.7 × 4.1 ?m in size, elongately ovoidal in valvular view having tapering, bluntly pointed anterior end and rounded posterior end; polar capsules are two, equal, measuring 4.4 × 1.5 ?m, tubular with blunt anterior and rounded posterior ends; polar capsules converge anteriorly but are placed at a distance posteriorly and occupies nearly half of the spore body cavity; an intercapsular process is absent'. PMID:23024499

Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet



Thelohanellus niloticus sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of the Nile carp Labeo niloticus from the River Nile, Egypt.  


In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Thelohanellus niloticus sp. nov., a new myxozoan belonging to genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting the gills of Labeo niloticus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae), were described for the first time from the River Nile at El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Forty-one out of 78 (52.6 %) of the examined fish were infected. The infection was observed as irregular, milky whitish, cyst-like plasmodia (up to 0.8 mm in diameter) attached to the gill filaments of the host fish. These plasmodia contained tear-shaped myxospores with slightly tapering anterior and rounded posterior ends. Each spore has a single pyriform polar capsule. Spores measured about 23.3?±?0.3 (20.4-27.1) ?m long and 13.4?±?0.4 (11.5-14.2) ?m wide. The polar capsule was 11.7?±?0.3 (9.2-12.5) ?m long and 4.7?±?0.3 (3.5-6.2) ?m wide, containing a polar filament coiled perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the spore body making eight turns. Occasionally, an oblong, irregular-shaped mass of protoplasm with a slightly oval nucleus (1.4 ?m in diameter) and a small iodinophilous vacuole measured 0.85?±?0.2 ?m (0.73-1.2 ?m) were observed in the spore. Due to the lack of the second polar capsule characterizing Myxobolus sp., the present parasite is placed within the genus Thelohanellus. Based on morphological differences (compared with other members of Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933) and the host specificity, this species is described as a new one of the genus Thelohanellus recorded for the first time in Egypt. PMID:23073570

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; El-Ganainy, Sahar; Gamal, Shams



Water quality, biofilm production and growth of fringe-lipped carp (Labeo fimbriatus) in tanks provided with two solid substrates.  


The effects of two substrates, sugarcane bagasse (T(1)) and paddy straw (T(2)) on water quality and growth of Labeo fimbriatus were studied in mud-bottomed, manured cement tanks, in triplicate; a set of three tanks without substrate served as control (T(3)). Addition of manure and substrate brought about a decrease in dissolved oxygen level, but it stabilized after 15 days, when the tanks were stocked with 30 fish each, fed at 3% body weight daily and reared for 90 days. Total ammonia content in substrate based treatments was relatively lower than in the control. Significantly higher nitrite-nitrogen was recorded in the control tanks. The total plate counts (TPC) of bacteria in water did not differ significantly between treatments and control. The overall mean value of TPC with substrate was higher in T(2) than in T(1). The mean phytoplankton density in water was the highest in T(1), followed by T(3) and T(2), whereas zooplankton density was the highest in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). The growth of fish was significantly (P<0.05) higher in substrate-based tanks, the percentage increases over control being 30.44 (T(1)) and 28.71 (T(2)) respectively. Higher RNA, DNA and RNA:DNA ratios were recorded under T(1), followed by T(2) and T(3). Higher enzyme activity was observed in fish from substrate treatments, which was attributable to the additional nutrients derived through the biofilm. The results demonstrated that production of L. fimbriatus can be significantly increased by the introduction of biodegradable substrates into culture systems where fertilization and feeding are employed. PMID:12507865

Mridula, R M; Manissery, J K; Keshavanath, P; Shankar, K M; Nandeesha, M C; Rajesh, K M



Two new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting Indian freshwater fishes in Punjab Wetlands (India).  


A survey of parasites of freshwater fishes in Harike and Ropar Wetlands of Punjab (India) revealed the presence of two new myxosporean species belonging to the genus Myxobolus Butschli 1882. Spores of the first species, M. duodenalis sp. nov. parasitize the inner wall of the duodenum of Wallago attu (Bloch and Schneider) (Cypriniformis: Cyprinidae) vern. mulli are characterized by a broad, pyriform shape with a blunt anterior end and measures 9.0 × 3.20 ?m. Spore valves are thin, smooth, and symmetrical with no parietal folds. There are two polar capsules, prominently unequal and pyriform in shape, with a narrow anterior end and a rounded posterior end. The larger polar capsule measures 4.70 × 1.76 ?m and the smaller 2.76 × 1.06 ?m. The larger polar capsule occupies more than half, while the smaller one occupies one third of the spore body cavity. An intercapsular process is absent. Spores of the second species, Myxobolus patialensis sp. nov. parasitize the caudal fin of Labeo rohita (Ham. 1822) (Cypriniformis: Cyprinidae) vern. rohu are pyriform in valvular view, measuring 11.28 × 6.67 ?m. The two shell valves are asymmetrical and contain five parietal folds along the posterior end of the spore. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules, elongated and oval in shape are prominently unequal in size. The larger polar capsule measures 4.8 × 3.1 ?m and smaller one 1.70 × 1.51 ?m. The larger polar capsule lies obliquely to the spore axis and the smaller one is at the same level but pointing outward anteriolaterally. An intercapsular process is absent. This species is characterized by having a prominent ridge on the shell surface anteriolaterally on the side of the smaller polar capsule. PMID:21394535

Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet



Heavy Metals in Eight Edible Fish Species from Two Polluted Tributaries (Aik and Palkhu) of the River Chenab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of heavy metals (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu)) was determined in the liver, gills,\\u000a kidneys, and muscles of eight edible fish species (Channa punctata, Cirrhinus reba, Labeo rohita, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus cavasius, Oreochromis niloticus, Puntius sophore, and Wallago attu) from upstream and downstream zones of the Nullah Aik and Palkhu tributaries of the River Chenab

Abdul Qadir; Riffat Naseem Malik


Fish-Borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Cultured and Wild-Caught Freshwater Fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

Ersb?ll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders



Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries  

PubMed Central

Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds.

Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders



Metal concentrations in water, sediment, and fish from sewage-fed aquaculture ponds of Kolkata, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were investigated in the sewage-fed pond water, sediment,\\u000a and the various organs of Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Cyprinus carpio cultured in sewage-fed ponds, Kolkata, India. Among the metals, cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in water and, except\\u000a lead, were below the water quality guideline levels

S. Adhikari; L. Ghosh; S. P. Rai; S. Ayyappan



Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  


The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah



Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO.

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah



The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  


The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 788-796, 2014. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati



Simple gas chromatographic method for the quantification of total cholesterol in fish meats.  


Six fish species-Cirrhinus mrigala (Morakhi), Labeo rohita (Danbhro), Catla catla (Thalli), Wallago attu (Jarko), Ctenopharyngodon idella (Grass), and Cyprimus carpio (Gulfam)--commonly found in the Pakistani Indus river, were selected for fat and cholesterol evaluation. Fat content was quantified by the Folch method and cholesterol content was determined by a simple GC method. The application of the proposed method to quantify cholesterol content revealed variations among the six breeds evaluated. The breeds studied contained 0.80-1.95% fat, indicating that all investigated fishes were lean; significant variation was found in cholesterol content, and ranged between 72 and 392 mg/100 g. Standard addition analyses showed that the method was accurate, as the recovery of cholesterol varied from 95 to 103%, with a coefficient of variance not more than 5.6%. The results showed that, after the development of suitable calibration, within 11 min, the cholesterol could be accurately determined by GC. PMID:20922959

Memon, Nusrat N; Sherazi, Syed Tufail H; Talpur, Farah N; Bhanger, Muhammad I



Comparative organoleptic quality of Indian major carps collected from pond and reservoir.  


An attempt was made to distinguish the possible organoleptic differences between the pond reared and wild fish species of reservoirs and correlate these with the physicochemical characteristics of water bodies. The texture was found to firmer in wild varieties of fishes than pond reared fish, with best in Catla catla followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. All the cultured fishes had lighter colour than wild fish species which were darker in appearance. Comparatively, higher dissolved oxygen and transparency levels with low temperature and alkalinity levels were found in reservoirs. Hydrobiologically, the efficient ecosystem of reservoir was responsible for stronger texture and dark colouration in wild fish species. The fishes from reservoir exhibit tendency to lead active and agile life, comparatively the fishes from ponds are docile. Reservoirs have the potential of enhanced quality fish production. PMID:24640254

Gupta, Monika; Upadhyay, A K; Pandey, N N



Heavy metals in eight edible fish species from two polluted tributaries (Aik and Palkhu) of the River Chenab, Pakistan.  


Concentration of heavy metals (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu)) was determined in the liver, gills, kidneys, and muscles of eight edible fish species (Channa punctata, Cirrhinus reba, Labeo rohita, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus cavasius, Oreochromis niloticus, Puntius sophore, and Wallago attu) from upstream and downstream zones of the Nullah Aik and Palkhu tributaries of the River Chenab located in the Sialkot district known for its tanning industries worldwide. The pattern of metal accumulation in studied organs was in the order: Cr?>?Pb?>?Cu?>?Cd. Liver showed greater metal accumulation, followed by gills, kidneys, and muscles. Accumulation of Pb and Cr was significantly different in organs between upstream and downstream zones. Accumulation was greater in fish species dwelling downstream, indicating impairment of ambient stream water due to untreated discharge of industrial and municipal effluents into studied streams. Highest concentration of Pb and Cr and lowest of Cd was detected in H. fossilis whereas Cu showed higher concentration and Cr lowest concentration in P. sophore. In contrast, lower concentration of Pb and Cu was recorded in M. cavasius, O. niloticus, and W. attu. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Cu were higher in pre-monsoon compared to post-monsoon season. Measured concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in muscles of species such as C. punctata, W. attu, L. rohita, P. sophore, and O. niloticus were above permissible limits of heavy metals for human consumption, indicating potential health risks. Therefore, these fish species from studied locations should be avoided for human diet. PMID:21424780

Qadir, Abdul; Malik, Riffat Naseem



Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.  


Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S



Dynamics of toxic heavy metals in different compartments of a highly urbanized closed aquatic system.  


This paper deals with the dynamics of chromium, nickel, copper and lead among the different components namely water, surface sediments, submerged and free floating macrophytes and fish of the twin manmade lakes, Upper and Lower lakes, of Bhopal (M.P., India). Some basic parameters of water and sediment have also been studied. The basin of the lake system is densely populated and the water is used for various purposes including drinking. Ni and Pb along with nitrate in both lakes are significantly higher than the drinking water quality criteria of USEPA. The concentration of the metals in the sediments is noticeably higher than that present in the adjoining rock, particularly Ni and Pb. There is a significant uptake of metals by the macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata) and fish (Labeo rohita and Oreochromis niloticus) mainly in summer. The fish of Lower lake (O. niloticus) is unfit for human consumption. The data have been statistically treated. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to define the origin of metals and to assess the relationship among the sites. Overall the Lower lake is more polluted than the Upper lake. In aggregate, the lake system is under an environmental stress due to certain practices. PMID:22290427

Gupta, Bina; Kumar, Rahul; Rani, Manviri; Agarwal, Tripti



Detection of pesticide residues in muscles, liver and fat of 3 species of Labeo found in Kalri and Haleji lakes.  


The pesticide residues which were detected in fish tissues are DDT, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin and deltamethrin. In total 45 samples were taken out of which 18 were found positive. Out of 18 samples DDT was found in 10 samples in small quantities. DDE was found in 12 samples in higher quantities, aldrin was found in 10 samples and dieldrin was found in 2 samples in small quantities. Deltamethrin was found in 7 samples and malathion in none. Slightly more number of residues were found in Kalri lake samples. However, quantity of pesticides was higher in Haleji lake due to polluted nature of water while number of pesticides was more in Kalri lake water, possibly due to the surrounding adjacent agricultural farms. Higher level of GPT, GOT and ALP was found in samples with higher accumulation of pesticide residues. This possibly indicates a correlation between exposure of pesticide and increased level of the 3 enzymes. PMID:16334280

Saqib, Tasneem A; Naqvi, S N H; Siddiqui, P A; Azmi, M A



Cross-priming of microsatellite loci in subfamily cyprininae (family Cyprinidae): their utility in finding markers for population genetic analysis in three Indian major carps.  


This study is aimed to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and establish their potential for population genetics studies in three carp (family cyprinidae; subfamily cyprininae) species, Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala through use of cyprinid primers. These species have high commercial value and knowledge of genetic variation is important for management of farmed and wild populations. We tested 108 microsatellite primers from 11 species belonging to three different cyprinid subfamilies, Cyprininae, Barbinae and Leuciscinae out of which 63 primers (58.33 %) successfully amplified orthologous loci in three focal species. Forty-two loci generated from 29 primers were polymorphic in these three carp species. Sequencing of amplified product confirmed the presence of SSRs in these 42 loci and orthologous nature of the loci. To validate potential of these 42 polymorphic loci in determining the genetic variation, we analyzed 486 samples of three focal species collected from Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems. Results indicated significant genetic variation, with mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 6.80 to 14.40 and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.50 to 0.74 in the three focal species. Highly significant (P < 0.00001) allelic homogeneity values revealed that the identified loci can be efficiently used in population genetics analysis of these carp species. Further, thirty-two loci from 19 primers were useful for genotyping in more than one species. The data from the present study was compiled with cross-species amplification data from previous results on eight species of subfamily cyprininae to compare cross-transferability of microsatellite loci. It was revealed that out of 226 heterologous loci amplified, 152 loci that originated from 77 loci exhibited polymorphism and 45 primers were of multispecies utility, common for 2-7 species. PMID:24792330

Masih, Prachi; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Das, Rakhi; Gupta, Arti; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Srivastava, Rohit; Chauhan, U K; Jena, J K; Lal, Kuldeep K



Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal.  


This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. The results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of Hg, and approximately 50-84% of Hg was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length (age) was found. Wallago attu possessed the highest amount of organic mercury in their muscle tissues, and it was 0.93?±?0.61 ?g Hg/g of wet weight. Whereas in small-sized fishes Eutropiichthys murius, Puntius sarana, Cirrhinus mrigala, Mystus vittatus or Mystus gulio, and Tilapia mossambicus, it was below the detection limit. Contamination in Catla catla (0.32?±?0.11), Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (0.26?±?0.07 ?g Hg/g), Chitala chitala (0.25?±?0.18), Rita rita (0.34?±?0.14), and Ompok pabda (0.26?±?0.04) was also above the 0.25 ?g Hg/g of wet weight, the limit set by the PFA for the maximum level for consumption of fish exposed to MeHg. Though in Labeo rohita (0.12?±?0.03), Mastacembelus armatus (0.17?±?0.02), Pangasius pangasius (0.12?±?0.16), Bagarius bagarius (0.12?±?0.01), and Clupisoma garua (0.1?±?0.01), concentration was below the recommended level, in Lates calcarifer (0.23?±?0.0) and Mystus aor (0.23?±?0.1), it was threatening. Interestingly, a low concentration of Hg was found in post-monsoon samples. PMID:21713467

Pal, Moumita; Ghosh, Santinath; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Ghosh, Mahua



The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)  

SciTech Connect

Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

Alam, M.K.



FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance.



Prevalence of zoonotic trematodes in fish from a Vietnamese fish-farming community.  


The prevalence of fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) metacercariae was investigated in fish farmed by rural households in Nghe An Province, located in northern Vietnam. In total, 716 fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 6 carp species, i.e., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix), and roha (Labeo rohita), collected from 53 fish farms were examined. The overall prevalence of FZT metacercariae was 44.6%, ranging from 12.5% to 61.0% in fish species collected from grow-out ponds, which are the production system for growing fish from fingerling size to market size. The overall prevalence was 43.6% in fingerlings cultured in nurseries, ranging from 7.4% to 62.8% for different fish species. The FZT species recovered were heterophyids and echinostomatids and included Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Stellantchas musfalcatus, and Echinochasmus japonicus, all of which are intestinal flukes in humans, other mammals, and birds. This is the first report of H. yokogawai and E. japonicus in fish in Vietnam, and the first record for S. falcatus in northern Vietnam. Although a previous cross-sectional survey of the people living in these fish farm households revealed a very low prevalence of FZTs (< 1%), our results demonstrate that intestinal flukes are common in farmed fish in this area, suggesting that reservoir hosts such as dogs, cats, and pigs are more important in sustaining the life cycles of these flukes in fish farms than human hosts. This has implications for the effectiveness of control programs focused mainly on treatment of humans. PMID:18564743

Chi, Tran T K; Dalsgaard, Anders; Turnbull, James F; Tuan, Pham A; Murrell, K Darwin



Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level.



Observations on the histopathological changes caused by myxosporidian infections in minor carps.  


Myxozoan infections result in large scale histopathological features depending on various factors. Earlier studies on pathological changes caused by myxozoan infections in piscine hosts have been reported from different localities. This study is based on the histopathological features caused by the members of genera Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 and Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 in the gill and fin tissues of commercially significant minor carps, Labeo calbasu and Labeo gonius of the genus Labeo collected from the four different districts of the north-eastern Indian state of Tripura (latitude 22°51'-24°32'N and longitude 90°10'-92°21'E) spanning over a total geographical area of 10,491 km(2). PMID:24431567

Madhavan, Remya; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Santosh, B



A new report on the occurrence of monogenean parasites (Monogenoidea) on gill filaments of freshwater fishes in Meghalaya.  


The edible freshwater fishes of several genera including Labeo, Cyprinus, Cirrhinus, Danio, Puntius, Garra (Cypriniformes), Channa (Channiformes), Clarias, Heteropneustes, Rita, Monopterus, Ompak, Bagarius and Mystus (Siluriformes) in Meghalaya State were examined for their helminth parasite spectrum. Two monogenean flukes representing the genera Diplozoon and Bifurcohaptor were recovered from the gills of the host fish, which are redescribed herein and their descriptions supplemented with information on their surface fine topography. Labeo pangusia and L. boga constitute new host records for the diplozoid monogenean. Both the monogenean species are reported for the first time from the fishes in Meghalaya, a new locality record. PMID:22654321

Thapa, Sunila; Jyrwa, Donald B; Tandon, Veena



Chromosome banding and genome compartmentalization in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the correlation between chromosome banding and compositional compartmentalization of the genome in three selected fish species, Anguilla anguilla (Anguilliformes), Epinephelus guttatus (Perciformes), and Labeo bicolor (Cypriniformes). These species were selected because they provided a spectrum of such compartmentalizations. Indeed, the band profiles in CsCl density gradients of the corresponding DNAs are characterized by a high compositional heterogeneity

Leandro Medrano; Giacomo Bernardi; Jérome Couturier; Bernard Dutrillaux; Giorgio Bernardi



The distribution and relative abundance of stream fishes in the upper Manyame River, Zimbabwe, in relation to land use, pollution and exotic predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the upper Manyame River catchment, middle Zambezi system, Zimbabwe, yielded a total of 22 fish species from 48 stations. The most widespread species (present at >20 stations) were Marcusenius macrolepidotus, Barbus paludinosus, Labeo cylindricus, Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia sparrmanii. The most numerous species (>10% of the total) were B. paludinosus, B. lineomaculatus and T. sparrmanii. A number

B Gratwicke; B E Marshall; T Nhiwatiwa



Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

Elhadi, Nasreldin



Assessment of Total Mercury Level in Fish Collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh Sewage Fed Aquaculture in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected\\u000a fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 ?g\\/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross

Subarna Bhattacharyya; Punarbasu Chaudhuri; Siddartha Dutta; Subhas Chandra Santra



Physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of carp and mammalian skin gelatin films.  


Films of 0.11 to 0.13 mm thickness were prepared using gelatins from the skins of cultured freshwater carp species and mammalian gelatins viz., porcine and bovine skin gelatin. A comparative study was made on the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of these films. The amino acid composition, gel strength, clarity, and gel setting point of the gelatins were also determined. Carp skin gelatins had a lower imino acid content (19.16% to 20.86%) than mammalian skin gelatins (22.91% to 23.7%). Grass carp gelatin had gel strength of 230.2 B that is comparable to the reported value for bovine skin gelatin (227.2 B). The bloom values of rohu and common carp skin gelatins were 188.6 B and 181.3 B, respectively, which were significantly lower than mammalian gelatins. Mammalian gels have significantly higher (P < 0.05) setting temperatures (23.7 to 24.2 °C) than carp skin gelatins. Tensile strength (TS) was lowest for films from common carp and rohu skin gelatin (490 and 497 kg/cm(2), respectively) and highest for porcine skin gelatin film. The degree of transparency (L*) was significantly higher for films from grass carp, bovine hide, and pork skin gelatin films. Carp skin gelatin films had significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP) than mammalian skin gelatin films, which indicated that carp skin gelatin based films have superior barrier properties than mammalian skin gelatin films. PMID:21535597

Ninan, George; Joseph, Jose; Abubacker, Zynudheen



Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.  


This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. PMID:21429127

Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I



The use of different enzymes in feral freshwater fish as a tool for the assessment of water pollution in South Africa.  


Selected enzymes in the organs/tissues of two fish species (Oreochromis mossambicus and Labeo umbratus) were evaluated as biomarkers of water pollution in warm- and cold-water systems. The fish were caught using standard techniques during two high-flow and two low-flow surveys. The results indicated that the fluctuating enzyme activities measured were not a result of pollution but could be initiated as a result of (1) no or too little pollution, (2) handling of the fish, and (3) struggling in the nets. Furthermore, most of the enzymes are nonspecific for the specific pollutants present. It is concluded that the selected enzymes could not be successfully employed as biomarkers of water pollution when the organisms are sampled from a polluted water source. PMID:15327873

Barnhoorn, I E J; van Vuren, J H J



The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra




PubMed Central

Background: The severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been reported to be reduced by dietary eliminations in a subset of patients with AD. Aims: To assess the reduction of the severity of atopic dermatitis in infants and children after eliminations of certain dietary items. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 100 children with atopic dermatitis. Their severity of itching, surface area of involvement, and SCORAD index were measured. Patients who did not have any systemic disease or were not on systemic corticosteroids were included in the study. Selected patients were advised to strictly adhere to a diet excluding milk and milk products, all kinds of nuts and nut-containing foods, egg and egg-containing foods, seafish and prawns, brinjal and soyabean for a period of 3 weeks. Instead of these avoided items, the food items to be included freely to maintain proper nutrition were dal and dal products, rohu fish, chicken, and fruits. All the preintervention parameters were measured again after 3 weeks. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in severity scores after dietary elimination alone. Conclusion: Dietary elimination helped to alleviate symptoms and signs in a subset of infants and children with AD.

Dhar, Sandipan; Malakar, Rajib; Banerjee, Raghubir; Chakraborty, Saswati; Chakraborty, Jayanti; Mukherjee, Susmita



Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D



Heavy metal accumulation in edible fish species from Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.  


The aim of the present study was to describe the accumulation of trace metals in the liver, kidney, gills, muscles, and skin of four edible fish species (Tor putitora, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo calbasu, and Channa punctatus) of Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan. The fish samples were collected in the pre-monsoon (May 2008) and post-monsoon (October 2007) seasons and were analyzed for heavy metals by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Kidney and liver showed relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The accumulation of metals in the different organs of the fish (skin, muscles, and gills) in post-monsoon was higher than in pre-monsoon. In pre-monsoon, the metals followed the trend Zn > Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Mn > Co > Cu > Cd > Li, while in the post-monsoon season, the trend was Fe > Pb > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Co > Mn > Cd > Li. The concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in the muscle of all fish species were higher than the WHO guideline values of heavy metals in fishes for human consumption except in T. putitora. Cu level was nearly equal to the WHO maximum levels in C. mrigala and L. calbasu, while it was lower in T. putitora and C. punctatus. It is strongly advocated that risk assessment studies should be conducted and there is an urgent need for water quality restoration and management of Rawal Lake Reservoir. PMID:23884877

Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huma, Yasmin



Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus - a review  

PubMed Central

Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine.

Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat



Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.  


Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives. PMID:24191617

Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A



Efficacy of doramectin against natural and experimental infections of Lernaea cyprinacea in carps.  


Efficacy of doramectin administered via oral and parenteral routes against experimentally induced and natural infections of the copepod parasite Lernaea cyprinacea in carps was studied. Administration of doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kg b.wt. of fish for 10 days effectively controlled experimentally induced Lernaea infection in Labeo fimbriatus fingerlings within an average of 19 days of post-treatment as compared to the normal course of 41 days. Similarly, doramectin given through feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish for 10 days was equally effective in controlling natural infection of this parasite in the underyearlings of Catla catla and L. fimbriatus. Intramuscular administration of doramectin at 200microg/kgb.wt. of fish effectively removed adult Lernaea infection in L. fimbriatus as early as 18 days of treatment as compared to the time period of 43 days taken by the untreated fish to get rid of the infection. Single intramuscular administration of the drug was more effective against the parasite than its administration in multiple divided doses. In all cases, doramectin did not cause any noticeable adverse reactions or toxicity to the fish host. In view of the handling associated stress and other operational difficulties involved, a single intramuscular administration of the drug at 200microg/kgb.wt. is suggested for treatment of heavily infected adults and brood stock of carps. Doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish is best suited for treatment of Lernaea infection in young fish including fingerlings. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin upon its administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impact of its usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of this drug for control of parasitic infections of aquatic organisms. PMID:18650018

Hemaprasanth, K P; Raghavendra, A; Singh, Ravinder; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R



Molecular phylogeny of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  


The cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensuRainboth, 1991) is a large group of freshwater fishes containing around 40 genera and 400 species. They are characterized by an amazing diversity of modifications to their lips and associated structures. In this study, a total of 34 genera and 142 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and more than one third of the species diversity of the group, were sampled and sequenced for four nuclear genes and five mitochondrial genes (totaling 9465bp). Phylogenetic relationships and subdivision of this tribe were investigated and the placement and status of most genera are discussed. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses were performed based on the nuclear dataset, mitochondrial dataset, combined dataset, and the dataset for each nuclear gene. Inclusion of the genera Paracrossochilus, Barbichthys, Thynnichthys, and Linichthys in the Labeonini was either confirmed or proposed for the first time. None of the genera Labeo, Garra, Bangana, Cirrhinus, and Crossocheilus are monophyletic. Taxonomic revisions of some genera were made: the generic names Gymnostomus Heckel, 1843, Ageneiogarra Garman, 1912 and Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1839 were revalidated; Akrokolioplax Zhang and Kottelat, 2006 becomes a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus; the species Osteochilus nashii was found to be a member of the barbin genus Osteochilichthys. Five historical hypotheses on the classification of the Labeonini were tested and rejected. We proposed to subdivide the tribe, which is strongly supported as monophyletic, into four subtribes: Labeoina, Garraina, Osteochilina, and Semilabeoina. The taxa included in each subtribe were listed and those taxa that need taxonomic revision were discussed. PMID:22728909

Yang, Lei; Arunachalam, M; Sado, Tetsuya; Levin, Boris A; Golubtsov, Alexander S; Freyhof, Jörg; Friel, John P; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hirt, M Vincent; Manickam, Raja; Agnew, Mary K; Simons, Andrew M; Saitoh, Kenji; Miya, Masaki; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping