Sample records for rohu labeo rohita

  1. The potential of periphyton-based culture of two Indian major carps, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Azim; M. A. Wahab; Dam van A. A; M. C. M. Beveridge; M. C. J. Verdegem


    The effects of periphyton, grown on bamboo substrates, on growth and production of two Indian major carps, rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia, Labeo gonius (Linnaeus), were studied at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. For each species, five ponds were provided with bamboo substrates and five ponds without substrate (control). Ponds were stocked at a rate of 10 000 ha1

  2. Optimization of stocking ratios of two Indian major carps, rohu ( Labeo rohita Ham.) and catla ( Catla catla Ham.) in a periphyton-based aquaculture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Azim; M. A. Wahab; A. A van Dam; M. C. M. Beveridge; E. A. Huisman; M. C. J. Verdegem


    Production of combinations of rohu (Labeo rohita) and catla (Catla catla) from periphyton-based aquaculture system was compared using 12 ponds and six stocking ratios: 100% rohu alone (treatment 100R), 80% rohu plus 20% catla (80R\\/20C), 60% rohu plus 40% catla (60R\\/40C), 40% rohu plus 60% catla (40R\\/60C), 20% rohu plus 80% catla (20R\\/80C) and 100% catla alone (100C). Ponds (75

  3. Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; M. C. J. Verdegem; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; M. A. Wahab; A. Milstein; J. A. J. Verreth


    An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow manure, urea and triple super phosphate. Rohu was stocked in all ponds at a

  4. Stress mitigating and growth enhancing effect of dietary tryptophan in rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton, 1822) fingerlings.


    Kumar, Prem; Saurabh, Shailesh; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Arasu, A R T


    An experiment was conducted to study the stress mitigation and growth enhancing role of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) under thermal stress in rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings for 45 days. Seven hundred and twenty fishes were distributed in three major groups that are ambient temperature (26 °C), 34 and 38 °C in triplicate following a complete randomized design. Acclimation of fishes to 34 and 38 °C over average ambient temperatures were carried out at 1 °C/day. Each group was fed with a diet supplemented with 0, 0.36, 0.72 or 1.42 % L-TRP. Results showed that blood glucose and serum cortisol level were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the higher temperature groups than the ambient temperature group. Similarly, aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, CAT, superoxide dismutase activities were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the control groups (0 % L-TRP) and decreasing activities of these enzymes were observed with the increasing level of dietary L-TRP. In different temperature groups, L-TRP-supplemented groups were found to have higher (p < 0.05) growth, RGR and PER. The results obtained in the present study indicate that dietary L-TRP mitigates thermal stress and enhances growth. From the present study, we can conclude that dietary supplementation of L-TRP at the 0.72 % level in the diet is found to be optimum to reduce thermal stress even up to 38 °C in rohu, L. rohita. The baseline data obtained here could be useful for the farmers to formulate feeds to culture the fish in different agro-climatic zones. PMID:24705914

  5. Application of comet assay in the study of DNA damage and recovery in rohu ( Labeo rohita ) fingerlings after an exposure to phorate, an organophosphate pesticide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mohanty; J. Mohanty; A. K. Nayak; S. Mohanty; S. K. Dutta


    Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.002 and 0.01 ppm) of phorate, an organophosphate pesticide;\\u000a samplings were done at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out to evaluate tissue specific genotoxic effects produced\\u000a by phorate, on three different tissue systems and to assess DNA repair response in fish. Results of tissue specific DNA damage

  6. Characterization and Inductive Expression Analysis of Interferon Gamma-Related Gene in the Indian Major Carp, Rohu (Labeo rohita).


    Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Lenka, Saswati S; Das, Surajit; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal


    Interferon gamma (IFN-?) is one of the key cytokines that plays a major role against viral and intracellular bacterial infection. In addition to the IFN-? gene, teleost fish possess a second copy known as IFN-?-related (IFN-?rel) gene. This report describes structural and functional properties of IFN-?rel gene in the Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita), a commercially important freshwater fish species in the Indian subcontinent. The rohu IFN-?rel gene consisted of four exons with three intervening introns and phylogenetically closely related to grass carp. The full-length IFN-?rel cDNA comprised 927 bp nucleotides with a single open reading frame of 504 bp, encoding 167 amino acids (aa) polypeptide with a signal peptide of 24 aa. The mature rohu IFN-?rel protein was 143 aa with a predicted molecular weight of 16.85 kDa. Basal expression analysis of IFN-?rel showed its wide range of expression in all examined tissues: The highest was in the skin and the lowest was in the liver. In response to LPS, poly I:C, iE-DAP, muramyl dipeptide stimulations, and bacterial infections, IFN-?rel gene expression was significantly (p<0.05) induced in treated fish tissues as compared with their control. The IFN-?rel was expressed as recombinant protein (rIFN-?rel) and confirmed through western blot. Stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes with rIFN-?rel protein resulted in the activation of IFN-? receptor and marked induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. These results together may suggest the important role of IFN-?rel as an antimicrobial cytokine in fish. PMID:25756860

  7. Effect of dietary Spirulina level on growth and chemical composition of carcass in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).


    Chandra, Gyan; Saxena, Amita


    An experiment was conducted in three different tanks for 45 days (T1, T2 and T3) to investigate the effect of dietary Spirulina level on growth and chemical composition of carcass in rohu, Labeo rohita. A diet having de-oiled rice bran(30%), rice polish (15%), de-oiled mustard oil cake(25%), Soya bean oil cake(10%) and de-oiled groundnut cake(20%) was provided to the control (i.e. 100% formulated feed), whereas in T2 95% formulated feed with 5% Spirulina and in T3 90% formulated feed with 10% Spirulina. Data were analysed with ANOVA (P < 0.05) and found significant. There was significant difference in the average final weight of the fish among treatments with highest in the T3 (11.28g) followed by T2 (8.32g) and T1 (7.51g). The higher SGR was recorded in T3 (2.17) followed by T2 (1.52) and T1 (1.28). There was significant difference in the average carcass composition of the fish among treatments with highest level in T3 followed by T2 and T1. PMID:24749207

  8. Molecular characterization of interleukin 15 mRNA from rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton): Its prominent role during parasitic infection as indicated from infection studies.


    Das, Sweta; Mohapatra, Amruta; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, P K


    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is an important cytokine of fish immune system. Sequence characterization of IL-15 from rohu, Labeo rohita revealed a mRNA sequence of 1064 bp with coding sequence of 567 bp and signal peptide of 16 amino acids. There are four characteristic sequence features viz., presence of four out-of-frame AUG initiation codons, four highly conserved cysteine residues, constitutive expression in all tissues and evolutionary similarity. The ontogeny study revealed maternal transfer of this molecule and higher expression up to 3 h post-fertilization in fertilized embryos. Its expression was down-regulated in anterior and posterior kidneys, intestine and liver tissues of rohu infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Mild up-regulation in liver and higher expression in spleen was noticed in rohu stimulated with poly I:C (poly ionosinic:cytidylic), whereas down-regulation was observed in intestine and kidney tissues. However, a consistent higher expression was noticed in kidney and skin tissues during Argulus siamensis infection. Therefore, rohu IL-15 might possess more defensive role during early development and parasitic infection. PMID:25514374

  9. Characterization of the ceruloplasmin gene and its potential role as an indirect marker for selection to Aeromonas hydrophila resistance in rohu, Labeo rohita.


    Sahoo, P K; Das, Sweta; Mahapatra, Kanta Das; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Ødegård, Jørgen; Robinson, Nicholas


    Ceruloplasmin is an acute phase protein found to be activated by the host immune system during stress conditions. The ceruloplasmin gene has been reported in several teleosts and here we characterize the gene and test its association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rohu, Labeo rohita. A ceruloplasmin mRNA sequence of 3355 base pairs (bp) was derived (GenBank ID: JX010736). The coding sequence (CDS) comprised of 3276 bp that coded for 1092 amino acids. Alignment results showed the greatest similarity with zebrafish followed by channel catfish sequence, and a phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of amino acid sequences showed that rohu shares a common clade with these two species. In the ontogeny study, the expression of ceruloplasmin was detected at 9 h post-fertilization onwards, and a strong level of expression was detected at 24 h (38-fold) and 15 days (34-fold) post-fertilization. The ceruloplasmin transcripts were evident in liver, spleen, stomach and heart. Expression was undetectable in gill, brain, eye, skin, muscle, intestine, anterior and posterior kidney tissues. Expression of ceruloplasmin after A. hydrophila infection was up-regulated 6 h post-challenge and was modulated until 15 days post-challenge. The level of ceruloplasmin was also compared in rohu selectively bred for higher growth and disease resistance. The gene showed a 4.58-fold higher level of expression in resistant line over susceptible line rohu selected based on family challenge test survival to A. hydrophila. Serum ceruloplasmin levels in three year classes of rohu selected for higher growth showed a positive correlation (0.49 ± 1.11) with survival against challenge with A. hydrophila. The estimated heritability was also found to be quite high (0.50 ± 0.22) for this parameter. Thus, ceruloplasmin could be one of the useful marker traits for selection against A. hydrophila resistance in fish. PMID:23481214

  10. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran


    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  11. Duckweed (Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal as a source of feedstuff in formulated diets for rohu (Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish intestinal bacterium.


    Bairagi, A; Sarkar Ghosh, K; Sen, S K; Ray, A K


    Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.2 kcal g(-1) approximately) diets were formulated including raw and fermented duckweed (Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) intestine and having extracellular amylolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activities was used for leaf meal fermentation for 15 days at 37 degrees C. The fibre content of leaf meal reduced from 11.0% to 7.5% and the antinutritional factors, tannin and phytic acid, were reduced from 1.0% to 0.02% and 1.23% to 0.09%, respectively after fermentation. However, the available reducing sugars, free amino acids and fatty acids increased in the fermented leaf meal. The response of rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings fed the experimental diets for 80 days was compared with fish fed a fish meal based reference diet. On the basis of growth response, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, 30% fermented Lemna leaf meal incorporated in the diet resulted in the best performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of fish fed fermented leaf meal containing diets were superior to those fed diets containing raw leaf meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) decreased with increasing levels of leaf meal irrespective of treatment. The APD for raw leaf meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented meals. The highest carcass protein and lipid deposition was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 30% fermented leaf meal. The results showed that fermented Lemna leaf meal can be incorporated into carp diets up to 30% level compared to 10% level of raw meal. PMID:12146637

  12. Ontogeny, tissue distribution and expression analysis of IgZ in rohu, Labeo rohita in response to various stimuli.


    Dash, Pujarini; Sahoo, P K


    This study reports presence of IgZ transcripts, its ontogeny, tissue distribution and expression following various stimulations/infections in rohu. The derived rohu IgZ sequence clustered together with IgZ of Ctenopharyngodon idella and Cyprinus carpio in phylogenetic analysis. IgZ expression was detected at early developmental stages with higher expression at 1 day post-fertilization, and higher in anterior kidney and lower in skin tissues of juveniles. An inductive expression of IgZ was observed during both Edwardsiella tarda and Dactylogyrus catlaius infections in skin and/or gill tissues. In ConA treated HKLs, the response was prominent at 72h post-stimulation where as in ConA-PMA treatment, it was higher during early time points. Increased expression of IgZ was found between 24 and 96hps with formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila where as in poly I:C treated HKLs, the level increased at 96hps. It seems to be the first report describing the functional existence of IgZ in rohu carp. PMID:26055084

  13. Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham.).


    Sethuramalingam, T A; Haniffa, M A


    Six sets of feeding experiments were carried out using formulated diets containing prawn head waste (PW), chicken intestine waste (CW), banana flower (BF), cauliflower waste (CAU) Dolicos lab lab (DLL) and groundnut leaf (GNL) in four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60%) to assess the pattern of distribution and activities of digestive enzymes like cellulase, amylase, maltase, invertase, protease and lipase in the digestive tracts of Labeo rohita fingerlings. A control group of fish was fed with diets containing antibiotics to destroy the digestive tract microflora which may induce digestive functions. In general, the activity of digestive enzymes depended on the amount and type of the ingredients present in the diets ingested by the fish. Test animals showed both endogenous and bacterial cellulase activities which suggests the necessity for including cellulose (plant protein source) as dietary ingredient. Occurrence of higher amount of cellulase in the foregut and amylase in the fore and midgut influenced by DNL and GNL diets revealed the possibility of including less than 40% of the respective ingredients in the diet of rohu. Maltase and invertase were highly influenced by GNL, DLL and BF diets than PW and CW diets. More than 40% inclusion of PW and CW was found to increase protease and lipase secretion in the midgut and hindgut regions. The higher secretion of lipase in the midgut suggested the physiological versatility for lipid digestion in rohu fingerlings. PMID:12561975

  14. Genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Labeo rohita using Alkaline Single-cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay.


    Ismail, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Ali, Rahat; Ali, Tayyaba; Mobeen, Ameena


    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide of organophosphate group, which causes severe toxicological effects in non target aquatic organisms especially in fish. In the present study the genotoxic effects of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were observed in the erythrocytes and gill cells of Labeo rohita (commonly known as rohu) using the Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the behavior of the fish were also investigated. The 96?h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos, estimated by Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) in static bioassay, was found to be 442.8?µg/L. On the basis of LC50 value, the fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (SL-I ?221.4?µg/L, SL- II ?110.7?µg/L and SL-III ?73.8?µg/L) for 96?h. Blood and gill samples were collected at every 24?h and were subjected to the Comet assay. The observed DNA damage was concentration dependent and time dependent and those levels of DNA damage in between the tested concentrations and times were significantly different (p?Labeo rohita. PMID:24524247

  15. Alteration in hematology of Labeo rohita under stress of pollution from Lakes of Bangalore, Karnataka, India.


    Zutshi, Bela; Prasad, S G Raghu; Nagaraja, R


    Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, a field study was conducted to investigate the hematological parameters of wild population of rohu, Labeo rohita (Ham). The following aspects were evaluated in blood: hemoglobin content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values, and in plasma: cholesterol, protein, and glucose levels. For this purpose, rohu fish of varying sizes and weights were sampled from Hebbal (receiving a storm water drain) and Chowkalli lake (received domestic sewage and industrial effluents from various sources and was more polluted than Hebbal lake). It revealed noticeable differences in hemoglobin content, RBC and WBC count, and PCV and MCHC values. Severe anemia can be marked by a significant decrease in RBC count (p < 0.5), hemoglobin content, and PCV and MCHC values, whereas an increase in leukocyte count and MCV values were observed in fish from Chowkalli lake. Fish from lake B had fewer RBC and low concentration of serum protein and cholesterol. Serum concentration of glucose showed initial higher levels and then low concentration (900-1,500 g) in fish from lake B when compared to lake A. The variation in values of different parameters can be attributed to exposure of fish to various types of pollutants present mainly in the Chowkalli lake which receives heavy metals, synthetic detergents, petroleum products, and other acid and alkali substances from the nearby local industries. Other observations of these fish include dark body color and aggressive nature of fish. PMID:19603276

  16. Determination of Nutrient Digestibility and Amino Acid Availability of Various Feed Ingredients for Labeo rohita

    Microsoft Academic Search



    The apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, nitrogen free extract, gross energy and availability of amino acids in eight feed ingredients were determined for Labeo rohita fingerlings using chromic oxide as inert marker. The feed ingredients were meat meal, blood meal, corn gluten 60%, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, corn gluten 30%, coconut cake and sunflower meal. The apparent protein

  17. Identification of MDP (muramyl dipeptide)-binding key domains in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-2) receptor of Labeo rohita.


    Maharana, Jitendra; Swain, Banikalyan; Sahoo, Bikash R; Dikhit, Manas R; Basu, Madhubanti; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal


    In lower eukaryotes-like fish, innate immunity contributed by various pattern recognition receptor (PRR) plays an essential role in protection against diseases. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic PRR that recognizes MDP (muramyl dipeptide) of the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as ligand and activates signalling to induce innate immunity. Hypothesizing a similar NOD2 signalling pathway of higher eukaryotes, the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of rohu (Labeo rohita) was stimulated with MDP. The data of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed MDP-mediated inductive expression of NOD2 and its down-stream molecule RICK/RIP2 (receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-2). This observation suggested the existence of MDP-binding sites in rohu NOD2 (rNOD2). To investigate it, 3D model of ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of rNOD2 (rNOD2-LRR) was constructed following ab initio and threading approaches in I-TASSER web server. Structural refinement of the model was performed by energy minimization, and MD (molecular dynamics) simulation was performed in GROMACS (Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulations). The refined model of rNOD2-LRR was validated through SAVES, ProSA, ProQ, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers, and molecular docking with MDP was carried out in GOLD 4.1. The result of docking identified LRR3-7 comprising Lys820, Phe821, Asn822, Arg847, Gly849, Trp877, Trp901 and Trp931 as MDP-binding critical amino acids in rNOD2. This is the first study in fish to provide an insight into the 3D structure of NOD2-LRR region and its important motifs that are expected to be engaged in MDP binding and innate immunity. PMID:23255217

  18. Higher water temperature enhances dietary carbohydrate utilization and growth performance in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings.


    Alexander, C; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S; Saravanan, S; Xavier, B; Munilkumar, S


    A 60-day experiment was conducted to delineate the effect of three dietary levels of gelatinized carbohydrate (GC) on growth, nutrient-utilization and body composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings (avg. wt 6.5 ± 0.3 g) reared at two water temperatures (ambient-AT (26 ± 0.8 °C) and 32 °C). Two hundred and sixteen fingerlings were randomly distributed into six treatments in triplicates. Three semi-purified isonitrogenous diets were prepared with graded levels of GC viz. D(1) : 40%, D(2) : 50% and D(3) : 58%. Growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 50% GC and 32 °C reared groups than their AT counterparts. Hepato Somatic Index was higher in AT reared groups compared to 32 °C reared counterparts. Apparent digestibility co-efficient of carbohydrate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher at 32 °C reared groups but decreased with increasing carbohydrate (GC) levels. Fish reared at 32 °C showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher amylase, protease and hexokinase activities while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatse were significantly (p < 0.05) higher at ambient temperatures. The results obtained in present study indicated that L. rohita could utilize higher level (50%) of dietary carbohydrate at 32 °C. PMID:21114547


    Microsoft Academic Search


    The apparent digestibility coefficients of three protein levels of reference diets (without fish meal) and test diets (with fish meal) were estimated for Labeo rohita. Three test diets (test diet-I, test diet-II and test diet-III) and three reference diets (reference diet-I, reference diet-II and reference diet-III) having 28, 30 and 32% protein levels were prepared. Chromic oxide was used as

  20. The Applicability of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Assessing Chromium Induced Toxicity in the Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati


    The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308

  1. Inhibition of ATPase activity in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) exposed to sodium cyanide.


    Dube, Praveen N; Hosetti, Basaling B


    Present study concerns the effect of sodium cyanide on the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Fishes were exposed to lethal (0.32?mg/L) and sublethal (0.064?mg/L) concentrations of sodium cyanide. The effect of intoxication was studied on Na(+)K(+)ATPase, Mg(+2)ATPase and Ca(2+)ATPase in various physiological tissues (gill, liver, and muscle) at the end of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days of lethal and 5, 10 and 15 days of sublethal exposure periods. Sodium cyanide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ATPase activity of the fish. Inhibition of the ATPase blocked the active transport system of the gill epithelial as well as chloride cells, and thus altered the osmo-regulatory mechanism of the fish. The value of the measured responses as an indicator of stress caused by water contamination discussed. The results confirm that ATPase levels significantly decreased in treated fish, indicating that ATPases could be used as sensitive and useful biomarkers for cyanide pollution. PMID:21777177

  2. In vivo genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment of cadmium chloride in peripheral erythrocytes of Labeo rohita (Hamilton).


    Jindal, Rajinder; Verma, Sakshi


    Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity has been assessed in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of freshwater fish Labeo rohita exposed to 0.37 and 0.62mg/L of CdCl2 in water for 100 days. The blood samples of the fish were collected at different intervals (days 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 100) of exposure period to analyze DNA damage using comet assay and the occurrence of micronuclei and other cellular anomalies. The results of comet assay showed a significant increase in the mean percentage of tail DNA at both the concentrations. Exposure to CdCl2 also induced micronuclei in addition to many nuclear abnormalities such as nuclear bud, binucleates, lobed, notched and vacuolated nuclei. Cytoplasmic abnormalities like echinocytes, acanthocytes, notched, microcytes and cells with vacuolated cytoplasm were also observed. The metal exposed groups showed significant variation in the frequency of cellular abnormalities as well as the extent of DNA damage in comparison to controls. These frequencies increased significantly (p<0.05) in concentration dependent manner, peaking on 10th day while a decreasing trend was observed after 15 days of the exposure period. PMID:25890049

  3. Effect of cellular products of potential probiotic bacteria on the immune response of Labeo rohita and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.


    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V


    In the present study, the immunological efficacy of cellular components from the potential probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis VSG1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 was evaluated in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL phosphate-buffer solution (PBS) containing 0.1 mg of any of the following cellular components: intercellular products (ICPs) of VSG1 (BS-ICPs), heat-killed whole cell products of VSG2 (PA-HKWCPs), or ICPs of VSG3 (LP-ICPs). Fish injected with 0.1 mL PBS served as the control. Various immunological parameters, including the expression of immune-related genes, were measured 14 and 21 days post-immunization. The fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded up to 21 days post-infection. The results revealed that administration of cellular components significantly increased the activity of serum lysozyme and the alternative complement pathway, phagocytosis, and respiratory bursts throughout the experimental period. Total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels were significantly higher in experimental groups than in the control up to 14 days post-immunization, and decreased thereafter. With respect to immune-related genes, IL-1?, COX-2, iNOS, and IL-10 were highly (P < 0.05) up-regulated in fish immunized with cellular components, compared to the control. The expression of TNF-? and NF-?B was up-regulated in immunized fish up to 14 days post-immunization. Interestingly, fish immunized with LP-ICPs exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge relative percent survival (83.32%), followed by PA-HKWCPs (66.66%), and BS-ICPs (50%). These results indicate that cellular components of probiotic bacteria can influence immune responses, enhance disease protection, and stimulate immune-related gene expression in rohu. Hence, these cellular components may be useful as adjuvants for vaccines in aquaculture. PMID:26282681

  4. Scales of freshwater fish Labeo rohita as bioindicators of water pollution in Tung Dhab Drain, Amritsar, Punjab, India.


    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish


    This study examined the impact of municipal wastewater on scale morphology of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6, or 35.4%) of municipal wastewater for durations of 15, 30, and 60 d. Recovery experiments were also performed for a duration of 60 d. Scales were extracted after respective exposure periods, cleaned, and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Results showed concentration- and exposure duration-dependent alterations in the morphology of scales. Severe damage was observed at the anterior and posterior portions of scales in the form of lepidontal breakage and uprooting, destructions at the base of circuli and radii along with complete structural loss in the focal region and adjacent circuli and radii, and alterations in structure of tubercles. Data indicate that scales of fish L. rohita may be employed as bioindicators of water pollution and could be incorporated into water monitoring surveillance. PMID:25734766


    Microsoft Academic Search


    Growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of hybrid (Labeo rohita x Catla catla) fingerlings fed for six weeks on soybean meal, maize gluten 30% and feather meal were evaluated. The feed trails were replicated for each of the ingredients. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid

  6. Toxicity assessment on haemotology, biochemical and histopathological alterations of silver nanoparticles-exposed freshwater fish Labeo rohita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.


    The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.

  7. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Arun Prabhath, N.; Raghavender, M.; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu


    Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661

  8. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.


    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in ?-helical and random coil structures and an increase in ?-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita--towards to identify novel probiotics against fish pathogens.


    Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy


    The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116

  10. Variability in antioxidant/detoxification enzymes of Labeo rohita exposed to an azo dye, acid black (AB).


    Kaur, Satinder; Kaur, Arvinder


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate effect of a highly toxic azo dye, acid black (AB) (CI: 20470, 96 h LC50=10 mg/L) on the biochemical responses of Labeo rohita. Antioxidant/detoxification enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in liver, kidney, gill, muscle and brain of L. rohita after 96 h exposure to 6 mg/L (LC10), 8 mg/L (LC30) and 10 mg/L (LC50) of dye with an aim to find out the target tissue and biomarker enzyme for AB. The fish were then kept for a recovery period of 90 days, and activity of the selected enzymes was determined at the end of this period. Present dye altered the activities of all these enzymes in the selected tissues of the experimental fish in a dose-dependent manner. SOD was the maximally affected enzyme, and liver was the most affected tissue. The results indicate that AB is very toxic to L. rohita as there was a significant effect of even 6 mg/L dose of the dye and the toxicity prolonged for a long time because the fish was not able to recover from the stress even 90 days after the exposure. The study suggests that SOD can be used as a biomarker enzyme and liver is the target tissue for AB. PMID:25277676

  11. Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).


    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Pavan; Dabas, Anurag


    The present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate) in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. The 96?h LC50 value of potassium dichromate estimated was 118?mg?L(-1) by probit analysis using SPSS (version 16.0) software. Based on 96?h LC50 value, three sublethal test concentrations of potassium dichromate (29.5, 59.0 and 88.5?mg?L(-)(1)) were selected and specimens were exposed in vivo to these test concentrations for 96?h. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of potassium dichromate were evaluated in gill and blood cells using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. In general, significant (p?

  12. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.


    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  13. A study of the subchronic effects of arsenic exposure on the liver tissues of Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared technique.


    Palaniappan, Pl R M; Vijayasundaram, V; Prabu, S Milton


    In this work, an attempt has been made to study the subchronic effects of arsenic exposure on the biochemical composition; mainly proteins of the liver tissues of Labeo rohita fingerlings by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique. The study was carried out using a Perkin Elmer-Spectrum Rx1 spectrometer. Because of arsenic exposure, significant reductions in the intensity as well as area of amide bands have been observed in the liver tissues. The decreased intensity of the amide bands could be interpreted as the result of alteration of the protein synthesis due to the high affinity of metal compounds towards different amino acid residues of proteins. Further, meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment shows the recovery of the protein content in the liver tissues. To confirm that the changes observed are only due to the bio-accumulation of arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the liver tissues of Labeo rohita was determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). It is observed that the arsenic level in the control tissues is found to be below detectable limit, whereas the arsenic exposed liver shows an accumulation of 66.68 ± 0.43 ?g/g and DMSA treatment reduces the arsenic content to 17.96 ± 0.19 ?g/g. In conclusion, this study gives clear evidence that the use of FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful approach to achieve more insight into the protein alterations caused by arsenic. PMID:20014409

  14. The effect of arsenic exposure and the efficacy of DMSA on the proteins and lipids of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita.


    Palaniappan, P L R M; Vijayasundaram, V


    Arsenic is a naturally occurring, highly toxic environmental pollutant. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a non-disturbing technique which provides quantitative information about the molecular composition of biological samples. The aim of this work is to study the compositional and structural changes at the molecular level occurring in gill tissues of Labeo rohita fingerlings due to arsenic exposure for various exposure periods by using FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The results of the present study suggest that arsenic exposure causes significant changes on the major biochemical constituents such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in the gill tissues of L. rohita. The changes are more pronounced as the period of exposure is increased. The significant decrease in the intensity and area of the amide I peak and CH(3) asymmetric stretching band suggests an alteration in the protein profile and lipid levels respectively, due to arsenic exposure. The amide A peak shifts suggests a change in the level of protein amide hydrogen bonding due to arsenic exposure. Further, the treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) improves the levels of biochemical constituents significantly, which suggest that DMSA treatment reduces the toxic effects and helps the recovery of gill tissues and its return to the level of the control. PMID:19394394

  15. Effect of dietary leucine on the growth parameters and expression of antioxidant, immune, and inflammatory genes in the head kidney of Labeo rohita fingerlings.


    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V


    The present investigation evaluated the effects of dietary leucine (Leu) on growth performance, head kidney antioxidant status, and gene expression in Labeo rohita juveniles. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Leu at 0.75 (control), 1.7, 3.2, 4.6, 6.3, and 7.6gLeukg(-1) of feed for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, appropriate Leu supplementation significantly enhanced the percent weight gain (PWG), feed intake (FI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P<0.05) but decreased the plasma ammonia content (PAC) (P<0.05). Similarly, optimal Leu supplementation stimulated head kidney glutathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as compared to the control group; however, a reverse trend was observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, relative gene-expression levels of lysozyme, complement C3, ?-microglobulin, immunoglobulin-M, SOD, GPx, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), natural killer-cell enhancing factor ? (NKEF-?), and toll-like receptor-22 (TLR22) in the head kidney were enhanced (P<0.05) at leucine levels of 4.6gkg(-1) of feed. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and interleukin 1? (IL-1?) in head kidney were down-regulated by Leu supplementation. Collectively, our results revealed that appropriate Leu supplementation improved fish growth and antioxidant capacity, and regulated the mRNA levels of related signalling molecules in L. rohita juveniles. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG, PER, and PAC, the optimum dietary leucine requirements of L. rohita juveniles were estimated to be 4.7, 4.5, and 4.8gkg(-1) of feed. PMID:26187441

  16. Non-gelatinized starch influences the deposition of n-3 fatty acids in the muscle of a tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.


    Kumar, V; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Kumar, S; Sharma, P; Chettri, J K; Sinha, A K


    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the influence of gelatinized (G) to non-gelatinized (NG) starch ratio in the diet on fatty acids profiles and oxidative status in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Two hundred and thirty-four fingerlings (average weight: 2.53 g) were distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. Six semi-purified diets either containing NG and/or G corn starch (42.43%) viz., T(1) (100% NG and 0% G starch), T(2) (80% NG and 20% G starch), T(3) (60% NG and 40% G starch), T(4) (40% NG and 60% G starch), T(5) (20% NG and 80% G starch) and T(6) (0% NG and 100% G starch) was fed to respective groups. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and malic enzyme activities decreased linearly with the increasing level of G starch, whereas reverse trend was found for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Total saturated fatty acids in muscle increased with the increasing level of G starch in the diet. Total n-3 fatty acids decreased linearly with the increasing level of G starch in the diet. Among the n-3 fatty acids, linolenic acids content was more in NG starch fed group. Similarly, eicosapentaenoic acid contents gradually decreased with increasing level of G starch content. The n-6/n-3 ratio was higher in G starch fed group. This suggests that dietary starch type may be manipulated for quality improvement of fish flesh. PMID:19178607

  17. Ecological risk assessment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita: Hematology, ionoregulation and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.


    Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N


    The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms. PMID:26094035

  18. GnIH and GnRH expressions in the central nervous system and pituitary of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita during ontogeny: An immunocytochemical study.


    Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; Palande, Nikhil V; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi


    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. In 2000, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brain of other vertebrates. We show for the first time GnIH immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and pituitary during development of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and compare it with the localization of GnRH. GnIH and GnRH immunoreactivities were observed from the olfactory system to spinal cord throughout development. In the brain, both neuropeptides were localized in the telencephalon, diencephalon including the preoptic area and rhombencephalon. The localization of GnIH and GnRH in the pituitary suggests that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of pituitary hormones by an autocrine manner during development. In addition, the presence of GnIH and GnRH in several other brain regions including the olfactory system suggests their involvement in the regulation of other physiological functions. PMID:24955881

  19. Acute phase response of C-reactive protein of Labeo rohita to aquatic pollutants is accompanied by the appearance of distinct molecular forms.


    Sinha, S; Mandal, C; Allen, A K; Mandal, C


    Different forms of C-reactive proteins have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by calcium dependent affinity chromatography on a phosphorylcholine (PC)-Sepharose column from the sera of Labeo rohita confined in fresh water (CRP(N)) and water polluted with sublethal doses of cadmium (CRP(Cd)), mercury (CRP(Hg)), phenol (CRP(Ph)), and hexachlorocyclohexane (CRP(Hx)), which elevate serum CRP levels by three- to fivefold. On native PAGE, induced forms of CRP show remarkable differences in their electrophoteric mobility indicating differences in molecular mass, charge, and/or shape. Kinetic studies reveal the appearance of a pollutant specific molecular variant, which replaces the normal form at the peak of induction. Studies on amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, isoelectric focusing, binding to PC, C-polysaccharide (CPS) & lectins, and secondary structures of the purified CRPs, indicate, that, they differ significantly from each other, but grossly share the common properties of a CRP, including pentraxin, structure revealed by electron microscopy. PMID:11747291

  20. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.


    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar


    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  1. Effect of guava leaves on the growth performance and cytokine gene expression of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.


    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V


    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). Among the immune parameters examined, lysozyme levels (79.5 ± 5.1 U mL(-1)), leukocyte phagocytic activity (52 ± 4.3%), and alternative complement pathway activity (ACP) (186.1 ± 8.3 U mL(-1)) were significantly high (P < 0.05) in G2 fed group; there was, however, no significant effect of guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. PMID:26093209

  2. Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan.


    Ciji, A; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S


    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5% of the diet). PMID:23504103

  3. Neuroanatomical localization of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the central nervous system of carp, Labeo rohita during post-embryonic development.


    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Palande, Nikhil V; Sinh, Dharmendra P


    Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemically diffusible molecular messenger playing various roles in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the key enzyme in synthesis of NO. The neuroanatomical distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was studied and developing stages of Labeo rohita such as hatchlings (10-15mm), frys (15-35mm), semi-fingerlings (35-65mm), fingerlings (65-100mm) and adults (350-370mm) were used. In the telencephalon, nitrergic cells were observed in both pallial and subpallial regions along with entopeduncular nucleus suggesting the involvement of NO in the control of sensory functions throughout the development. In the diencephalon, nNOS positive neurons were localized in the nucleus preopticus periventricularis and preopticus parvocellularis throughout development while nucleus preopticus magnocellularis was found immunopositive only in adult specimens who suggest the involvement of NO in the hormonal regulation. nNOS immunoreaction was also noted in suprachaismatic nucleus, habenula, lateral tuberal nucleus, paraventricular organ and anterior division of preglomerular nucleus throughout development. In the mesencephalic region, nNOS immunoreactivity was seen in the optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, nucleus of median longitudinal fascicle and occulomotor nucleus indicate the role of NO in integration of visual inputs and modulates motor control of the eyes and movements. Caudally, in the rhombencephalon, the cerebellum, the nucleus reticularis, the octaval nucleus and the motor nucleus of vagal nerve were nNOS positive during development. nNOS reactive cells and fibers were noted in the spinal motor column, thus suggesting a role of NO in gestation and startle response from early development. PMID:26143285

  4. The effect of periphyton substrate density on production in freshwater polyculture ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Azim; M. A. Wahab; P. K. Biswas; T. Asaeda; T. Fujino; M. C. J. Verdegem


    The present research investigated the optimum surface area of periphyton substrate in earthen ponds stocked with a pre-optimized density and ratio of the Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and kalbaush (Labeo calbasu) to support enhanced fish production. Four treatments in triplicate were tried: no substrate (control), bamboo submerged substrate equal to 50% (treatment S-50), 75% (S-75)

  5. Evaluation of polyculture of Indian major carps in periphyton-based ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Azim; M. C. J. Verdegem; M. M. Rahman; M. A. Wahab; A. A van Dam; M. C. M. Beveridge


    Production of three Indian major carps, catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita and kalbaush L. calbasu, in a periphyton-based polyculture system was compared. Bamboo poles, approximating a submerged surface area equal to the total pond surface area, were used as substrates for periphyton and were planted vertically into the pond bottom. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with 4500 kg cow manure,

  6. A comparison of fertilization, feeding and three periphyton substrates for increasing fish production in freshwater pond aquaculture in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Azim; M. C. J. Verdegem; H. Khatoon; M. A. Wahab; A. A van Dam; M. C. M. Beveridge


    A polyculture trial was conducted in earthen ponds in Bangladesh to compare traditional aquaculture techniques (fertilization only or fertilization plus feeding) with a combination of the same techniques and periphyton substrates. Three substrates (bamboo, jutestick and bamboo side shoot) were tested. Rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and kalbaush (L. calbasu) were stocked at a 60:40:15 stocking ratio and at

  7. Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method

    PubMed Central

    Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha


    The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3?M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4°C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse. PMID:23533718

  8. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.


    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush


    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India. PMID:25895267

  9. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.


    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik


    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 ?g) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets. PMID:20369287

  10. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.


    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M


    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  11. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.


    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A


    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). PMID:25827627

  12. Newly identified gene muscle segment homeobox C may play a role in intermuscular bone development of Hemibarbus labeo.


    Lv, Y P; Yao, W J; Chen, J; Bao, B L


    Intermuscular bones, ossified from tendons within the myosepta, occur only in teleost fish. Current understanding of the homology and origins of intermuscular bones in fishes is based mainly on morphological data. To date, there is no published data regarding molecular mechanisms of intermuscular bone formation. In this study, we cloned the gene muscle segment homeobox C (MsxC). MsxC potentially plays a role in intermuscular bone development of Hemibarbus labeo, an important species of cyprinid fish in the Chinese aquaculture industry. Sequence analysis of MsxC revealed motifs characteristic of the homeobox domain family. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that MsxC was primarily expressed in the myosepta and brain. MsxC was expressed in the myosepta from 26 to 41 days after hatching (DAH); this coincided with the onset of intermuscular bone ossification, which occurred between 35 and 62 DAH. Evidence for localization of MsxC expression by in situ hybridization correlated with its detection by quantitative real-time PCR. In vertebrates, MsxC plays a role in the regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation during bone formation. We therefore conclude that MsxC may have a role in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during intermuscular bone formation in H. labeo. PMID:26400363

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie


    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  14. Haematological investigations on fishes infested with fungal growth.


    Qureshi, T A; Chauhan, R; Mastan, S A


    Considerable changes have been observed in the haematological parameters of Labeo rohita, Mystus cavasius, Nandus nandus and Puntius sarana infested with Aphanomyces sp., Saprolegnia parasitica, Achlya prolifera and Dictyuchus monosporus, respectively. Substantial decline have been observed in the number of erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The number of granulocytes and monocytes were noticed significantly increased. The amount of haemoglobin has also been decreased drastically in all the cases. PMID:12018597

  15. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah


    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  16. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.


    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet


    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) ?m in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) ?m in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) ?m in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) ?m in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 ?m in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) ?m in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  17. Ecotoxicological effects of jute retting on the survival of two freshwater fish and two invertebrates.


    Mondal, Debjit Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava


    Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW. PMID:18157635

  18. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)); Bou-Olayan, A.H.


    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.


    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S


    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata. PMID:21167285

  20. A novel and greener approach for shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructure and their application in optical coatings.


    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M


    Green and facile synthetic methods have gained marvellous fame for the production of polyhedral, anisotropic and spherical gold, and gold-silver bimetallic nanostructures. The useful pivotal characteristics of a green procedure are the usage of environment benign solvent medium, reducing and stabilising agents, and shorter reaction time. We describe here a novel, and greener method for the production of gold and gold-silver core shell nanostructures using aqueous fish scales extract of the Labeo rohita. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as temperature and concentration for the synthesis of the nanostructures were studied. Results indicated that triangular and decahedron gold nanostructures were formed at a lower temperature (40°C) and concentration (10%). While, icosahedral and spherical gold nanostructures were produced at a comparatively higher temperature (100°C) and concentration (40%). The study also revealed that the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures with different morphologies (spherical and oval-shape) were formed at different ratios of chloroaurate and silver nitrate solution. Thus, the present study indicated a simple shape controlled synthesis of gold and gold silver core-shell nanostructures. The synthesised gold nanotriangles were coated over the glass substrate and found to be highly efficient in absorbing infra-red radiations for potential architectural applications. Therefore, the study demonstrated the facile usage of gold nanotriangles for optical coatings. The present strategy depicted the dual functional ability of the fish scale extract as reducing and stabilising agents. This strategy also eliminates the usage of hazardous chemicals, toxic solvents and harsh reducing and stabilizing agents. PMID:25791885

  1. Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Exogenous Trypsin Biomimics Zymogen-Like Enzyme in Fish Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind R.; Ferosekhan, S.; Kothari, Dushyant C.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna


    Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare trypsin can be favored as a dietary supplement in animals and humans. PMID:24040333

  2. Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal.


    Pal, Moumita; Ghosh, Santinath; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Ghosh, Mahua


    This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. The results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of Hg, and approximately 50-84% of Hg was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length (age) was found. Wallago attu possessed the highest amount of organic mercury in their muscle tissues, and it was 0.93?±?0.61 ?g Hg/g of wet weight. Whereas in small-sized fishes Eutropiichthys murius, Puntius sarana, Cirrhinus mrigala, Mystus vittatus or Mystus gulio, and Tilapia mossambicus, it was below the detection limit. Contamination in Catla catla (0.32?±?0.11), Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (0.26?±?0.07 ?g Hg/g), Chitala chitala (0.25?±?0.18), Rita rita (0.34?±?0.14), and Ompok pabda (0.26?±?0.04) was also above the 0.25 ?g Hg/g of wet weight, the limit set by the PFA for the maximum level for consumption of fish exposed to MeHg. Though in Labeo rohita (0.12?±?0.03), Mastacembelus armatus (0.17?±?0.02), Pangasius pangasius (0.12?±?0.16), Bagarius bagarius (0.12?±?0.01), and Clupisoma garua (0.1?±?0.01), concentration was below the recommended level, in Lates calcarifer (0.23?±?0.0) and Mystus aor (0.23?±?0.1), it was threatening. Interestingly, a low concentration of Hg was found in post-monsoon samples. PMID:21713467

  3. Identification and immunogenic potential of B cell epitopes of outer membrane protein OmpF of Aeromonas hydrophila in translational fusion with a carrier protein.


    Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna


    Aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous and virulent bacterial pathogen, affects a variety of fishes, including Labeo rohita. Existing treatment strategies comprise antibiotic therapies and attenuated bacterial strain-based vaccines. No functional subunit vaccine has been available until now. Given their key role in determining pathogenicity, outer membrane proteins have been successfully explored as potential vaccine candidates. We have devised a direct strategy for eliminating non-specific responses by selectively aiming the immune response against specific immunodominant epitopes of the outer membrane protein F (OmpF) of A. hydrophila (AhOmpF). Five putative epitopes of AhOmpF predicted in silico were genetically conjugated with heat labile enterotoxin chain B of E. coli (LTB). Recombinant fusion proteins expressed in E. coli were purified from solubilized inclusion bodies and refolded. The fusion protein retained GM1 ganglioside receptor binding activity of LTB, indicating proper folding. Four of the five fusion proteins were found to be highly immunogenic. Of the four proteins, antisera against the fusion protein (anti-rEpiF1) harboring 66-80 amino acid residues of the OmpF gave maximum cross-reactivity with the targeted rOmpF in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was able to recognize both fusion partners-rOmpF and rLTB-in Western blot. Antibody isotyping of the antisera and cytokine array analysis of the culture supernatants of splenocytes from sensitized mice manifested a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response with a bias toward Th2. Anti-rEpiF1 antibodies were able to bind to the cell membrane of live A. hydrophila cells and agglutinate them. Our results thus suggest that the OmpF epitope (66-80) in fusion with a carrier protein is a promising vaccine candidate against A. hydrophila. PMID:25636835

  4. Monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.


    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Singh, Akhilesh; Rathore, Gaurav


    Serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus (Cb-Ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. Under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, Cb-Ig was composed of a heavy (H) chain (68.7 kDa) and two light (L) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kDa). Purified Cb-Ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated E4 MAb that belonged to IgG1 subclass. In Western blotting, this MAb showed binding to H chain of purified Cb-Ig and putative H chains in reduced sera of C. batrachus, Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. However, no binding was observed with serum protein of Labeo rohita and Channa striata. Cross-reactivity of anti-Cb-Ig MAb was observed with serum of C. batrachus, C. gariepinus and H. fossilis in competitive ELISA. In immunoblotting of non-reduced Cb-Ig with E4 MAb, four bands assumed to be tetrameric, trimeric, dimeric and monomeric form were observed. In flow cytometric analysis of the gated lymphocytes, the number of surface Ig-positive (Ig+) cells in blood, spleen, kidney and thymus of C. batrachus was determined to be 50.1 ± 3.1, 55.1 ± 3.36, 42.4 ± 4.81 and 5.1 ± 0.89%, respectively, using E4 MAb. Ig+ cells were also demonstrated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of spleen, kidney, thymus and smears of blood mononuclear cells in indirect immunoperoxidase test. The developed MAb was employed to detect pathogen-specific immunoglobulins in the sera of C. batrachus immunized with killed Edwardsiella tarda, by an indirect ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can be useful tool in immunological research and assays. PMID:23000018

  5. Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.


    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah


    This 3?×?3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 ?g/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 ?g/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 ?g/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 ?g/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 ?g/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 ?g/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 ?g/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 ?g/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

  6. Intermolecular proton transfer in anionic complexes of uracil with alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Radisic, Dunja; Stokes, Sarah T.; Bowen, Kit H.


    A series of eighteen alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation (HDP) in a range of 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH…U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with three alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV only the ROH...U- minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in a range of 14.3-14.8 eV two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO-…HU. and ROH...U- structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH…U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO-…HU.. A driving force for the intermolecular proton transfer is to stabilize the excess negative charge localized on a ?* orbital of uracil. Therefore, these complexes with proton transferred to the anionic uracil are characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy (VDE). The values of VDE for anionic complexes span a range from 1.0 to 2.3 eV and roughly correlate with the acidity of alcohols. However, there is a gap of ~0.5 eV in the values of VDE, which separates the two families, ROH...U- and RO-…HU., of anionic complexes. The energy of stabilization for the anionic complexes spans a range from 0.6 to 1.7 eV and roughly correlates with the acidity of alcohols. The measured photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  7. A comparative study on the physical, chemical and functional properties of carp skin and mammalian gelatins.


    Ninan, George; Joseph, Jose; Aliyamveettil, Zynudheen Abubacker


    Carp species forms the bulk of the aquaculture production in India and studies have shown that the filleting waste of these species, particularly skin can be a good source of gelatin. This study is a comparison of the gelatins from these unexploited sources with that of mammalian gelatins to get a better understanding of their physicochemical and functional properties with respect to mammalian gelatins. The study showed that mammalian gelatins had significantly superior physical properties viz., higher viscosity, melting & setting temperature and faster setting time. The odour scores were significantly higher (P?rohu and common carp skin gelatins were significantly lower than mammalian gelatins. Among the carp skin gelatins, grass carp skin gelatin was found to have better compatibility with gelatin from bovine and porcine skins. PMID:25190867

  8. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi


    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river.

  9. Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haniffa, Mohammed Abdul Kader; Sheela, Paul Asir Jeya; Kavitha, Kumaresan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat


    Murrel namely Channa striatus or haruan contains all essential elements to maintain good health and to recover the lost energy after prolonged illness. The fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) indicated the abundant presence of C16:0 fatty acid as 30% and the other major fatty acids were C22:6 (15%), C20:4 (19%), C18:1 (12%) and C18:0 (15%). Haruan contains arachidonic acid (C20:4) as 19.0%, a precursor for prostaglandin and thromboxane biosyntheses. Both fatty and amino acids are important components for wound healing processes. Both the fillet and mucus extracts of haruan were found to exhibit a concentration dependent antinociceptive activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in Channa roe protein hydrolysate than in Labeo roe protein hydrolysate in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Protein content of roe concentrates (RPC) was found to be 90.2% (Channa) and 82.5% (Lates). Water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, stability and emulsifying capacity were found to be higher in Channa RPC than in Lates RPC. Characterization of protein hydrolysates from muscle and myofibrillar samples of haruan showed different kinetic and proteolytic activities. The skin extract of haruan influences the serotonergic receptor system thus they can function as an anti-depressant. Thus, haruan is the best example for food as medicine. PMID:25183152

  10. Occurrence of Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India.


    Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Bhowmik, Biplab


    Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) ?m in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) ?m and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) ?m in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238

  11. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability in a Massively Perturbed System: The Fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gownaris, Natasha J.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ojwang, William O.; Michener, Robert; Kaufman, Les


    Background and Trophic Diversity Study Lake Turkana is an understudied desert lake shared by Kenya and Ethiopia. This system is at the precipice of large-scale changes in ecological function due to climate change and economic development along its major inflowing river, the Omo River. To anticipate response by the fish community to these changes, we quantified trophic diversity for seven ecological disparate species (Alestes baremose, Hydrocynus forskalli, Labeo horie, Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall, and Tilapia zillii) using stable isotopes. Based on their marked morphological differentiation, we postulated that dietary niches of these species would be similar in size but show little overlap. The degree of trophic diversity varied greatly among the species studied, refuting our hypothesis regarding dietary niche size. Oreochromis niloticus and L. niloticus had the highest trophic diversity and significantly larger dietary niches than T. zillii, A. baremose and H. forskalli. Low overlap among the dietary niches of the seven species, with the exception of the synodontid catfish S. schall, is consistent with our second hypothesis. Predicting Species’ Vulnerability Breeding vulnerability was highest among those species with the lowest trophic diversity. We predict that in suffering two strikes against them, A. baremose, H. forskalli, T. zillii, and L. horie will be most affected by the highly altered Lake Turkana ecosystem and that O. niloticus, L. niloticus and S. schall will be least affected. Low vulnerability among O. niloticus and L. niloticus is promising for the future of the lake’s fishery, but the third most important fishery species (L. horie) will be highly vulnerable to impending ecosystem change. T. zillii should be treated as separate from O. niloticus in the fishery given higher sensitivity and a different ecological role. We see potential for expansion of the fishery for S. schall but don’t recommend the development of a fishery for A. baremose and H. forskalli. PMID:25992561

  12. Aquatic fungi associated with seven species of Nile fishes (Egypt).


    el-Hissy, F T; Khallil, A R; el-Nagdy, M A


    Ten identified species in addition to 2 unidentified species of Achlya and Pythium which belong to seven zoosporic fungal genera (aquatic freshwater fungi) were recovered during this investigation. The fish species with most zoosporic fungi (5 species and 3 genera) was Tilapia nilotica. The fish species with least fungi were Bagrus bayad and Syndontis schall (yielded only one species each). Mormyrus kannum did not give any zoosporic fungal species. Some aquatic fungi emerged only from internal organs of some fish species. 46 species belonging to 22 terrestrial fungal genera were also recovered during this work. The broadest spectrum (15 species) was recorded in the second external wash water (WE2) of Mormyrus kannum and the narrowest spectrum (2 species) in the second internal wash water (WI2) of Schilbe mystus and with the scales of Labeo niloticus. First wash water of internal organs (WI1) of Tilapia nilotica yielded the highest total count (6.95% of total count) and the second wash water of internal organs (WI2) of Schilbe mystus yielded the lowest total count (0.34% of total count). Nile water sample (NW) yielded 3.67% of total fungi and eight species which belong to seven genera. Aspergillus was the most common (31 out of 31 samples) and yielded 52.40% of total fungi. It was represented by 12 species and one variety of A. flavus var. columnaris (broadest spectrum). Penicillium was represented by 7 species and found in 19 out of 31 samples yielding 11.02% of total fungi. PMID:2618196