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Sample records for rome laboratory tufts

  1. Mass Storage and Retrieval at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Joshua L.; Canfield, Brady W.; Jamberdino, Albert A.; Clarke, Bernard J.; Daniszewski, Ed; Sunada, Gary

    1996-01-01

    As the speed and power of modern digital computers continues to advance, the demands on secondary mass storage systems grow. In many cases, the limitations of existing mass storage reduce the overall effectiveness of the computing system. Image storage and retrieval is one important area where improved storage technologies are required. Three dimensional optical memories offer the advantage of large data density, on the order of 1 Tb/cm(exp 3), and faster transfer rates because of the parallel nature of optical recording. Such a system allows for the storage of multiple-Gbit sized images, which can be recorded and accessed at reasonable rates. Rome Laboratory is currently investigating several techniques to perform three-dimensional optical storage including holographic recording, two-photon recording, persistent spectral-hole burning, multi-wavelength DNA recording, and the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a recording material. In this paper, the current status of each of these on-going efforts is discussed. In particular, the potential payoffs as well as possible limitations are addressed.

  2. Rome Laboratory speech and audio processing technologies with applicability to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Ratley, Roy J.; Cupples, Edward J.

    1997-02-01

    Rome Laboratory, one of the United States Air Force's four Super Laboratories, has been designated by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to be its National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center for the Northeast (NLECTC-NE). A Department of Defense leader in research and development (R&D) in speech and audio processing for over 25 years, Rome Laboratory's main thrust in these R&D areas has focused on developing technology to improve the collection, handling, identification and intelligibility of communication signals. Rome Laboratory speech and audio technology is unique and particularly appropriate for application to law enforcement requirements because it addresses the military need for time critical decisions and actions, operating within noisy environments, and use by uncooperative speakers in tactical, real-time applications. Speech enhancement and speaker recognition are the primary technologies discussed in this paper. Automatic language and dialect identification, automatic gisting, spoken language translation, co-channel speaker separation and audio manipulation technologies are briefly discussed.

  3. Environmental Literacy and Action at Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Sarah Hammond; Cortese, Anthony D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, Tufts University (Massachusetts) became the first major university to establish environmental education and protection as institutional priorities. The day-to-day environmental impacts of a university make it an ideal laboratory for exploring new ways to reduce hazards, improve efficiency, reuse and recycle waste, and develop incentives…

  4. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  5. The Rome Paris collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, M.

    2007-03-01

    Since the first "Twinning CEE Project" between the Group of Francesco Mechiorri and our Laboratory at Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Supérieure, and then through several European Networks and NASA Collaborations on the Cosmic Microwave Background, a long-term and fruitful cooperation has existed between Rome and Paris. This contribution will focus on the human story, the principal results and the possible prospects of this wonderful collaboration.

  6. When in Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Anne Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008 St. John's University's faculty arrived in Rome and spent two weeks working together at the university's campus in the Prati section of Rome as participants in a program that was half faculty writing retreat and half writing across the curriculum faculty development workshop. The focus of the St. John's University…

  7. Composition, size distribution, optical properties, and radiative effects of laboratory-resuspended PM10 from geological dust of the Rome area, by electron microscopy and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, new information has been gained on the laboratory-resuspended PM10 fraction from geological topsoil and outcropped rocks representative of the Rome area (Latium). Mineralogical composition, size distribution, optical properties and the surface radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) of dust types representing the compositional end members of this geological area have been addressed. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on chamber resuspension of raw materials and sampling of the PM10 fraction, to simulate field sampling at dust source, scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS) of individual mineral particles, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of bulk dust samples, building of number and volume size distribution (SD) from microanalysis data of mineral particles and fitting to a log-normal curve, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM) to retrieve optical properties and radiative effects of the compositional end-member dust samples. The mineralogical composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals (from volcanics lithotypes), and one mostly composed of calcite (from travertine or limestones). Lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by rock weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are reflected in the diversity of volume distributions, either within dust types or mineral species. Differences are also observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source; SD unimodal at 5 μm a.d.) and from road dust (anthropic source; SD bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d.). The volcanics and travertine dusts differently affect the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry

  8. Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (tufting enteropathy).

    PubMed

    Goulet, Olivier; Salomon, Julie; Ruemmele, Frank; de Serres, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Brousse, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), also known as tufting enteropathy, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset severe intractable diarrhea causing sometimes irreversible intestinal failure. To date, no epidemiological data are available, however, the prevalence can be estimated at around 1/50,000-100,000 live births in Western Europe. The prevalence seems higher in areas with high degree of consanguinity and in patients of Arabic origin. Infants develop within the first days after birth a watery diarrhea persistent in spite of bowel rest and parenteral nutrition. Some infants are reported to have associated choanal rectal or esophageal atresia. IED is thought to be related to abnormal enterocytes development and/or differentiation. Nonspecific punctuated keratitis was reported in more than 60% of patients. Histology shows various degree of villous atrophy, with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria but specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium with disorganization of surface enterocytes with focal crowding, resembling tufts. Several associated specific features were reported, including abnormal deposition of laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) in the basement membrane, increased expression of desmoglein and ultrastructural changes in the desmosomes, and abnormal distribution of alpha2beta1 integrin adhesion molecules. One model of transgenic mice in which the gene encoding the transcription factor Elf3 is disrupted have morphologic features resembling IED. Parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggest an autosomal recessive transmission but the causative gene(s) have not been yet identified making prenatal diagnosis unavailable. Some infants have a milder phenotype than others but in most patients, the severity of the intestinal malabsorption even with enteral feeding make them totally dependent on daily long-term parenteral nutrition with a subsequent risk of complications

  9. Acne keloidalis nuchae and tufted hair folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Luz Ramos, M; Muñoz-Pérez, M A; Pons, A; Ortega, M; Camacho, F

    1997-01-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae is a chronic, scarring folliculitis that affects mostly black patients and is located on the back of the neck of young adults. The course is progressive and leads to hypertrophic scarring, chronic abscesses and hair loss. We discuss the relationship between acne keloidalis and tufted hair folliculitis, pointing out the possibility that tufted hair folliculitis is not a specific disease but secondary to other progressive folliculitis like folliculitis decalvans, dissecting cellulitis or acne keloidalis. PMID:9031798

  10. Hurler syndrome with a tuft of hair.

    PubMed

    Behera, Binodini; Jena, D K; Chhetia, R; Vijayashree, J

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented with coarse, thick hairy skin all over the body, a tuft of hair in the parietal region, coarse facial features and a prominent forehead with a large tongue, hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. Mucopolysaccharides excretion spot test of the urine was positive; and an assay for glycosaminoglycans in the urine was also high, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Hurler syndrome. We present this rare case to discuss the possibility of the association of mental retardation with a tuft of hair in this syndrome. PMID:16707825

  11. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  12. Club of Rome

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Club de Rome s'est fait connaître du grand public par la publication du premier ouvrage "Halte à la croissance" qui a fait l'object d'un débat, il y a 2 ans. Le Prof. Tinbergen a commencé par s'adonner à la physique, il est docteur en physique et très tôt il s'est tourné vers les problèmes sociaux économiques. Il est expert auprès des nombreux gouvernements et organisations internationales et il a vu ses travaux couronnés par le prix Nobel en 1969.

  13. A case of acquired tufted angioma in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Alberti-Violetti, Silvia; Gianotti, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare vascular tumor whose name derives from its histopathological appearance, characterized by tufts of capillaries within the dermis. Its etiology and pathogenesis are uncertain. Tufted angioma typically occurs during infancy or early childhood and displays various clinical patterns. It may present as a subtle stain-like area that later thickens as a large plaque, infiltrated or dusky blue-purple lesion, or as an exophytic, firm, violaceous, cutaneous nodule. Medical treatment is not necessary for tufted angioma, given its benign nature and slow progression. Only clinical follow-up is therefore recommended. PMID:26312663

  14. For Tufts, the World Is a Matter of Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2009-01-01

    This article is the third in an occasional series on how colleges have tackled some of the basic challenges of internationalizing their campuses. Tufts University has long been an internationally focused institution. Yet in one area it has, until recently, been sorely lacking. Like many universities, Tufts made little attempt to connect with…

  15. Tufted puffin reproduction reveals ocean climate variability.

    PubMed

    Gjerdrum, Carina; Vallée, Anne M J; St Clair, Colleen Cassady; Bertram, Douglas F; Ryder, John L; Blackburn, Gwylim S

    2003-08-01

    Anomalously warm sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are associated with interannual and decadal variability as well as with long-term climate changes indicative of global warming. Such oscillations could precipitate changes in a variety of oceanic processes to affect marine species worldwide. As global temperatures continue to rise, it will be critically important to be able to predict the effects of such changes on species' abundance, distribution, and ecological relationships so as to identify vulnerable populations. Off the coast of British Columbia, warm SSTs have persisted through the last two decades. Based on 16 years of reproductive data collected between 1975 and 2002, we show that the extreme variation in reproductive performance exhibited by tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) was related to changes in SST both within and among seasons. Especially warm SSTs corresponded with drastically decreased growth rates and fledging success of puffin nestlings. Puffins may partially compensate for within-season changes associated with SST by adjusting their breeding phenology, yet our data also suggest that they are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change at this site and may serve as a valuable indicator of biological change in the North Pacific. Further and prolonged increases in ocean temperature could make Triangle Island, which contains the largest tufted puffin colony in Canada, unsuitable as a breeding site for this species. PMID:12871995

  16. Neurosurgery at the Catholic University in Rome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gian Franco; Colicchio, Gabriella; Di Rocco, Concezio; Maira, Giulio; Meglio, Mario; Scerrati, Massimo

    2002-06-01

    Neurosurgery at the Catholic University in Rome was initiated by Gian Franco Rossi in 1969 and has gradually expanded since then. From the beginning, research has been regarded as an essential part of training and daily activities in the university's neurosurgery programs. The professional and research education of all faculty members includes at least 1 year abroad in a reputable neurosurgical center. Subspecialization is encouraged. Today, the faculty is composed of 3 full professors, 4 associate professors, and 16 assistant professors. The university's neurosurgery programs include the Institute of Neurosurgery, the residency program, and the following clinical units: a Division of General Neurosurgery; three subspecialty sections comprising Neurotraumatology, Pediatric Neurosurgery, and Functional and Spine Surgery; a day hospital; and dedicated laboratories. More than 1700 surgical patients are treated annually. Epilepsy, pain management, parkinsonism, spinal cord and vertebral pathologies, clinical and basic neuro-oncology, cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial pressure dynamics, cerebrovascular disease, neurotrauma, developmental malformations, and peripheral and central nervous system neuroregeneration are the main fields of clinical and research activities. The results of the research performed thus far at the Catholic University in Rome have been reported in more than 900 publications, most of which have appeared in prominent journals and books. Members of the faculty are involved in relevant editorial activities and serve as officers of national and international scientific and professional societies. In 1999, Giulio Maira succeeded Dr. Rossi in directing the Institute of Neurosurgery and the Division of General Neurosurgery. In addition to the history of neurosurgery at the Catholic University in Rome, this article describes present challenges and plans for the future in neurosurgery at the university. PMID:12015854

  17. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  18. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T.; Sparks, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is discussed. The importance of high-voltage and low-current operation in the wire-duct precipitator has focused attention on collecting high-resistivity dust. The local current density of individual tufts is considerably higher even at a low average current level and, therefore, could contribute to both the formation of back corona in the collected-dust layer and the generation of the secondary flow. Numerical simulation for three-dimensional tuft corona is successfully solved. The electrical characteristics of tuft corona are investigated, and the structure and role of the three-dimensional secondary flow and EHD in relation to transport of the fine particles are described.

  19. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  20. An acquired tufted angioma of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ha; Lee, Guen-Ho; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Jin Hee

    2013-12-01

    Tufted angiomas are benign vascular tumors that occur mainly in children younger than 5 years, involving the skin with subcutaneous plaques or in a nodular form. We experienced a rare tufted angioma in the nasal cavity. A 35-year-old woman visited our clinic because of frequent epistaxis. A mass was found in the left posterior nasal cavity, adjacent to the middle turbinate, and attached to the nasal septum. The mass was excised using endoscopy, under local anesthesia. The histopathological examination showed a cannon-ball distribution of the vasculature, compatible with a tufted angioma. This is the first tufted angioma in the English literature found in the nasal mucosa, so we report this case with a literature review. PMID:23518006

  1. Tufted Angioma of Eyelid in an Adult - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anshul; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Tufted Angiomas also known as angioblastomas /Angioblastoma of Nagakawa are rare vascular neoplasms localised to the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the upper trunk and neck being most common sites. They are mainly seen in children but a few cases in juveniles and adults have been reported. We hereby report this case, a 40-year-old male who presented with a right lower lid, painless, slowly progressive, firm swelling diagnosed as Tufted Angioma on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:27504301

  2. ACQUIRED MULTIFOCAL TUFTED ANGIOMAS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Surajit Kumar; Barma, Kuntal Deb

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, occurring primarily on the trunk and extremities of children. The lesions are usually asymptomatic but, rarely, paroxysmal painful episodes may be associated. The occurrence of eruptive TA is still rarer and had been described almost exclusively in association with immunocompromised states. We report here a case of acquired painful multifocal tufted angiomas on the face and neck in an immunocompetent young adult. PMID:21965850

  3. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting in Rome 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Fabio; Cattani, Giordano; Mazzaferro, Luca; Migliaccio, Marina; Pietrobon, Davide; Ricci Pacifici, Daniel; Stellato, Francesco; Veneziani, Marcella

    2012-10-01

    Conference logo At its third edition, the Young Researcher Meeting in Rome (YRMR) proves to be a growing event in the Italian scientific panorama. The high-quality content of the abstracts submitted to the scientific committee resulted in an exciting conference, held, for the second time, at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' on 20 January 2012. A busy schedule covered a large variety of cutting-edge science topics: fundamental interactions, particle physics, cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter and biomedical physics. The broad range of the subjects discussed is the distinctive feature of the YRMR, a meeting aimed at enhancing the synergy among complementary branches of science by stimulating a fruitful exchange between theoretical, experimental and computational physics. Promoting collaborations between PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers creates a solid scientific network with an open-minded approach to discovery. In this volume, we collect the contributions that have been presented both in the form of talks and of posters. YRMR Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Marina Migliaccio (migliaccio@ifca.unican.es) Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda, Avenida de los Castros, E-39005 Santander, Cantabria Spain Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici

  4. Treatment of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Han; Li, Jia Ying; Qu, Xin Hua; Yan, Wei Li; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jia Wei

    2016-10-01

    This meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of current treatment modalities for kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma. A systematic review was performed using PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Embase for clinical studies. The outcome was measured by pooled response rate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), together with heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and publication bias. Fifteen studies with 244 participants were included in this analysis. Vincristine therapy exhibited a relatively higher response rate (0.72; 95%CI, 0.64-0.79) compared with other therapies including systemic corticosteroid (0.27; 95%CI, 0.17-0.36), interferon (0.36; 95%CI, 0.24-0.48), radiotherapy (0.49; 95%CI, 0.26-0.73), embolization (0.66; 95%CI, 0.48-0.83), aspirin/ticlopidine (0.42; 95%CI, 0.06-0.78) and sirolimus (0.57; 95%CI, 0.00-0.10), in treating KHE/TA. Subgroup analysis indicated that the efficacy of systemic corticosteroids therapy was age-related. The pooled response rate was 0.15 (95%CI, 0.08-0.23) for participants 3.5 months of age and older compared with 0.35 (95% CI, 0.26-0.44) for participants less than 3.5 months. Regarding side effects, systemic corticosteroids treatment was 0.32 (95%CI, 0.15-0.50), vincristine modality was 0.16 (95%CI, 0.08-0.24) and interferon therapy was 0.28 (95%CI, 0.13-0.43). In conclusion, as one of the first reviews evaluating the effect of common therapies in the treatment of KHE/TA, our meta-analysis displayed that vincristine was more effective. Thus, vincristine was the most effective, providing evidence supporting the use of vincristine as a first-line therapy for KHE/TA. PMID:27252149

  5. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

  6. Tufts submarine fan: turbidity-current gateway to Escanaba Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Normark, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel near its western exit from the Blanco Fracture Zone has formed the Tufts submarine fan, which extends more than 350 km south on the Pacific Plate to the Mendocino Fracture Zone. For this study, available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic-reflection data, long-range side-scan sonar images, and sediment core data are used to define the growth pattern of the fan. Tufts fan deposits have smoothed and filled in the linear ridge-and-valley relief over an area exceeding 23,000 km2 on the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The southernmost part of the fan is represented by a thick (as much as 500 m) sequence of turbidite deposits ponded along more than 100 km of the northern flank of the Mendocino Fracture Zone. Growth of the Tufts fan now permits turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel to reach the Escanaba Trough, a deep rift valley along the southern axis of the Gorda Ridge. Scientific drilling during both the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) provided evidence that the 500-m-thick sediment fill of Escanaba Trough is dominantly sandy turbidites. Radiocarbon dating of the sediment at ODP Site 1037 showed that deposition of most of the upper 120 m of fill was coincident with Lake Missoula floods and that the provenance of the fill is from the eastern Columbia River drainage basin. The Lake Missoula flood discharge with its entrained sediment continued flowing downslope upon reaching the ocean as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. These huge turbidity currents followed the Cascadia Channel to reach the Pacific Plate, where overbank flow provided a significant volume of sediment on Tufts fan and in Escanaba Trough. Tufts fan and Tufts Abyssal Plain to the west probably received turbidite sediment from the Cascadia margin during much of the Pleistocene.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL TUFT CORONA AND ELECTROHYDRODYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is discussed. The importance of high-voltage and low-current operation in the wire-duct precipitator has focused attention on collecting high-resistivity dust. The local current density of in...

  8. Registration of a tufted-naked seed upland cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tufted-naked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant, 9023n4t (Reg. No. GP-971, PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (9023) (PI 590933) through chemical mutagenesis. Germplasm line 9023n4t was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, and released in...

  9. PULSE ENERGIZATION IN THE TUFT CORONA REGIME OF NEGATIVE CORONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses pulse energization in the tuft corona regime of negative corona. Fabric filtration, with integral particle charging and collection in a combined electric and flow field, is sensitive to maldistribution of current among bags energized by one power source, espec...

  10. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    PubMed

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators. PMID:3708191

  11. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  12. Itpr3 Is responsible for the mouse tufted (tf) locus.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Hillary T; Tordoff, Michael G; Parker, M Rockwell

    2013-03-01

    The tf (tufted) locus is responsible for a classic phenotype of hair loss and regrowth in mice. It is a characteristic of the BTBR strain. Here, we use a combination of positional cloning methods and complementation mapping to identify Itpr3, the inositol triphosphate receptor type 3, as the gene responsible for the tf locus. PMID:23100490

  13. Tufts Learns How Far a Big Gift Can Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, eBay's founder gave Tufts University $100-million dollars with an unusual stipulation: The money was to be invested in the burgeoning field of microfinance and used to provide small-business loans and other financial services to poor people around the world. The university would make money if the investments were profitable. The author…

  14. Unique Tuft Test Facility Dramatically Reduces Brush Seal Development Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Brush seals have been incorporated in the latest turbine engines to reduce leakage and improve efficiency. However, the life of these seals is limited by wear. Studies have shown that optimal sealing characteristics for a brush seal occur before the interference fit between the brush and shaft is excessively worn. Research to develop improved tribopairs (brush and coating) with reduced wear and lower friction has been hindered by the lack of an accurate, low-cost, efficient test methodology. Estimated costs for evaluating a new material combination in an engine company seal test program are on the order of $100,000. To address this need, the NASA Lewis Research Center designed, built, and validated a unique, innovative brush seal tuft tester that slides a single tuft of brush seal wire against a rotating shaft under controlled loads, speeds, and temperatures comparable to those in turbine engines. As an initial screening tool, the brush seal tuft tester can tribologicaly evaluate candidate seal materials for 1/10th the cost of full-scale seal tests. Previous to the development of the brush seal tuft tester facility, most relevant tribological data had been obtained from full-scale seal tests conducted primarily to determine seal leakage characteristics. However, from a tribological point of view, these tests included the confounding effects of varying contact pressures, bristle flaring, high-temperature oxidation, and varying bristle contact angles. These confounding effects are overcome in tuft testing. The interface contact pressures can be either constant or varying depending on the tuft mounting device, and bristle wear can be measured optically with inscribed witness marks. In a recent cooperative program with a U.S. turbine engine manufacturer, five metallic wire candidates were tested against a plasma-sprayed Nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. The wire materials used during this collaboration were either nickel-chrome- or cobaltchrome-based superalloys. These

  15. Tufted hair folliculitis in a patient affected by pachydermoperiostosis: case report and videodermoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Adone; Romano, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with Touraine-Solente-Golé syndrome (primary pachydermoperiostosis), with an area of inflammatory dermatosis (12-month evolution) of the scalp at the cranial vertex. The patient presented with arthropathy, clubbing of the digits, diffuse periostosis, pachydermia of the hands and feet, and periosteal hyperostosis of the knee. Facial seborrhea and sebaceous gland hyperplasia were evident (Figure 1A and 1B and Figure 2A and 2B). Examination of the scalp revealed an erythematous pruritic plaque with erosions, crusts, and pustules, on which multiple tufts of 10 to 20 normal-looking hairs emerged from single follicular openings (Figure 3A). Slight pressure on the perifollicular areas resulted in the discharge of purulent material through the dilated follicular openings. Cervical and occipital lymph nodes were not enlarged, and the patient was in generally good health. Routine laboratory findings were normal. Immunologic studies, including a screening for antinuclear antibody, complement, and immunoglobulins, were normal. Both potassium hydroxide staining and fungal culture were negative. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material taken from the affected area was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Videodermoscopy of the lesion showed rarefied interfollicular twisted red loops centered around actively affected follicles and white dots with absence of normal vascular pattern (Figure 3B). These dermoscopy patterns are markers for folliculitis decalvans, of which tufted hair folliculitis (THF) is a clinical variant. Histologic examination showed hair plugging, a dense perifollicular infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and large areas of scarring and fibrosis, which would confirm suspected THE THF was diagnosed on the grounds of clinical, microbiologic, histologic, and videodermoscopy data. The patient was treated with amoxicillin 875 mg plus clavulanic acid 125 mg twice daily and topical nadifloxacin 1% twice daily for 20 days

  16. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

  17. Tufted folliculitis of the scalp: a distinctive clinicohistological variant of folliculitis decalvans.

    PubMed

    Annessi, G

    1998-05-01

    Tufted folliculitis is an uncommon folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with patches of scarring alopecia within which multiple hair tufts emerge from dilated follicular orifices. The clinicohistological data from a group of 15 patients with tufted folliculitis were reviewed and compared with those of seven patients with folliculitis decalvans, five with acne keloidalis nuchae, four with dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, three with kerion celsi and 20 with follicular lichen planus. It was found that tufted folliculitis could be differentiated from folliculitis decalvans only by finding several hair tufts scattered within patches of scarring alopecia. Histologically, a single tuft consisted of peculiar clustering of adjacent follicular units opening at the bottom of an epidermal depression. Conversely, the presence of keloidal plaques in acne keloidalis nuchae, coalescing nodules discharging purulent material in dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, erythematous plaques covered by pustules replete with fungal elements in kerion celsi, and the absence of follicular pustules in follicular lichen planus distinguished these diseases from tufted folliculitis. On the basis of these findings, it is suggested that tufted folliculitis should be considered as a distinctive clinicohistological variant of folliculitis decalvans. Tufting of hair is caused by clustering of adjacent follicular units due to a fibrosing process and to retention of telogen hairs within the involved follicular units. PMID:9666825

  18. APPLICATION OF BIORETENTION, NATIVE PLANTS AND OTHER LOW IMPACT STORM WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO TUFTS UNIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At Tufts, teams of undergraduates have worked for several years in collaboration with Tufts' Facilities to design bioretentive landscapes using native plants. Now, students will take the next step by implementing low impact development (LID) strategies in conjunction with bes...

  19. Diving behaviour and heart rate in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Stephenson, R; Butler, P J; Woakes, A J

    1986-11-01

    Diving behaviour and heart rate were monitored in tufted ducks diving under circumstances which simulated various environmental conditions such as feeding under ice in winter. When distance to food was increased on a covered outdoor pond, dive duration increased proportionately, but it was calculated that time available for feeding was reduced during the longer-distance 'extended' dives. There was a gradual reduction in heart rate to 77.3 +/- 13.8 beats min-1, which is significantly lower than the resting value of 121.1 +/- 14.1 beats min-1, during the course of extended dives, suggesting that the ducks could gradually switch over to a 'classical' oxygen-conserving response during these prolonged voluntary dives. The duration of the pre-dive preparatory period was positively correlated with dive distance. When the ducks were briefly unable to resurface during an otherwise normal feeding dive in an indoor tank, a situation which may occur if they become disoriented under ice, there was an immediate switch to a full bradycardia. Reduction in heart rate during these 'enclosed' dives occurred only when the ducks were apparently aware of the situation and the rate of onset of bradycardia was very similar to that previously observed during involuntary submersion of tufted ducks. Minimum heart rate was the same at 46 beats min-1 after 15 s of enclosed dives and after 30 s of involuntary submersions, despite the differences in levels of activity in the two situations. PMID:3805996

  20. Diet selectivity and shift of wintering common pochards and tufted ducks in a eutrophic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Yoshio; Hiratsuka, Jun'ichi; Yamamuro, Masumi; Oka, Nariko; Abe, Manabu

    2000-10-01

    Diet selectivity and shift of common pochards ( Aythya ferina) and tufted ducks ( A. fuligula) were investigated in the eutrophic coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, during three winters (1994-1997). These two diving ducks fed mainly on mussels Musculista senhousia, but used food resources differently. Common pochards foraged larger mussels that were depleted earlier than the smaller ones eaten by tufted ducks. After the mussel biomass decreased in late winter, tufted ducks shifted their diet to clams Ruditapes philippinarum and Crustacea, while common pochards shifted only to the clam. Thus, depletion of mussel biomass in the lagoon affected common pochards earlier and stronger than tufted ducks. We suggest that different use of food resources of each species influenced their wintering patterns. Tufted ducks used the wintering area for a long period, while common pochards moved to the other area when animal foods became less abundant.

  1. Tuft cells, taste-chemosensory cells, orchestrate parasite type 2 immunity in the gut.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Michael R; Lavoie, Sydney; Michaud, Monia; Blum, Arthur M; Tran, Sara V; Weinstock, Joel V; Gallini, Carey Ann; Redding, Kevin; Margolskee, Robert F; Osborne, Lisa C; Artis, David; Garrett, Wendy S

    2016-03-18

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier between a host and its microbiota. Protozoa and helminths are members of the gut microbiota of mammals, including humans, yet the many ways that gut epithelial cells orchestrate responses to these eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we show that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection. Disruption of chemosensory signaling through the loss of TRMP5 abrogates the expansion of tuft cells, goblet cells, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells during parasite colonization. Tuft cells are the primary source of the parasite-induced cytokine interleukin-25, which indirectly induces tuft cell expansion by promoting interleukin-13 production by innate lymphoid cells. Our results identify intestinal tuft cells as critical sentinels in the gut epithelium that promote type 2 immunity in response to intestinal parasites. PMID:26847546

  2. Eternal Rome: Guardian of the Heavenly Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latura, G.

    2016-01-01

    The power of the Roman Empire did not come solely by way of brutal force. A spiritual vision inherited from the Greeks inspired the Romans—an ascent through the classical Planets to the intersections with the Milky Way, where stood the gates of heaven. This vision stretches back, through Macrobius and Cicero, to Plato's Republic and Timaeus. The Eternal City, capital of the Empire for four centuries, claimed control over the celestial portals, a tradition that is traced on Roman coins and medals over thousands of years. Julius Caesar borrowed enormous sums to campaign for the office of Pontifex Maximus—high priest of Rome—spending a fortune on “bread and circuses” to secure the support of the masses. Consolidating power at every turn, Caesar as dictator-for-life became absolute master of Rome, the city that, according to its coins, ruled the cosmos. Though his mortal frame fell to the knives of the senators, Caesar's soul was seen ascending to heaven as a comet. Thus was born the myth of Divvs Ivlivs—the divine avatar of the Roman Empire, whose name would become synonymous with the title of emperor over millennia (German Kaiser, Hungarian Csaszar, Russian Tsar, to name a few). Caesar's heir, Octavian, piously waited for Lepidus to die of old age before grabbing the office of Pontifex Maximus for himself, a title that would define the celestial authority of the ruler of Rome until Gratian renounced it four centuries later. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, convinced Gratian that such a pagan title was not fit for a Christian. Once the Roman emperor discarded the title Pontifex Maximus, the bishop of Rome picked it up and placed it above his own head, as can be seen on coins and medals of the Vatican to this day. In Jubilee years, the Pope knocks down the brick wall that has kept closed the Holy Door for a generation, a ceremony that reaffirms Rome's control of the celestial gates.

  3. All Roads Lead to Rome: Update on Rome III Criteria and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David Q.; Kwan, Lola Y.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published Rome III criteria reflect current understanding of functional gastrointestinal disorders. These criteria include definitions of these conditions and their pathophysiologic subtypes and offer guidelines for their management. At the 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, a panel of experts discussed these criteria as they pertain to irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and chronic constipation. This article reviews the panel’s findings, highlights the differences between the Rome II and III criteria, and summarizes best treatment options currently available to practitioners and their patients. PMID:21544252

  4. Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

    1998-09-01

    The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

  5. Tufted Angioma in Children: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alessandra Dutra; Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Gomes, Rita Fabiane Teixeira; Martins, Marco Antônio Trevizani; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Santa'Ana Filho, Manoel; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Hildebrand, Laura de Campos; Visioli, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a benign vascular tumor with endothelial origin. It is extremely rare in oral mucosa; only seven cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we describe two cases of tufted angioma observed in children and we also present a review of the literature about this pathology, concerning the differential diagnosis and management of this lesion in children. PMID:25436158

  6. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Gerbe, François; Sidot, Emmanuelle; Smyth, Danielle J; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Dardalhon, Valérie; Cesses, Pierre; Garnier, Laure; Pouzolles, Marie; Brulin, Bénédicte; Bruschi, Marco; Harcus, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi; Maizels, Rick M; Jay, Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Rα-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Rα signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection. PMID:26762460

  7. Simplicity, Harmony Essential to Club of Rome Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1979-01-01

    This interview with Aurelio Peccei details the next phase in the Club of Rome's goal of reeducating mankind to global threats. Peccei discusses a variety of topics relating to science and the human condition, including his plans for the implementation of the Club of Rome activities. (BT)

  8. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  9. The clinical spectrum of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Stacy E; Gupta, Deepti

    2016-03-01

    Kasposiform hemoangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA) are classifed as vascular tumors with locally aggressive and benign growth potential, respectively, within the classification schema proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. A unique feature of these vascular tumors is the risk of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP), a severe thrombocytopenia with mild to moderate coagulopathy resulting from intralesional platelet trapping. As with many vascular anomalies, accurate description of clinical course, responses to therapy, and long-term outcomes have been hindered by lesion misidentification, imprecise nomenclature, and lack of prospective, randomized clinical trials to assess therapeutic efficacy. The classic dermatologic features of these lesions can facilitate diagnosis for the astute provider; however, the absence of or unusual integumentary involvement or presentation in a less common age group (adolescents/adults) poses a diagnostic challenge. Current approaches to the management of KHE/TA are often informed by lesion features such as presence of KMP, extent and location of the tumor, and symptomatology. Evidence-based treatment guidelines are limited. Corticosteroids, vincristine, interferon, multi-agent regimens and newer therapies, such as sirolimus, have demonstrated efficacy in patient series. The use of surgical excision and interventional radiology guided therapies have been described with mixed clinical benefit. Collaboration among emerging vascular anomaly centers and an increasing number of providers across subspecialties with interest in this field are facilitating the development of standardized approaches to diagnosis and management. The rarity of KHE-spectrum lesions and the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations necessitate rationally designed, multisite clinical trials to investigate risk stratification schemas and formally evaluate the short and long-term efficacy of available and novel therapies

  10. High Energy Physics at Tufts University Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Oliver, William P.; Napier, Austin; Gallagher, Hugh R.

    2012-07-18

    In this Final Report, we the researchers of the high energy physics group at Tufts University summarize our works and achievements in three frontier areas of elementary particle physics: (i) Neutrino physics at the Intensity Frontier, (ii) Collider physics at the Energy Frontier, and (iii) Theory investigations of spin structure and quark-gluon dynamics of nucleons using quantum chromodynamics. With our Neutrino research we completed, or else brought to a useful state, the following: Data-taking, physics simulations, physics analysis, physics reporting, explorations of matter effects, and detector component fabrication. We conducted our work as participants in the MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE neutrino oscillation experiments and in the MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment. With our Collider research we completed or else brought to a useful state: Data-taking, development of muon system geometry and tracking codes, software validation and maintenance, physics simulations, physics analysis, searches for new particles, and study of top-quark and B-quark systems. We conducted these activities as participants in the ATLAS proton-proton collider experiment at CERN and in the CDF proton-antiproton collider experiment at Fermilab. In our Theory research we developed QCD-based models, applications of spin phenomenology to fundamental systems, fitting of models to data, presenting and reporting of new concepts and formalisms. The overarching objectives of our research work have always been: 1) to test and clarify the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and 2) to discover new phenomena which may point the way to a more unified theoretical framework.

  11. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

    PubMed

    Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2005-05-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

  12. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences

  13. Spatial organization of cilia tufts governs airways mucus transport: Application to severe asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelloufi, Mustapha Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2014-11-01

    We study the coupling between both density and spatial repartition of beating cilia tufts, and the coordinated transport of mucus in an in-vitro epithelial model. We use a fully differentiated model epithelium in air liquid interface (ALI) obtained from endo-bronchial biopsies from healthy subjects and patients with asthma. The asthma phenotype is known to persist in the model. Mucus transport is characterized by the trajectories and velocities of microscopic beads incorporated in the mucus layer. When the beating cilia tufts density is higher than dc = 11/100 × 100 μm2 a spherical spiral coordinated mucus transport is observed over the whole ALI chamber (radius = 6 mm). Below dc, local mucus coordinated transport is observed on small circular domains on the epithelium surface. We reveal that the radii of these domains scale with the beating cilia tufts density with a power 3.7. Surprisingly, this power law is independent on cilia beat frequency, concentration and rheological properties of mucus for healthy subject and patient with asthma. The rotating or linear mucus transport is related to dispersion of the cilia tufts on the epithelium surface. We show that impaired mucus transport observed in severe asthma model epithelia is due to a drastic lack and dysfunction of cilia tufts. The author acknowledges the support of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under reference ANR-13-BSV5-0015-01.

  14. Tufted angioma of the maxilla: a rare case with unique clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Theologie-Lygidakis, Nadia; Lianou, Violetta; Tsiklakis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Ioannis; Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Tufted angioma is an uncommon benign vascular tumor usually presenting in early childhood and affecting mainly the skin. It has been associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, a severe coagulopathy of poor prognosis. There have been very few published cases of oral tufted angiomas, and maxillary bone involvement has not been hitherto reported. We present a case of a 10-year-old Caucasian boy with an erythematous left maxillary gingival mass accompanied by subjacent hard tissue swelling. Radiologic evaluation revealed an irregular mixed radiolucent and radiopaque area in the left maxilla, accompanied by alveolar ridge erosion, cortical plate expansion, and displacement and divergence of the premolars. The histopathologic examination showed scattered irregular tufted lobules of variably sized vascular spaces inside the subepithelial connective tissue and among the underlying bone trabeculae, exhibiting a "cannonball" appearance. Immunohistochemical evaluation found positivity for CD31, CD34, and smooth muscle actin, and a final diagnosis of tufted angioma with osseous involvement was rendered. A thorough review of the pertinent literature revealed only 9 previously published intraoral tufted angioma cases, the salient demographic and clinicopathologic features of which are summarized. PMID:26896438

  15. High temperature brush seal tuft testing of metallic bristles versus chrome carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1996-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration a direct measurement of load and friction is made. Accurate wear rate measurements are possible due to the known contact pressure. Previously reported baseline research using this facility showed good data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data. This paper extends and expands the database for candidate brush seal materials. A series of tuft tests were completed to evaluate the performance of five high temperature superalloy wires sliding against plasma sprayed nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. Wire materials were either nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys. Good corroboration of the tuft results with dynamic seal rig tests was observed; giving additional confidence in the tuft test as a screening and development tool.

  16. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit.

    PubMed

    von Moltke, Jakob; Ji, Ming; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

    2016-01-14

    Parasitic helminths and allergens induce a type 2 immune response leading to profound changes in tissue physiology, including hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells and smooth muscle hypercontractility. This response, known as 'weep and sweep', requires interleukin (IL)-13 production by tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and recruited type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells). Experiments in mice and humans have demonstrated requirements for the epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 in the activation of ILC2s, but the sources and regulation of these signals remain poorly defined. In the small intestine, the epithelium consists of at least five distinct cellular lineages, including the tuft cell, whose function is unclear. Here we show that tuft cells constitutively express IL-25 to sustain ILC2 homeostasis in the resting lamina propria in mice. After helminth infection, tuft-cell-derived IL-25 further activates ILC2s to secrete IL-13, which acts on epithelial crypt progenitors to promote differentiation of tuft and goblet cells, leading to increased frequencies of both. Tuft cells, ILC2s and epithelial progenitors therefore comprise a response circuit that mediates epithelial remodelling associated with type 2 immunity in the small intestine, and perhaps at other mucosal barriers populated by these cells. PMID:26675736

  17. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2–epithelial response circuit

    PubMed Central

    von Moltke, Jakob; Ji, Ming; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic helminths and allergens induce a type 2 immune response leading to profound changes in tissue physiology, including hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells1 and smooth muscle hypercontractility2. This response, known as ‘weep and sweep’, requires interleukin (IL)-13 production by tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and recruited type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells)3. Experiments in mice and humans have demonstrated requirements for the epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 in the activation of ILC2s4–11, but the sources and regulation of these signals remain poorly defined. In the small intestine, the epithelium consists of at least five distinct cellular lineages12, including the tuft cell, whose function is unclear. Here we show that tuft cells constitutively express IL-25 to sustain ILC2 homeostasis in the resting lamina propria in mice. After helminth infection, tuft-cell-derived IL-25 further activates ILC2s to secrete IL-13, which acts on epithelial crypt progenitors to promote differentiation of tuft and goblet cells, leading to increased frequencies of both. Tuft cells, ILC2s and epithelial progenitors therefore comprise a response circuit that mediates epithelial remodelling associated with type 2 immunity in the small intestine, and perhaps at other mucosal barriers populated by these cells. PMID:26675736

  18. A Novel Form of Local Plasticity in Tuft Dendrites of Neocortical Somatosensory Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Maya; Shulman, Yoav; Schiller, Jackie

    2016-06-01

    Tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons form a separate biophysical and processing compartment. Presently, little is known about plasticity mechanisms in this isolated compartment. Here, we describe a novel form of plasticity in which unpaired low-frequency (0.1 Hz) stimulation of tuft inputs resulted in prolonged transient (86.3 ± 7.3 min) potentiation of EPSPs (286.1% ± 30.5%) and enhanced local excitability that enabled more-efficient back-propagation of axo-somatic action potentials and dendritic calcium spikes selectively into the activated dendritic segments. This plasticity was exclusive to tuft dendrites and did not occur in basal dendrites. Induction of this plasticity depended on activation of Kv4.2 potassium and NMDAR channels, internalization of membrane proteins, and insertion of AMPAR. This unique form of tuft plasticity increases proximal-distal electrical coupling of activated tuft dendrites and opens a prolonged time window for binding and storing feedforward and feedback information in a branch-specific manner. PMID:27210551

  19. Olfactory nerve stimulation-induced calcium signaling in the mitral cell distal dendritic tuft.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Knöpfel, T

    2006-04-01

    Olfactory receptor neuron axons form the olfactory nerve (ON) and project to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, where they form excitatory synapses with terminal arborizations of the mitral cell (MC) tufted primary dendrite. Clusters of MC dendritic tufts define olfactory glomeruli, where they involve in complex synaptic interactions. The computational function of these cellular interactions is not clear. We used patch-clamp electrophysiology combined with whole field or two-photon Ca2+ imaging to study ON stimulation-induced Ca2+ signaling at the level of individual terminal branches of the MC primary dendrite in mice. ON-evoked subthreshold excitatory postsnaptic potentials induced Ca2+ transients in the MC tuft dendrites that were spatially inhomogeneous, exhibiting discrete "hot spots." In contrast, Ca2+ transients induced by backpropagating action potentials occurred throughout the dendritic tuft, being larger in the thin terminal dendrites than in the base of the tuft. Single ON stimulation-induced Ca2+ transients were depressed by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-aminophosphonovaleric acid (D-APV), increased with increasing stimulation intensity, and typically showed a prolonged rising phase. The synaptically induced Ca2+ signals reflect, at least in part, dendrodendritic interactions that support intraglomerular coupling of MCs and generation of an output that is common to all MCs associated with one glomerulus. PMID:16319202

  20. The papal anatomist: Eustachius in renaissance Rome.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Bartholomeo Eustachi, usually latinized as Eustachius, was an important anatomist in the 16th century, arguably second only to his contemporary and rival Andreas Vesalius. He was the first to identify several important anatomical structures, including the suprarenal glands, though he was probably not the first to describe the Eustachian tube. However, it has been hard to evaluate his achievements, because during his lifetime he published only some short monographs, and his career as a teacher in Rome is not well documented. He and his assistant P.M. Pini were the first to use copper plate engravings to illustrate human and animal anatomy, but most of their engravings were not published in their time, and the original plates were lost for some 140 years after the death of Eustachius. Early in the 18th century, these plates were rediscovered by the anatomist and papal physician G.M. Lancisi; he published the engravings in a book which aroused much interest and many reprintings. In 1744, Bernhard Siegfried Albinus of Leiden University published a version of these engravings, with commentaries by himself. The engraved illustrations prepared by Eustachius and Pini are clear and largely accurate. They idealize the findings of actual dissections, and have a diagrammatic quality that facilitates understanding and memory. They are the ancestors of later anatomical atlases, which have helped generations of surgeons in teaching and in planning operations. PMID:22507418

  1. Infrared imaging and tufts studies of boundary layer flow regimes on a NACA 0012 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.; Mcree, Griffith J.

    1989-01-01

    A study of boundary-layer flow regimes on a NACA 0012 airfoil from zero angle of attack up to separation is presented. The boundary-layer transition from the laminar to the turbulent regime and the onset of the separation were detected by surface thermography of the airfoil performed with an infrared imaging system. The findings were compared with observations of aluminum-foil tufts visible with the infrared imaging system. This arrangement allows the infrared imaging system to assume the dual role of flow regime detection through surface thermography and flow visualization through the observation of the aluminum-foil tufts. Ultimately the temperature history on an uncontaminated surface could provide an interpretation of the state of boundary-layer flow. Separation studies performed on the NACA 0012 airfoil showed that aluminum foil tufts can be observed with infrared imaging systems.

  2. Plaque removal efficacy of an electric and a manual toothbrush with additional interdental tufts.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, W; Sturm, D; de Jager, M

    2001-01-01

    This clinical study compares the plaque removal efficacy of the Philips/Jordan 2-Action Plaque Remover electric toothbrush with that of the Oral-B 35 Advantage manual toothbrush. In this single-blind randomized split-mouth study, subjects brushed under supervision after having abstained from all oral hygiene for 24 hours. Plaque scored after brushing was used to compare the efficacy of the toothbrushes. Both toothbrushes have special tufts to promote interdental cleaning. It was found that these tufts improve interdental cleaning. Overall, the Philips/Jordan brush removed significantly more plaque than the Oral-B manual brush. PMID:11475710

  3. Registration of tufted-naked seed in upland cotton germplasm 9023n4t

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A naked-tufted mutant called 9023n4t (PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) through chemical mutagenesis. This germplasm was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University and released in April, 2013. This mutant is quite unique sinc...

  4. Distribution Of Cs-137 In The Plant Tufts Of The Big Smolyan Lake (The Rhodope Mountain)

    SciTech Connect

    Srentz, A. K.; Hristov, Hr. G.; Kirin, D. A.

    2007-04-23

    Samples from the sedimentary layers and plant tufts in the Big Smolyan lake were taken as a solution for tracing the vertical distribution of Cs-137. The measurements were taken by a precise gamma ray spectrometer. The specific and surface activity was calculated.

  5. English as an Engineering Tool: Samuel Chandler Earle and the Tufts Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kynell, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates Samuel Chandler Earle's 1911 presentation to the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education. Demonstrates Earle's role in the shift of technical writing courses that combined both the goals of an engineering curriculum with the real-world needs of the graduated engineer. Finds that Earle's "Tufts Experiment" provided the impetus…

  6. Development and Validation of a Personnel Assessment System for Selection of Tufting Machine Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobrow, Warren

    This paper outlines the results of a test validation project for entry-level positions in the tufting areas in a carpet factory. Carpet factory administrators thought that new methods of hiring associates would help improve overall system productivity. A job analysis was conducted through review of job materials and focus groups with employees and…

  7. Long-lived intestinal tuft cells serve as colon cancer–initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, C. Benedikt; Asfaha, Samuel; Hayakawa, Yoku; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Lukin, Dana J.; Nuber, Andreas H.; Brandtner, Anna; Setlik, Wanda; Remotti, Helen; Muley, Ashlesha; Chen, Xiaowei; May, Randal; Houchen, Courtney W.; Fox, James G.; Gershon, Michael D.; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 protein (DCLK1) is a gastrointestinal tuft cell marker that has been proposed to identify quiescent and tumor growth–sustaining stem cells. DCLK1+ tuft cells are increased in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis; however, the role of these cells within the gastrointestinal epithelium and their potential as cancer-initiating cells are poorly understood. Here, using a BAC-CreERT–dependent genetic lineage–tracing strategy, we determined that a subpopulation of DCLK1+ cells is extremely long lived and possesses rare stem cell abilities. Moreover, genetic ablation of Dclk1 revealed that DCLK1+ tuft cells contribute to recovery following intestinal and colonic injury. Surprisingly, conditional knockdown of the Wnt regulator APC in DCLK1+ cells was not sufficient to drive colonic carcinogenesis under normal conditions; however, dextran sodium sulfate–induced (DSS-induced) colitis promoted the development of poorly differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in mice lacking APC in DCLK1+ cells. Importantly, colonic tumor formation occurred even when colitis onset was delayed for up to 3 months after induced APC loss in DCLK1+ cells. Thus, our data define an intestinal DCLK1+ tuft cell population that is long lived, quiescent, and important for intestinal homeostasis and regeneration. Long-lived DCLK1+ cells maintain quiescence even following oncogenic mutation, but are activated by tissue injury and can serve to initiate colon cancer. PMID:24487592

  8. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  9. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  10. The Club of Rome and its computer.

    PubMed

    Chase, S

    1973-03-01

    When the Club of Rome, an assemblage of 75 scientists and businessmen gathered to study the ''predicament of mankind in the face of technology growing at an exponential rate,'' issued its computer study it launched a battle between proponents of gross national product and those favoring quality of life. The computer simulation studied the interaction of population growth, food supply, inductrial production, resource use, and pollution under varying conditions. It concluded that our industrial system is headed for too many people in relation to food and living space, too much production in relation to natural resources, and for too much pollution. This will affect all countries. The traditional economists say the continued growth of the gross national product is the only way to ensure better living conditions while the ecologists point out that quality of life is being destroyed. The author cites arguments both for and against the quality-of-life view. The problem is that continued industrial growth creates wants as well as satisfying them and leads to waste as well as needful consumption. John Stuart Mill stated 100 years ago that the world could not support continued technological expansion and society must reach an equilibrium. 8 steps must be taken if the planet is to reach such an equilibrium, which is essential to the survival of all: 1) a zero rate of population growth, although there may be variations between countries with some over and some under; 2) a zero rate of industrial output with overall new investment equal to overall rate of industrial depreciation; 3) a policy of recycling and conserving material resources; 4) an adequate budget of food, shelter, clothing, health services, and education for every human being (a budget which does not allow for autos and air conditioning); 5) a sharp decline in consumption of material goods in affluent societies with a corresponding shift to more services and an increase in material goods for low energy societies

  11. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  12. Biologically effective surface UV climatology at Rome and Aosta, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna Maria; Modesti, Sarah; Casale, Giuseppe Rocco; Diemoz, Henri; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    Given the beneficial and harmful effects of UV radiation on human health, our study aims to provide a characterization of erythemal and vitamin D dose rates at two Italian sites, Rome and Aosta, subject to quite different environmental conditions. Based on the respective UV climatologies, exposure times needed to induce erythema or vitamin D photoproduction are provided as a function of the UV index.

  13. Living in Ancient Rome. Young Discovery Library Series: 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombarde, Odile; Moatti, Claude

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume describes in text and illustrations various aspects of daily life in ancient Rome. The social life and customs of the people are depicted. How a Roman citizen spent an average day, the dress, food, entertainment, what kind of…

  14. Classical Civilization (Greece-Hellenistic-Rome). Teacher's Manual. 1968 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Smith, Rozella B.

    This secondary teachers guide builds upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 173, and consists of three sections on the classical civilizations--Greek, Hellenistic, and Rome. Major emphasis is upon students gaining an understanding of cultural development and transmission. Using an analytic method, students learn to examine primary…

  15. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E...

  16. Ancient Rome: The Latin Teacher and Life in the Big City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Edwin S.

    This paper attempts to answer the question of what life was really like in ancient Rome, with a view to using this kind of information as cultural background for teaching Latin language and literature. There were many problems associated with daily living in ancient Rome. Writings of some inhabitants of ancient Rome attest to the fact that these…

  17. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  18. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  19. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  20. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  1. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that...

  2. Breathing hypoxic gas affects the physiology as well as the diving behaviour of tufted ducks.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Butler, Patrick J; Woakes, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    We measured the effects of exposure to hypoxia (15% and 11% oxygen) and hypercapnia (up to 4.5% carbon dioxide) on rates of respiratory gas exchange both between and during dives in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, to investigate to what extent these may explain changes in diving behaviour. As found in previous studies, the ducks decreased dive duration (t(d)) and increased surface duration when diving from a hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mix. In the hypercapnic conditions, oxygen consumption during the dive cycle was not affected. Oxygen uptake between dives was reduced by only 17% when breathing a hypoxic gas mix of 11% oxygen. However, estimates of the rate of oxygen metabolism during the foraging periods of dives decreased nearly threefold in 11% oxygen. Given that tufted ducks normally dive well within their aerobic dive limits and that they significantly reduced their t(d) during hypoxia, it is not at all clear why they make this physiological adjustment. PMID:15778946

  3. Long-lived intestinal tuft cells serve as colon cancer-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Westphalen, C Benedikt; Asfaha, Samuel; Hayakawa, Yoku; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Lukin, Dana J; Nuber, Andreas H; Brandtner, Anna; Setlik, Wanda; Remotti, Helen; Muley, Ashlesha; Chen, Xiaowei; May, Randal; Houchen, Courtney W; Fox, James G; Gershon, Michael D; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C

    2014-03-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 protein (DCLK1) is a gastrointestinal tuft cell marker that has been proposed to identify quiescent and tumor growth-sustaining stem cells. DCLK1⁺ tuft cells are increased in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis; however, the role of these cells within the gastrointestinal epithelium and their potential as cancer-initiating cells are poorly understood. Here, using a BAC-CreERT-dependent genetic lineage-tracing strategy, we determined that a subpopulation of DCLK1⁺ cells is extremely long lived and possesses rare stem cell abilities. Moreover, genetic ablation of Dclk1 revealed that DCLK1⁺ tuft cells contribute to recovery following intestinal and colonic injury. Surprisingly, conditional knockdown of the Wnt regulator APC in DCLK1⁺ cells was not sufficient to drive colonic carcinogenesis under normal conditions; however, dextran sodium sulfate-induced (DSS-induced) colitis promoted the development of poorly differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in mice lacking APC in DCLK1⁺ cells. Importantly, colonic tumor formation occurred even when colitis onset was delayed for up to 3 months after induced APC loss in DCLK1⁺ cells. Thus, our data define an intestinal DCLK1⁺ tuft cell population that is long lived, quiescent, and important for intestinal homeostasis and regeneration. Long-lived DCLK1⁺ cells maintain quiescence even following oncogenic mutation, but are activated by tissue injury and can serve to initiate colon cancer. PMID:24487592

  4. Synaptic actions on mitral and tufted cells elicited by olfactory nerve volleys in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Getchell, T V; Shepherd, G M

    1975-01-01

    1. A unitary study has been carried out of mitral and tufted cell responses to olfactory nerve volleys in the olfactory bulb of rabbits lightly anaesthetized with urethane-chloralose. 2. With volleys of different strengths, some mitral cells responded with a spike whose latency decreased considerably as the strength increased (elastic response); other cells responded at an invariant latency (inelastic response). The former may reflect diffuse olfactory nerve inputs to the dendritic tufts in the olfactory glomeruli, while tha latter may reflect input from discrete bundles of fibres. 3. The shortest spike latencies are consistent with monosynaptic excitation by the olfactory nerves; longer latencies may be due to longer pathways through the nerves, or polysynaptic pathways within the glomerular layer. 4. Facilitation, in terms of lower threshold and shorter spike latency, was found when testing with paired volleys of weak intensity at relatively short intervals (less than 40 msec). Suppression, in terms of raised threshold, longer latency and briefer repetitive discharges, was found at intervals up to several hundred msec. The facilitation and suppression are consistent with the hypothesis of synaptic excitation and inhibition, respectively, mediated through interneurones in the olfactory bulb. 5. Presumed tufted cells were similar in response properties to identified mitral cells. 6. Intracellular recordings revealed long-lasting hyperpolarization and in some cases, an initial depolarization leading to spike initiation, in response to an olfactory nerve volley. PMID:1185672

  5. Ground motions recorded in Rome during the April 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence: site response and comparison with ground‐motion predictions based on a global dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caserta, Arrigo; Boore, David; Rovelli, Antonio; Govoni, Aladino; Marra, Fabrizio; Monica, Gieseppe Della; Boschi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    The mainshock and moderate‐magnitude aftershocks of the 6 April 2009 M 6.3 L’Aquila seismic sequence, about 90 km northeast of Rome, provided the first earthquake ground‐motion recordings in the urban area of Rome. Before those recordings were obtained, the assessments of the seismic hazard in Rome were based on intensity observations and theoretical considerations. The L’Aquila recordings offer an unprecedented opportunity to calibrate the city response to central Apennine earthquakes—earthquakes that have been responsible for the largest damage to Rome in historical times. Using the data recorded in Rome in April 2009, we show that (1) published theoretical predictions of a 1 s resonance in the Tiber valley are confirmed by observations showing a significant amplitude increase in response spectra at that period, (2) the empirical soil‐transfer functions inferred from spectral ratios are satisfactorily fit through 1D models using the available geological, geophysical, and laboratory data, but local variability can be large for individual events, (3) response spectra for the motions recorded in Rome from the L’Aquila earthquakes are significantly amplified in the radial component at periods near 1 s, even at a firm site on volcanic rocks, and (4) short‐period response spectra are smaller than expected when compared to ground‐motion predictions from equations based on a global dataset, whereas the observed response spectra are higher than expected for periods near 1 s.

  6. The Rome trough and evolution of the Iapetean margin

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Drahovzal, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent structural mapping of the Rome trough suggests a complex structure very different from the symmetrical and laterally continuous graben commonly depicted. Early and Middle Cambrian extension in the Rome trough of eastern Kentucky and adjacent areas resulted in a series of alternately facing half-grabens with variable displacement. These half-grabens are bounded by southwest-northeast-trending normal faults (e.g., Kentucky River and Warfield faults), which are laterally continuous only on the order to tens of kilometers. The Rome trough is laterally segmented by north-south-trending faults (e.g., Lexington fault) commonly expressed as flexures in younger rocks (e.g., Burning Springs anticline and Floyd County channel). Many of these north-south-trending faults have significant left-lateral displacement, and probably represent reactivated thrust faults of the Grenville tectonic front. The Rome trough and the associated Mississippi Valley, Rough Creek, and Birmingham fault systems were initiated during an Early Cambrian shift in sea-floor spreading from the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift to the Ouachita rift along the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. These fault systems have been proposed as having originated from extensional stress propagated northward from the Ouachita rift across the transform fault. In the alternate model proposed here, faulting was brittle, extensional failure resulting form subsidence and flexure of the continental margin to the east. Following initiation of sea-floor spreading at the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift in the latest Proterozoic, margin subsidence in the presence of the Alabama-Oklahoma transform boundary and the inherited Grenville tectonic front resulted in this interior cratonic fault system.

  7. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  8. Reproductive seasonality and sperm cryopreservation in the male tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

    PubMed

    Panyaboriban, Saritvich; Singh, Ram P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Padilla, Luis; Brown, Janine; Reed, Dolores; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Pukazhenthi, Budhan

    2016-09-01

    The tufted deer is a small deer, listed as near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and there is no information on the fundamental reproductive biology of this species. In this study, we report for the first time, characterization of male reproductive traits and cryopreservation of semen in this species. Males were subjected to electroejaculation during each season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), and ejaculates were assessed for motility and quality traits. Fecal samples were collected 3 to 5 times weekly for 2 years and analyzed for androgen metabolites using enzyme immunoassay. Ejaculates with greater than 70% motility were cryopreserved using Beltsville extender (BF5F) or Triladyl. Straws were thawed and assessed subjectively as well as swim-up processed to isolate motile spermatozoa for computer-assisted sperm analysis and acrosome integrity at hourly interval. Tufted deer male reproductive and semen traits peaked in autumn. Mean fecal androgen concentrations were highest in the summer compared with baseline values during rest of the year. Sperm motility and acrosome integrity were lower immediately after thawing in both cryodiluents compared with raw ejaculates. Motility characteristics after swim-up were higher in BF5F compared with Triladyl. Four hours after thawing, both percent sperm motility and progression decreased further and were similar between BF5F and Triladyl. However, the proportion of spermatozoa with intact acrosomal membranes was higher in BF5F than Triladyl. Results indicate that tufted deer exhibit seasonal variations in reproductive traits and that BF5F better preserves sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after cryopreservation compared with Triladyl. PMID:27125695

  9. Cholecystokinin: An Excitatory Modulator of Mitral/Tufted Cells in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Lowe, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is widely distributed in the brain as a sulfated octapeptide (CCK-8S). In the olfactory bulb, CCK-8S is concentrated in two laminae: an infraglomerular band in the external plexiform layer, and an inframitral band in the internal plexiform layer (IPL), corresponding to somata and terminals of superficial tufted cells with intrabulbar projections linking duplicate glomerular maps of olfactory receptors. The physiological role of CCK in this circuit is unknown. We made patch clamp recordings of CCK effects on mitral cell spike activity in mouse olfactory bulb slices, and applied immunohistochemistry to localize CCKB receptors. In cell-attached recordings, mitral cells responded to 300 nM –1 µM CCK-8S by spike excitation, suppression, or mixed excitation-suppression. Antagonists of GABAA and ionotropic glutamate receptors blocked suppression, but excitation persisted. Whole-cell recordings revealed that excitation was mediated by a slow inward current, and suppression by spike inactivation or inhibitory synaptic input. Similar responses were elicited by the CCKB receptor-selective agonist CCK-4 (1 µM). Excitation was less frequent but still occurred when CCKB receptors were blocked by LY225910, or disrupted in CCKB knockout mice, and was also observed in CCKA knockouts. CCKB receptor immunoreactivity was detected on mitral and superficial tufted cells, colocalized with Tbx21, and was absent from granule cells and the IPL. Our data indicate that CCK excites mitral cells postsynaptically, via both CCKA and CCKB receptors. We hypothesize that extrasynaptic CCK released from tufted cell terminals in the IPL may diffuse to and directly excite mitral cell bodies, creating a positive feedback loop that can amplify output from pairs of glomeruli receiving sensory inputs encoded by the same olfactory receptor. Dynamic plasticity of intrabulbar projections suggests that this could be an experience-dependent amplification mechanism for tuning and

  10. Gross morphological head and throat abnormalities of the tufted Araucana embryo.

    PubMed

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1981-09-01

    Structural abnormalities of the head and throat of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormalities involved the opening to the external auditory meatus and such bones as the mandible, quadrate, columella auris, squamosal, and hyoid apparatus. Structural irregularities are believed to be due to the presence of the Et gene and its influence on the early embryonic closure of the hyomandibular cleft. The diversity of phenotypic expression probably is due to the varied closure of the cleft. PMID:7322992

  11. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) learning how to crack nuts: does variability decline throughout development?

    PubMed

    Resende, Briseida Dogo; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy; Lacerda, Fernanda Neves; Pagnotta, Murillo; Savalli, Carine

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the process of nut-cracking acquisition in a semi-free population of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) in São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the cracking episodes from monkeys of different ages and found that variability of actions related to cracking declined. Inept movements were more frequent in juveniles, which also showed an improvement on efficient striking. The most effective behavioral sequence for cracking was more frequently used by the most experienced monkeys, which also used non-optimal sequences. Variability in behavior sequences and actions may allow adaptive changes to behavior under changing environmental conditions. PMID:25256161

  12. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  13. Volumetric comparison of auditory brain nuclei in ear-tufted Araucanas with those in other chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Frahm, H D; Rehkämper, G

    1998-01-01

    Domestic chickens of the breed Araucana have ear-tufts, which affect the structure of the ear canal. Volumes of auditory brainstem nuclei were measured in three chicken breeds in order to evaluate whether the characteristics described for ear-tufted individuals of the Araucana chicken breed (alterations in the outer and middle ear anatomy) are associated with changes in the size of the relevant auditory nuclei. Allometric comparison reveals no size reductions of the angular, laminar and superior olivary nuclei in Araucanas, compared to Japanese Bantams and Brown Leghorns, but a slight increase in the size of the magnocellular nucleus. PMID:9672109

  14. Current management of functional dyspepsia: impact of Rome III subdivision

    PubMed Central

    Karamanolis, Georgios P.; Tack, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disease characterized by symptoms originating from the gastroduodenal region in the absence of underlying organic disease. The Rome III consensus made a distinction between meal-induced and meal-unrelated symptoms and proposed subdivision of FD into postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. The applicability of this subdivision and the impact on management are areas of active research. So far, empirical approaches are still employed for the treatment of FD, although various therapeutic modalities for FD have been explored; acid-suppressive, prokinetic, and fundic relaxant drugs, antidepressants and psychological therapies. FD remains a challenge and presents unmet clinical needs. PMID:24714074

  15. High Temperature Brush Seal Tuft Testing of Selected Nickel-Chrome and Cobalt-Chrome Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration, load and friction are directly measured and accurate wear measurements are possible. Previously reported research using this facility showed excellent data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data and dynamic rig tests. This paper is an update of the ongoing research into the tribology of brush seals. The effects of wire materials processing on seal wear and the tribological results for three journal coatings are discussed. Included in the materials processing were two nickel-chrome superalloys each processed to two different yield strengths. The results suggest that seal wear is dependent more on material composition than processing conditions.

  16. Body cooling and its energetic implications for feeding and diving of tufted ducks.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, J J; Butler, P J; Woakes, A J; Zegwaard, F

    1998-01-01

    Wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. The energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), using implanted heart rate and body temperature transmitters. The effects of diving depth and food ingestion were measured in two sets of experiments: we measured body cooling and energy costs of six tufted ducks diving to different depths in a 6-m-deep indoor tank; the costs for food ingestion and crushing mussel shells were assessed under seminatural winter conditions with the same ducks feeding on mussels in a 1.5-m-deep outdoor pond. Body temperature dropped during feeding bouts and increased gradually during intermittent resting periods. The temperature drop increased linearly with dive duration. The rate of body cooling increased with feeding depth, but it was lower again at depths below 4 m. Half of the increment in energy costs of diving can be attributed to thermoregulatory heat production, of which approximately 50% is generated after diving to warm up the body. The excess costs for ducks feeding on large-sized mussels could be entirely explained by the estimated energy cost necessary to compensate the heat loss following food ingestion, suggesting that the heat production from shell crushing substituted for thermoregulation. Recovery from heat loss is probably a major component of the activity budget of wintering diving ducks. PMID:9798260

  17. Dclk1+ small intestinal epithelial tuft cells display the hallmarks of quiescence and self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Taylor, Vivian E.; Li, James D.; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Qante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    To date, no discrete genetic signature has been defined for isolated Dclk1+ tuft cells within the small intestine. Furthermore, recent reports on the functional significance of Dclk1+ cells in the small intestine have been inconsistent. These cells have been proposed to be fully differentiated cells, reserve stem cells, and tumor stem cells. In order to elucidate the potential function of Dclk1+ cells, we FACS-sorted Dclk1+ cells from mouse small intestinal epithelium using transgenic mice expressing YFP under the control of the Dclk1 promoter (Dclk1-CreER;Rosa26-YFP). Analysis of sorted YFP+ cells demonstrated marked enrichment (~6000 fold) for Dclk1 mRNA compared with YFP− cells. Dclk1+ population display ~6 fold enrichment for the putative quiescent stem cell marker Bmi1. We observed significantly greater expression of pluripotency genes, pro-survival genes, and quiescence markers in the Dclk1+ population. A significant increase in self-renewal capability (14-fold) was observed in in vitro isolated Dclk1+ cells. The unique genetic report presented in this manuscript suggests that Dclk1+ cells may maintain quiescence, pluripotency, and metabolic activity for survival/longevity. Functionally, these reserve characteristics manifest in vitro, with Dclk1+ cells exhibiting greater ability to self-renew. These findings indicate that quiescent stem-like functionality is a feature of Dclk1-expressing tuft cells. PMID:26362399

  18. Dclk1+ small intestinal epithelial tuft cells display the hallmarks of quiescence and self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Taylor, Vivian E; Li, James D; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M; Qante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C; Bronze, Michael S; Houchen, Courtney W

    2015-10-13

    To date, no discrete genetic signature has been defined for isolated Dclk1+ tuft cells within the small intestine. Furthermore, recent reports on the functional significance of Dclk1+ cells in the small intestine have been inconsistent. These cells have been proposed to be fully differentiated cells, reserve stem cells, and tumor stem cells. In order to elucidate the potential function of Dclk1+ cells, we FACS-sorted Dclk1+ cells from mouse small intestinal epithelium using transgenic mice expressing YFP under the control of the Dclk1 promoter (Dclk1-CreER;Rosa26-YFP). Analysis of sorted YFP+ cells demonstrated marked enrichment (~6000 fold) for Dclk1 mRNA compared with YFP- cells. Dclk1+ population display ~6 fold enrichment for the putative quiescent stem cell marker Bmi1. We observed significantly greater expression of pluripotency genes, pro-survival genes, and quiescence markers in the Dclk1+ population. A significant increase in self-renewal capability (14-fold) was observed in in vitro isolated Dclk1+ cells. The unique genetic report presented in this manuscript suggests that Dclk1+ cells may maintain quiescence, pluripotency, and metabolic activity for survival/longevity. Functionally, these reserve characteristics manifest in vitro, with Dclk1+ cells exhibiting greater ability to self-renew. These findings indicate that quiescent stem-like functionality is a feature of Dclk1-expressing tuft cells. PMID:26362399

  19. Purging of a multilayer insulation with dacron tuft spacer by gas diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Fisk, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The time and purge gas usage required to purge a multilayer insulation (MLI) panel with gaseous helium by means of gas diffusion to obtain a condensable gas (nitrogen) concentration of less than 1 percent within the panel are stipulated. Two different, flat, rectangular MLI panels, one incorporating a butt joint, were constructed of of 11 double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) radiation shields separated by Dacron tuft spacers. The DAM/Dacron tuft concept is known commercially as Superfloc. The nitrogen gas concentration as a function of time within the MLI panel could be adequately predicted by using a simple, one dimensional gas diffusion model in which the boundary conditions at the edge of the MLI panel were time dependent. The time and purge gas usage required to achieve 1 percent nitrogen gas concentration within the MLI panel varied from 208 to 86 minutes and 34.1 to 56.5 MLI panel purge volumes, respectively, for gaseous helium purge rates from 10 to 40 MLI panel volumes per hour.

  20. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial. PMID:23524931

  1. Peripheral sensory processing in mammalian gravity receptors - Observations of ciliary tuft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Donovan, Kathleen; Rogers, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study dynamic polarizations of clustered cells of the anterior part of rat saccular macula and to shed light on the possible roles of two types of hair cells integrated into the same neural circuitry: those with short stereocilia and long kinocilium (ss/lk), and those with long stereocilia and still longer kinocilium (ls/lk). It was found that the ss/lk-type cells could be further subdivided into two types, whereas the ls/lk cells consisted of four major kinds. It was also found that the kinocilium was most often fixed in a recovery stroke position (curved basally, and the upper portion projected back over the tuft) and that the kinocilia were not aligned in parallel in any given part of a macula, even though each cilium pointed in the proper direction relative to the striola line. The possibility of a relationship between the ciliary tuft morphology and the function of the hair cell of which it is a part is discussed.

  2. [THE HISTORY OF A VANISHED PHARMACY IN ROME].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Starting from archive documents, the present article aims to retrace the history of a once well-known pharmacy based in S. Eustachio square, in Rome, and then commonly denominated Corsi's. Thanks to the information gathered in Roman archives, it is possible to throw light on the events related to this apothecary, whose activity, as found out, lasted since the XVIII until the first decades of the XX century, under the property of two families, first the Conti and then the Corsi. Notwithstanding its long establishment, this pharmacy seems to have suddenly vanished from the official documents registered within the archives. Nevertheless the importance of its history is actually related to some of the instruments, being part of its original inventory, and nowadays held in the collection of the Museum of History of Medicine in Rome. These specimens particularly jars and boxes, are valuable in order to describe how in the past professionals used to take care of most of the diseases. PMID:26946820

  3. Diet of the classical period of Greece and Rome.

    PubMed

    Waterlow, J C

    1989-01-01

    The diet of ordinary people in Greece and Rome was derived from cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruit, olive oil, milk, cheese and a little fish and meat. This pattern fits well with what we would not regard as a healthy diet. In both Greece and Rome the bulk of cereals had to be imported, with a good deal of government control. The available evidence suggests that the official rations, if fairly distributed, would have provided an adequate energy intake. The cost of luxury foods such as meat, in relation to that of flour, was much higher than in modern times. The expectation of life at birth was only 30-35 years, but it was long enough to allow for children to be born and for the populations to expand. No reliable information has been found about infant and child mortality. The reasons for life on average being so short were probably disease and war, rather than malnutrition. It is difficult to conceive how the Greeks and Romans could have achieved such remarkable feats, which involved far more than a small elite, if they had not in general had an adequate and nourishing diet. PMID:2689162

  4. Infusing Active Citizenship throughout a Research University: The Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service at Tufts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Robert M.; Mead, Molly; Wilson, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    The Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service at Tufts University is a university-wide initiative to prepare students in all fields of study for lifetimes of active citizenship. The driving concern for this is the view that the very survival of our democracy depends on increasing citizen participation in democratic processes, and…

  5. The embryonic development of ear-tufts and associated structural head and neck abnormalities of the Araucana fowl.

    PubMed

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1983-08-01

    Developing embryonic structural abnormalities of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormal structures are peduncle, cleft, ear opening, tympanic membrane, and columella auris. The structural abnormalities are believed to be due to the early incomplete fusion of the hyoid and mandibular arches from the distal part of the ear opening to the neck area. PMID:6634592

  6. On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 ± 79 μɛ, - 463 ± 51 μɛ and - 431 ± 59 μɛ for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

  7. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  8. The influence of oxygen and carbon dioxide on diving behaviour of tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis; Reed, Jane Z; Woakes, Anthony; Butler, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    While optimal diving models focus on the diver's oxygen (O(2)) stores as the predominant factor influencing diving behaviour, many vertebrate species surface from a dive before these stores are exhausted and may commence another dive well after their O(2) stores have been resaturated. This study investigates the influence of hypoxia and also hypercapnia on the dive cycle of tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, in terms of surface duration and dive duration. The birds were trained to surface into a respirometer box after each dive to a feeding tray so that rates of O(2) uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) at the surface could be measured. Although Vco2 initially lagged behind Vo2, both respiratory gas stores were close to full adjustment after the average surface duration, indicating that they probably had a similar degree of influence on surface duration. Chemoreceptors, which are known to influence diving behaviour, detect changes in O(2) and CO(2) partial pressures in the arterial blood. Thus, the need to restore blood gas levels appears to be a strong stimulus to continue ventilation. Mean surface duration coincided with peak instantaneous respiratory exchange ratio due to predive anticipatory hyperventilation causing hypocapnia. For comparison, the relationship between surface duration and O(2) uptake in reanalysed data for two grey seals indicated that one animal tended to dive well after fully restocking its O(2) stores, while the other dived at the point of full restocking. More CO(2) is exchanged than O(2) in tufted ducks during the last few breaths before the first dive of a bout, serving to reduce CO(2) stores and suggesting that hypercapnia rather than hypoxia is more often the limiting factor on asphyxia tolerance during dives. Indeed, according to calculations of O(2) stores and O(2) consumption rates over modal diving durations, a lack of O(2) does not seem to be associated with the termination of a dive in tufted ducks. However, factors other

  9. Transitory and activity-dependent expression of neurogranin in olfactory bulb tufted cells during mouse postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Gribaudo, S; Bovetti, S; Friard, O; Denorme, M; Oboti, L; Fasolo, A; De Marchis, S

    2012-10-01

    Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein involved in synaptic activity-dependent plasticity. In the adult olfactory bulb (OB), Ng is expressed by a large population of GABAergic interneurons in the granule cell layer. We show here that, during postnatal development, Ng is also expressed by OB neurons in the superficial external plexiform layer (sEPL) and glomerular layer (GL). These Ng-positive neurons display morphological and neurochemical features of superficial and external tufted cells. Ng expression in these cells is transient during OB development: few elements express Ng at postnatal day (P) 5, increasing in number and reaching a peak at P10, then progressively decreasing. At P30, Ng is rarely detectable in these neurons. Ng expression in developing tufted cells is also modulated at the cellular level: at earlier stages, Ng labeling is distributed throughout the cell body and dendritic arborization in the GL, but, at P20, when the glomerular circuits are fully matured, Ng becomes restricted to the soma and proximal portion of tufted cell apical dendrites. We show that olfactory deprivation at early postnatal stages induces a strong increase in Ng-positive tufted cells from P10 to P20, whereas no changes have been observed following olfactory deprivation in adult mice. These findings demonstrate that Ng expression in sEPL-GL is restricted to developmental stages and indicate its activity-dependent regulation in a time window critical for glomerular circuit development, suggesting a role for Ng in maturation and dendritic remodeling of tufted cells. PMID:22592880

  10. A series of tufted carbon fiber cathodes designed for different high power microwave sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wen, Jianchun; Liu, Yonggui

    2008-06-01

    We report the fabrication technique of tufted carbon fiber cathodes for different microwave sources. Three carbon fiber cathodes were constructed, including a planar cathode, an annular cathode, and a cylindrical cathode for radial emission. Experimental investigations on these cathodes were performed in a reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), a backward wave oscillator (BWO), and a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO), respectively. The pulse duration of microwave emission from the reflex triode vircator was lengthened by using the planar carbon fiber cathode. In the BWO with the annular carbon fiber cathode, the uniform electron beam with a kA/cm(2) current density was observed. In addition, carbon fiber has great promise as field emitter for MILOs. These results show that the carbon fiber cathodes can be utilized for electron emission in high power diodes with different structures. PMID:18601423

  11. A series of tufted carbon fiber cathodes designed for different high power microwave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wen, Jianchun; Liu, Yonggui

    2008-06-01

    We report the fabrication technique of tufted carbon fiber cathodes for different microwave sources. Three carbon fiber cathodes were constructed, including a planar cathode, an annular cathode, and a cylindrical cathode for radial emission. Experimental investigations on these cathodes were performed in a reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), a backward wave oscillator (BWO), and a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO), respectively. The pulse duration of microwave emission from the reflex triode vircator was lengthened by using the planar carbon fiber cathode. In the BWO with the annular carbon fiber cathode, the uniform electron beam with a kA /cm2 current density was observed. In addition, carbon fiber has great promise as field emitter for MILOs. These results show that the carbon fiber cathodes can be utilized for electron emission in high power diodes with different structures.

  12. Representation and misrepresentation: Tufte and the Morton Thiokol engineers on the Challenger.

    PubMed

    Robison, Wade; Boisjoly, Roger; Hoeker, David; Young, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the Morton Thiokol engineers in the decisions surrounding the launch of the Challenger, particularly with reference to an analysis of this event by Edward Tufte. The engineers at Morton Thiokol recommended against the launch of Challenger because the projected launch temperature between 26 degrees F to 29 degrees F was far outside their field database of successful launches. The engineers had asked for, but not received, data necessary to determine the cause of massive blow-by on the launch the previous January, and they had informed their managers and NASA that continuing flights could be catastrophic if the cause of the problems with the launches was not discovered. The authors conclude that the engineers thus did what they were ethically as well as professionally obligated to do. PMID:11840958

  13. Anatomy and physiology of the thick-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Srikanth; Markram, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer 5 (TTL5) pyramidal neuron is one of the most extensively studied neuron types in the mammalian neocortex and has become a benchmark for understanding information processing in excitatory neurons. By virtue of having the widest local axonal and dendritic arborization, the TTL5 neuron encompasses various local neocortical neurons and thereby defines the dimensions of neocortical microcircuitry. The TTL5 neuron integrates input across all neocortical layers and is the principal output pathway funneling information flow to subcortical structures. Several studies over the past decades have investigated the anatomy, physiology, synaptology, and pathophysiology of the TTL5 neuron. This review summarizes key discoveries and identifies potential avenues of research to facilitate an integrated and unifying understanding on the role of a central neuron in the neocortex. PMID:26167146

  14. Electrocardiographic parameters of captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) under chemical immobilization.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maria Helena Matiko Akao; Pellegrino, Arine; Oliveira, Valéria Marinho Costa; Prada, Cristiana Sanctis; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Larsson Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the electrocardiogram findings from 97 captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) at the São Paulo Zoo (São Paulo, Brazil) while under ketamine anesthesia. The results did not differ greatly from data of domestic carnivores or other studied primate species. The most common rhythm recorded was normal sinus rhythm, followed by normal sinus rhythm with wandering pacemaker. Electrical axis varied from 0 degrees to -150 degrees but was most commonly between +60 degrees and +90 degrees. QRS complexes were predominantly positive in leads DI, DII, DIII, and AVF. These findings allow for the recognition of abnormal rhythms in these primate species and can contribute to future investigations into the cardiovascular diseases routinely diagnosed in primates and humans. PMID:23272335

  15. Control of Mitral/Tufted Cell Output by Selective Inhibition among Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Economo, Michael N; Hansen, Kyle R; Wachowiak, Matt

    2016-07-20

    Inhibition is fundamental to information processing by neural circuits. In the olfactory bulb (OB), glomeruli are the functional units for odor information coding, but inhibition among glomeruli is poorly characterized. We used two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized and awake mice to visualize both odorant-evoked excitation and suppression in OB output neurons (mitral and tufted, MT cells). MT cell response polarity mapped uniformly to discrete OB glomeruli, allowing us to analyze how inhibition shapes OB output relative to the glomerular map. Odorants elicited unique patterns of suppression in only a subset of glomeruli in which such suppression could be detected, and excited and suppressed glomeruli were spatially intermingled. Binary mixture experiments revealed that interglomerular inhibition could suppress excitatory mitral cell responses to odorants. These results reveal that inhibitory OB circuits nonlinearly transform odor representations and support a model of selective and nonrandom inhibition among glomerular ensembles. PMID:27346531

  16. Regional distribution of blood flow during swimming in the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Turner, D L; Al-Wassia, A; Bevan, R M

    1988-03-01

    The distribution of blood flow to a number of organs and tissues of the tufted duck was determined (by the microsphere technique) before and while the birds were swimming at close to their maximum sustainable velocity (i.e. at 0.69 +/- 0.01 ms-1). During swimming, oxygen uptake was twice the pre-exercise value. Cardiac output increased by 70%, there was no significant change in arterial blood pressure and total systemic conductance increased by 44%. There were no significant changes in blood flow to the brain, liver, adrenal glands, spleen and respiratory muscles. Not surprisingly, there were increases in blood flow to the heart (30% increase) and to the muscles of the hindlimbs (to 3.1 times the pre-exercise value). Significant reductions in flow occurred to various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (although not to the gastrointestinal tract as a whole), to the pancreas and to the pectoralis muscles. In the case of the flight musculature as a whole, the reduction was to approximately 40% of the values in the ducks before exercise. Thus, despite the fact that cardiac output was some three times lower than it would have been during flight, there was a clear redistribution of blood away from some visceral organs and inactive muscles during surface swimming in the tufted duck. This lends support to the suggestion that blood is selectively directed to the legs, as well as to the brain and central nervous system (CNS) and away from the visceral organs and inactive muscles during voluntary diving in these birds. PMID:3373144

  17. Identification of EpCAM as the Gene for Congenital Tufting Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Mamata; Mueller, James L.; Lee, Hane; Chen, Zugen; Nelson, Stanley F.; Turner, Dan; Zlotkin, Stanley H.; Pencharz, Paul B.; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Lavine, Joel E.; Taylor, Sharon; Newbury, Robert O.; Kolodner, Richard D.; Hoffman, Hal M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Congenital Tufting Enteropathy (CTE) is a rare autosomal recessive diarrheal disorder presenting in the neonatal period. CTE is characterized by intestinal epithelial cell dysplasia leading to severe malabsorption and significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis and genetics of this disorder are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify the gene responsible for CTE. Methods A family with 2 children affected with CTE was identified. The affected children are double second cousins providing significant statistical power for linkage. Using Affymetrix 50K Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) chips, genotyping was performed on only two patients and one unaffected sibling. Direct DNA sequencing of candidate genes, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting were performed on specimens from patients and controls. Results SNP homozygosity mapping identified a unique 6.5 MB haplotype of homozygous SNPs on chromosome 2p21 where approximately 40 genes are located. Direct sequencing of genes in this region revealed homozygous G > A substitution at the donor splice site of exon 4 in Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) of affected patients. RT-PCR of duodenal tissue demonstrated a novel alternative splice form with deletion of exon 4 in affected patients. Immuno-histochemistry and Western blot of patient intestinal tissue revealed decreased expression of EpCAM. Direct sequencing of EpCAM from two additional unrelated patients revealed novel mutations in the gene. Conclusions Mutations in the gene for EpCAM are responsible for Congenital Tufting Enteropathy. This information will be used to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of this disease. PMID:18572020

  18. Reliability of the modified Tufts Lumbar Degenerative Disc Classification between neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shane M; Hwang, Steven W; Mehan, William A; Bedi, Harprit S; Ogbuji, Richard; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2016-07-01

    Cross-specialty inter-rater reliability has not been explicitly reported for imaging characteristics that are thought to be important in lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Sufficient cross-specialty reliability is an essential consideration if radiographic stratification of symptomatic patients to specific treatment modalities is to ever be realized. Therefore the purpose of this study was to directly compare the assessment of such characteristics between neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists. Sixty consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lumbago and appropriate imaging were selected for inclusion. Lumbar MRI were evaluated using the Tufts Degenerative Disc Classification by two neurosurgeons and two neuroradiologists. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Cohen's κ values both within and between specialties. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a modified grading system, which excluded high intensity zones (HIZ), due to poor cross-specialty inter-rater reliability of HIZ between specialties. The reliability of HIZ between neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists was fair in two of the four cross-specialty comparisons in this study (neurosurgeon 1 versus both radiologists κ=0.364 and κ=0.290). Removing HIZ from the classification improved inter-rater reliability for all comparisons within and between specialties (0.465⩽κ⩽0.576). In addition, intra-rater reliability remained in the moderate to substantial range (0.523⩽κ⩽0.649). Given our findings and corroboration with previous studies, identification of HIZ seems to have a markedly variable reliability. Thus we recommend modification of the original Tufts Degenerative Disc Classification by removing HIZ in order to make the overall grade provided by this classification more reproducible when scored by practitioners of different training backgrounds. PMID:27021223

  19. Colour blindness distribution in the male population of Rome.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, P; Ciminelli, B M; Pelosi, E; Santolamazza, P; Modiano, G; Santillo, C; Lofoco, G; Talone, C; Gatti, M; Parisi, P

    1986-01-01

    A total of 3,285 young males selected at random from the school population of Rome have been administered the Ishihara plates for colour blindness. Those who failed to read all plates correctly were further administered Farnsworth's Panel D-15 and the diagnoses of colour blindness were made by an ophthalmologist and cross checked. A total of 201 subjects were found to be colour-blind, allowing a gene frequency estimate of 0.061 +/- 0.004. This is the first reliable estimate for the Italian population and appears to be lower than for other Caucasoid populations. The gene frequency of colour blindness is known to increase from 0.02-0.04 in 'primitive' populations to 0.07-0.09 in Caucasoid populations, possibly as a result of a selection relaxation. PMID:3489665

  20. Sudden deep gas eruption nearby Rome's airport of Fiumicino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Etiope, Giuseppe; Florindo, Fabio; Marra, Fabrizio; Ruggiero, Livio; Sauer, Peter E.

    2013-11-01

    24 August 2013 a sudden gas eruption from the ground occurred in the Tiber river delta, nearby Rome's international airport of Fiumicino. We assessed that this gas, analogous to other minor vents in the area, is dominantly composed of deep, partially mantle-derived CO2, as in the geothermal gas of the surrounding Roman Comagmatic Province. Increased amounts of thermogenic CH4 are likely sourced from Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems, overlying the deep magmatic fluids. We hypothesize that the intersection of NE-SW and N-S fault systems, which at regional scale controls the location of the Roman volcanic edifices, favors gas uprising through the impermeable Pliocene and deltaic Holocene covers. Pressurized gas may temporarily be stored below these covers or within shallower sandy, permeable layers. The eruption, regardless the triggering cause—natural or man-made, reveals the potential hazard of gas-charged sediments in the delta, even at distances far from the volcanic edifices.

  1. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. Methods From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30–74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. Results We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98–2.17), males; 1.5(1.46–1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Conclusion Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period. PMID:26376166

  2. Strange history: the fall of Rome explained in Hereditas.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Bengt O

    2014-12-01

    In 1921 Hereditas published an article on the fall of Rome written by the famous classical scholar Martin P:son Nilsson. Why was a paper on this unexpected topic printed in the newly founded journal? To Nilsson, the demise of the Roman Empire was explained by the "bastardization" occurring between "races" from different parts of the realm. Offspring from mixed couples were of a less stable "type" than their parents, due to the breaking up by recombination of the original hereditary dispositions, which led to a general loss of competence to rule and govern. Thus, the "hardness" of human genes, together with their recombination, was - according to Nilsson - the main cause of the fall of Rome. Nilsson's argument is not particularly convincingly presented. Human "races" are taken to have the same genetic structure as inbred crop strains, and Nilsson believes in a metaphysical unity between the individual and the race to which it belongs. However, in my view, Martin P:son Nilsson and his friend Herman Nilsson-Ehle had wider aims with the article than to explain a historical event. The article can be read as indicating strong support from the classical human sciences to the ambitious new science of genetics. Support is also transferred from genetics to the conservative worldview, where the immutability and inflexibility of the Mendelian genes are used to strengthen the wish for greater stability in politics and life. The strange article in Hereditas can, thus, be read as an early instance in the - still ongoing - tug-of-war between the conservative and the liberal ideological poles over how genetic results best are socially interpreted. PMID:25588300

  3. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  4. Water resources of the Utica-Rome area, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halberg, Henry N.; Hunt, O.P.; Pauszek, F.H.

    1963-01-01

    The Utica-Rome area is along the Mohawk River and New York State Erie (Barge) Canal about midway between Lake Ontario and Albany. It encompasses about 390 square miles centered around the industrial cities of Utica and Rome. The Mohawk River, its tributary West Canada Creek, and a system of reservoirs and diversions to maintain the flow in the barge-canal system, assure an ample water supply for the foreseeable needs of the area. The water from these sources is generally of good chemical quality requiring little treatment, although that from the Mohawk River is only fair and may require some treatment for sensitive industrial processes. Additional surface water is available from smaller streams in the area, particularly Oriskany and Sauquoit Creeks, but the water from these sources is hard, and has a dissolved-solids content of more than 250 ppm (parts per million). Ground water is available in moderate quantities from unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits in the river valleys and buried bedrock channels, and in small quantities from bedrock formations and less permeable unconsolidated deposits. The quality of water from sand and gravel, and bedrock ranges from good to poor. However, where necessary, the quality can be improved with treatment. The Mohawk River is the source of the largest quantity of water in the area. The flow of the stream below Delta Dam equals or exceeds 108 mgd (million gallons per day) 90 percent of the time, and at Little Falls it equals or exceeds 560 mgd 90 percent of the time. The flow between these two points is increased by additions from Oriskany, Sauquoit, and West Canada Creeks and from many smaller tributary streams. The flow is also increased by diversions from outside the area, from the Black and Chenango Rivers and West Canada Creek for improvement of navigation in the Erie (Barge) Canal, and from West Canada and East Branch Fish Creeks for the public supplies of Utica and Rome. Much of the public-supply water eventually

  5. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  6. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  7. [The gladiators of the Ancient Rome: social status and medical care].

    PubMed

    Sorokina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The article considers issues of history of fights of gladiators in relation with life and daily shores of gladiators of the Ancient Rome, their medical care and their status in society and customs. PMID:24772661

  8. Search for correlations between the University of Maryland and the University of Rome gravitational radiation antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, V.; Pizzella, G.; Lee, M.; Weber, J.

    1982-05-15

    Results are presented for analyses of the outputs of gravitational radiation antennas in Rome and in Maryland during July 1978. These data give evidence for an external background exciting both antennas.

  9. Earthquake prediction rumors can help in building earthquake awareness: the case of May the 11th 2011 in Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Arcoraci, L.; Casarotti, E.; Cultrera, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; May-11 Team

    2012-04-01

    , and was a great opportunity to talk with journalists and people about earthquake prediction and more in general about seismic risk in Italy. In general, the media attention to scientific topics raise up only after disasters or before fake predictions, unfortunately. This was the case of the May 11 event, for which the public fear triggered the media reaction and vice-versa. We took advantage of this circumstance to increase seismic risk awareness and build a bridge between researchers and journalists, contributing to turn a mass psychosis into an important opportunity for science communication. The May-11 Team included Simona Cerrato (SissaMedialab, Trieste, Italy), about 50 INGV colleagues from Rome and Irpinia offices, including the Press Office, the Laboratory of Scientific Education and Outreach, the Images and Graphics Laboratory, the Copies Office, and the researchers and technicians on duty in the INGV-Rome seismic monitoring room.

  10. The plaque-removing efficacy of a single-tufted brush on the lingual and buccal surfaces of the molars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Won

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To test the plaque-removal efficacy of a single-tufted toothbrush on the posterior molars compared with a flat-trimmed toothbrush. Methods Forty-nine subjects were selected. Professional instruction and written brushing instructions were given. After thorough supra-gingival scaling and polishing, all subjects were asked to abstain from oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours prior to the first experiment. The subjects were randomized to a treatment sequence. The modified Quigley and Hein plaque index was recorded pre- and post-tooth brushing, at 6 surfaces of the posterior molars. After a wash-out period, all the remaining plaque was removed professionally. Twenty-four hours of brushing abstinence was again performed. The plaque index was recorded pre- and post-tooth brushing after the subjects were given the second toothbrush in the cross-over sequence. Results The percentage reductions in plaque scores achieved with the single-tufted brushes were significantly higher than those of the flat-trimmed brush at the maxillary buccal interproximal, marginal and mandibular lingual interproximal site. The other locations showed no significant difference. Conclusions The results of the present study implied that the single-tufted brush could be an effective tool for the removal of plaque at some, but not all, sites of the posterior molars. PMID:21811688

  11. [Medical practice in Rome during the XVI century].

    PubMed

    Fagiolo, Enzo

    2003-01-01

    S. Filippo Neri (1515-1595), founder of the Congregazione dell'Oratorio in Rome, was a longly debated clinic case for his various pathologies. Eminent scientists, like B. Eustachio and A. Cesalpino, treated him and drew up clinical reports, which were inserted in the Canonization Process and also published as scientific works, and which give useful informations about the history of medicine in the second half of the 16th century. Those reports relate, among others, about many diseases like frequent heart palpitation, shaking tremors heat flame and bronchitic fever episodes, that since hte age of thirty affected the saint. Autopsy revealed cardiac hypertrophia and pulmonary artery dilatation over twice the normal diameter. G. M. Lancisi was the first who formulated the hypothesis of an artery aneurysm, which, according to the present knowledge, can be produced by a post-stenotic dilatation of the pulmonary valve and/or pulmonary hypertension. Tremors and flames can be attributed to hyperthyroidism. Doctors who treated S. Filippo Neri and who shoved to be aware of his psychology, considered his pathology due to supernatural causes. Their conclusions can be understood basing on the medical way of thinking of that age, which was still linked to ancient medicine and limited by the biological and medical knowledge of the time. PMID:15682543

  12. Analysis of pottery from the Palatine Hills of Rome

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Wisseman, S.; Desena, E.; Hostetter, E.; Pena, T.

    1994-12-31

    During the past several summers the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma and the American Academy in Rome have carried out collaborative excavations on the late Roman complex located on the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill. The late Roman complex is situated on the lower slopes of the area commonly known as Vigna Barberini, after its 17th century owners. Because this area, as well as most of the east slope of the Palatine, has never been systematically explored, it remains from an archaeological point of view essentially unknown. The overall aim of the excavations is to investigate layout, function, and occupational history of a mid-to-late imperial building complex located just southwest of the Arch of Constatine. Part of this international project is the chemical characterization of Roman fineware pottery from archaeological excavations on the site of the imperial palaces. Excavation has yielded more than 8 t of Late Roman and Early Medieval pottery (circa 3rd to 10th centuries A.D.). Many classes of pottery have already been classified by their provenance based on distribution patterns, but others require chemical characterization to separate similar clays. To that end routine neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been used to analyze {approximately}200 pieces of pottery.

  13. [Lancisi, Baglivi and the medical academies in Rome].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    2000-01-01

    Many medical academies were active in Rome during the 17th century; they were promoted by noble patrons, ecclesiastics or eminent physicians, and equipped with libraries. Their role was important in the spreading of the new biomedical thought, founded on the comparison between ideas and experimental data. As an epistemological heritage of Marcello Malpighi and as a connection to the new scientific European ideas, Baglivi directed his efforts towards a leading role of the experimental observations, whereas his predecessor Lancisi was bound to the theorical "ipse dixit" role of the masters of medicine. The analysis of the statutes of the Roman Academies bring to light the new experimentalism, due to the "virtuosi" (vituous men) and "curiosoni" (inquisitive/odd persons) of the Academies: Baglivi, in his De praxi medica, invites the princes to establish in every Metropolitan Hospital an Academy - Medicorum Collegium, in which discussion on clinical aspects should be performed: extraordinary importance is devoted to the epistemological difference between "experientia" (guided in the profession by a membrum - litteratum, thought the direct comparison on the texts) and "experimentum" (following the clinical observation, guided by a membrum historicum-practicum). PMID:11624715

  14. Distribution and diversity of holothuroids (Echinodermata) on Cascadia Basin and Tufts Abyssal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Robert S.; Carey, Andrew G.

    1982-05-01

    The pattern of diversity, species composition, and inter-sample similarity of the holothuroid fauna was examined for 95 beam trawl samples from below 2000 m on the Cascadia Basin and Tufts Abyssal Plain off Oregon, U.S.A. Abundance as inferred from catch size, diversity, species composition, and zonation all showed major change over the sampled area where there was a depth change. Where depth remained relatively constant across the floor of Cascadia Basin, faunal changes were minor in spite of progressive isolation from land. Overall bathymetric patterns of zonation and diversity were basically like those found for other faunal groups in the deep-sea depth. The distribution of minor species indicated that the holothuroid fauna at the base of the continental slope, the apron of Astoria Fan, and near Cascadia Channel might be slightly different from that at similar depths elsewhere in the sampled area. The marked uniformity of the holothuroid fauna across the basin floor appeared to be restricted to epifaunal sediment-feeding species. Infaunal forms were more abundant at the slope base, similar to previous findings for the macro-infauna.

  15. Do tufted capuchin monkeys play the odds? Flexible risk preferences in Sapajus spp.

    PubMed

    De Petrillo, Francesca; Ventricelli, Marialba; Ponsi, Giorgia; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    As humans, several non-human animal species avoid risk, defined as "variability in rate of gain". However, non-human primate studies revealed a more complicated picture, with different species ranging from risk aversion to risk proneness. Within an ecological rationality framework, a species' feeding ecology should influence its risk preferences, as it has been shown in bonobos and chimpanzees. Although the feeding ecology hypothesis is promising, it has not been yet verified in species other than apes. Here, we aimed to assess whether this hypothesis holds true in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.). Ten capuchins were presented with choices between a "safe" option and a "risky" option in three conditions differing for the probability of receiving the larger reward when selecting the risky option. Similarly to chimpanzees, capuchins were risk prone. However, capuchins' behaviour was not the result of a bias towards the choice of the risky option, since-when facing options with different probabilities of obtaining the larger outcome-they were able to flexibly modify their preferences. Capuchins' decision-making under risk mirrors their risk-prone behaviour in the wild, where they often rely on unpredictable and/or hazardous food sources, thus satisfying the feeding ecology hypothesis. PMID:24993065

  16. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator. PMID:24929843

  17. Robustness of sensory-evoked excitation is increased by inhibitory inputs to distal apical tuft dendrites.

    PubMed

    Egger, Robert; Schmitt, Arno C; Wallace, Damian J; Sakmann, Bert; Oberlaender, Marcel; Kerr, Jason N D

    2015-11-10

    Cortical inhibitory interneurons (INs) are subdivided into a variety of morphologically and functionally specialized cell types. How the respective specific properties translate into mechanisms that regulate sensory-evoked responses of pyramidal neurons (PNs) remains unknown. Here, we investigated how INs located in cortical layer 1 (L1) of rat barrel cortex affect whisker-evoked responses of L2 PNs. To do so we combined in vivo electrophysiology and morphological reconstructions with computational modeling. We show that whisker-evoked membrane depolarization in L2 PNs arises from highly specialized spatiotemporal synaptic input patterns. Temporally L1 INs and L2-5 PNs provide near synchronous synaptic input. Spatially synaptic contacts from L1 INs target distal apical tuft dendrites, whereas PNs primarily innervate basal and proximal apical dendrites. Simulations of such constrained synaptic input patterns predicted that inactivation of L1 INs increases trial-to-trial variability of whisker-evoked responses in L2 PNs. The in silico predictions were confirmed in vivo by L1-specific pharmacological manipulations. We present a mechanism-consistent with the theory of distal dendritic shunting-that can regulate the robustness of sensory-evoked responses in PNs without affecting response amplitude or latency. PMID:26512104

  18. Clinical Outcomes for Systemic Corticosteroids Versus Vincristine in Treating Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma and Tufted Angioma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohan; Li, Jiaying; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Weili; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Shanyong; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of systemic corticosteroids versus those of vincristine in the treatment of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA). A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was performed for clinical studies on systemic corticosteroid versus vincristine therapies in treating KHE/TA. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and response rate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure outcomes. Heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias analysis were performed for result evaluation. Thirteen studies, comprising 344 participants, were used in the analysis. Vincristine therapy was found to be relatively more effective than systemic corticosteroids (RRs = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35–0.58). The result of pooled adverse reactions response rate for systemic corticosteroids was 0.31 (95%CI, 0.18–0.43), significantly higher than that for vincristine, which was 0.12 (95%CI, 0.06–0.19). In subgroup analyses, factors including mean age and race of patients, and period of follow-up were examined as possible sources of heterogeneity. This is the first meta-analysis estimating the clinical outcomes of systemic corticosteroids in comparison with those of vincristine in the treatment of KHE/TA. The results showed that vincristine was considerably more effective with lower complication rates than systemic corticosteroids; thus, vincristine could be suggested as the first-line therapy for KHE/TA. PMID:27196448

  19. Robustness of sensory-evoked excitation is increased by inhibitory inputs to distal apical tuft dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Robert; Schmitt, Arno C.; Wallace, Damian J.; Sakmann, Bert; Oberlaender, Marcel; Kerr, Jason N. D.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical inhibitory interneurons (INs) are subdivided into a variety of morphologically and functionally specialized cell types. How the respective specific properties translate into mechanisms that regulate sensory-evoked responses of pyramidal neurons (PNs) remains unknown. Here, we investigated how INs located in cortical layer 1 (L1) of rat barrel cortex affect whisker-evoked responses of L2 PNs. To do so we combined in vivo electrophysiology and morphological reconstructions with computational modeling. We show that whisker-evoked membrane depolarization in L2 PNs arises from highly specialized spatiotemporal synaptic input patterns. Temporally L1 INs and L2–5 PNs provide near synchronous synaptic input. Spatially synaptic contacts from L1 INs target distal apical tuft dendrites, whereas PNs primarily innervate basal and proximal apical dendrites. Simulations of such constrained synaptic input patterns predicted that inactivation of L1 INs increases trial-to-trial variability of whisker-evoked responses in L2 PNs. The in silico predictions were confirmed in vivo by L1-specific pharmacological manipulations. We present a mechanism—consistent with the theory of distal dendritic shunting—that can regulate the robustness of sensory-evoked responses in PNs without affecting response amplitude or latency. PMID:26512104

  20. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB) allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted (M/T) cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the OB. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within (M/T) cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2) in OB (M/T) cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the OB by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli. PMID:22461771

  1. Does Presentation Format Influence Visual Size Discrimination in Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus spp.)?

    PubMed Central

    Truppa, Valentina; Carducci, Paola; Trapanese, Cinzia; Hanus, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most experimental paradigms to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli. To this end, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation are used, which highlights the necessity to compare data obtained with different methods. The present study assessed whether, and to what extent, capuchin monkeys’ ability to solve a size discrimination problem is influenced by the type of procedure used to present the problem. Capuchins’ ability to generalise knowledge across different tasks was also evaluated. We trained eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys to select the larger of two stimuli of the same shape and different sizes by using pairs of food items (Experiment 1), computer images (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). Our results indicated that monkeys achieved the learning criterion faster with food stimuli compared to both images and objects. They also required consistently fewer trials with objects than with images. Moreover, female capuchins had higher levels of acquisition accuracy with food stimuli than with images. Finally, capuchins did not immediately transfer the solution of the problem acquired in one task condition to the other conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that – even in relatively simple visual discrimination problems where a single perceptual dimension (i.e., size) has to be judged – learning speed strongly depends on the mode of presentation. PMID:25927363

  2. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  3. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed. PMID:26651833

  4. Preliminary Tuft Testing of Metallic Bristles Versus PS212, PS300, and HVOF300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Turbine engine brush seals are designed with sacrificial brushes and hard shaft coatings to minimize shaft wear and reduce the cost of engine overhauls. Replacing a worm seal is more cost and time effective than refinishing an engine shaft. However, this tribological design causes excessive brush wear and reduces long term seal efficiency. An alternative approach is to coat the shaft with a solid lubricant and allow the bristles to wear into the shaft coating similar to traditional abradable labyrinth seals. This approach can result in reduced seal leakage by forcing the leakage to flow through the seal bristle pack or through a more tortuous shaft wear track. Key to this approach is limiting the shaft wear to an acceptable level were surface refinishing would not be required during every engine overhaul. Included in this paper are brush seal tuft test results for four metallic bristles (nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys) tested against three solid lubricant coatings (NASA's PS212, PS300, and HVOF300). These test results are also compared to previous baseline tests conducted with plasma sprayed chrome carbide. Compared to the baseline results, no tribological benefit was achieved with the metallic bristle/solid lubricant tribopairs tested. To improve the performance of the solid lubricant coatings, issues regarding lubricant phase sizes (homogeneity), and composition need to be addressed.

  5. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  6. Nitrous acid in the urban area of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, Karin; Febo, Antonio; Trick, Sebastian; Perrino, Cinzia; Bruno, Paolo; Wiesen, Peter; Möller, Detlev; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Auel, Renate; Giusto, Marco; Geyer, Andreas; Platt, Ulrich; Allegrini, Ivo

    Nitrous acid (HNO 2) and a large variety of other components were simultaneously measured in the city centre of Rome (Italy) during the NITROCAT ground based field experiment in May/June 2001. The highest HNO 2 concentrations were found under high-pressure conditions with high nocturnal atmospheric stability and high values of pollutants. After night time formation and accumulation up to 2 ppb HNO 2 were observed. The measurements confirm that during the first hours after sunrise, when hydroxyl radical (OH) production rates from other sources (photolysis of ozone and formaldehyde (HCHO)) are slow, HNO 2 photolysis is the most important primary OH source in the lowest part of the troposphere; up to 1-4×10 7 OH cm -3 s -1 were estimated for that time from this source. This contributes considerably to the initiation of the photochemistry for the day. The unexpected high daytime concentrations of few hundred ppt observed by DOAS as well as by the two in situ wet collection techniques (wet denuder/IC, coil sampling/HPLC) possibly influence ozone chemistry during the entire day. The heterogeneous on-surface production of HNO 2 (and consequently of HNO 3) provides also a new-type acidity formation influencing directly the biosphere and the materials. About 20% of the total nitrite was found on atmospheric aerosols. The HNO 2 measurements agree well for the different in situ measurement techniques and the spatial integration DOAS simultaneously performed over several weeks in the real atmosphere and during reaction chamber experiments.

  7. Ancient Rome Worldwide Links: Sharing Knowledge to Preserve the Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Forti, G.; Corrao, A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  8. Calcium permeable AMPA receptors and autoreceptors in external tufted cells of rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Lowe, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Glomeruli are functional units of the olfactory bulb responsible for early processing of odor information encoded by single olfactory receptor genes. Glomerular neural circuitry includes numerous external tufted (ET) cells whose rhythmic burst firing may mediate synchronization of bulbar activity with the inhalation cycle. Bursting is entrained by glutamatergic input from olfactory nerve terminals, so specific properties of ionotropic glutamate receptors on ET cells are likely to be important determinants of olfactory processing. Particularly intriguing is recent evidence that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors of juxta-glomerular neurons may permeate calcium. This could provide a novel pathway for regulating ET cell signaling. We tested the hypothesis that ET cells express functional calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. In rat olfactory bulb slices, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in ET cells were evoked by olfactory nerve shock, and by uncaging glutamate. We found attenuation of AMPA/kainate EPSCs by 1-naphthyl acetyl-spermine (NAS), an open-channel blocker specific for calcium permeable AMPA receptors. Cyclothiazide strongly potentiated EPSCs, indicating a major contribution from AMPA receptors. The current-voltage (I-V) relation of uncaging EPSCs showed weak inward rectification which was lost after > ~ 10 min of whole-cell dialysis, and was absent in NAS. In kainate-stimulated slices, Co2+ ions permeated cells of the glomerular layer. Large AMPA EPSCs were accompanied by fluorescence signals in fluo-4 loaded cells, suggesting calcium permeation. Depolarizing pulses evoked slow tail currents with pharmacology consistent with involvement of calcium permeable AMPA autoreceptors. Tail currents were abolished by Cd2+ and NBQX, and were sensitive to NAS block. Glutamate autoreceptors were confirmed by uncaging intracellular calcium to evoke a large inward current. Our results provide evidence that calcium permeable AMPA

  9. Social learning strategies for nut-cracking by tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

    PubMed

    Coelho, C G; Falótico, T; Izar, P; Mannu, M; Resende, B D; Siqueira, J O; Ottoni, E B

    2015-07-01

    The spontaneous use of stone tools for cracking nuts by tufted capuchin monkeys, now known to be habitual among wild populations in savanna environments, was first described in a semifree group living in the Tietê Ecological Park (SP, Brazil). Nut-cracking at TEP was first observed by our team in 1995 (Ottoni and Mannu in Int J Primatol 22(3):347-358, 2001), and its ontogeny and associated social dynamics, with inexperienced observers highly interested in the activities of proficient individuals, greatly tolerant to scrounging, support hypotheses about social biases on tool-use learning. Here we further analyze the social learning biases, better characterizing: the social context of nut-cracking in which observation by conspecifics occurs, the quality of the nut-cracking behavior itself and whether scrounging may be the motivation behind this behavior. We confirm that the choice of observational targets is an active one; monkeys do not simply observe those who they are socially close to. We investigate social learning strategies, describing how young capuchins choose to observe older, more proficient and dominant individuals during nut-cracking bouts. Monkeys with higher productivity rates were also more frequently targeted by observers, who were tolerated scroungers, further supporting the scrounging hypothesis. Finally, based on changes of the demographic patterns of tool use and observation, we set to retrace data from 14 years of continuous studies. We argue that we have followed the dissemination of the behavior (Transmission Phase) almost from its beginning, when juveniles were the most frequent nutcrackers, to a more common pattern where adults are the most active tool users (Tradition Phase). PMID:25800169

  10. Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Identification of Candidate Genes for the Rumpless and Ear-tufted Traits of the Araucana Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Noorai, Rooksana E.; Freese, Nowlan H.; Wright, Lindsay M.; Chapman, Susan C.; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2012-01-01

    Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (Praw = 2.45×10−10, Pgenome = 0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (Praw = 6.61×10−7, Pgenome = 0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes. PMID:22844420

  11. Genome-wide association mapping and identification of candidate genes for the rumpless and ear-tufted traits of the Araucana chicken.

    PubMed

    Noorai, Rooksana E; Freese, Nowlan H; Wright, Lindsay M; Chapman, Susan C; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2012-01-01

    Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (P(raw) = 2.45×10(-10), P(genome) = 0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (P(raw) = 6.61×10(-7), P(genome) = 0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes. PMID:22844420

  12. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Keith S K; Hufnagel, Robert B; Khadka, Vedbar S; Corley, Michael J; Maunakea, Alika K; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  13. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Vedbar S.; Corley, Michael J.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  14. Chemoreceptor control of heart rate and behaviour during diving in the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Stephenson, R

    1988-03-01

    1. The role of chemoreceptors in the control of heart rate and behaviour during diving activity in the tufted duck was investigated in two ways. In a closed-loop experiment, ducks were exposed to ambient gas mixtures of varied composition during diving activity in an indoor tank. Characteristics of diving behaviour, heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored under hypoxic, hyperoxic and hypercapnic conditions and compared with those in air. Secondly, in an open-loop experiment the role of the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors in the control of the responses to altered inspired gas composition and in the cardiac responses to extended and enclosed dives (Stephenson, Butler & Woakes, 1986) was investigated by chronic bilateral denervation of these receptors. 2. Heart rate during submersion was unaffected by inspired gas composition in control (data from intact and sham-operated ducks combined) and CB-denervated ducks, though diving behaviour was significantly modified in both groups of animals in response to altered inspired gas composition. Hypoxia and hypercapnia resulted in an increase in the proportion of total diving time spent breathing at the surface. The main effect of hypoxia (9-10% O2) was to reduce dive duration in control ducks and this effect was almost completely abolished after CB denervation. Hypercapnia (5-6% CO2) reduced dive duration less markedly than hypoxia but it greatly increased the duration of the inter-dive interval, effects which were not significantly influenced by CB denervation. Hyperoxia (40-45% O2) had very little effect on either behaviour or heart rate during diving, although deep body temperature was significantly elevated in this gas mixture during diving activity. There was also a less marked, but nevertheless significant, apparent hyperthermia during diving activity in air on an indoor tank but not on an outdoor pond. Conversely, there was a significant apparent hypothermia during diving activity under hypoxic conditions

  15. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mental disabilities in Western civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-02-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of disability from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual disability and its distinction from episodic mental illness first emerged in several subcultures of Western civilization during the height of ancient imperial Rome and during the early medieval period in Northern European and Arabic civilization. PMID:16405385

  17. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  18. ARPA/NIJ/Rome Laboratory concealed weapon detection program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1996-06-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging and non- imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed beneath a person's clothing. Sensors that are discussed in this paper are characterized as either non-imaging or imaging. Non-imaging sensors include wide band radar and portal devices such as metal detectors. In general the strength of non-imaging sensors rest with the fact that they are generally inexpensive and can rapidly perform bulk separation between regions where persons are likely to be carrying concealed weapons and those regions that are likely to contain persons who are unarmed. The bulk process is typically accomplished at the expense of false alarm rate. Millimeter-wave (MMW), microwave, x-ray, acoustic, magnetic, and infrared (IR) imaging sensor technologies provide with greater certainty the means to isolate persons within a crowd that are carrying concealed weapons and to identify the weapon type. The increased certainty associated with imaging sensors is accomplished at the expense of cost and bulk surveillance of the crowd. CWD technologies have a variety of military and civilian applications. This technology focus area addresses specific military needs under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) operations other than war/law enforcement (OOTW/LE). Additionally, this technology has numerous civilian law enforcement applications that are being investigated under the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ) Concealed Weapons Detection program. This paper discusses the wide variety of sensors that might be employed in support of a typical scenario, the strengths and weaknesses of each of the sensors relative to the given scenario, and how CWD breadboards will be tested to determine the optimal CWD application. It rapidly becomes apparent that no single sensor will completely satisfy the CWD mission necessitating the fusion of two or more of these sensors.

  19. Motivation and manipulation capacities of the blue and yellow macaw and the tufted capuchin: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Brunon, Anaïs; Bovet, Dalila; Bourgeois, Aude; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    This study compared the motivation of the blue and yellow macaw (n=8) and the tufted capuchin (n=3) to manipulate objects that presented different features, their manipulative repertoires, and their ability to solve complex manipulation tasks. Results show that both species seem to be more motivated to manipulate objects that look like food items and that manipulative behavior may be considered as play behavior in the blue and yellow macaws, and would improve foraging motor skills. The tufted capuchins performed more different action styles than the macaws when manipulating objects, and performed substrate-use behavior - the object is put in relationship with a substrate - while the macaws did not. This is an interesting difference because these characteristics are supposed to be precursory of tool-use, behavior never observed in this macaw species. It may be due to the arboreal lifestyle of the macaw and its neophobic character that do not allow it to easily contact objects. Following the same method and using more individuals, further comparative studies should be conducted in order to test these hypotheses. Both species were able to solve complex manipulation tasks. PMID:25043567

  20. 77 FR 1873 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Submittal III. Final Action IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Background On July 18, 1997 (62 FR...-year average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations. On January 5, 2005 (70 FR 944), EPA published its... Area. Subsequently, on April 5, 2011 (76 FR 18650), EPA determined that the Rome Area attained the...

  1. Jobs and Income for Rome and Floyd County: The Berry College Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Charles D.

    The economic impact of Berry College on Rome County, Georgia, was assessed using a differential value-added technique to measure the amount of induced spending. Direct spending sources associated with the college are direct purchase of goods and services and spending by faculty, staff, students, and visitors. Since every dollar initially spent in…

  2. [Irritable bowel syndrome in the light of Rome consensus III (2006): 10 years later].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I; Albulova, E A; Ruchkina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common diagnosis in gastroenterology. Over 10 years after Rome consensus III (2006), there has been much new information on the pathogenesis of IBS and its therapy options. The paper analyzes basic investigations that have contributed to the theory of this disease and to a better quality of life in patients. PMID:27135104

  3. Mental Disabilities in Western Civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of "disability" from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual…

  4. The European Planetary Congress 2010 (Rome, September 19-25, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2011-08-01

    Almost 900 reports were presented at the planetary congress EPSC 2010 in Rome. The congress took place in the building of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas. The report by A. Morbidelli et al. "The Origin of the Small Mass of Mars" was among the reports that drew the greatest attention of the participants.

  5. Bristol Stool Form Scale reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form designations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rater reproducibility of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), which categorizes stools into one of seven types, is unknown. We sought to determine reliability and agreement by individual stool type and when responses are categorized by Rome III clinical designation as normal or abnormal (constipatio...

  6. 78 FR 45475 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Rome, OR, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight...

  7. Stars on Stage: The new Planetarium of Rome as an Astronomical Theatre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanardi, S.; Gandolfi, G.; Catanzaro, G.; Vomero, V.

    2005-12-01

    We present the new planetarium of Rome as an astronomical theatre: a facility to combine the research of new formats for the communication of astronomy with an attention to the cultural signifi cance of astronomy for the public. This approach has resulted in the production of more than 50 shows and is an independent presenter of science.

  8. Did Rome Fall or Was It Pushed? Sixth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, David

    In this interdisciplinary grade 6 world history and language arts unit, students examine the fall of Rome (Italy). Working in teams to research the causes of Rome's demise, participants develop a theory explaining why Rome fell. The student guide provides detailed instructions on how to complete the activity, a list of resources, and includes…

  9. Gas potential of the Rome Trough in Kentucky: Results of recent Cambrian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.C.; Drahovzal, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    A recent gas discovery in the Rome Trough suggests the need to re-evaluate the deep Cambrian potential of eastern Kentucky. A new phase of Cambrian exploration began in mid-1994 with a new pool discovery by the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well in Elliott County, Ky. This well blew out and initially flowed 11 MMcfd of gas from the upper Conasauga Group/Rome Formation at 6,258 to 6,270 feet. After this discovery, a second exploratory well (the Blue Ridge No. 1Greene) was drilled on a separate structure in Elliott County in late 1995. The Blue Ridge well was temporarily abandoned, but had shows of gas and condensate. In early 1996, Carson Associates offset their initial discovery well with the No. 33 Lawson Heirs well. This activity follows a frustrating exploration history in the Rome Trough that is marked by numerous gas and oil shows, but rare commercial production. Only three single-well pools have produced commercial gas from the trough, including the recent Kazee well. Stratigraphic units below the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group in the Rome Trough are dramatically thicker than their equivalents on the shelf to the north. The interval in the trough is thought to include rocks as old as Early Cambrian, consisting of a basal sandstone, equivalents of the Shady/Tomstown Dolomite, the Rome Formation, and the Conasauga Formation. Sandstones and fractured shales have been responsible for most of the production to date, but dolostone intervals may also have potential. Limited seismic data indicate possible fan-delta and basin-floor fan deposits that may have reservoir potential.

  10. Development and Validation of the Korean Rome III Questionnaire for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Ho; Min, Byung-Hoon; Youn, Young Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Keum, Bo Ra; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims A self-report questionnaire is frequently used to measure symptoms reliably and to distinguish patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) from those with other conditions. We produced and validated a cross-cultural adaptation of the Rome III questionnaire for diagnosis of FGIDs in Korea. Methods The Korean version of the Rome III (Rome III-K) questionnaire was developed through structural translational processes. Subsequently, reliability was measured by a test-retest procedure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing self-reported questionnaire data with the subsequent completion of the questionnaire by the physician based on an interview and with the clinical diagnosis. Concurrent validation using the validated Korean version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was adopted to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results A total of 306 subjects were studied. Test-retest reliability was good, with a median Cronbach's α value of 0.83 (range, 0.71-0.97). The degree of agreement between patient-administered and physician-administered questionnaires to diagnose FGIDs was excellent; the κ index was 0.949 for irritable bowel syndrome, 0.883 for functional dyspepsia and 0.927 for functional heartburn. The physician's clinical diagnosis of functional dyspepsia showed the most marked discrepancy with that based on the self-administered questionnaire. Almost all SF-36 domains were impaired in participants diagnosed with one of these FGIDs according to the Rome III-K. Conclusions We developed the Rome III-K questionnaire though structural translational processes, and it revealed good test-retest reliability and satisfactory construct validity. These results suggest that this instrument will be useful for clinical and research assessments in the Korean population. PMID:24199012

  11. Effect of training on maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Turner, D L

    1988-07-01

    1. The effects of artificial swim training on maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate, as well as on the capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscles, have been studied in the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula. 2. The artificial training programme resulted in a 27% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, mainly as a result of an increase in muscle capillarity (20% increase in capillary/fibre ratio). In addition, activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, increased (by 42%) and there was a significant transformation of fibre types in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. 3. Altering the duration and nature of the training stimulus, for example flying and diving, can bring about different degrees of muscular adaptation, particularly in oxidative capacity. PMID:3171990

  12. Effect of training on maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, P J; Turner, D L

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of artificial swim training on maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate, as well as on the capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscles, have been studied in the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula. 2. The artificial training programme resulted in a 27% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, mainly as a result of an increase in muscle capillarity (20% increase in capillary/fibre ratio). In addition, activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, increased (by 42%) and there was a significant transformation of fibre types in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. 3. Altering the duration and nature of the training stimulus, for example flying and diving, can bring about different degrees of muscular adaptation, particularly in oxidative capacity. PMID:3171990

  13. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  14. Turning the rumor of May 11, 2011 earthquake prediction In Rome, Italy, into an information day on earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Cultrera, G.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; INGVterremoti Team

    2011-12-01

    headquarters until 9 p.m.: families, school classes with and without teachers, civil protection groups, journalists. This initiative, built up in a few weeks, had a very large feedback, also due to the media highlighting the presumed prediction. Although we could not rule out the possibility of a strong earthquake in central Italy (with effects in Rome) we tried to explain the meaning of short term earthquake prediction vs. probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Despite many people remained with the fear (many decided to take a day off and leave the town or stay in public parks), we contributed to reduce this feeling and therefore the social cost of this strange Roman day. Moreover, another lesson learned is that these (fortunately sporadic) circumstances, when people's attention is high, are important opportunities for science communication. We thank all the INGV colleagues who contributed to the May 11 Open Day, in particular the Press Office, the Educational and Outreach laboratory, the Graphics Laboratory and SissaMedialab. P.S. no large earthquake happened

  15. The effects of diet and caloric restriction on adipose tissue fatty acid signatures of tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) nestlings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cory T; Iverson, Sara J; Buck, C Loren

    2009-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis is a powerful tool to investigate foraging ecology and food web dynamics in marine ecosystems. However, use of FA signatures to qualitatively or quantitatively infer diets is potentially complicated by effects of nutritional state on lipid metabolism. Estimation of diets using the quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) model requires the use of calibration coefficients to account for predator metabolism of individual FAs. We conducted a captive feeding experiment to determine the effects of a 50% reduction in food intake on growth rate and adipose tissue FA signatures of tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) nestlings, a species that routinely experiences food restriction during growth. FA signatures of chicks fed low- and high-calorie diets both exhibited a change in composition in response to the dietary shift with the direction of change in the composition of individual FAs matching the direction of change in the dietary FAs. Despite a growth rate in the restricted nestlings that was 38% of those in the well-fed group, rates of FA turnover were not different between high and low-calorie treatments, and turnover was close to, but not entirely complete, after 27 days on both high-calorie and restricted diets. FA signatures of tufted puffin nestlings were significantly affected by caloric restriction, but these effects were much less pronounced than those of dietary turnover, and calibration coefficients of puffins fed low and high-calorie diets were highly correlated. Our results demonstrate that changes in physiological state can affect FA metabolism, but future research is required to better understand whether the size of these effects is sufficient to substantially alter diet estimation using the QFASA model. PMID:19350253

  16. [A survey to assess nursing organizational well-being in several hospitals in Rome, Italy.].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Rosaria; Sili, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was performed to evaluate perceived organizational well-being of nurses in several prominent hospitals in Rome (Italy). The term "organizational well-being" refers to all of the organizational processes and practices that stimulate the dynamics of working relationships leading to the promotion and improvement of quality of life, and of the degree of physical, psychological and social well-being in the work environment. In total 853 nurses from several hospitals in Rome participated in the survey. Results show on one hand, mainly satisfactory nursing working conditions, but on the other, a lack of professional fulfilment, no influence by nurses in the decision-making processes, and a lack of career development opportunities, all of which lead to a total mistrust toward the hospital management. PMID:17786171

  17. Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy: HRI's second international research conference in Rome.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Alexander L; Roberts, E Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Rome, 3rd-5th June 2015, was the setting for the Homeopathy Research Institute's (HRI) second conference with the theme 'Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy'. Attended by over 250 delegates from 39 countries, this event provided an intense two and a half day programme of presentations and a forum for the sharing of ideas and the creation of international scientific collaborations. With 35 oral presentations from leaders in the field, the scientific calibre of the programme was high and the content diverse. This report summarises the key themes underpinning the cutting edge data presented by the speakers, including six key-note presentations, covering advancements in both basic and clinical research. Given the clear commitment of the global homeopathic community to high quality research, the resounding success of both Barcelona 2013 and Rome 2015 HRI conferences, and the dedicated support of colleagues, the HRI moves confidently forward towards the next biennial conference. PMID:26827995

  18. The beginnings of theoretical condensed matter physics in Rome: a personal remembrance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-02-01

    This oral history interview provides a personal view on how theoretical condensed matter physics developed in Rome starting in the sixties of the last century. It then follows along the lines of research pursued by the interviewee up to the date of the interview, in March 2006. The topics considered range from the phenomenology of superfluid helium and superconductors, critical phenomena and renormalisation group approach, quantum fluids to strongly correlated electron systems and high temperature superconductors. Within these topics, fundamental problems of condensed matter physics are touched upon, such as the microscopic derivation of scaling, the metal-insulator transition and the interaction effects on disordered electron systems beyond the Anderson localisation, and the existence of heterogeneous states in cuprates. The English text presented here and revised by the authors is based on the original oral history interview recorded in Italian at Carlo Di Castro's office, Physics Department of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, March 2006.

  19. The ancient city of Rome, its empire, and the spread of tuberculosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Jared J

    2015-06-01

    The formation of the Roman Empire constituted an unprecedented joining of Mediterranean and European lands and peoples, centering on the capital of Rome. During the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire (ca. 200B.C.-ca. 200 A.D.) urbanization and population growth led to conditions favorable to the spread of tuberculosis throughout Italy and especially within Rome itself. Trade and military expansion would have acted as vehicles for the further extension of tuberculosis to the provinces via direct transmission from Italian-born Romans to the native populations. However, an alternative explanation may better explain the increase in the number of archeological cases of tuberculosis with the start of the Roman era. A literature review of Roman-era cases and their locations suggests that the development of an urban, Roman way of life resulted in significant increases in prevalence in regions where tuberculosis had previously been endemic only at a low level. PMID:25771202

  20. Petrographic, biological, and chemical techniques used to characterize two tombs in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Malagodi, M.; Barca, D.; Cirrincione, R.; Pezzino, A.; Crisci, G. M.; Miriello, D.

    2010-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary contribution, several diagnostic tests were carried out in order to characterize the stone materials, forms of alteration, and protective products applied in the past to two monumental tombs located in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy). The Protestant Cemetery is a very important historic site, and has been included in the List of 100 Most Endangered Sites in the World since 2005. In this work, two of its tombs were studied: those of Karl (or Charles) Brjullov, a Russian painter who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, and of Lady Elisa Temple, wife of the artist Sir Grenville Temple. The tombs are both made of white marble and travertine, and the same forms of alteration and degradation, such as blackish biological patinas, black crusts, and chromatic alterations, were found on both monuments. Petrographic analysis of the different lithotypes made it possible to determine textural characteristics, evaluate the state of preservation, and formulate some hypotheses about their provenance by means of oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios, and evaluation of maximum grain size (MGS) and shape preferred orientation (SPO) of calcite grains. Laboratory culture analysis identified autotrophic species and, in some cases, black patinas caused by fungal species were found. Lastly, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that some synthetic protective products had been used in previous, undocumented restoration processes on some portions of both graves.

  1. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Georgia on October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM2.5 attainment demonstration that was submitted for the 1997 annual PM2.5 National Ambient Air......

  2. Mid-latitude sporadic-E layers: a comparative study between the ionospheric stations of Rome and Gibilmanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrella, Marco

    Hourly systematic measurements of the highest frequency reflected by the sporadic-E layer (foEs) recorded from January 1976 to June 2009 at the ionospheric stations of Rome (Italy, 41.8 N, 12.5 E) and Gibilmanna (Italy, 37.9 N, 14.0 E) were considered to carry out a comparative study between the sporadic E layer (Es) over Rome and Gibilmanna. Different statistical analysis were performed taking into account foEs observations near the periods of minimum and maximum solar activity. The results reveal that: (1) Independently from the solar activity, Es develops concurrently over extended regions in space, instead of being a spatially limited layer which is transported horizontally by neutral winds over a larger area; especially during summer months, when an Es layer is present at Rome, there is a high probability that an Es layer is also present over Gibilmanna, and vice versa; (2) Es layer lifetimes of 1-5 hours were found; in particular, Es layers with lifetimes of 5 hours both over Gibilmanna and Rome are observed with highest percentages of occurrence in summer ranging between 80% and 90%, independently from the solar activity; (3) a latitudinal effect for low solar activity is observed, especially during winter and equinoctial months, when Es layers are detected more frequently over Gibilmanna rather than Rome; (4) when the presence of an Es layer over Rome and Gibilmanna is not simultaneous, Es layer appearance both over Rome and Gibilmanna confirms to be a locally confined event, because drifting phenomena from Rome to Gibilmanna or vice versa have not been emphasized.

  3. [Rome: capital of an empire under the banner of political biology (1936-1942)].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbolic conformation of Rome and Romanism as important factors in the affirmation of the power of fascism, especially after the proclamation of the Empire in 1936. Within this framework, it explores the role of science in legitimizing the direct correlation of this symbolic universe with a praxis that exalted racial superiority inherited from Ancient Rome. It investigates the links between the eugenic discourse and the exercise of power behind the "biology policy", including fascist organicism and racism. In fact, Rome was the essence of an empire that was reborn after fifteen centuries and, between its historical legacy and the new scenarios created by fascism for disciplining the population, Romanism had to condense all of the merits of the race, encouraging military conquests and promoting responsibility for maintaining racial purity and avoiding "unwanted miscegenation" with conquered peoples. The idea of Romanism also encouraged a continuation of the persecution of Jews started in Germany. Hence, science ratified a widespread idea of the Romanization as a crusade to impose a force, exaggerated on racial grounds, which integrated confidence in environmental factors with a crude biological determinism. PMID:22849218

  4. What limits tool use in nonhuman primates? Insights from tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) aligning three-dimensional objects to a surface.

    PubMed

    la Cour, L T; Stone, B W; Hopkins, W; Menzel, C; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    Perceptuomotor functions that support using hand tools can be examined in other manipulation tasks, such as alignment of objects to surfaces. We examined tufted capuchin monkeys' and chimpanzees' performance at aligning objects to surfaces while managing one or two spatial relations to do so. We presented six subjects of each species with a single stick to place into a groove, two sticks of equal length to place into two grooves, or two sticks joined as a T to place into a T-shaped groove. Tufted capuchins and chimpanzees performed equivalently on these tasks, aligning the straight stick to within 22.5° of parallel to the groove in approximately half of their attempts to place it, and taking more attempts to place the T stick than two straight sticks. The findings provide strong evidence that tufted capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align even one prominent axial feature of an object to a surface, and that managing two concurrent allocentric spatial relations in an alignment problem is significantly more challenging to them than managing two sequential relations. In contrast, humans from 2 years of age display very different perceptuomotor abilities in a similar task: they align sticks to a groove reliably on each attempt, and they readily manage two allocentric spatial relations concurrently. Limitations in aligning objects and in managing two or more relations at a time significantly constrain how nonhuman primates can use hand tools. PMID:23820935

  5. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual, but not acoustic information to find hidden food items

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but only little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins’ ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task’s contingencies. PMID:19236142

  6. Ovicidal Response of NYDA Formulations on the Human Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Using a Hair Tuft Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    STRYCHARZ, JOSEPH P.; LAO, ALICE R.; ALVES, ANNA-MARIA; CLARK, J. MARSHALL

    2012-01-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5–8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  7. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  8. Air pollution survey in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, E.; Sagnotti, L.; Winkler, A.; Dinarès Turell, J.; Cascella, A.

    2003-04-01

    We present the results of a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves from Platanus sp. and Quercus Ilex. A Platanus sp. sampling campaign was effectuated in October 2001 and 5 Quercus Ilex monthly sampling campaigns from April to August 2002. Comparison between different tree species from the same location pointed out that leaves of the evergreen oak Quercus Ilex, with an average life-span of 3 years, present much higher magnetic intensities that leaves from Platanus sp. and other deciduous species common in Rome, suggesting that leaves accumulate magnetic pollutants during their whole life-span. Low-coercivity minerals of sub-micron size constantly dominate the magnetic fraction of the dusts accumulated on leaves. However, concentration and size of magnetic particles on leaves appear to be controlled by vehicular traffic emissions. In fact, distribution maps of magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanence (IRM) from leaves collected in selected study areas in the south of Rome show distinct patterns that follow the distribution of green areas and main roads. High concentration and relatively larger grain-sizes of magnetic particles were observed in trees located along roads with high vehicle traffic and in the vicinity of railways. We found that the values of susceptibility and IRM along the main roads were about 10 times higher than in parks. Moreover, we also observed a decrease in concentration and grain size of magnetic particles with distance from the roadside, reinforcing the conclusion that the main sources of fine magnetic dusts adsorbed and deposited on the tree leaves are vehicle emissions. The results indicate that a magnetic survey of tree leaves, which is relatively rapid and inexpensive, may be used in addition to the classical air quality monitoring systems to identify and delineate high-polluted areas in urban environments.

  9. Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Eva; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Winkler, Aldo; Cascella, Antonio

    We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves. In a first step, magnetic properties of leaves from different tree species from the same location were compared. It was observed that leaves of evergreen species, like Quercus ilex, present much higher magnetic intensities than those of deciduous species, like Platanus sp., suggesting that leaves accumulate magnetic pollutants during their whole lifespan. In a second step, leaves from Q. ilex and Platanus sp. trees, both very common in Rome, have been used to monitor traffic emission pollution in two different periods. A Platanus sp. sampling campaign was undertaken in October 2001, at the end of the seasonal vegetational cycle, and 5 Q. ilex monthly sampling campaigns from April to August 2002. The strong difference observed in the magnetic susceptibility from leaves collected in green areas and roads allowed the realization of detailed pollution distribution maps from the south of Rome. Magnetic properties indicate that high concentrations and relatively larger grain-sizes of magnetic particles are observed in trees located along roads with high vehicle traffic and in the vicinity of railways. The decrease in concentration and grain size of magnetic particles with distance from the roadside confirms that magnetic properties of leaves are related to air pollution from vehicle emissions. The results indicate that a magnetic survey of tree leaves, which is relatively rapid and inexpensive, may be used in addition to the classical air quality monitoring systems to identify and delineate high-polluted areas in urban environments.

  10. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks across Rome Trough, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Restored stratigraphic cross sections drawn primarily through the subsurface of parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee provide new detailed information to further the understanding of Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentation and tectonics associated with the Rome trough sector of the Appalachian basin. Drilled thickness of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence ranges from a maximum of about 14,500 ft (4.5 km) along the axis of the trough to a minimum of about 3500 ft (1 km) on the western flank.

  11. Hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging at the Colosseum, Rome: elucidating past conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Palombi, L; Lognoli, D; Raimondi, V; Cecchi, G; Hällström, J; Barup, K; Conti, C; Grönlund, R; Johansson, A; Svanberg, S

    2008-05-12

    Fluorescence lidar techniques offer considerable potential for remote, non-invasive diagnostics of stone cultural heritage in the outdoor environment. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish experiment, deploying two hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging systems, for the documentation of past conservation interventions on the Colosseum, Rome. Several portions of the monument were scanned and we show that it was possible to discriminate among masonry materials, reinforcement structures and protective coatings inserted during past conservation interventions, on the basis of their fluorescence signatures, providing useful information for a first quick, large-scale in situ screening of the monument. PMID:18545382

  12. Seismic response in archaeological areas: the case-histories of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Stefano; Funiciello, Renato; Rovelli, Antonio

    1999-03-01

    Rome is affected by earthquakes associated to three different seismogenic districts: the Central Apennines area, the Colli Albani volcanic area and the Roman area. The major effects were exclusively due to Apennine seismicity and reached in some cases felt intensities up to VII-VIII degree (MCS scale). The predominant role in the damage distribution seems to be played by the local geological conditions. The historical centre of the city is characterized by the presence of two geomorphologic domains: the alluvial plain of Tiber river and the topographic relieves of Roman Hills, where tradition indicates the first site of the city foundation. In particular, the right river side is characterized by the outcropping of the regional bedrock along the Monte Mario-Gianicolo ridge, while the eastern relieves are the remnants of the Sabatini and Albani volcanic plateau, deeply eroded by the Tiber river and its tributaries during the last glacial low-stand (Würm). These domains are characterized by a large difference in seismic response, due to the high impedance contrast between Holocene coarse deposits filling the Tiber Valley and sedimentary and volcanic Plio-Pleistocene units. Seismic damage observed in 150 monuments of downtown Rome was indicating a significant concentration on alluvial recent deposits. This result was confirmed by the geographical distribution of conservation and retrofitting activities subsequent to main earthquakes, mostly related to local geological conditions. The cases of Marcus Aurelius' Column and Colosseum confirmed the influence of the Holocene alluvial network in local seismic response. During 2500 years of history, the monuments of Rome have `memorized' the seismic effects of historical earthquakes. In some cases, the integration of historical and geological research and macroseismic observations may provide original and useful indications to seismologists to define the seismic response of the city. Local site effects represent a serious

  13. Terrestrial SAR Interferometry Monitoring Of A Civil Building In The City Of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Paolo; Cipriani, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the city of Rome is affected by the excavations for the realization of the third Metro line (Line C). In this paper the results of one month continuous TInSAR monitoring of a civil building along the Line C route are presented. More than 7000 Terrestrial SAR images were collected, thus allowing displacement images and time series of Persistent Scatterers to be obtained. Few mm displacement of a portion of the building has been observed by TInSAR data and then confirmed by Total Station monitoring.

  14. The flaminio obelisk in Rome: vibrational characteristics as part of preservation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bongiovanni, G.; Celebi, M.; Clemente, P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to study the vibrational characteristics of the Flaminio Obelisk in Rome as part of general studies being performed for preservation purposes. The state of preservation of the monument is described as well as the sonic method used to evaluate the integrity of the sections. The results of the sonic tests are used to determine reductions in the cross-sectional properties. A stick model including two rotational frequency independent soil springs at the basement level of the obelisk is developed. A response spectrum and stress analysis according to the Italian Seismic Code is performed considering and evaluating the degraded characteristics of sections. -from Authors

  15. [Functional dyspepsia: the past, the present and the Rome III classification].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2007-08-19

    The author summarizes the historical development of our knowledge about functional dyspepsia and overviews the so-called "road to Rome" process. Between 1988 and 2006, expert committees developed using the Delphi method subsequent classifications of functional gastrointestinal disorders (Rome I-III). The Rome III classification reassessed the diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia and distinguished new subgroups as the postprandial distress and epigastric pain syndrome. The rationale for the proposed new classification was based on the inadequacy of prior approaches such as the predominant symptom, the results of factor analyses in tertiary care and in the general population, clinical experience and new observations in the peer-reviewed literature. Epidemiologic data suggest that dyspeptic symptoms date back to the 1730s and their prevalence increased markedly subsequently, remaining the commonest diagnosis even in the endoscopic era. The current worldwide prevalence of functional dyspepsia is 7-45%, with large geographic variations. The role of Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella infection as etiologic factors is discussed. Amongst the pathophysiological features, the recent data on the role of phenotypic changes of acid secretion, alterations of fundic accommodation and antro-duodenal motility and gastric emptying, gastric hypersensitivity and hormonal disturbances are presented, but all these abnormalities are present only in a small part of the patients. The possible role of the polymorphism of alpha-adrenoceptor gene was also raised. The treatment of functional dyspepsia led to equivocal results and the high rate of placebo response makes difficult any interpretation. According to the recent meta-analyses, proton pump inhibitors and H 2 -histamine receptor blockers are superior to placebo. In spite of good results, cisapride was withdrawn in 2004. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori can induce sustained remission in a small but significant minority of

  16. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    A strong interest in assessing the current state of the art of the fast growing fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as the need of stimulating research collaboration, prompted Dr S Bellucci, Professor A Bergamaschi and Professor E Bergamaschi to organize the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (n&n 2006)', November 6-9, 2006, under the patronage of the INFN (Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics), the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, with generous sponsorship by 3M, 2M Strumenti, Physik Instrumente, RS. The aims of this event were manifold fostering the concrete planning of future devices based on innovative (nano)materials, involving both industrial entities and public research institutes allowing the presentation by sponsoring firms of their instrumentation and success stories, based on current use by significant customers lending an opportunity for preparing and presenting joint projects, involving both industry and public research, see e.g. the EU Framework Programs exploring the possibility of integrating nanodevices from their concepts into system projects. The conference gathered at Villa Mondragone in Monteporzio Catone, Italy, leading experts in research and innovative technologies in bio-medical, aerospace, optoelectronics, instrumentation, coming both from the academic research and the industrial areas, as well as national security and military defence experts offering the opportunity for the exchange of knowledge and the collaboration among the different stakeholders in the field of nanotechnology. A special poster and equipment session was devoted to the exhibit by various firms of their institutional activities in selected areas of application where nanoscience can have a deep impact. There has been also the possibility for sample testing by the participants. Tutorial lectures were delivered at the School, addressing general and basic questions about nanotechnology, such as

  17. Medical competence, anatomy and the polity in seventeenth-century Rome

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    At the centre of this article are two physicians active in Rome between 1600 and 1630 who combined medical practice with broader involvement in the dynamic cultural, economic and political scene of the centre of the Catholic world. The city's distinctive and very influential social landscape magnified issues of career-building and allows us to recapture physicians’ different strategies of self-fashioning at a time of major social and religious reorganization. At one level, reconstructing Johannes Faber and Giulio Mancini's medical education, arrival in Rome and overlapping but different career trajectories contributes to research on physicians’ identity in early modern Italian states. Most remarkable are their access to different segments of Roman society, including a dynamic art market, and their diplomatic and political role, claimed as well as real. But following these physicians from hospitals to courts, including that of the Pope, and from tribunals to the university and analysing the wide range of their writing – from medico-legal consilia to political essays and reports of anatomical investigations – also enriches our view of medical practice, which included, but went beyond, the bedside. Furthermore, their activities demand that we reassess the complex place of anatomical investigations in a courtly society, and start recovering the fundamental role played by hospitals – those quintessential Catholic institutions – as sites of routine dissections for both medical teaching and research. (pp. 551–567) PMID:21949463

  18. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  19. Substance Use in the Club Scene of Rome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Alessandro Emiliano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Cinosi, Eduardo; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Carrus, Dario; Chillemi, Eleonora; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Over the last few years, a wide number of unregulated substances have been marketed on the Web and in smart and head shops; they are usually advertised as legal alternatives to commonly known drugs and are defined as “smart drugs,” “legal highs,” and “novel psychoactive substances” (NPS). Aim of our work is to describe use habits and distribution of NPS in a population of young adults in Rome club scene. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was proposed to subjects over 18 years of age at the entrance of 5 nightclubs in Rome. Socioeconomic characteristics and substance use were investigated. Results. Preliminary results give evidence that 78% of respondents have a lifetime history of NPS use. In addition, 56% of the sample has consumed illicit drugs in the past and 39% has used psychoactive substances in the 12 hours preceding the questionnaire administration. Conclusions. A significant proportion of subjects report use of novel psychoactive substances; traditional illicit drugs consumption, particularly cocaine, appears to be very high as well in the club scene. These data highlight a serious public health challenge, since pharmacological, toxicological, and psychopathological effects linked to interactions among all these substances may be unpredictable and sometimes fatal in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25243163

  20. Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Natoli, Eugenia; Maragliano, Laura; Cariola, Giuseppe; Faini, Anna; Bonanni, Roberto; Cafazzo, Simona; Fantini, Claudio

    2006-12-18

    In Italy, which is rabies-free, the national Law No. 281 [Legge Nazionale 14 agosto 1991. No. 281: Legge Quadro in materia di animali di affezione e prevenzione del randagismo. Gazz. Uff. Rep. Ital. no 203 del 30 agosto 1991: p. 3] on the management of pets and on the control of feral cats has introduced the no-kill policy for this species. Thus, "trap-neuter-release" (TNR) programs have been carried out for >10 years. In this paper we present data on registered colonies and censused cats in Rome from 1991 to 2000; the results of the neutering campaign from 1991 to 2000; and a survey, on 103 cat colonies, on the effects of demographic control of urban feral-cat colonies in the city of Rome, carried out by the local Veterinary Public Services (VPS) in collaboration with the associations of cat care-takers. In 10 years almost 8000 were neutered and reintroduced in their original colony. The spay/neuter campaigns brought about a general decrease in cat number but the percentage of cat immigration (due to abandonment and spontaneous arrival) is around 21%. This suggests that all these efforts without an effective education of people to control the reproduction of house cats (as a prevention for abandonment) are a waste of money, time and energy. PMID:17034887

  1. Slavery and the social dynamics of male homosexual relations in ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, B C

    1980-01-01

    More than any other institution, slavery placed its stamp on male homosexual relations in ancient Rome. While the pervasive Hellenization of Roman society in the second and first centuries B.C. mitigated the traditional hostility towards homosexuality and homosexual relations and even, in cultured circles, fostered an idealizing acceptance of male pederastic relations patterned after the model of classical Greece, this transformation of attitudes would have produced less concrete effects had Rome not concurrently become a slave-owning society on a large scale, due to overseas conquests. The strictures of Roman law and tradition applied only to sexual relations among free men and women; sexual relations between freemen and female or male slaves were unlikely to incur much social stigma. Although there is evidence that some Romans did indeed exploit their slaves, fortunately the great lacuna within the law and tradition, together with the emergence of more humane values regarding slavery and sexual relations, allowed genuine love-relationships (both heterosexual and homosexual) to receive a large measure of social sanction as a form of concubinage. Roman culture, however, unlike classical Green civilization, made little contribution to an informed acceptance of homosexual relations grounded in an understanding of human ethics and psychology. PMID:7045212

  2. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  3. Platinum levels in natural and urban soils from Rome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D; Angelone, M; Masi, U; Cremisini, C

    2002-07-01

    Platinum concentrations in topsoil samples collected in 1992 (48) and in 2001 (16) from the urban area of Rome have been determined by ICP-MS. Concentrations in 47 soil samples collected in 1992 from natural sites of Latium (an area around Rome) have been determined for a first assessment of natural background levels. The Pt concentrations in Rome urban soils collected in 1992 range from 0.8 to 6.3 ng/g (mean = 3.8 +/- 1.0) overlapping the concentration range of natural soils from Latium (mean = 3.1 +/- 2.1 ng/g). No significant correlation has generally been found between Pt contents in the 'natural' soils and related bedrock or major pedogenetic parameters. These results suggest that there is no evidence of Pt pollution in Rome urban soils at that time, because the massive use of the automobile catalytic converter has only just started. Higher (up to six times more) Pt concentrations, than those measured in the 1992 samples, have been measured, in some cases, in Rome urban soils collected in 2001, suggesting a possible start of Pt accumulation because of the large-scale use in the last decade of automobile catalytic converters. At the same time, a clear decrease of lead levels in Rome urban soils with respect to the levels measured in 1992 has been observed, paralleling the decreasing number of lead gasoline-fuelled cars. Here we present one of the first systematic studies for defining background levels of Pt in Italian natural soils, thus allowing for monitoring, in the future, should any possible Pt pollution caused by the use of automobile catalytic converter, especially in urban soils, occur. PMID:12109480

  4. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID

  5. Production and perception of sex differences in vocalizations of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam S; Birnie, Andrew K; Lane, Kent R; French, Jeffrey A

    2009-04-01

    Males and females from many species produce distinct acoustic variations of functionally identical call types. Social behavior may be primed by sex-specific variation in acoustic features of calls. We present a series of acoustic analyses and playback experiments as methods for investigating this subject. Acoustic parameters of phee calls produced by Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) were analyzed for sex differences. Discriminant function analyses showed that calls contained sufficient acoustic variation to predict the sex of the caller. Several frequency variables differed significantly between the sexes. Natural and synthesized calls were presented to male-female pairs. Calls elicited differential behavioral responses based on the sex of the caller. Marmosets became significantly more vigilant following the playback of male phee calls (both natural and synthetic) than following female phee calls. In a second playback experiment, synthesized calls were modified by independently manipulating three parameters that were known to differ between the sexes (low-, peak-, and end-frequency). When end-frequency-modified calls were presented, responsiveness was differentiable by sex of caller but did not differ from responses to natural calls. This suggests that marmosets did not use end-frequency to determine the sex of the caller. Manipulation of peak-and low-frequency parameters eliminated the discrete behavioral responses to male and female calls. Together, these parameters may be important features that encode for the sex-specific signal. Recognition of sex by acoustic cues seems to be a multivariate process that depends on the congruency of acoustic features. PMID:19090554

  6. Sequential organization and optimization of the nut-cracking behavior of semi-free tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.).

    PubMed

    Corat, Clara; Siqueira, José; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Stone-aided nut-cracking requires the coordination of three elements: the agent must assemble nuts, a "hammer" stone and an "anvil." Under naturalistic settings, nut-cracking sites, constituted of anvil-like surfaces and already containing a hammer stone, can be fairly stable, lasting as long as the "hammer" stays in place. In an experiment with a semi-free-ranging group of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) we observed the behavioral sequences leading to nut-cracking. We positioned nuts, hammer, and anvil at the vertices of a 10-m-sided equilateral triangle. Thus, to crack a nut the individuals had to visit the vertices and gather the movable elements (nut and hammer) at the anvil. Under such conditions, the monkeys systematically employed a nut-hammer-anvil vertex visit sequence, one of the shortest and more cost-effective possible routes. In the following experiment, we examined whether the gathering of the hammer after the nuts resulted solely from a "nut first" strategy or if the monkeys were also minimizing hammer transport costs. We positioned two hammers, of the same weight, at different distances from the nuts and anvil, so the cost of hammer transportation (energy and risk of injury) would be higher or lower depending on the choice of hammer (the hammer closer to the nuts being farther from the anvil). We found that, instead of collecting the closest hammer, after collecting the nut, the monkeys systematically chose the hammer closer to (and beyond) the anvil, thus minimizing transport costs. PMID:26411435

  7. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  8. Breeding site fidelity and winter admixture in a long-distance migrant, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Keller, I; Heckel, G

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance migrants are, by definition, highly mobile but it is poorly understood if this leads to high rates of gene flow and an essentially panmictic global population structure. Genetic divergence in migratory species could be promoted, for example, by fidelity to distinct migratory pathways. In this study, we investigate the population genetic structure of tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), a long-distance migrant with a largely continuous breeding distribution across Eurasia. Distinct, longitudinally oriented flyways have been postulated based on geographically disjunct wintering areas and are supported by evidence from ringing data. We generated sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multi-locus microsatellite genotypes for several hundreds of samples from the European and Asian breeding and wintering grounds including some individuals infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. Significant differentiation between breeding sites was observed for both marker types, but FST values were approximately 10 times higher for maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA than for biparentally transmitted nuclear markers. The genetic differentiation between the postulated European and Asian flyways was similar to that observed within continents and, in general, genetic divergence was not associated with geographic distance. Neither marker type showed evidence of genetic substructure among aggregations on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest some breeding site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. Several scenarios may explain the observed lack of genetic divergence between Europe and Asia including non-equilibrium conditions following a recent range expansion or contemporary gene flow across the postulated migratory divides. PMID:22549516

  9. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  10. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    A strong interest in assessing the current state of the art of the fast growing fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as the need of stimulating research collaboration, prompted Dr S Bellucci, Professor A Bergamaschi and Professor E Bergamaschi to organize the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (n&n 2006)', November 6-9, 2006, under the patronage of the INFN (Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics), the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, with generous sponsorship by 3M, 2M Strumenti, Physik Instrumente, RS. The aims of this event were manifold fostering the concrete planning of future devices based on innovative (nano)materials, involving both industrial entities and public research institutes allowing the presentation by sponsoring firms of their instrumentation and success stories, based on current use by significant customers lending an opportunity for preparing and presenting joint projects, involving both industry and public research, see e.g. the EU Framework Programs exploring the possibility of integrating nanodevices from their concepts into system projects. The conference gathered at Villa Mondragone in Monteporzio Catone, Italy, leading experts in research and innovative technologies in bio-medical, aerospace, optoelectronics, instrumentation, coming both from the academic research and the industrial areas, as well as national security and military defence experts offering the opportunity for the exchange of knowledge and the collaboration among the different stakeholders in the field of nanotechnology. A special poster and equipment session was devoted to the exhibit by various firms of their institutional activities in selected areas of application where nanoscience can have a deep impact. There has been also the possibility for sample testing by the participants. Tutorial lectures were delivered at the School, addressing general and basic questions about nanotechnology, such as

  11. Development, Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires for Diagnosis of Functional Bowel Diseases in Major Asian Languages: A Rome Foundation-Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association Working Team Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Chen, Minhu; Gong, Xiao R; Pratap, Nitesh; Hou, Xiaohua; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew S B; Chong, Kuck-Meng; Siah, Kewin T H; Lu, Ching-Liang; Xiong, Lishou; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria. Methods After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by consensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. Results Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700–1.000) except in Korean (0.300–0.500) and Indonesian (0.100–0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. Conclusions Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common. PMID:25537673

  12. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  13. The Limits of Growth. A Report for The Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Donella H.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a project undertaken by The Club of Rome entitled Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Its intent is to examine the complex of problems troubling men of all nations. The predicament is that man can perceive the problem, yet, despite his considerable knowledge and skills, he does not understand the origins,…

  14. A Revisionary Note on Ammianus Marcellinus 14.6.18: When Did the Public Libraries of Ancient Rome Close?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the work of the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and other evidence for the existence of public libraries in fourth and fifth century A.D. Rome. It is concluded that a number of libraries were still in existence in the early fourth century, and at least one was open as late as A.D. 455. (MES)

  15. The interpretation of Rome II criteria and method of assessment affect the irritable bowel syndrome classification of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric classification of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complicated by the potential discrepancy, between parent and child report and by the interpretation of pain-stool relations in the Rome III classification system. The aim of this study was to compare IBS classification by diary and by chi...

  16. The archive of the History of Psychology at the University of Rome, Sapienza.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844656

  17. Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in Relation to Medical Data from Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Tsipis, A.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years many studies have been conducted concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and solar activity and cosmic ray activity on human physiological state and in particular on human cardio - health state. As it is shown the human organism is sensitive to environmental changes and reacts to them through a series of variations of its physiological parameters such as heart rate, arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc. In this paper daily mean values of heart rate, as they were registered for a group of 2.028 volunteers during medical examinations in the Polyclinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy are analyzed in relation to daily cosmic ray intensity variations, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of the geomagnetic indices Dst, Ap and Kp. The results from this study show that geomagnetic activity changes and cosmic rays intensity variations may regulate the human homeostasis.

  18. New results obtained by the Rome data on {bar p}d annihilation at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspero, M.

    1994-10-01

    The reanalysis of the {bar p}n annihilations at rest made using the Rome bubble-chamber data has shown a better way for writing the amplitude of the S{sub 0}(1390){pi}{sup {minus}} channel in the 2{pi}{sup +}3{pi}{sup {minus}} final state, has given a new evaluation of the {pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup {minus}}{omega} frequencies, and has found no evidence of the S{sub 0}(1390) decay into {omega}{omega} and K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The December 2008 flood event in Rome: Was it really an extreme event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastoria, B.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bussettini, M.

    2009-04-01

    In mid December 2008, Italy suffered bad weather with heavy snowfall blanketing the north and strong winds and downpours pelting the centre-south. In particular, during the period between 10th and 12th December, intense precipitation struck the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula, inducing a flood event, which captured the attention of the national and international media, on the Tiber river and on its tributary, the Aniene. The relevance of the event was caused by the actual damages occurred in several zones over Rome area, in particular due to the downpours and to damages which would have occurred if Tiber river had overflowed its banks. The event, which was initially considered as extreme, was indeed severe but not so exceptional as shown by the meteo-hydrological post-event analysis. The peak water level of 12.55 m, recorded on 13th December at 1:30 a.m. (local time) at the Ripetta station, which is situated along the Tiber river in the centre of Rome, was higher than those observed during the last ten years (which to the utmost reached 11.41 m in December 2005). However, it did not reach the historical maximum of 16.90 m observed in 1937. Moreover, on the basis of the Ripetta historical series, such a level is associated to an ordinary flood event. Even if the flood was ordinary, a state of emergency was declared by the Rome's Mayor, since the event caused severe damages by disrupting flight and train services, blocking off major roads leading into Rome, flooding underpasses and sealing off industrial activities sited in the flooded areas, in particular nearby the confluence of the Aniene river with the Tiber river. In addition, hundreds of people were evacuated and a woman died in a her car which was submerged by a wave of water and mud in an underpass. Given these premises, the present work examines the relation between a severe, but not extraordinary, event and the considerable damages that occurred as a consequence. First, the meteorological evolution of

  20. Possible human sacrifice at the origins of Rome: novel skeletal evidences.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Pantano, Walter Benedetto; Falchetti, Mario; Minozzi, Simona; Fortini, Patrizia; Catalano, Paola; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeological excavations at the Carcer/Tullianum, in the Roman Forum, allowed the unexpected recovery of human burials associated with the very early foundations of the monument, at the beginning of the iron age. The study of these burials resulted in interesting paleopathological discoveries, concerning the skeleton of a strongly-built male, radiocarbon-dated between 830 and 780 BC. The telltale posture of the skeleton and the presence of a massive perimortal blunt force trauma of the skull shed light on the mode and circumstances of the death of this subject, and are suggestive of ritual sacrifice. The archaeological, mythological and historical backgrounds, combined with the paleopathological evidence, help us to get a glimpse of life and death at the origins of Rome. PMID:15682539

  1. Variability of foF2 over Rome and Gibilmanna during three solar cycles (1976-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrella, M.; Pezzopane, M.; Scotto, C.

    2012-05-01

    Hourly validated values of the F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) recorded at Rome, Italy (geographic coordinates 41.8°N, 12.5°E geomagnetic coordinates 42.0°N, 93.8°E), and Gibilmanna, Italy (geographic coordinates 37.6°N, 14.0°E geomagnetic coordinates 38.1°N, 93.6°E), along with the hourly quiet time reference values of foF2 (foF2QTRV) were considered around periods of minimum and maximum solar activity over the years 1976-2000. The foF2 data set was specifically organized in order to obtain an overall trend both for low and high solar activity, and different dispersion indices were used. The results obtained show that (1) at Rome, the foF2 variability is always greater during periods of high solar activity (HSA) in the hourly ranges 00:00-02:00 UT and 20:00-23:00 UT during winter months, and in the hourly ranges 00:00-10:00 UT and 04:00-16:00 UT during equinoctial and summer months respectively; (2) on the whole, around midday, for low solar activity (LSA), the foF2 variability is smaller at the equinoxes than at the solstices; for HSA, it is greater at equinoxes than at solstices; (3) for LSA, at Gibilmanna the foF2 variability is in general larger than at Rome, especially in summer, and it is characterized by a number of relative minimums and maximums greater than those observed at Rome; (4) at Rome, for both LSA and HSA, the passage of solar terminator at sunset significantly affects ionospheric variability in January, April, August, and November, at Gibilmanna in August, September, and November; (5) several variability peaks before sunrise and after sunset are observed in both stations; (6) on a monthly basis, for both LSA and HSA, a semiannual variation of foF2 variability is observed at both Rome and Gibilmanna; and (7) evidence of ionospheric variability at the typical heights of the F region, connected to upward propagating gravity waves triggered by solar terminator, is observed at Rome during some days characterized by HSA in the equinoctial

  2. Report on the international colloquium on cardio-oncology (rome, 12-14 march 2014).

    PubMed

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12-14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group of

  3. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  4. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for co-expression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased but less is known about co-transmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, co-release dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and co-express markers for dopamine (DA) and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABAA receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response followed by DA-D1-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates Ih current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases Ih, which enhances post-inhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by Ih to generate an inhibition-to-excitation “switch” in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of Ih in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA co-transmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array. PMID:23407950

  5. Pathogenicity and tissue tropism of currently circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1; clade 2.3.2) in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Bröjer, Caroline; van Amerongen, Geert; van de Bildt, Marco; van Run, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-11-18

    Reports describing the isolation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N1) clade 2.3.2 in feces from apparently healthy wild birds and the seemingly lower pathogenicity of this clade compared to clade 2.2 in several experimentally infected species, caused concern that the new clade might be maintained in the wild bird population. To investigate whether the pathogenicity of a clade 2.3.2 virus was lower than that of clades previously occurring in free-living wild birds in Europe, four tufted ducks were inoculated with influenza A/duck/HongKong/1091/2011 (H5N1) clade 2.3.2 virus. The ducks were monitored and sampled for virus excretion daily during 4 days, followed by pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virological investigations. The virus produced severe disease as evidenced by clinical signs, presence of marked lesions and abundant viral antigen in several tissues, especially the central nervous system. The study shows that HPAI-H5N1 virus clade 2.3.2 is highly pathogenic for tufted ducks and thus, they are unlikely to maintain this clade in the free-living population or serve as long-distance vectors. PMID:26441012

  6. A day at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy seen from the kids point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, G.; Burrato, P.; Marsili, A.; Team, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica Group of the INGV organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities with schools of different grades. The visit to the scientific laboratories of the INGV center of Rome represents the earliest and the most continuous project started about 10 years ago. During these years the INGV center was visited by more than 20,000 students. The researchers and the technicians of the INGV receive with competence and enthusiasm the students in order to transfer scientific knowledge and enthusiasm for scientific research, science and nature. Since Italy is a place prone to seismic and volcanic activities our lessons focalize in particular on causes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and how to behave properly during these events. This approach derived from the consciousness that preparedness is the best way to live with and to mitigate natural hazards. The visit consists of a theoretical lesson in a conference hall supported by multimedia tools, and a practical experiences based on exhibitions and hands-on experiments focused on earthquakes, plate tectonics and the inner structure of the Earth. A special experience is the visit to the control room of the INGV National Seismic Surveillance where the students can see in real time the seismic activity and how it is important its continuous monitoring 24-hours a day all year round. In the 2007-2008 scholastic year about 50 classes for more than 2,500 students and their teachers interacted with about 40 scientists. For some of the classes the visit gave the start to independent and original work. This is the case of a IVth primary school class that once back to the desk and encouraged by the teachers resumed their impressions and what their better grasped. The result is a "book" realized like a diary from their original drawings with a final section devoted to a research work they have independently done on volcanoes. The kids with a scientifically correct

  7. GeoguideRome, urban geotourism offer powered by mobile application technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Alessia; Grangier, Lucien; Reynard, Emmanuel; Kaiser, Christian; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Geoheritage studies have been highly intensified and diversified in recent years. This field of research has a strong applicability, especially in interdisciplinary and sustainable forms of tourism. For this purpose the most modern technologies are used for supporting the dissemination of research results, in particular for educational purposes (Kenteris et al., 2011 and references therein). This is the case of smartphone and tablet applications developed by the Institute of Geography and Sustainability of Lausanne University (IGD), devoted to geotourist itineraries. This work presents the application developed for the city of Rome, based on the itinerary proposed by the Earth Sciences Department of the Sapienza University (Del Monte et al., 2013; Pica et al., 2015). The Aeterna Urbs, with more than 3000 years of historical development, is a very good place to develop urban geotourism, especially because most of the cultural places are related to morphological features (Pica et al., 2015). As shown by the Geoguide Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2015) - a virtual itinerary showing the relationships between geology/geomorphology, climate/hydrology, and urban development in Lausanne (Switzerland) - and TOURinSTONES - a virtual guide on the rocks used for the construction of urban monuments and infrastructures in the city of Turin (Italy) - the urban context has the advantage of easily showing the links between natural features and human activities. From a technical point of view the application is an updated version of Geoguide Lausanne using jQuery Mobile as development framework, which allowed for increasing the usability and solved some gaps of the previous versions. The contents are organized the same way as for the Geoguide Lausanne, proposing three educational themes, an itinerary arranged in georeferenced stops shown by images and described in their characterizing aspects. The themes are Geology, History and Legends. By means of the relationships between them they

  8. Accidental Thawing of Embryos, Cryopreserved for Transfer. Two Italian cases, Milan and Rome.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco P; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bolino, Giorgio; Vullo, Annamaria; Frati, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The bioethical and juridical debate on the status of frozen embryos sometimes adds new issues arising from new scientific evidence or by accidental occurrences that bring to the attention of the scientific community the need for new practical solutions. Within this scenario, there have been, in recent years, episodes concerning the accidental thawing of embryos, which have been cryopreserved for transfer. Two Italian cases (the Milan and the Rome cases) are here reported: the Milan case involves a couple undergoing artificial insemination. Three eggs were collected for insemination and two of them had been fertilized. During the night of 8/9 May 2007 a short circuit occurred, resulting in an electricity blackout, which caused the loss of the embryos in culture, which should have been transferred to the woman's uterus on 9 May. The couple applied for damage compensation from the hospital following the loss of the embryos. The case went to Court and the result was a judgment issued by the Milan civil court, which recognized that the centre was to blame for irreparable damage to the embryos. The Rome case, involves two couples (A and B) affected by sterility who applied to an authorized public centre to undergo an ART program. Following the medical procedures, two of the embryos produced were transferred to the woman in couple A and five were frozen, whereas three embryos produced by couple B were transferred to the uterus of the woman and six eggs were cryopreserved in the centre. Two years after the procedure there was an electricity blackout, and the backup electricity generator failed to function, causing the loss of the gametes and the embryos cryopreserved in the centre. Legal proceedings begun by the couples to obtain compensation for damages are still underway. The above reported cases have significantly intensified the bioethical debate on the lawfulness of such practices and on the fate of the cryopreserved embryos, at the same time opening new frontiers in

  9. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory conditions in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Fusco, D; Forastiere, F; Michelozzi, P; Spadea, T; Ostro, B; Arcà, M; Perucci, C A

    2001-06-01

    Most of the evidence regarding the association between particulate air pollution and emergency room visits or hospital admissions for respiratory conditions and asthma comes from the USA. European time-series analyses have suggested that gaseous air pollutants are important determinants of acute hospitalization for respiratory conditions, at least as important as particulate mass. The association between daily mean levels of suspended particles and gaseous pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone) was examined. The daily emergency hospital admissions for respiratory conditions in the metropolitan area of Rome during 1995-1997 were also recorded. Daily counts of hospital admissions for total respiratory conditions (43 admissions day(-1)), acute respiratory infections including pneumonia (18 day(-1)), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (13 day(-1)), and asthma (4.5 day(-1)) among residents of all ages and among children (0-14 yrs) were analysed. The generalized additive models included spline smooth functions of the day of study, mean temperature, mean humidity, influenza epidemics, and indicator variables for day of the week and holidays. Total respiratory admissions were significantly associated with same-day level of NO2 (2.5% increase per interquartile range (IQR) change, 22.3 microg x m(-3)) and CO (2.8% increase per IQR, 1.5 mg x m(-3)). No effect was found for particulate matter and SO2, whereas O3 was associated with admissions only among children (lag 1, 5.5% increase per IQR, 23.9 microg x m3). The effect of NO2 was stronger on acute respiratory infections (lag 0, 4.0% increase) and on asthma among children (lag 1, 10.7% increase). The admissions for all ages for asthma and COPD were associated only with same-day level of CO (5.5% and 4.3% increase, respectively). Multipollutant models confirmed the role of CO on all respiratory admissions, including asthma and COPD, and that of NO2 on acute respiratory infections

  10. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallone, Sandra; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. We defined Saharan dust days by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a Saharan dust–PM interaction term to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of PM, especially coarse PM (PM2.5–10), on mortality would be enhanced on dust days. Results: Interquartile range increases in PM2.5–10 (10.8 μg/m3) and PM10 (19.8 μg/m3) were associated with increased mortality due to natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory causes, with estimated effects ranging from 2.64% to 12.65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–25.42%] for the association between PM2.5–10 and respiratory mortality (0- to 5-day lag). Associations of PM2.5–10 with cardiac mortality were stronger on Saharan dust days (9.73%; 95% CI, 4.25–15.49%) than on dust-free days (0.86%; 95% CI, –2.47% to 4.31%; p = 0.005). Saharan dust days also modified associations between PM10 and cardiac mortality (9.55% increase; 95% CI, 3.81–15.61%; vs. dust-free days: 2.09%; 95% CI, –0.76% to 5.02%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: We found evidence of effects of PM2.5–10 and PM10 on natural and cause-specific mortality, with stronger estimated effects on cardiac mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks. Toxicological and biological effects of particles from desert sources need to be further investigated and taken into account in air quality

  11. Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides: the case of the Prenestini Mts. (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fubelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    On May 21st 2008, after a period of heavy rainfall, 107 shallow and deep-seated landslides involved the eastern slope of the Prenestini Mts. (40 km east of Rome). Many buildings of San Vito Romano (3.500 inhabitants) and most of the surrounding main roads were heavily damaged. All the shallow landslides occurred between 6 and 11 a.m.. The pluviometric data record showed a total rainfall of 196 mm in the previous three days, and a peak of 72 mm during the above time interval. The study area is characterized by a monotonous lithology, made of intercalation of marls and sandstone, upper Tortonian in age. Boreholes drilled in colluvial and eluvial covers showed variable thickness (from 20 cm to more than 2 meters), but comparable mechanical properties and permeability. Because of the nature of involved material and steepness of slopes, a large number of fast moving landslides were triggered. Field investigation allowed to recognize the main landslide predisposing factors, such as the occurrence of recently chopped down woods (45 debris flows), old-fired woods (12 debris flows), and road-cuttings (22 soil slips and 12 debris flows). In order to establish relationship between the occurrence of landslide and the amount of rainfall, an inventory of all the landslides occurred in the area has been carried out by field survey and archive investigation at the Province of Rome, the San Vito Romano, Pisoniano and Gerano municipalities, as well as at road, water and gas network agencies. Moreover, a 30 years historical pluviometric record has been examined. The data analysis shows a strict relationship between rainfall intensity, duration of rainstorms, and antecedent rainfall. In detail, only 11% of landslides occurred with precipitation lower than 150 mm during the previous month while 57% of landslides occurred with precipitation above 200 mm landslides occurred in the same time. Anytime monthly precipitation was more than 350 mm there were landslide events. 87% of landslides

  12. Witnesses of the body: medico-legal cases in seventeenth-century Rome.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Studying early modern medico-legal testimonies can enrich our understanding of witnessing, the focus of much research in the history of science. Expert testimonies were well established in the Roman Cannon law, but the sphere of competence of expert witnesses - one of the grounds on which seventeenth-century physicians claimed social and intellectual authority- troubled contemporary jurists. By reconstructing these debates in Counter Reformation Rome, and by placing in them the testimonies given by Poalo Zacchia, one of the founding fathers of legal medicine, this article discusses the epistemological and social issues surrounding the definition of expertise about the body in court. It shows how a high-ranking expert witness would define his competence versus the legal authority on the one hand, lower-status expert witnesses on the other. But it also explores the interactions between specific legal constraints, for example about eye witnessing, and the ways in which different kinds of witnesses would use the body as a source of evidence for testimony. While engaging with medico-legal issues including the ambiguous signs of childbirth and the (in)visibility of pain, the article examines their meanings within Counter Reformation social controversies, including control over sexuality, imposition of discipline and the social status of physicians. PMID:12240683

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases isolated in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; García-Fernández, Aurora; Varesi, Paola; Fortini, Daniela; Gerardi, Serena; Penni, Adriano; Mancini, Carlo; Giordano, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a major problem in many different hospitals worldwide, causing outbreaks as well as sporadic infections. The prevalence of Escherichia coli ESBL producers was analyzed in a surveillance study performed on the population attending the Policlinico Umberto I, the largest university hospital in Rome, Italy. We also investigated genotypes, pathogenicity islands, and plasmids in the ESBL-positive E. coli isolates as further markers that are useful in describing the epidemiology of the infections. In this survey, 163 nonreplicate isolates of Escherichia coli were isolated from patients from 86 different wards, and 28 were confirmed as ESBL producers. A high prevalence (26/28) of CTX-M-15 producers was observed within the bacterial population circulating in this hospital, and the dissemination of this genetic trait was associated with the spread of related strains; however, these do not have the characteristics of a single epidemic clone spreading. The dissemination was also linked to horizontal transfer among the prevalent E. coli genotypes of multireplicon plasmids showing FIA, FIB, and FII replicons in various combinations, which are well adapted to the E. coli species. The analysis of related bacteria suggests a probable interpatient transmission occurring in several wards, causing small outbreaks. PMID:17959756

  14. Dental size and shape in the Roman imperial age: two examples from the area of Rome.

    PubMed

    Manzi, G; Santandrea, E; Passarello, P

    1997-04-01

    Different socioeconomic strata of Roman imperial age are represented by two large dental samples recovered from archaeological excavations near Rome, Italy. Teeth are investigated for crown dimensions and morphological variants. One sample, comprising 1,465 permanent teeth, represents the rural town of Lucus Feroniae (LFR) and is mainly composed of slaves and war veterans. The other, comprising 734 teeth from the Isola Sacra necropolis at Portus Romae (NIS), represents the "middle class" segment of an urban population. Both series show small dental dimensions and fit at the lower end of the trend toward dental reduction in Europe from the Upper Paleolithic to the historical times. The urban sample is less variable metrically and less sexually dimorphic than the rural one. The analysis of discrete crown traits shows absence of rare phenotypic variants in both series. The urban sample is also less variable in this last respect, suggesting that the gene pool of this particular "stratum" of the NIS population was more homogeneous than that of LFR. The occurrence of enamel hypoplasia indicates that metabolic stress during growth and development was similar in LFR and NIS. The overall set of available data is evaluated in the light of the history of the two Roman sites and the composition of each population. PMID:9140539

  15. Radar-disdrometer comparison during rain events over the urban area of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, C.; Porcù, F.; D'Adderio, L. P.; Prodi, F.; Baldini, L.; Gorgucci, E.

    2009-04-01

    Pludix, a rain-gauge disdrometer in X-band (9.5 GHz), has been installed in September 2007 in the La Sapienza University area, at about 13 Km far from the C-band (5.5 GHz) polarimetric Doppler radar Polar55C. The radar is located in the south-east of the city of Rome (Italy), in the Tor Vergata research area. One-minute disdrometer data, representing the number of drops per 21 class diameter, have been continuously recorded since then, allowing the retrieval of the reflectivity and the rain rate at the ground level. PPI radar scans were done over the full 360° in azimuth and at six elevations. The time interval between the PPI scans is 5 minutes. In the first part of the work, some convective and stratiform events have been selected using disdrometer and radar data. The events microphysics were analysed using the disdrometer, in terms of drop size distribution (DSD) parameters and rainfall integral parameters. In the second part of the work, the disdrometer DSD, rain rate (R) and reflectivity (Z) measurements were compared to co-located radar measurements for a number of rain events and analysed in terms of Z-R relationship (also used for the radar calibration). Finally, the synergy of a radar hydrometeor classification method and of the disdrometer data is used for the microphysical characterization of some rain events.

  16. Antitoxin use and pediatric intensive care for viper bites in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Marano, M; Pisani, M; Stoppa, F; Di Nardo, M; Pirozzi, N; Luca, E; Pulitanò, S; Conti, G; Marzano, L; De Luca, D; Valentini, P; Pietrini, D; Piastra, M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy viper bites represent an uncommon event, though envenomation can cause severe complications, more in children than adults, because of dose/body size ratio. We present a case series within a selected population: 10 Italian cases (from Rome surroundings) of viperbites requiring PICU admission, over a 5-year interval. Five children showed a systemic involvement, whereas the remaining patients showed a damage. All were managed and closely monitored in an ICU setting. Relevant clinical findings and therapeutic approach, ICU course and complications have been recorded. Age range was 3-15 years with mean age of 6,9 (SD±4,58) years; 2 patients needed respiratory support beyond oxygen supplementation. Most patients underwent fluid loading, while hemodynamic support was given to4/10. Median PICU stay was 60 hours (IQR=24.0-75.5). No mortality was reported. Indications and precautions for administration of antivenom in the last years have been reviewed: early treatment seems to reduce mortality/morbidity, though representing a threat for children. Current recommendations for the treatment of viper envenomation have been described, based on a literature's review and the application of these knowledges to clinical reality of our PICUs. Therefore, paediatric patients with systemic or rapidly evolving symptoms should be monitored carefully for the development of bite-related complications in an ICU setting mostly in younger children. PMID:24610614

  17. Chemical characterization of indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter in an occupied apartment in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2016-08-01

    The daily concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 was determined in indoor and outdoor 24-h samples simultaneously collected for a total of 5 weeks during a winter and a summer period in an apartment sited in Rome, Italy. The use of a specifically developed very quiet sampler (<35 dB) allowed the execution of the study while the family living in the apartment led its normal life. The indoor concentration of PM2.5 showed a small seasonal variation, while outdoor values were much higher during the winter study. Outdoor sources were found to contribute significantly to indoor PM concentration especially during the summer, when the apartment was naturally ventilated by opening the windows. During the winter the infiltration of outdoor PM components was lower and mostly regulated by the particle dimensions. Organics displayed In/Out ratios higher than unity during both periods; their indoor production increased significantly during the weekends, where the family stayed mostly at home. PM components were grouped into macrosources (soil, sea, secondary inorganics, traffic, organics). During the summer the main contributions to outdoor PM2.5 came from soil (30%), secondary inorganics (29%) and organics (22%). Organics dominated both indoor PM2.5 during the summer (60%) and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 during the winter (51% and 66%, respectively). PMID:26184798

  18. Science and culture around the Montessori's first "Children's Houses" in Rome (1907-1915).

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Between 1907 and 1908, Maria Montessori's (1870-1952) educational method was elaborated at the Children's Houses of the San Lorenzo district in Rome. This pioneering experience was the basis for the international fame that came to Montessori after the publication of her 1909 volume dedicated to her "Method." The "Montessori Method" was considered by some to be scientific, liberal, and revolutionary. The present article focuses upon the complex contexts of the method's elaboration. It shows how the Children's Houses developed in relation to a particular scientific and cultural eclecticism. It describes the factors that both favored and hindered the method's elaboration, by paying attention to the complex network of social, institutional, and scientific relationships revolving around the figure of Maria Montessori. A number of "contradictory" dimensions of Montessori's experience are also examined with a view to helping to revise her myth and offering the image of a scholar who was a real early-twentieth-century prototype of a "multiple" behavioral scientist. PMID:18649376

  19. The perceived quality of soundscape in three urban parks in Rome.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Gallo, Veronica; Asdrubali, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    The present paper reports a socio-acoustic survey carried out in three large urban parks in Rome, selected on the basis of the outcome of a preliminary online survey. According to the experimental protocol applied in a previous study carried out in Milan and Naples, binaural recordings in 85 sites and interviews with 266 users of the three parks were performed only during the day in summertime. On the basis of selected acoustical descriptors, the sonic environment of the three parks was categorized and, thanks to statistical analysis, three clusters were identified. The results confirm that the sound environment in urban parks is often considered as "good" or "excellent" even if the sound pressure level is nearly always higher than the limits commonly used to define quiet areas. This is due to the influence of other factors, such as the presence of trees, natural features, and the tranquility; all of these components cannot be neglected in the assessment of the soundscape because they directly affect the psychological state of the person. PMID:23862889

  20. Investigation of Ionospheric Slab Thickness behaviour over Rome during high solar activity period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Jain, Sudhir

    The subject of the present study is to analyze the characteristic variations of the ionospheric slab thickness at Rome (41°N, 12°E, LT= (UT+1h), DIP=57°.4) for the period August, 2011 to July, 2012. The work deals with diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic activity variations of slab thickness. We observed that the seasonal mean value of slab thickness is higher during summer months than equinox and winter months and the mean diurnal variations of the slab thickness characterised with night-time values that are substantially higher than the day-time values during winter (night-to-day ratio between 1.01), but higher day-time and lower night-time values during summer (night-to-day ratio of 0.65). The slab thickness decreases with increase in solar flux value for mid-latitude. The results have been compared with the earlier ones and discussed in terms of possible source mechanism responsible for the variation of slab thickness at mid-latitude region. Keywords: F2 layer critical frequency (foF2); F2-layer electron density (NmF2); Slab thickness (τ); Solar Flux.

  1. A statistical analysis on the relationship between thunderstorms and the sporadic E Layer over Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, V.; Scotto, C.; Pietrella, M.; Sgrigna, V.; Conti, L.; Sátori, G.

    2013-11-01

    Meteorological processes (cold fronts, mesoscale convective complexes, thunderstorms) in the troposphere can generate upward propagating waves in the neutral atmosphere affecting the behaviour of the ionosphere. One type of these waves are the internal atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) which are often generated by thunderstorms. Davis & Johnson (2005) found in low pressure systems that a localized intensification of the sporadic E layer (Es) can be attributed to lightnings. To confirm this result, we have performed two different statistical analysis using the time series of the critical frequency (foEs), the virtual height of the sporadic E layer (h'Es), and meteorological observations (lightnings, Infrared maps) over the ionospheric station of Rome (41.9o N, 12.5o E). In the first statistical analysis, we separated the days of 2009 into two groups: stormy days and fair-weather days, then we studied the occurrence and the properties of the Es separately for the two different groups. No significant differences have been found. In the second case, a superposed epoch analysis (SEA) was used to study the behaviour of the critical frequency and virtual height 100 hours before and after the lightnings. The SEA shows a statistically significant decrease in the critical frequency after the time of the lightnings, which indicates a sudden decrease in the electron density of the sporadic E layer associated with lightnings.

  2. [Aspects of senile dementia in ancient Rome: literary fiction and factual reality].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Schäfer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Old people and their pecularities have been the object of writers since the beginning of Western literature. The aim of this study is to verify the social and juridical significance of senile dementia in ancient Rome. Among the few relevant sources the 10th satire of Juvenal attracts attention. It describes a demented patient who revises his succession in favour of a lady with bad reputation. Logically, we wonder whether such dispositions were possible and after all legally binding. Or did Juvenal exaggerate? A look at the Roman legislation shows: Since the Twelve Tablet Law there were instruments to control or to help demented people. This meant care in the sense of the today's curatorship or guardianship. These measures were supposed to prevent extravagancy or doing business and legal acts like marriages or last wills in the state of diminished responsibility. Nevertheless, it must be assumed that there was a considerable discrepancy between juridical theory and daily practice, because the position of the "pater familias" was virtually untouchable, the individual freedom of the full citizen was firmly underlined and the Roman civil law allowed only little executive interferences. Juvenal's bizarre example should not only be taken as good literary fiction. It might reflect the sad, but nevertheless probable reality of the people directly concerned. Apart from that it has to be said that senile dementia played only a minor role in Roman legislation. Mainly because there were considerably less very old people--and in particular people with senile dementia--than today. PMID:17564159

  3. Doubtful outcome of the validation of the Rome II questionnaire: validation of a symptom based diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used in research and clinical practice. For gastrointestinal complaints the Rome II questionnaire is internationally known but not validated. The aim of this study was to validate a printed and a computerized version of Rome II, translated into Swedish. Results from various analyses are reported. Methods Volunteers from a population based colonoscopy study were included (n = 1011), together with patients seeking general practice (n = 45) and patients visiting a gastrointestinal specialists' clinic (n = 67). The questionnaire consists of 38 questions concerning gastrointestinal symptoms and complaints. Diagnoses are made after a special code. Our validation included analyses of the translation, feasibility, predictability, reproducibility and reliability. Kappa values and overall agreement were measured. The factor structures were confirmed using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency. Results and Discussion Translation and back translation showed good agreement. The questionnaire was easy to understand and use. The reproducibility test showed kappa values of 0.60 for GERS, 0.52 for FD, and 0.47 for IBS. Kappa values and overall agreement for the predictability when the diagnoses by the questionnaire were compared to the diagnoses by the clinician were 0.26 and 90% for GERS, 0.18 and 85% for FD, and 0.49 and 86% for IBS. Corresponding figures for the agreement between the printed and the digital version were 0.50 and 92% for GERS, 0.64 and 95% for FD, and 0.76 and 95% for IBS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for GERS was 0.75 with a span per item of 0.71 to 0.76. For FD the figures were 0.68 and 0.54 to 0.70 and for IBS 0.61 and 0.56 to 0.66. The Rome II questionnaire has never been thoroughly validated before even if diagnoses made by the Rome criteria have been compared to diagnoses made in clinical practice. Conclusion The accuracy of the Swedish version of the Rome II is of

  4. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  5. Meeting report: 28th International Conference on Antiviral Research in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The 28th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Rome, Italy from May 11 to 15, 2015. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. Phillip Furman, the Elion award recipient, described the research leading to sofosbuvir. Dennis Liotta, who received the Holý award, described how an investigation into HIV entry inhibitors led to a new therapy for cancer patients. Erica Ollmann Saphire, winner of the Prusoff Young Investigator award, explored the world of viral proteins and how they remodel to perform different essential roles in viral replication. The keynote addresses, by Raffaele De Francesco and Michael Manns, reported on the remarkable progress made in the therapy of chronic HCV infections. A third keynote address, by Armand Sprecher, related the difficulties and successes of Médicins Sans Frontières in West Africa ravaged by the Ebola outbreak. There were three mini-symposia on RNA Viruses, Antiviral Chemistry and Emerging Viruses. There was a good collection of talks on RNA viruses (norovirus, rabies, dengue, HEV, HCV, and RSV). A highlight of the chemistry was the preparation of prodrugs for nucleotide triphosphates as this opens a door to new options. The third mini-symposium emphasized how research work in the antiviral area is continuing to expand and needs to do so with a sense of urgency. Although this meeting report covers only a few of the presentations, it aims to illustrate the great diversity of topics discussed at ICAR, bringing together knowledge and expertise from the whole spectrum of antiviral research. PMID:26431686

  6. Behaviours of psychotropic substances in indoor and outdoor environments of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The intensive campaign conducted in March 2013 in Rome, Italy, at one coffee bar, one primary school and two homes revealed that in indoor environments, drugs can reach concentration levels exceeding orders of magnitude those recorded outdoors, even when the same substances are not consumed there. At homes, the gross average of cocaine reached 0.13 ng/m3 indoors and 0.09 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~1.6); Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was 6.6 ng/m3 indoors and 1.1 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~7); cannabidiol reached 0.30 and 0.07 ng/m3, respectively (ratio~6); and cannabinol 2.3 ng/m3 indoors and 0.7 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~3). At the coffee bar, the average drug burdens were even higher, namely 0.33, 4.7, 14.3 and 2.5 ng/m3, respectively, for cocaine, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. The school presented a special behaviour: the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of cocaine, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol accounting for ~1.5, ~0, ~4 and ~0.5, in the order. Cocaine was more abundant on weekdays at all sites except one home indoors, whilst total cannabinoids prevailed on weekends at the other home and the school. Using the regional network stations as reference, all indoor locations except one were more contaminated by cocaine by a factor≥1.5, whilst cannabinoids were, aside from the school, up to 100 times higher. PMID:24705952

  7. Indoor air quality at life and work environments in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, P; Balducci, C; Perilli, M; Vichi, F; Imperiali, A; Cecinato, A

    2016-02-01

    The air quality of three different microenvironments (school, dwelling, and coffee bar) located in the city of Rome, Italy, was assessed. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were determined during an intensive 3-week sampling campaign conducted in March 2013. In interiors, total particulate PAHs ranged from 1.53 to 4.96 ng/m(3) while outdoor air contained from 2.75 to 3.48 ng/m(3). In addition, gaseous toxicants, i.e., NO2, NOx , SO2, O3, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene isomers), were determined both in internal and external air. To solve the origin of indoor and outdoor PAHs, several source apportionment methods were applied. Multivariate analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles, biomass burning for heating purposes, and soil resuspension were the major sources of PAHs in the city. No linear correlation was established between indoor and outdoor values for PM2.5 and BTEX; the respective indoor/outdoor concentration ratios exceed unity except for PM2.5 in the no smoking home and benzene in all school floors. This suggests that important internal sources such as tobacco smoking, cleaning products, and resuspension dust contributed to indoor pollution. Using the monitoring stations of ARPA Lazio regional network as reference, the percentage within PAH group of benzo[a]pyrene, which is the WHO marker for the carcinogenic risk estimates, was ca. 50% higher in all locations investigated. PMID:26490929

  8. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni. PMID:25586611

  9. Alternative Antigen Processing for MHC Class I: Multiple Roads Lead to Rome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia C.; van Hall, Thorbald

    2015-01-01

    The well described conventional antigen-processing pathway is accountable for most peptides that end up in MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. These peptides experienced liberation by the proteasome and transport by the peptide transporter TAP. However, there are multiple roads that lead to Rome, illustrated by the increasing number of alternative processing pathways that have been reported during last years. Interestingly, TAP-deficient individuals do not succumb to viral infections, suggesting that CD8 T cell immunity is sufficiently supported by alternative TAP-independent processing pathways. To date, a diversity of viral and endogenous TAP-independent peptides have been identified in the grooves of different MHC class I alleles. Some of these peptides are not displayed by normal TAP-positive cells and we therefore called them TEIPP, for “T-cell epitopes associated with impaired peptide processing.” TEIPPs are hidden self-antigens, are derived from normal housekeeping proteins, and are processed via unconventional processing pathways. Per definition, TEIPPs are presented via TAP-independent pathways, but recent data suggest that part of this repertoire still depend on proteasome and metalloprotease activity. An exception is the C-terminal peptide of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane-spanning ceramide synthase Trh4 that is surprisingly liberated by the signal peptide peptidase (SPP), the proteolytic enzyme involved in cleaving leader sequences. The intramembrane cleaving SPP is thereby an important contributor of TAP-independent peptides. Its family members, like the Alzheimer’s related presenilins, might contribute as well, according to our preliminary data. Finally, alternative peptide routing is an emerging field and includes processes like the unfolded protein response, the ER-associated degradation, and autophagy-associated vesicular pathways. These data convince us that there is a world to be discovered in the field of unconventional

  10. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed. PMID:24218113

  11. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in Taiwan: questionnaire-based survey for adults based on the Rome III criteria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Yuan; Chen, Po-Hon; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Tang, Ren-Bin; Wu, Lite; James, Frank E

    2012-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are a group of disorders of the digestive system in which the chronic or recurrent symptoms cannot be explained by the presence of structural or tissue abnormality. This survey used a modified Rome III questionnaire on the health and nutrition status of a general population in Taiwan during 2005-2008. A total of 4,275 responders completed the questionnaire. The sample was evenly distributed for men (n=2,137) and women (n=2,138). The prevalence of FGID was 26.2%. Unspecified functional bowel disorder was the most prevalent (8.9%). The second was functional dyspepsia (5.3%), and the third were irritable bowel syndrome (4.4%) and functional constipation (4.4%). Women had a greater prevalence than males (33.2% compared to 22.4%, p<0.05) with regards to total FGID. Most categories of FGID were significantly prominent in women, except functional diarrhea. The FGID groups took fewer servings of vegetables and fruits than the non-FGID group each day (vegetables 2.51 vs 2.70, p<0.001; fruits 0.82 vs 0.91, p<0.001). Smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing had no significant impaction on prevalence of FGID. The mean BSRS (brief-symptom rating scale) for screening depression and suicide ideation was higher in the FGID group (2.86 vs 1.63, p<0.001). In conclusion, FGID diagnosed with Rome III criteria are not uncommon in Taiwan's general population. Subjects who met the Rome III criteria for FGID in Taiwan were younger, had less vegetables and fruits intake, higher BSRS scores and were of greater female predominance. PMID:23017318

  12. Analysis on Awareness of Functional Dyspepsia and Rome Criteria Among Japanese Internists by the Self-administered Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the commonest diseases in the field of Internal Medicine. The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) has been enlightening the term and concept of FD. Aim of this survey was to elucidate the understanding status of FD and Rome criteria and attitude toward FD among Japanese internists. Methods Data were collected at the time of lifelong education course for certified members of Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. Self-administered questionnaires were delivered to the medical doctors prior to the lectures. Results Analysis subjects were 1,623 (24-90 years old) internists among 1,660 medical doctors out of 4,264 attendees. The terms related to FD were known in 62.0-68.9% of internists, whereas 95.5% understood chronic gastritis. Internists who had been taking care of FD patients informed them as chronic gastritis (50.0%), FD in Japanese Kanji character (50.8%) and FD in Kanji and Katakana (18.6%). Logistic linear regression analysis revealed that positive factors for the understanding of FD and intensive care for FD patients were practitioner, caring many patients and certified physician by JSGE. Existence of Rome criteria was known in 39.9% of internists, and 31.8% out of them put it to practical use. The certified physician by JSGE was a positive factor for awareness, but not for utilization. Conclusions The results suggest the needs of enlightening the medical term FD in Japan and revision of Rome criteria for routine clinical practice. Precise recognition of FD may enhance efficient patient-based clinical practice. PMID:24466450

  13. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. Methods The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. Results During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. Conclusions We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population. PMID:26690730

  14. Measures of the Earth obliquity during the 1701 winter solstice at the Clementine meridian line in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A.; Sigismondi, C.; Regoli, V.

    2015-08-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope of measuring the obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of Pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity were taken by Francesco Bianchini. He was the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bolonia. The accuracy of the data is discussed from the point of view of the use of the pinhole.

  15. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a data set consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosonde data of Pratica di Mare, WMO, World Meteorological Organization, site no. 16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid- and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach at the lidar site of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), allows characterization of cirrus clouds over the RTV site and attests to the robustness of such classification. To acquire some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff, in terms of frequency distribution functions and dependencies on the mid-height cirrus temperature, have been performed. A preliminary study relating some meteorological parameters (e.g., relative humidity, wind components) to cirrus clusters has also been conducted. The RTV cirrus results, recomputed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), show good agreement with other midlatitude lidar cirrus observations for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin and opaque cirrus classes (10%, 49% and 41%, respectively). The overall mean value of cirrus optical depth is 0.37 ± 0.18, while most retrieved LReff values

  16. A newly-emerged (August 2013) artificially-triggered fumarole near the Fiumicino airport, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sella, Pio; Billi, Andrea; Mazzini, Ilaria; De Filippis, Luigi; Pizzino, Luca; Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-06-01

    Early in the morning of 24 August, 2013, following by hours the drilling of a shallow borehole in the same spot, a new fumarole producing emissions of CO2-rich gas, water, and mud suddenly appeared at a crossroad along the fenced area of the Fiumicino international airport of Rome, Italy. Similar episodes have been scientifically documented or simply reported in recent and past years. To understand why gases are easily entrapped in the shallow subsurface of the Fiumicino area, we used five borehole cores drilled by us, analyzed the stratigraphy of these and other nearby cores, acquired a 2D seismic refraction tomogram, and performed chemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected from aquifers intercepted by two drilled boreholes. Our boreholes were realized with proper anti-gas measures as, while drilling, we recorded the presence of pressurized gases at a specific permeable gravel level. Results show that, in the study area, gases become mainly entrapped in a mid-Pleistocene gravel horizon at about 40-50 m depth. This horizon contains a confined aquifer that stores the endogenous upwelling gases. The gravel is interposed between two silty-clayey units. The lower unit, very hard and overconsolidated, is affected by fractures that allow ascending gases to bypass the otherwise impermeable shale, permeate the gravel, and dissolve into the aquifer. In contrast, the upper unit is impermeable to fluids and seals the gas-pressurized aquifer, which therefore constitutes a source of hazard during human activities such as well drilling, quarrying, and various building-related excavations. As the stratigraphy of the Fiumicino area is very common in large portions of the densely populated Roman area and as the adjacent volcanic districts are hydrothermally active, we conclude that phenomena similar to that observed at Fiumicino could again occur both at Fiumicino and elsewhere in the surrounding region. As a prompt confirmation of our conclusion, we signal that

  17. Dead infants, cruel mothers, and heroic popes: the visual rhetoric of foundling care at the hospital of Santo Spirito, Rome.

    PubMed

    Presciutti, Diana Bullen

    2011-01-01

    The fresco cycle painted at the behest of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 1470s in the main ward of the hospital of Santo Spirito in rome comprises an extended pictorial biography of Sixtus, prefaced by scenes representing the legendary foundation of the hospital by his predecessor Innocent III. The legend, which tells how Innocent established Santo Spirito as a foundling hospital in response to the discovery of victims of infanticide in the Tiber River, positions the pope as the savior of the city's unwanted children. This article elucidates how the construction and renovation of the hospital is presented in the cycle as a generative product of papal will, with the care of foundlings situated as an integral part of the image of the pope as both Father of the Church and restorer of past glory to the city of Rome. While the frescoes engage with both widespread conventions for representing infanticide and commonplace notions of the social value of caring for abandoned children, I demonstrate that the ideologically potent visual rhetoric of foundling care was also flexible, and could be adapted to meet the specific needs of a particular institutional and patronal context. PMID:22165440

  18. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption. PMID:18230413

  19. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  20. Measurement of organic and elemental carbon in downtown Rome and background area: physical behavior and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Rosada, Alberto; Dodaro, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    A significant portion of the particulate matter is the total carbonaceous fraction (or total carbon, TC), composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which shows a large variety of organic compounds, e.g. aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, acids, etc. In this paper, TC, EC and OC concentrations determined in a downtown Rome urban area are discussed considering the influence of meteorological conditions on the temporal-spatial aerosol distribution. Similar measurements were performed at ENEA Casaccia, an area outside Rome, which is considered as the ome background. Since 2000, TC, EC and OC measurements have been performed by means of an Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor equipped with a NDIR detector. The EC and OC concentrations trends are compared with benzene and CO trends, which are specific indicators of autovehicular traffic, for identifying the primary EC and OC contributions and the secondary OC fraction origin. Further, a chemical investigation is reported for investigating how the main organic (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and inorganic (i.e., metals, ions) fractions vary their levels during the investigated period in relationship to new regulations and/or technological innovations. PMID:25341186

  1. Editing Newton in Geneva and Rome: The Annotated Edition of the Principia by Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier.

    PubMed

    Guicciardini, Niccolò

    2015-07-01

    This contribution examines the circumstances of composition of the annotated edition of Newton's Principia that was printed in Geneva in 1739-1742, which ran to several editions and was still in print in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century. This edition was the work of the Genevan Professor of Mathematics, Jean Louis Calandrini, and of two Minim friars based in Rome, Thomas Le Seur and François Jacquier. The study of the context in which this edition was conceived sheds light on the early reception of Newtonianism in Geneva and Rome. By taking into consideration the careers of Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier, as authors, lecturers and leading characters of Genevan and Roman cultural life, I will show that their involvement in the enterprise of annotating Newton's Principia answered specific needs of Genevan and Roman culture. The publication and reception of the Genevan annotated edition has also a broader European dimension. Both Calandrini and Jacquier were in touch with the French république des lettres, most notably with Clairaut and Du Châtelet, and with the Bernoulli family in Basel. Therefore, this study is also relevant for the understanding of the dissemination of Newton's ideas in Europe. PMID:26104303

  2. On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic properties of traffic-related airborne particulate matter (PM) in the city of Rome, Italy, have been previously analyzed and interpreted as suitable proxies to discriminate between different vehicular sources. In this study, we carried out a new set of measurements and analyses specifically devoted to the identification and evaluation of the contribution of ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles to the overall magnetic assemblage of traffic-related PM in Rome. In particular, the presence and the concentration of SP particles have been estimated on powders collected from disk brakes and gasoline exhaust pipes of circulating vehicles and from Quercus ilex leaves grown along high-traffic roads, measuring their hysteresis parameters in a range of temperatures from 293 K to 10 K and measuring the time decay of their saturation remanent magnetization (MRS) at room temperature. The SP fraction contributes for the 10-15% to the overall room temperature MRS and causes the observed changes in the hysteresis properties measured upon cooling down to 10 K. In all the analyzed samples the SP fraction is associated to a generally prevailing population of larger ferrimagnetic multidomain (MD) particles and we suppose that in traffic-related PM the SP fraction mainly occurs as coating of MD particles and originated by localized stress in the oxidized outer shell surrounding the unoxidized core of magnetite-like grains. Under this hypothesis, the estimate of SP content in traffic-related PM cannot be considered a robust proxy to estimate the overall concentration of nanometric particles.

  3. Mercury and Other Metals in Feathers of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) and Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the feathers of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) from Amchitka and Kiska islands (Aleutians). Between species, puffins had 10 times higher chromium (arithmetic mean = 1820 ppb), 7.5 times higher selenium (mean = 6600 ppb), and 3 times higher mercury (mean = 2540 ppb) than eiders. Eiders had significantly higher levels of manganese than puffins. Puffins are higher on the food chain than eiders, which is reflected in their generally higher levels of metals in their feathers. Interisland differences were generally small, and there were few significant differences as a function of the three nuclear test locations on Amchitka. The only sex-related difference was that female puffins had higher mercury than males (arithmetic mean of 3060 ppb vs. 2270 ppb). Mean levels of metals in the feathers of puffins and eiders from the Aleutians were low compared with comparable studies elsewhere, and the relatively low levels of metals do not indicate the potential for adverse behavioral or reproductive effects in the birds themselves, nor pose concern for other consumers, including subsistence hunters. PMID:18712499

  4. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Danilo Simonini; dos Santos, Edmilson; Leal, Silvana Gomes; de Jesus, Andrea Karla; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão; Dutra, Irapuan; Barros, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction. Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake showed no apparent reaction, and after ~ 1-2 min, the adults rejoined the remaining group members that were mobbing and vocalizing from 5 to 6 m above. The group left the scene ~ 7 min after the onset of the attack and was not seen again. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree. Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought. PMID:26467338

  5. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zwerts, J. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J. M.; de Boer, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  6. Do Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?

    PubMed

    Kyle, Steven C; Freeberg, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. Responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. To balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. Two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). In the current study, flocks of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, were presented with perched hawk and owl models. Predator model head and body orientation were independently manipulated relative to a feeding station birds were using. Chickadees and titmice avoided the feeders more when the heads of the models were facing toward the feeders compared to facing away from the feeders. Calling behavior of birds was also affected by head orientation of the models. No effect of predator body orientation on chickadee and titmouse behavior was detected. The results indicate that when chickadees and titmice detect a perched avian predator, they assess risk primarily based upon its head orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27195595

  7. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  8. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  9. Needs and challenges of daily life for people with Down syndrome residing in the city of Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, M; Biasini, G; Calignano, M T; Celani, G; De Grossi, G; Digilio, M C; Fermariello, C C; Loffredo, G; Luchino, F; Marchese, A; Mazotti, S; Menghi, B; Razzano, C; Tiano, C; Zambon Hobart, A; Zampino, G; Zuccalà, G

    2011-01-01

    Background Population-based surveys on the quality of life of people with Down syndrome (DS) are difficult to perform because of ethical and legal policies regarding privacy and confidential information, but they are essential for service planning. Little is known about the sample size and variability of quality of life of people with DS living in the city of Rome, which has a population of 2.7 million inhabitants. The aim of the present study is to explore the needs and challenges in health, social integration and daily life, of people with DS living in Rome. Methodology A cross-sectional, census-based survey was conducted in 2006. All family doctors (3016 in total) of the National Health Service were involved by the Statistical Bureau of the Municipality of Rome. As per the census, every resident citizen is registered with a family doctor and every person with disabilities is coded. Associations for Down Syndrome encouraged their members to participate in the research. Questionnaires were completed by families of people with DS, in accordance with privacy laws. Findings An initial survey, conducted via a letter and a telephone contact with family doctors, identified 884 people with DS residing in the city of Rome. Data on the medical and social conditions of 518 people with DS, ranging in age from 0 to 64 years, were collected. Some 88% of these were living with their original family; 82.1% had one or more siblings, and 19.5% had lost one or both parents. A full 100% of children with DS were enrolled in the public school system. This ensures that they are fully occupied and entirely integrated in society. After secondary school there is a lack of opportunities. Thus, only 10% of adults were working with a regular contract. A mere 42.2% of people with DS aged 25–30 were involved in some form of regular activity (although not always on a daily basis). After the age of 30, the percentage of people demonstrating decline in function increased sharply, while

  10. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  11. A dental radiologic health laboratory teaching method.

    PubMed

    Hallisey, R M; Darzenta, N C

    1976-07-01

    The School of Dental Medicine at Tufts University has given new direction to the understanding of radiologic health through a program in which all students participate in some laboratory activities directly related to the problems of radiologic health in dental practice. This article presents an explanation of the background of this program and the experiments performed and discusses the interest in the program and its effect on the dental students. The laboratory program described is held for 3 1/2 hours on Wednesday afternoons at the Dental School, since this is a period of minimum patient load in the Radiology Department. The course is presented for third-year dental students who already have takin a lecture course in the fundamentals and techniques of radiology and have received training in the proper procedures for taking radiographs. The program is designed as a series of experiments dealing with machine output, filtration, collimation, exposure factors, scatter radiation, film density, patient protection, and shielding. The students are introduced to various radiation-detection instruments and given the opportunity to use these instruments to measure output and scatter-radiation levels under varying conditions. The laboratory teaching method presented can also be reprogrammed for different group sizes and time schedules. PMID:1065831

  12. Stable isotopic evidence for fluid flow and fluid/rock interaction during thrust faulting in Pumpkin Valley shale and Rome Formation, east Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.K.; Haase, C.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The Pumpkin Valley Shale and the underlying Rome Formation form the lower portions of the Copper Creek and White Oak Mountain thrust sheets in east Tennessee. The Pumpkin Valley Shale consists of shale and mudstone with subordinate amounts of interbedded siltstone. The Rome Formation is composed predominantly of sandstone with interbedded shale and siltstone toward the base of the formation. The percentage of illite increases from 20% to over 80% of the bulk clay mineralogy toward the base of the section. Porosity is occluded by quartz, phyllosilicate, and calcite cements. Both formations contain calcite-filled and, less commonly, quartz-filled Alleghenian fractures and joints.

  13. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  14. Ancient Rome I: Government and Politics; the Military; Trade and the Economy; Aqueducts, Baths, and Sewers; the Arena. Volume 7. Teaching with Primary Sources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    This unit on Ancient Rome (covering a time period from 753 B.C. until A.D. 476) contains the following elements: a list of documents, with a description of each document and a brief synopsis of its historical significance to the unit's theme; the documents; and a set of activities. The unit's documents are grouped under the five categories listed…

  15. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  16. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  17. Political and Legal Framework for the Development of Training Policy in the European Union. Part I--From the Treaty of Rome to the Treaty of Maastricht.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Steve; Murray, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the history of vocational training policy from the establishment of the European Economic Community in the Treaty of Rome in 1957 to the Treaty of Maastricht, which created the European Union in 1992. Discusses the evolution from a centralized legislative approach to a more user-oriented approach promoting mobility. (Contains 40…

  18. A Trip to Rome: Physical Replicas of Historical Objects Created in a Fully Automated Way from Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, Luigi

    It is normal for tourists to take photos during their holidays, which are then printed, loaded into digital frames or shared on the Internet. This paper describes a new methodology to obtain accurate 3D digital models and material replicas of real objects, starting from digital images acquired with consumer and professional cameras. The implemented software is completely automatic and provides detailed reconstructions. It stands out from other existing approaches for the high metric accuracy of the final product, the level of detail obtainable, the speed of the algorithms and its adaptability under different viewing conditions. Several examples relating to an actual trip to Rome are reported and discussed, showing what a tourist can obtain with this package. Obviously, the method can be used for many other applications in which accurate models are needed.

  19. [Injuries: preventive approach and progress of injuries in the construction of the line B1 of the underground of Rome].

    PubMed

    Saggio, G; Conti, E; Valentini, F; De Sio, L; Capano, M Perrone

    2010-01-01

    The line B1 is a branch of the existing Metro line B in Rome. The route is long about 5 km, is completely underground and involves the construction of four new stations: Annibaliano, Libia /Gondar, Conca d'Oro and Jonio. The line will have a capacity of transport of 24,000 people/hour in each direction. The works started in 2006 involve about 500 workers. The report provides a statistical analysis of the events that occurred in the period 2005/2010 and aims to introduce the starting and management of this study, also on the basis of the "Operating procedures" issued by the acquisition of OSHAS 18001 certification from the agent of Metro B) / R.I.M.A.T.I. This analysis aims to provide to supervisors, to social security institutions and to workers, a usefull analysis tool in the prevention of the monitored events. PMID:21438207

  20. The Incidence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Using the Rome III Criteria and the Effect of Trimebutine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Beşer, Ömer F; Erginöz, Ethem; Kutlu, Tufan; Çokuğraş, Fügen Ç; Erkan, Tülay

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and when compared to the vast knowledge pertaining to adults with IBS, very little is known about IBS in children and adolescents. We aimed to explore the prevalence of IBS, identify symptoms and contributing factors and also to examine the efficacy of trimebutine maleate in children and adolescents. Methods The study involved 345 children and adolescents (4-18 years) and parents were requested to fill in a questionnaire, Rome III criteria was used to diagnose IBS. To exclude organic disease, all patients underwent medical investigations. Half of the randomly selected IBS patients were treated with trimebutine maleate while the rest of IBS patients were not. The IBS patients were reevaluated at the end of 3 weeks. Results The prevalence of IBS according to Rome III criteria in children and adolescents was 22.6% and IBS with constipation was the predominant subtype. Back pain (OR, 6.68), headache (OR, 4.72) and chronic fatigue (OR, 3.74) were significantly higher in IBS group. The prevalence of IBS in both parents and depression in mothers was greater for the patient group than the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of functional dyspepsia in IBS group was 80.8% and was significantly higher than control group. Clinical recovery was seen in 94.9% of the trimebutine maleate group versus spontaneous recovery in 20.5% of the non-medicated group. The difference was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusions IBS is a common disorder in children and adolescents. IBS is closely associated with somatic and familial factors. Trimebutine maleate is effective for pediatric IBS patients. PMID:23350053

  1. D Survey and Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Conigliaro, E.; Del Grasso, M.; Papalini, P.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    The development of close-range photogrammetry has produced a lot of new possibility to study cultural heritage. 3D data acquired with conventional and low cost cameras can be used to document, investigate the full appearance, materials and conservation status, to help the restoration process and identify intervention priorities. At the same time, with 3D survey a lot of three-dimensional data are collected and analyzed by researchers, but there are a very few possibility of 3D output. The augmented reality is one of this possible output with a very low cost technology but a very interesting result. Using simple mobile technology (for iPad and Android Tablets) and shareware software (in the case presented "Augment") it is possible to share and visualize a large number of 3D models with your own device. The case study presented is a part of an architecture graduate thesis, made in Rome at Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. We have developed a photogrammetric survey to study the Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome. The surveys of 8000 square meters of surface have allowed to identify stratigraphy and construction phases of a complex portion of Aurelian Wall, specially about the Northern door of Castra. During this study, the data coming out of 3D survey (photogrammetric and topographic), are stored and used to create a reverse 3D model, or virtual reconstruction, of the Northern door of Castra. This virtual reconstruction shows the door in the Tiberian period, nowadays it's totally hidden by a curtain wall but, little and significative architectural details allow to know its original feature. The 3D model of the ancient walls has been mapped with the exact type of bricks and mortar, oriented and scaled according to the existing one to use augmented reality. Finally, two kind of application have been developed, one on site, were you can see superimposed the virtual reconstruction on the existing walls using the image recognition. On the other hand

  2. A refined biomonitoring study of airborne particulate matter pollution in Rome, with magnetic measurements on Quercus Ilex tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szönyi, Michael; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Hirt, Ann M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) are a current problem for air quality in many major metropolitan areas. Many European cities have tightened the PM limits in the air, due to advances in monitoring PM levels. In order to establish guidelines for monitoring and curbing anthropogenic PM output, a better understanding of its origin, composition and diffusion is required. Biomonitoring of magnetic properties of tree leaves has been suggested previously to be a good approach to measure pollution levels in cities both in space and time. We report on a magnetic biomonitoring study of PM in the city of Rome, conducted from 2005 October to December. We collected approximately 180 different sample sets of tree leaves of Quercus ilex, an evergreen oak widely distributed in Rome, at 112 different locations. Specific magnetic susceptibility χ of the leaf is used as a fast, easy and cost-effective proxy to assess levels of primary anthropogenic airborne PM pollution. Highly polluted areas correlate with high traffic areas, with an average susceptibility value of χ = 3.2 × 10-7 m3 kg-1. Low traffic zones are characterized by values more than an order of magnitude lower at χ = 1.4 × 10-8 m3 kg-1, and the background magnetic susceptibility is around χ = 2.6 × 10-9 m3 kg-1. The data show that distance dependence from the source is the most significant factor for the concentration of magnetic PM, and that pollution levels and sources can be reliably delineated by measuring magnetic susceptibility values on tree leaf samples of Q. ilex. A new protocol for magnetic susceptibility measurements is proposed, in order to account for changes due to water evaporation in the leaves as a function of time after collection of the samples. Additional magnetic analyses, such as acquisition of artificial remanences and hysteresis properties, were used to characterize the mineralogy and grain size of the magnetic PM. The results indicate that the population of ferrimagnetic

  3. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  4. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  5. Selected Abstracts presented at the 18th International Congress of the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy (ISCP), Rome, Italy, 28--30 June 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ANNUAL SCIENTIFIC MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOTHERAPY (ISCP) ROME, 28--30 JUNE 2013 The following scientific abstracts were presented at the latest Annual Scientific Meeting of ISCP this year in Rome. They summarise the work of young investigators from different geographical regions worldwide. ISCP supports the scientific work of researchers round the Globe and offers a forum where the results of their investigations can be presented and discussed in the context of the annual meetings and other regional activities. This activity represents not only a possibility for young investigators to showcase their work but also an opportunity to have their results assessed and discussed by world experts in the field. ISCP sees this as a useful contribution to the development of young scientists working in the field of cardiovascular pharmacotherapy.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  7. A Comparison of Rome Observatory Sunspot Area and Sunspot Number Determinations With International Measures, 1958-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Two changes in recording the sunspot record have occurred in recent years. First, in 1976, the longer-than-100-yr daily photographic record of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), used for determination of numbers and positions of sunspot groups and sunspot areas ended, and second, at the end of 1980, after more than 130 years, Zurich s Swiss Federal Observatory stopped providing daily sunspot numbers. To extend the sunspot record beyond 1976, use of United States Air Force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USAF/NOAA) sunspot drawing observations from the Solar Optical Observing Network began in 1977, and the combined record of sunspot activity from RGO/USAF/NOAA was made accessible at http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/SOLAR/greenwch.htm. Also, in 1981, the task of providing daily sunspot numbers was taken up by the Royal Observatory of Belgium s Solar Influences and Data analysis Center, and the combined Zurich/International sunspot number database was made available at http://sidc.oma.be/index.php3. In this study, Rome Observatory 1958-1998 photographic records of sunspot areas, numbers of groups, and derived sunspot numbers are compared against same-day international values to determine relative behaviors and to evaluate whether any potential changes might have been introduced in the overall sunspot record, due to the aforementioned changes.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  9. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-01-01

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (<40 years), never having been pregnant, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy. PMID:22748006

  10. Fluorescence lidar measurements at the archaeological site House of Augustus at Palatino, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Alisi, Chiara; Barup, Kerstin; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Broggi, Alessandra; Conti, Cinzia; Hällström, Jenny; Lognoli, David; Palombi, Lorenzo; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Sprocati, Anna Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Early diagnostics and documentation fulfill an essential role for an effective planning of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage assets. In particular, remote sensing techniques that do not require the use of scaffolds or lifts, such as fluoresence lidar, can provide useful information to obtain an overall assessment of the status of the investigated surfaces and can be exploited to address analytical studies in selected areas. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish project focused on documenting and recording the status of some sections of the part closed to the public by using fluorescence hyperspectral imaging lidar. The lidar used a tripled-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm as excitation source and an intensified, gated 512x512-pixel CCD as detector. The lidar had imaging capabilities thanks to a computer-controlled scanning mirror. The fluorescence characteristics of fresco wall paintings were compared to those of fresco fragments found at the same archaeological site and separately examined in the lab using FT-IR and Raman techniques for the identification of pigments. The fluorescence lidar was also used to remotely detect the growth of phototrophic biodeteriogens on the walls. The fluorescence lidar data were compared with results from biological sampling, cultivation and laboratory analysis by molecular techniques.

  11. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    PubMed Central

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  12. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  13. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  14. Behavior-induced auditory exostoses in imperial Roman society: evidence from coeval urban and rural communities near Rome.

    PubMed

    Manzi, G; Sperduti, A; Passarello, P

    1991-07-01

    Presence and features of auditory exostoses were investigated in two cranial samples of Roman imperial age (1st-3rd century A.D.). The skeletal material comes from the necropolises of Portus (Isola Sacra) and Lucus Feroniae (Via Capenate), two towns along the Tevere River, in close relation with the social and economic life of Rome. Deep-rooted differences between the human communities represented by the skeletal samples (83 and 71 individuals, respectively, in this study) are documented both historically and archaeologically. The results show lack of exostoses in the female sex, a negligible incidence among the males of Lucus Feroniae, but a high frequency in the male sample from Isola Sacra (31.3%). Auditory exostoses are commonly recognised as localized hyperplastic growths of predominantly acquired origin. Features of the exostoses found in the male crania from Isola Sacra (particularly in relation to the age at death of the affected individuals) support this view. Furthermore, several clinical and anthropological studies have pointed out close links between the occurrence of auditory exostoses and prolonged cold water exposure, generally due to the practice of aquatic sports, or to working activities involving water contact or diving. In this perspective, the differences observed between the two Roman populations and between the sexes (in Isola Sacra) appear to result from different social habits: the middle class population of Portus habitually used thermal baths, whereas it is probable that thermae were seldom frequented (if at all) by the Lucus Feroniae population represented in the necropolis (mostly composed by slaves or freedmen farm laborers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1897597

  15. Geochemical investigation of a sediment core from the Trajan basin at Portus, the harbor of ancient Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delile, H.; Mazzini, I.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Goiran, J. P.; Arnaud-Godet, F.; Salomon, F.; Albarède, F.

    2014-03-01

    From the 1st century AD and for the duration of the Roman Empire, the Portus complex was the main harbor of Rome. Its location on the Tiber delta next to the Tyrrhenian Sea produced rapid environmental changes that, together with historical vicissitudes, largely determined the fate of the harbor. We have assembled data on the mineralogy, sedimentology, geochemistry, and ostracod populations of a sediment core drilled in the access channel of the hexagonal basin of Trajan, with the expectation that such a combined data set will shed new light on how the connections of the inland Trajan basin with the Tiber river, the earlier Claudius harbor on the nearby shoreline, and the sea evolved through the centuries. The data define four distinct periods which geochemistry characterizes by different conditions of salinity and oxygenation. These in turn can be related to historical periods and events by means of 14C data. The early Imperial Period was dominated by input of well-oxygenated freshwater from the Tiber. During the Late Empire, harbor water became relatively more influenced by seawater and increasingly oxygen deficient, which attests to a decommissioning of the Canale Trasverso connecting the harbor to the Tiber. The strong anthropogenic signal, which is visible very clearly in geochemical parameters, attests to the human occupation of the harbor area up to the Early Middle Ages, when human activity was brought to an abrupt end. The simultaneous use in this study of multiple complementary tracers has allowed for the sedimentary sources of the different classes of particles in the harbor basin to be identified and assigned to either the freshwater supply from the Canale Trasverso or the seawater of the Claudius harbor.

  16. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  17. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in the principal sewage treatment plants in Rome (Italy) and in the receiving surface waters.

    PubMed

    Patrolecco, Luisa; Capri, Silvio; Ademollo, Nicoletta

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides data on the occurrence of selected human pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, fenofibrate, fenoprofen, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) including steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and estrone) in influents/effluents to/from the four principal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving the city of Rome (Italy), in two different sampling campaigns. Target compounds were also analyzed in the receiving River Tiber and River Aniene. Analytical determination was carried out by LC-MS/MS after sample cleanup and concentration by off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). The aim of the study was to increase the information currently available on the presence and persistence of pharmaceuticals in Italian urban wastewaters and to evaluate the environmental impact of the pharmaceutical residues discharged through effluents into the receiving rivers. Results indicated that after the treatment processes, most of pharmaceuticals were not completely eliminated, as average removal efficiencies were in the 14-100% wide range during both sampling periods, with higher yields in spring than in winter. Levels detected in overall samples ranged from 5 to 2,230 ng/L in influents and from 5 to 1,424 ng/L in effluents. Carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil showed the highest persistence to removal. Concentrations in the receiving waters were about one order of magnitude lower than in effluents, with a tendency to increase progressively through the urban tract of the river. Finally, an environmental risk analysis showed that carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and estrone can pose a high risk at the concentrations detected in effluents and a medium risk in rivers, highlighting their potential hazard for the health of the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25352396

  18. Tiber delta CO2-CH4 degassing: A possible hybrid, tectonically active Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System near Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, G.; Etiope, G.; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Giraudi, C.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fiumicino town in the Tiber River delta, near Rome International Airport (Italy), is historically affected by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ground and gas eruptions triggered by shallow drilling. While it is known that CO2 originates from carbonate thermometamorphism and/or mantle degassing, the origin of methane (CH4) associated with CO2 is uncertain and the outgassing spatial distribution is unknown. Combining isotope gas geochemistry, soil gas, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, we provide evidence for a hybrid fluid source system, classifiable as Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System (SHGS), where biotic CH4 from sedimentary rocks is carried by deep geothermic CO2 through active segments of a half-graben. Molecular and isotopic composition of CH4 and concentration of heavier alkanes (ethane and propane), obtained from gas vents and soil gas throughout the delta area, reveal that thermogenic CH4 (up to 3.7 vol% in soil gas; δ13CCH4: -37 to -40‰ VPDB-Vienna Peedee Belemnite, and δ2HCH4: -162 to -203‰ VSMOW - Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water in gas vents) prevails over possible microbial and abiotic components. The hydrocarbons likely result from known Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems of the Latium Tyrrhenian coast. Overmaturation of source rocks or molecular fractionation induced by gas migration are likely responsible for increased C1/C2+ ratios. CO2 and CH4 soil gas anomalies are scattered along NW-SE and W-E alignments, which, based on borehole, geomorphologic, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, coincide with active faults of a half-graben that seems to have controlled the recent evolution of the Tiber delta. This SHGS can be a source of considerable greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and hazards for humans and buildings.

  19. Relationship between leaf life-span and photosynthetic activity of Quercus ilex in polluted urban areas (Rome).

    PubMed

    Gratani, L; Crescente, M F; Petruzzi, M

    2000-10-01

    Anatomical, morphological and physiological leaf traits of Quercus ilex in response to different traffic levels (high traffic level, type A sites; average traffic level, type B sites; control sites, type C sites) were analysed in Rome. Superficial leaf deposits were analysed comparing unwashed and washed leaf samples. Washing lowered Pb 61% in A, 54% in B and 27% in C. Sr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al showed the same trend as Pb. The higher photosynthetic activity of 1-year-old leaves (Pn=7.0+/-2.9 micromol m(-2 )s(-1), average value) in A sites with respect to B sites (6.7+/-2.4 micromol m(-2 )s(-1)) and C sites (6.7+/-1.8 micromol m(-2 )s(-1)) seems to be related to higher stomatal conductance (g(s)=0.13+/-0.06 mol m(-2 )s(-1)), higher total chlorophyll content (Chl=1.57 mg g(-1)) and higher leaf thickness (L(T)=218.9 microm), particularly palisade parenchyma thickness (109.4 microm). Q. ilex showed, on average, 95% of 1-year-old leaves and rarely 2-year-old leaves in A and B sites; 77% 1-year leaves, 20% previous-year leaves and sporadic 3-year leaves in C sites. The enhanced leaf senescence in A sites is compensated by a stimulated shoot production (18% higher with respect to C sites); 25% increased specific leaf area seems to be compensatory growth occurring in order to increase the size of the assimilatory area. The inverse trend of leaf life-span and Pn seems to be Q. ilex' adaptive strategy in polluted areas. PMID:15092853

  20. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  1. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  2. Mid-latitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multi-channel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-04-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome-Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a dataset consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosoundings of Pratica di Mare, WMO site #16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach in the lidar site of the Observatoire of Haute Provence (OHP), allows characterizing cirrus clouds over RTV site and attests the robustness of such classification. To have some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, the analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff), in terms of the frequency distribution functions and depending on the mid-height cirrus temperature have been performed. This study suggests that smaller (larger) ice crystals compose thin (thick) cirrus classes. This information, together with the value of relative humidity over ice (110 ± 30%), calculated through the simultaneous WV Raman measurements for the mid-tropospheric thin class, indicates that this class could be formed by an heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The RTV cirrus results, re-computed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), shows good agreement to other mid-latitude lidar cirrus observation for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin

  3. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  4. The material and energy basis of Rome: an investigation of direct and indirect resource use through material flow, energy and footprint methods.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Marco; Campanella, Luigi; Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Results from this study of stability/sustainability conditions of an urban system show that an average citizen of Rome, in one year, uses directly or indirectly as much as 45 tons of abiotic material (minerals, raw fuel, topsoil). Out of such an abiotic flow, about 6.5 tons of fuel per person are required, while the Italian nationwide average is 3.6 tons per year. In addition, 816 tons of water are indirectly used or diverted from their natural pattern in support of individual food, electricity and commodity demand. Despite the scarce 0.05 Ha of productive land available per capita, each citizen in Rome virtually "uses" 4.51 Ha of productive land. Each Roman releases in one year 20 tons CO(2), 50 kg CO, 36 kg NO(x) and 24 kg SO(2), and generates about 450 kg of solid waste, thus contributing in several ways to environmental pollution. Finally, to generate 100 euro of local GDP requires 29 kg of raw oil, an amount that is only paid about 10 euro in the international market. PMID:18702141

  5. Jurisdiction and applicable law in cases of damage from space in Europe—The advent of the most suitable choice—Rome II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Doldirina, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Liability for space activities is a much discussed subject and the advent of commercial space operations has only added to its importance. Articles VI and VII Outer Space Treaty, together with Articles II and III Liability Convention, remain the main entry level for state liability for damage arising from private space activities. Few space-faring nations have introduced national space statutes that include a flow down of their international obligations. The European Union (EU) Regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations—hereinafter Rome II Regulation—could harbour developments for liability law in the context of damage resulting from space operations. Space activities were not the main focus of the Regulation but may well turn out to be an interesting spin-off. The Regulation prescribes general rules that will determine the law applicable to damage scenarios where more than one legal system applies. It is important for trans-national tort cases in that it does not limit the rules of applicable law to EU Member States only. This paper focuses on the common rules applicable to damage actions based on torts or other non-contractual obligations as they apply to damage caused by space activities. After an assessment of the relevant international and national law norms, the impact of the Rome II Regulation will be addressed.

  6. Evidence for Cambrian petroleum source rocks in the Rome trough of West Virginia and Kentucky, Appalachian basin: Chapter G.8 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, David C.; Gerome, Paul; Hainsworth, Timothy J.; Burruss, Robert A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Jarvie, Daniel M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen extract from the Rogersville Shale compares very closely with oils or condensates from Cambrian reservoirs in the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well, Homer gas field, Elliott County, Ky.; the Inland No. 529 White well, Boyd County, Ky.; and the Miller No. 1 well, Wolfe County, Ky. These favorable oil-source rock correlations suggest a new petroleum system in the Appalachian basin that is characterized by a Conasauga Group source rock and Rome Formation and Conasauga Group reservoirs. This petroleum system probably extends along the Rome trough from eastern Kentucky to at least central West Virginia.

  7. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  8. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  9. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  10. Origin and status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter (DM), neutrinoless double beta decay (2β0ν) and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  11. Origin and Status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-06-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 Km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear cross section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  12. Description of Litomosoides ysoguazu n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae), a parasite of the tuft-toed rice rat Sooretamys angouya (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae), and a first record of L. esslingeri Bain, Petit & Berteaux, 1989 in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Juliana; de la Sancha, Noé Ulises

    2015-06-01

    Paraguay is a small landlocked country whose mammalian fauna is among the least studied in South America, as well as their parasites. As a result of a study of the effects of habitat fragmentation on small mammal biodiversity in eastern Paraguay, we have collected some parasites of cricetid rodents. Herein, we describe a new species of Litomosoides Chandler, 1931 parasitising the body cavity of the tuft-toed rice rat Sooretamys angouya (Fischer) and Litomosoides esslingeri Bain, Petit & Diagne, 1989 parasitising Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers), thus expanding its geographical distribution into Paraguay. Litomosoides ysoguazu n. sp. is characterised by the large size of the females (92.2-117.6 mm long) and by having buccal capsule with an anterior widening with rounded edges on the chitinous segment and a rounded widening at the base; male tail with a single pair of adcloacal papillae, three to five pairs of asymmetrical postcloacal papillae, and one or two unpaired papillae in the median ventral line; spicules corresponding to the "sigmodontis" species group; and microfilaria with a sheath stuck to the body and visible in the anterior extremity. We also describe a fourth-stage female larva. Oligoryzomys nigripes is a new host record of L. esslingeri; this enlarges the host record to eight species highlighting the low specificity of this species. PMID:25962465

  13. Laboratory spectroscopy of HED meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, M.; Coradini, A.; Carli, C.; Ammannito, E.; Consolmagno, G.; De sanctis, M.; Di Iorio, T.; Turrini, D.

    2011-12-01

    4 Vesta is one of the largest and the most massive asteroid in the Main Asteroid Belt. This asteroid possesses a basaltic surface and apparently formed and differentiated very early in the history of the solar system. There are strong evidences that indicate Vesta as the parent body of Howardites, Diogenites and Eucrites (HEDs). HED meteorites are a subgroup of achondrite meteorites and they are a suite of rocks that formed at high temperature and experienced igneous processing similar to the magmatic rocks found on Earth. The visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra of Vesta's surface show high similarity with the laboratory spectra of HED meteorites. Vesta and HEDs spectra have two crystal field absorption bands close to 0.9 μm and 1.9 μm indicative of the presence of ferrous iron in pyroxenes. The HEDs differ from each other primarily based on variation in pyroxene composition and the pyroxene-plagioclase ratio as well as rocks texture characteristics (e.g., size of crystals). These differences suggest that a combined VNIR spectra studies of Vesta and HED meteorites might reveal the different characteristics of the surface compositions and shed new light on the origin and the thermal history of Vesta. Moreover the link between Vesta and HEDs could provide a test bed to understand the short-lived radionuclide-driven differentiation of planetary bodies. Here we present preliminary result of a study of spectral characteristics of different HED samples, provided to us by the Vatican Observatory. Bidirectional reflectance spectra of slabs of meteorites are performed in the VNIR, between (0.35/2.50) μm, using a Fieldspec spectrometer mounted on a goniometer, in use at the SLAB (Spectroscopy laboratory, INAF, Rome). The spectra are acquired in standard conditions with an incidence angle i=30o and an emission angle e=0o, measuring a spot with a diameter of 5 mm. Different Howardite, Diogenite and Eucrite samples are "mapped" considering several spots on

  14. Results Oriented Management in Education. Project R.O.M.E. The Verification and Validation of Principal Competencies and Performance Indicators: Assessment Design--Procedures--Instrumentation--Field Test Results. Volume 3--Instrument Appendix to Accompany Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This document represents a complete compilation of instruments used by the University of Georgia Project R.O.M.E. (Results Oriented Management in Education) staff to field test the Georgia Principal Assessment System in order to validate high priority principal competencies and performance indicators during the 1974-75 project year. The seven…

  15. A multi-analytical approach for the study of the pigments used in the wall paintings from a building complex on the Caelian Hill (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, Paola; Piazzalunga, Andrea; de Vos, Mariette; Andreoli, Martina

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, shards from Roman wall paintings (from the end of the first century to the fourth century A.D.) decorating the domus below the Basilica of SS. John and Paul on the Caelian Hill (Rome), were analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analytical techniques employed for the characterization of the pigments were the scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR and micro ATR). While SEM-EDS allowed to perform a qualitative analysis of the material, by FT-IR chemical species have been identified. The pigments identified were those mentioned in the literature for the Imperial Roman fresco painting: different types of ochre (yellow and red), mixtures containing lead, green earths and precious pigments such as cinnabar and Egyptian blue. They were often used as mixtures and the use of the most valuable pigments (cinnabar and Egyptian blue) were found in the most ancient rooms.

  16. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  17. Celiac Disease in Patients Fulfilling the Rome III Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Attending Gastroenterology Department of A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M K; Chakraborty, R; Gope, S; Rahman, M A; Miah, A R; Raihan, A S; Sarkar, S; Paul, B K; Ferdousi, K R

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that substantially affects patients' quality of life and is associated with a considerable drain of health-care resources and economic burden. But some IBS patients may have celiac disease that could be treated by gluten-free diet which will subsequently improve their quality of life. This study was done to see the prevalence of celiac disease among the IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology at BSMMU, Dhaka from July 2010 to September 2011. A total of 107 patients aged ranging between 16-60 years clinically labeled as IBS and fulfilled Rome III criteria were included as study sample. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics. The mean age of the patients was 31.5±10.3 years and male to female ratio was roughly 6:1. The mean duration of IBS was 32.0±2.1 months. All of the patients had abdominal discomfort or pain in the preceding 6 months and had a history of loose (mushy) or watery stool, 99.1% had pain or discomfort relieved with defaecation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was found in 78.5% and mixed 21.5% of the patients. About 5% of the patients had raised ESR and majority (86.9%) of the patients had normal level of hemoglobin. Ten (9%) of 107 patients were found positive for anti-t TG (IgA). These findings suggest that an around one-tenth of IBS especially diarrhoea predominant patients may have celiac disease who will respond to simple gluten-free diet thus minimizing the morbidity and mortality. So, all clinically diagnosed IBS patients especially diarrhoea predominant cases should be suggested for the screening for celiac disease. PMID:26931258

  18. Continuous increase in HIV-1 incidence after the year 2000 among men who have sex with men in Rome: insights from a 25-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Palamara, G; Pimpinelli, F; Dona, M G; Stivali, F; Carduccelli, F; Ensoli, F; Di Carlo, A; Rezza, G

    2014-01-01

    To assess trends in HIV-1 incidence and risk factors for seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM) resident in Rome, Italy, a retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted over 25 years. Incidence rates and trends were modelled using Poisson regression and risk factors were assessed by multivariate Cox models. Of 1,862 HIV-1-negative individuals, 347 seroconverted during follow-up. HIV-1 incidence rates increased from 5.2/100 persons/year (p/y) in 1986 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–11.5) to 9.2/00 p/y in 1992 (95% CI: 6.4–13.0), decreased to 1.3/100 p/y in 2001 and increased until 2009 (11.7/100 p/y; 95% CI: 7.4–18.6). The risk of HIV-1 seroconversion increased during the study period in younger MSM (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 17.18; 95% CI: 9.74–30.32 in 16–32 year-olds and IRR = 5.09; 95% CI: 2.92–8.87 in 33–41 year-olds) and in those who acquired syphilis (IRR = 7.71; 95% CI: 5.00–11.88). In contrast, the risk of seroconversion decreased among highly educated MSM (IRR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35–0.82) and those without Italian citizenship (IRR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.71). The HIV epidemic in MSM living in Rome continues to expand. Targeted prevention programmes against sexually transmitted infections to enhance knowledge transfer and behavioural skills are urgently required. PMID:25443035

  19. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  20. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  1. Direct effect of aerosol on incident solar radiation at the surface as a function of aerosol mixtures measured in the center of Rome.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, M.; Bassani, C.; Cacciani, M.; Siani, A. M.; Perrino, C.; Canepari, S.; Di Sarra, A.; Salzano, R.; Casasanta, G. P.; Tirelli, C.; Estelles, V.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols determine a radiative effect in the atmosphere by affecting the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and then acting on the temperature of both the layer where they are located and the surface. The presence of very absorbent particles typical of the urban environment, is therefore dangerous not only for human health but also because they are able to increase the temperature of the atmospheric layer in which they are located interacting with the "heath island" phenomenon. The resulting variation of both surface temperature and temperature vertical profile influences the dilution of atmospheric pollutants and needs to be studied in more detail, particularly in the summer period when heat waves are more frequent. Chemical analysis of surface particulate matter performed at the urban site of Rome (Perrino et al. 2009) showed that sea salt, locally produced urban aerosol and desert dust can be recognized depending on the intensity of the episodes transporting different particles types. As a result: i) the direct effect of aerosol at the surface change as a function of aerosol mixtures; ii) the variation of incident solar radiation affects the local convective air motion modifying the low level circulation and having an effect on the particles deposition and hence on the chemical characterization of the mixture. On the base of above issues a day-time intensive field campaign was held in Rome (Italy) in June and July 2011 at the University of Rome, La Sapienza, located in the city center (lat 41.9°N, long 12.5 °E). Chemical analysis of the aerosol particles was performed on particulate collected by PM10 collectors. Columnar aerosol optical and physical properties in clear sky were retrieved by using a PREDE sun-sky radiometer, part of ESR/SKYNET network. Vertical profiles of aerosol were obtained by a Lidar and incoming total solar radiation was measured by a Black and White Pyranometer . A Brewer spectrophotometer, a Sodar, and a MFRSR provided

  2. A new age within MIS 7 for the Homo neanderthalensis of Saccopastore in the glacio-eustatically forced sedimentary successions of the Aniene River Valley, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Jicha, Brian; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Salari, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Field observations as well as borehole, sedimentological and geochronologic data allow us to reconstruct the geologic setting of the Aniene River Valley in northern Rome, framing it within the recently recognized picture of temporally constrained, glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions of this region. The sedimentary successions cropping out in this area include those described in the literature of the early 20th century in Saccopastore, where two skulls of Homo neanderthalensis were recovered. Based on the geometry, elevation and sedimentologic features of the investigated sedimentary deposits, the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore is correlated with the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during glacial termination III at the onset of MIS 7 (i.e. ˜250 ka), corresponding to the local Vitinia Formation, as opposed to previous correlation with the MIS 5 interglacial and a locally defined "Tyrrhenian" stage (˜130 ka). This previous attribution was based on the interpretation of the sedimentary succession of Saccopastore, occurring between 15 and 21 m a.s.l., as a fluvial terrace formed around 130 ka during the Riss-Würm interglacial, ca. 6 m above the present-day alluvial plain of the Aniene River. In contrast to this interpretation, a 40Ar/39Ar age of 129 ± 2 ka determined for this study on a pyroclastic-flow deposit intercalated in a fluvial-lacustrine sequence forming a terrace ˜37 m a.s.l. near the coast of Rome constrains the aggradational succession in this area to MIS 5, precluding the occurrence of an equivalent fluvial terrace at lower elevation in the inland sector of Saccopastore. We therefore interpret the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore as the basal portion of the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during MIS 7, whose equivalent fluvial terrace occurs around 55 m a.s.l. in this region. We also review the published paleontological and paleoethnological records recovered

  3. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  4. Long-term deformation analysis of historical buildings through the advanced SBAS-DInSAR technique: the case study of the city of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeni, G.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Marsella, M.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. The differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset (SBAS) approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting historical and artistic monuments. The presented results, achieved by applying the full resolution SBAS technique to a huge set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT data, spanning the 1992-2010 time interval and relevant to the city of Rome (Italy), show the capability of this approach to detect and analyse the temporal evolution of possible deformation phenomena affecting historical buildings and archaeological sites. Accordingly, our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical, cultural and artistic heritage.

  5. A Three Year Study on 14 VOCs at One Site in Rome: Levels, Seasonal Variations, Indoor/Outdoor Ratio and Temporal Trends

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown. PMID:21139860

  6. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  7. The application of a groundwater/surface-water model to test the vulnerability of Bracciano Lake (near Rome, Italy) to climatic and water-use stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taviani, Sara; Henriksen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-11-01

    Modelling tools are necessary for quantitative assessment of groundwater-dependent systems such as interacting groundwater aquifers and lakes. Numerical groundwater models supplemented by stream and lake submodels are the best available tools for testing the conceptual relation of surface water to groundwater, for identifying gaps in the amount and quality of data, and for better understanding the sustainability of a groundwater-lake system in the presence of stresses. Models are of particular interest when applied to an infrequently studied geological context that is subject to specific vulnerabilities and patterns of interaction. Volcanic lakes are one setting where flow models serve to extend current conceptual and practical understanding. In this study, a groundwater/surface-water flow model is presented for the flow-through Bracciano deep caldera lake located near Rome, Italy. The steady-state model quantifies and tests the existing conceptual understanding of the system by taking account of all sources and sinks, and by calibration of key parameters to head and flow data. A transient version of the model demonstrates the response of the system to dry and wet years and to anthropogenic stresses. Although precipitation is the dominant source of water overall for the lake, a major finding of this study is that the groundwater inflow to the lake can buffer fluctuations in lake-water level and reduce lake-level declines, especially during shorter periods of dry conditions.

  8. Relationship between overactive bladder and irritable bowel syndrome: a large-scale internet survey in Japan using the overactive bladder symptom score and Rome III criteria

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Hashizume, Kazumi; Wada, Naoki; Hori, Jyunichi; Tamaki, Gaku; Kita, Masafumi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is known to be an association between overactive bladder (OAB) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The study investigates the association between OAB and IBS using an internet-based survey in Japan. It is the first to investigate the prevalence and severity of OAB in the general population using the OAB symptom score questionnaire. Objective To investigate the association between overactive bladder (OAB) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using an internet-based survey in Japan. Subjects and Methods Questionnaires were sent via the internet to Japanese adults. The overactive bladder symptom score was used for screening OAB, and the Japanese version of the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of IBS was used for screening this syndrome. Results The overall prevalence of OAB and IBS was 9.3% and 21.2%, respectively. Among the subjects with OAB, 33.3% had concurrent IBS. The prevalence of OAB among men was 9.7% and among women it was 8.9%, while 18.6% of men and 23.9% of women had IBS. Concurrent IBS was noted in 32.0% of men and 34.8% of women with OAB. Conclusion Taking into account a high rate of concurrent IBS in patients with OAB, it seems to be important for physicians to assess the defaecation habits of patients when diagnosing and treating OAB. PMID:23106867

  9. [The miraculous minerals of Michele Mercati. Natural history between medicine and the clergy in Rome in the second half of the Sixteenth century].

    PubMed

    Touber, Jetze

    2006-01-01

    Many Italian scholars in the sixteenth century studied minerals. This was not only for the sake of increasing geological knowledge. Minerals, like all other natural phenomena, reflected divine order. Minerals were thought of as a broader category than the lifeless substances found beneath the crust of the earth. Stones, generated in animal and human bodies, were included among minerals, as well. The appearance of kidney stones, gall stones and bladder stones in early modern mineral collections point to the religious motives of the scholars that studied them. In this article, I will examine the mineralogical collection brought together and described by Michele Mercati (1541-1593), the so-called Metallotheca. I will map the circles of physicians, scholars and ecclesiastics in which Mercati lived and functioned. I will then investigate Mercati's descriptions of stones, grown inside animals and men. The specific connections between Mercati and the members of the Oratory of Rome, an influential religious organisation of the Sixteenth century, direct us towards a proper understanding of the significance of Mercati's minerals. Certain minerals, including stones originating in animate bodies, were thought of as approaching the supernatural. The proper attitude for the scholar of nature would then be to turn from curiosity into awe and even veneration. PMID:17153168

  10. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas. PMID:24274288

  11. (Collection of data on tropical forest inventories, Rome, Italy, March 20--25, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Gillespie, A.

    1989-04-06

    All forestry information in the library of FAO was organized into country ''boxes,'' and all boxes for countries in tropical Asia and tropical America were searched for data on forest inventories. Information on location and extent of inventories and resulting stand and stock tables were obtained for (1) converting to biomass by using methods that were already developed and (2) calculating expansion factors (commercial volume to total biomass). This work was conducted by the University of Illinois (Drs. Sandra Brown, Principal Investigator, and Andrew Gillespie, Research Associate) for the Department of Energy's Energy Systems Program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The travelers were successful in obtaining copies of some data for most countries in tropical Asia and tropical America. Most of the inventories for Asia were for only parts of countries, whereas most in America were national in scale. With the information gathered, the travelers will be able to make biomass estimates, geographically referenced, for many forest types representing thousands of hectares in most countries in these two tropical regions.

  12. [The scientific contributions by the Roman School of Hygiene on the microbiological quality of the surface waters of Rome and her County from 1890 to 2010. A systemic review].

    PubMed

    Palazzo, C; Montacutelli, R; Del Vecchio, R; Solimini, A G; Marinelli, L; Lombardi, A M; De Giusti, M; Fara, G M; Boccia, A

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of surface waters has been performed also in Italy during the development of the large urban areas, and in Rome this has been the duty of the Istituto di Igiene of the Sapienza University since 1890. Using MedLine--and also traditional consultation for papers printed before 1968--we identified 100 articles printed in the period 1890-2010. Thirty of them met the inclusion criteria (to have been written by researchers belonging to the Rome universities and to contain microbiological informations about the surface waters of Rome). The majority of papers identified (46.6%) were produced during the years Sixties and Seventies of the 20th century, and 30% in the twenty years to follow (1980-1999). The most frequent microbiological descriptors were "Total coliforms" and "Streptococci". The waterbodies most investigated were the Tiber river and the coastal waters around Fiumicino, where the Tiber flows into the Tyrrhenian sea. The quality of surface waters has always been a central interest of the research performed by the Hygienists of the Roman School. The good quality of the past research and the renovated interest of International Organizations and of the European Union should encourage the public health researchers toward a strategic field of investigation which has strong interconnections with the protection of the individual and community health and also with the protection of the environment. PMID:22509614

  13. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-15

    This report discusses the following topics: Neutrino Interactions in the 15-foot Bubble Chamber; Pion and Kaon Production of Charm and Charm-Strange States; Study of Heavy Flavors at the Tagged Particle Spectrometer; Neutrino Oscillations at the Fermilab Main Injector; Soudan II Nucleon Decay Project; Physics at the Antiproton-Proton Collider at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV; Designing the Solenoidal Detector for the Supercollider; Neutrino Telescope Proposal; Polarization in Inclusive Hyperon Production and QCD Subprocesses; Production and Decay Characteristics of Top Quarks; Scattering in Extended Skyrmion Models and Spin Dependence; Search for Top Quark Production at the Tevatron; Polarization Correlations in Hadronic Production of Top Quarks; and Computation and Networking.

  14. Hodgkin's disease stage I and II with exclusive subdiaphragmatic presentation. The experience of the Departments of Radiation Oncology and Hematology, University "La Sapienza" of Rome.

    PubMed

    Enrici, R M; Osti, M F; Anselmo, A P; Banelli, E; Cartoni, C; Sbarbati, S; Padovan, F S; Zurlo, A; Biagini, C

    1996-01-01

    During the period 1978 to 1994, 1054 patients with Hodgkins's disease were evaluated and treated at the Departments of Radiation Oncology and Hematology, University "La Sapienza", Rome. A total of 549 patients presented with clinical or pathological stage I and II; 37 of these had Hodgkin's disease below the diaphragm (BDHD), and 512 above the diaphragm (ADHD). A comparison of patients with BDHD versus those with ADHD showed that the first group had a higher male to female ratio. A comparison of cases with stage II BDHD versus those with stage II ADHD showed that patients with BDHD were older (48 years vs 28 years), had different histologic features and a higher incidence of systematic symptoms (67% vs 33%). Stage II BDHD patients had a worse prognosis; in fact, there were significant differences in the overall survival and relapse-free-survival rates for cases with stage II BDHD versus those with stage II ADHD (overall survival, 46% vs 80%, P<0.001; relapse-free survival, 44% vs 69%, P<0.005). Stage was found to be the most important prognostic factor for BDHD cases without systematic symptoms treated with radiation therapy alone. The type of infradiaphragmatic presentation (intra-abdominal vs peripheral disease) did not influence outcome, probably due to the more aggressive therapy received by the intra-abdominal group. Treatment recommendations for BDHD cases should be tailored to the stage and the presence or absence of intra-abdominal localization. For patients with stage IA extended fields, irradiation (inverted Y) is sufficient. However, combined modality therapy should be the treatment of choice for stage II cases, particularly in the presence of intra-abdominal disease. Patients with systematic symptoms also require combined modalities. PMID:8623504

  15. How Dramatic is the Unrest at Colli Albani, the Volcanic District 20 km from Rome (Italy)? Insights from SAR Interferometry and Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Di Filippo, M.; Di Nezza, M.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Moro, M.; Polcari, M.; Stramondo, S.; Ventura, G.

    2015-12-01

    Colli Albani (Italy) is an alkali-potassic volcanic district located about 20 km SE of Rome (3 M inhabitants) and lastly erupted 36 ka ago. Its eruptive activity is characterized by well-clustered, regularly spaced time cycles, with an average recurrence time of 45±5 ka. Since the modern volcanic activity at Colli Albani seems not particularly intense, scientists have interpreted this volcano to be quiescent. Therefore, unlike other Italian volcanoes, the area has not undergone extensive monitoring. However, a seismic swarm during 1989-1990 has been related to a local uplift of ca. 30 cm since the 1950's along a line crossing the western side of the volcano, giving rise to a debate about its possible interpretation in terms of unrest. Furthermore, recent geological investigations indicate a coupling of eruption history, uplift history, and changes in the regional stress field, pointing to the conclusion that Colli Albani is in unrest. As a result, an evaluation of the volcanic hazard of such a strongly inhabited and vulnerable area is needed. We present the results from the analysis of 20 years of SAR interferometry. The time series show a linear trending displacement (3 mm/yr maximum ground velocity) affecting the western flank of the volcano. In addition, results from gravimetric surveys conducted during 2005-2007 reveal a different behavior between the eastern and western sectors. In an attempt of understanding the dynamics of Colli Albani from the available geodetic and gravimetric data, we build a finite element model incorporating local structural and lithological features, such as mapped faults and elastic discontinuities. Our results suggest that magma is accumulating beneath the Colli Albani western flank, where uplift and positive microgravity anomalies are observed and where the recent seismic swarm took place. Our model constrains the location and geometry of the magmatic source, which is below the vents responsible for the last eruptive activity

  16. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  17. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  18. The first winter solstice observed at the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. (Italian Title: Il primo solstizio d'inverno alla meridiana di S. Maria degli Angeli in Roma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope to measure the Obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity have been realized by Francesco Bianchini, the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bononia. In this paper the accuracy of the data observed by Francesco Bianchini is discussed and compared with up-to-date ephemerides. The modern situation of this historical instrument is also presented.

  19. The application of SRF vs. RDF classification and specifications to the material flows of two mechanical-biological treatment plants of Rome: Comparison and implications.

    PubMed

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Franzese, Maurizio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the quality in terms of solid recovered fuel (SRF) definitions of the dry light flow (until now indicated as refuse derived fuel, RDF), heavy rejects and stabilisation rejects, produced by two mechanical biological treatment plants of Rome (Italy). SRF classification and specifications were evaluated first on the basis of RDF historical characterisation methods and data and then applying the sampling and analytical methods laid down by the recently issued SRF standards. The results showed that the dry light flow presented a worst SRF class in terms of net calorific value applying the new methods compared to that obtained from RDF historical data (4 instead of 3). This lead to incompliance with end of waste criteria established by Italian legislation for SRF use as co-fuel in cement kilns and power plants. Furthermore, the metal contents of the dry light flow obtained applying SRF current methods proved to be considerably higher (although still meeting SRF specifications) compared to those resulting from historical data retrieved with RDF standard methods. These differences were not related to a decrease in the quality of the dry light flow produced in the mechanical-biological treatment plants but rather to the different sampling procedures set by the former RDF and current SRF standards. In particular, the shredding of the sample before quartering established by the latter methods ensures that also the finest waste fractions, characterised by higher moisture and metal contents, are included in the sample to be analysed, therefore affecting the composition and net calorific value of the waste. As for the reject flows, on the basis of their SRF classification and specification parameters, it was found that combined with the dry light flow they may present similar if not the same class codes as the latter alone, thus indicating that these material flows could be also treated in combustion plants instead of landfilled. In conclusion, the

  20. Independent 40Ar/39Ar and 14C age constraints on the last five glacial terminations from the aggradational successions of the Tiber River, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Rohling, E. J.; Florindo, F.; Jicha, B.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-09-01

    We use 13 new 40Ar/39Ar and 4 new 14C datings of volcanic deposits and organic material found within near-coastal aggradational successions deposited by the Tiber River near Rome, Italy, to integrate a larger dataset previously achieved in order to offer independent age constraints to the sea-level fluctuations associated with Late Quaternary glacial cycles during the last 450 ka. Results are compared with the chronologically independently constrained Red Sea relative sea-level curve, and with the astronomically tuned deep-sea benthic δ18O record. We find good agreements for the timings of change, and in several cases for both the amplitudes and timings of change during glacial terminations T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-5. There is one striking exception, namely for glacial termination T-4 that led into interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9. T-4 in our results is dated a full 18 ka earlier than in the Red Sea and deep-sea benthic δ18O records (which are in good agreement with each other in spite of their independent chronological constraints). The observed discrepancy is beyond the scale of the combined age uncertainties. One possible explanation is that the documented aggradation represents an early phase, triggered by a smaller event in the sea-level record, but the thickness of the aggradational sediment sequence then suggests that the amplitude of this earlier sea-level rise is underestimated in the Red Sea and benthic δ18O records. Also, this would imply that the aggradational succession of the main T-4 deglaciation has not yet been located in the study region, which is hard to reconcile with our extensive fieldwork and borehole coverage, unless unlikely non-deposition or complete erosion. Resolving this discrepancy will improve understanding of the timing of deglaciations relative to the orbitally modulated insolation forcing of climate and will require further focused research, both into the nature and chronology of the Tiber sequences of this period, and into

  1. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26065785

  2. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  3. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  4. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  5. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  6. Employment at National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    E. S. Peterson; C. A. Allen

    2007-04-01

    Scientists enter the National Laboratory System for many different reasons. For some, faculty positions are scarce, so they take staff-scientist position at national laboratories (i.e. Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Los Alamos, and Brookhaven). Many plan to work at the National Laboratory for 5 to 7 years and then seek an academic post. For many (these authors included), before they know it it’s 15 or 20 years later and they never seriously considered leaving the laboratory system.

  7. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  8. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  9. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  10. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  11. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  12. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  13. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  14. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  16. Laboratory Turnaround Time

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT. PMID:18392122

  17. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  18. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  19. The radioprotection management of a PET department with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, in accordance with Italian legislation.

    PubMed

    Russo, A A; Ferrari, P; Casale, M; Delia, R

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of setting up a positron emission tomography (PET) facility with a cyclotron and radiopharmaceutical laboratory in situ, at a feasible price and in a very restricted space, has led to a steady increase both in the use of the PET technique in diagnostic clinical routine imaging and in the number of cyclotrons for drug production. Owing to the progress made in the PET procedures, it is now possible to have not only a highly innovative system of diagnostic examination, with a remarkable improvement in the diagnostic quality and patient care, but also a considerable increase in the number of daily examinations. In this paper, the authors show how the acquired know-how, with respect to radioprotection, has applied to the planning, running and management of the PET/CT unit, installed in the Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Policlinico Tor Vergata (PTV), at Tor Vergata University, Rome. PMID:22039292

  20. Assessing the volcanic hazard for Rome: 40Ar/39Ar and In-SAR constraints on the most recent eruptive activity and present-day uplift at Colli Albani Volcanic District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Jicha, B. R.; Palladino, D. M.; Polcari, M.; Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Florindo, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data which allow us to refine the recurrence time for the most recent eruptive activity occurred at Colli Albani Volcanic District (CAVD) and constrain its geographic area. Time elapsed since the last eruption (36 kyr) overruns the recurrence time (31 kyr) in the last 100 kyr. New interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, covering the years 1993-2010, reveal ongoing inflation with maximum uplift rates (>2 mm/yr) in the area hosting the most recent (<200 ka) vents, suggesting that the observed uplift might be caused by magma injection within the youngest plumbing system. Finally, we frame the present deformation within the structural pattern of the area of Rome, characterized by 50 m of regional uplift since 200 ka and by geologic evidence for a recent (<2000 years) switch of the local stress-field, highlighting that the precursors of a new phase of volcanic activity are likely occurring at the CAVD.

  1. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  3. Paleo-surfaces of glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions in the coastal area of Rome: Assessing interplay between tectonics and sea-level during the last ten interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Florindo, Fabio; Anzidei, Marco; Sepe, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Recently acquired geochronological and stratigraphic data provide new information on the sedimentary successions deposited by the Paleo-Tiber River in the coastal and near-coastal area of Rome in consequence of the glacio-eustatic changes, allowing to better define their inner geometry and palaeogeographic spatial distribution. In the present work we use this revised sedimentary dataset to provide a geochronologically constrained and tectonically adjusted record of paleo sea-level indicators. Aimed at this scope, we review literature data acquired in the last 35 years and using the new geochronological constraints we pinpoint the coastal-to-fluvial terraces of MIS 5 and MIS 7, mapping their relic surfaces in an area of 30 km along the coast north and south of the Tiber River mouth, and 20 km inland of the fluvial valleys of Tiber and Aniene rivers. The geometry of these paleo-surfaces provides constraints on the relative elevation of the sea-level during the last interglacials and on the uplift rates in this region during the last 200 ka. In particular, we recognize the previously undetected terraces of MIS 5.3 and MIS 5.1 interstadials, and we assess their spatial relationship with respect to MIS 5.5, providing important information on sea-level oscillations during this time span. Comparison with sea-level indicators provided by previous aggradational successions deposited during past interglacials spanning MIS 9 through MIS 21 in the coastal area of Rome, also allows us to reconstruct the tectonic history and investigate its relationships with the Middle-Pleistocene volcanic activity of the Roman Comagmatic Region along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin of Italy in the last 900 ka.

  4. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  5. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  6. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  7. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  8. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  9. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  10. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  11. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  12. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  13. LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

    THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

  14. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  15. Medical Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

  16. Practical Laboratory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. R.

    This book is intended as a guide for people who are planning chemistry and physics research laboratories. It deals with the importance of effective communication between client and architect, the value of preliminary planning, and the role of the project officer. It also discusses the size and layout of individual laboratories, the design of…

  17. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  18. Laboratory for Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the activities of the Laboratory for Oceans. The staff and the research activities are nearly evenly divided between engineering and scientific endeavors. The Laboratory contributes engineering design skills to aircraft and ground based experiments in terrestrial and atmospheric sciences in cooperation with scientists from labs in Earth sciences.

  19. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  20. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  1. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  2. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  3. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  4. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  5. Organic Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherrel

    1990-01-01

    Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

  6. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  7. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  8. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  9. Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

  10. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - CORVALLIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory - Corvallis is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's - national research center for terrestrial and watershed ecology, aquatic ecoregions, and for the ecological effects of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and atmospheric p...

  12. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  13. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  14. NETL - Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, George

    2013-06-12

    Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are investigating chemical looping combustion. As a clean and efficient fossil fuel technology, chemical looping combustion controls CO2 emissions and offers a promising alternative to traditional combustion.

  15. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  16. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-05-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  17. Theory and laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Alcock, Charles; Allamandola, Lou; Chevalier, Roger A.; Cline, David B.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Fall, S. Michael; Ferland, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Science opportunities in the 1990's are discussed. Topics covered include the large scale structure of the universe, galaxies, stars, star formation and the interstellar medium, high energy astrophysics, and the solar system. Laboratory astrophysics in the 1990's is briefly surveyed, covering such topics as molecular, atomic, optical, nuclear and optical physics. Funding recommendations are given for the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Department of Energy. Recommendations for laboratory astrophysics research are given.

  18. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests. PMID:23862884

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  20. Development of the Design Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla, Harry

    1986-01-01

    Describes the design laboratory at the Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT). Considers course objectives, design projects, project structure, mechanical design, project management, and laboratory operation. This laboratory complements SIT's course in process design, giving students a complete design experience. (JN)

  1. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  2. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  3. Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

  4. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  5. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  6. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  7. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  8. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) labeled with /sup 123/I//sup 131/I in neuroblastoma diagnosis and follow-up treatment with a review of the diagnostic results of the International Workshop of Pediatric Oncology held in Rome, September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Feine, U.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.T.; Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Our experience in scintigraphic diagnosis using /sup 123/I//sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) on 37 children with neuroblastomas stage III-IV is reported and discussed, together with the results obtained by other authors on MIBG diagnosis at the International Workshop of Pediatric Oncology held in Rome in September 1986. In our own investigation, 49 examinations were undertaken with /sup 123/I-MIBG and 66 with /sup 131/I-MIBG partly under therapy conditions with high-activity doses of /sup 131/I-MIBG. There were 29 neuroblastomas, 3 ganglioneuromas, and 3 ganglioneuroblastomas. The localization of all primary tumors was over 90%; for neuroblastomas with a high level of catecholamine excretion, over 95%. The specificity was about 100%. The sensitivity with respect to tumor relapse and all localization of metastasis and bone-marrow tumor infiltration in the follow-up-phase approaches was 70% during or after therapy. What emerges from the experience of most investigators is that /sup 123/I-MIBG is the agent best suited to detect tumor relapse and metastasis, especially in the bone marrow. MIBG examinations are of great value in follow-up studies for detecting tumor relapse and bone marrow infiltrations, especially before the onset of clinical symptoms and other indications. 16 references.

  9. The Applied Mathematics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martha J.

    This report describes the Applied Mathematics Laboratory (AML) operated by the Department of Mathematics at Towson State University, Maryland. AML is actually a course offered to selected undergraduates who are given the opportunity to apply their skills in investigating industrial and governmental problems. By agreement with sponsoring…

  10. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  11. Green Laboratory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Presents schools as the perfect microcosms of the world of the 1990s: most work is done indoors, many resources are consumed, and schools sit surrounded by large chunks of land mostly devoted to grass and parking. Suggests that a school can serve as two perfect environmental education laboratories, one indoor and one outdoor. Describes how to…

  12. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  13. Introducing Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple, 10-item quiz designed to make students aware that they must learn laboratory safety. The items include questions on acid/base accidents, several types of fire extinguishers, and safety glassses. Answers and some explanations are included. (DH)

  14. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  15. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  16. Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz de la Pena, Arsenio; Gonzalez-Gomez, David; Munoz de la Pena, David; Gomez-Estern, Fabio; Sequedo, Manuel Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    designed for automating the collection and assessment of laboratory exercises is presented. This Web-based system has been extensively used in engineering courses such as control systems, mechanics, and computer programming. Goodle GMS allows the students to submit their results to a…

  17. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. RUNNING A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REES, ALUN L.W.

    THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TRUJILLO AS IT IS USED IN THE FIVE-YEAR ENGLISH TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THIS COURSE ARE INTENSIVE, BASED ON A STUDY OF ENGLISH USING LADO-FRIES MATERIALS (FOR LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS) WHICH REQUIRE FIVE HOURS OF CLASSWORK A WEEK SUPPLEMENTED BY…

  19. Writing the Laboratory Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanare, Howard M.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the principles of proper scientific notekeeping. The principles presented in this book are goals for which working scientists must strive. Chapter 1, "The Reasons for Notekeeping," is an overview of the process of keeping a laboratory notebook. Chapter 2, "The Hardware of Notekeeping," is intended especially…

  20. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

    2013-05-28

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Microcomputers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafert, Bruce; Nicklin, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A one-semester hour laboratory course introduced junior and senior physics majors to assembly language programing and to interfacing KIM-1 microcomputer to experiments. A general purpose interface to a standard breadboard was developed. Course details, apparatus, and some interfacing projects are given. (Author/SK)

  2. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  3. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  4. Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…

  5. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  6. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  7. The Indiana Laboratory System: Focus on Environmental Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Kara R.; Matheson, Shelley R.; Lovchik, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) Laboratories are working to improve Indiana's state public health laboratory system. Environmental laboratories are key stakeholders in this system, but their needs have been largely unaddressed prior to this project. In an effort to identify and engage these laboratories, the ISDH Laboratories organized and hosted the First Annual Environmental Laboratories Meeting. The focus of this meeting was on water-testing laboratories throughout the state. Meeting objectives included issue identification, disaster recovery response, and communication efforts among system partners. Common concerns included the need for new technology and updated methods, analyst training, certification programs for analysts and sample collectors, electronic reporting, and regulation interpretation and inspection consistency. Now that these issues have been identified, they can be addressed through a combination of laboratory workgroups and collaboration with Indiana's regulatory agencies. Participants were overwhelmingly positive about the meeting's outcomes and were willing to help with future laboratory system improvement projects. PMID:23997304

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particularly helpful in distinguishing iron deficiency from thalassemia minor. Significant changes have occurred in the laboratory evaluation of macrocytic anemia, and a new syndrome of nitrous oxide-induced megaloblastosis and neurologic dysfunction has been recognized. A suggested approach to the hemolytic anemias includes using the micro-Coombs' test and ektacytometry. Finally, a number of causes have been identified for normocytic anemia without reticulocytosis, including normocytic megaloblastic anemia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:3577135

  9. Laboratory models of tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Christopher R.; Snow, John T.

    Nature provides many examples of intense but small-scale atmospheric vortices, the most devastating being tornadoes. Other small vortices include waterspouts, fire whirls, dust devils, and steam devils. Several aspects of small-scale atmospheric vortex flows are of concern to the atmospheric scientist, namely: determination of their kinematic structure, understanding of their formation and dynamics, identification of the factors that control their intensities, and application of new knowledge and insights in ways that will provide greater protection for society from the hazards of these phenomena. Although some of the vortex types listed above occur more frequently and are more readily available for observation than tornadoes, all small-scale vortices are inherently infrequent, short-lived phenomena; it has been expedient for some scientists to simulate tornadolike flows in the laboratory. This laboratory work constitutes a small but significant part of the overall tornado research effort.

  10. Space Radiation Effects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The SREL User's Handbook is designed to provide information needed by those who plan experiments involving the accelerators at this laboratory. Thus the Handbook will contain information on the properties of the machines, the beam parameters, the facilities and services provided for experimenters, etc. This information will be brought up to date as new equipment is added and modifications accomplished. This Handbook is influenced by the many excellent models prepared at other accelerator laboratories. In particular, the CERN Synchrocyclotron User's Handbook (November 1967) is closely followed in some sections, since the SREL Synchrocyclotron is a duplicate of the CERN machine. We wish to thank Dr. E. G. Michaelis for permission to draw so heavily on his work, particularly in Section II of this Handbook. We hope that the Handbook will prove useful, and will welcome suggestions and criticism.

  11. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  12. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  13. A lunar laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, P. W.; Duke, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration.

  14. Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: (1) objectives, (2) approach and techniques adopted, (3) adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), and (4) results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a

  15. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  16. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  17. Portable Laser Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.T.

    1994-07-01

    A Portable Laser Laboratory (PLL) is being designed and built for the CALIOPE Program tests which will begin in October of 1994. The PLL is designed to give maximum flexibility for evolving laser experiments and can be readily moved by loading it onto a standard truck trailer. The internal configuration for the October experiments will support a two line DIAL system running in the mid-IR. Brief descriptions of the laser and detection systems are included.

  18. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  19. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  20. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility; and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options: the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase 2 study are described in the present report.

  1. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  2. Laboratory Diagnosis of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tanyuksel, Mehmet; Petri, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory. To assess the scope of E. histolytica infection, it is necessary to utilize accurate diagnostic tools. As more is discovered about the molecular and cell biology of E. histolytica, there is great potential for further understanding the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Molecular biology-based diagnosis may become the technique of choice in the future because establishment of these protozoa in culture is still not a routine clinical laboratory process. In all cases, combination of serologic tests with detection of the parasite (by antigen detection or PCR) offers the best approach to diagnosis, while PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing country settings. The detection of amebic markers in serum in patients with amebic colitis and liver abscess appears promising but is still only a research tool. On the other hand, stool antigen detection tests offer a practical, sensitive, and specific way for the clinical laboratory to detect intestinal E. histolytica. All the current tests suffer from the fact that the antigens detected are denatured by fixation of the stool specimen, limiting testing to fresh or frozen samples. PMID:14557296

  3. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  4. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  5. Economic Education Laboratory: Initiating a Meaningful Economic Learning through Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noviani, Leny; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Sabandi, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory is considered as one of the resources in supporting the learning process. The laboratory can be used as facilities to deepen the concepts, learning methods and enriching students' knowledge and skills. Learning process by utilizing the laboratory facilities can help lecturers and students in grasping the concept easily, constructing the…

  6. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Down-Hole Tests in the Archeological "Palatine Hill" Area (Rome, Italy): Evaluation and Influence of 2D Effects on the Shear Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, V.; Cavuoto, G.; Tarallo, D.; Punzo, M.; Evangelista, L.

    2016-05-01

    A joint analysis of down-hole (DH) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements offers a complete evaluation of shear wave velocity profiles, especially for sites where a strong lateral variability is expected, such as archeological sites. In this complex stratigraphic setting, the high "subsoil anisotropy" (i.e., sharp lithological changes due to the presence of anthropogenic backfill deposits and/or buried man-made structures) implies a different role for DH and MASW tests. This paper discusses some results of a broad experimental program conducted on the Palatine Hill, one of the most ancient areas of the city of Rome (Italy). The experiments were part of a project on seismic microzoning and consisted of 20 MASW and 11 DH tests. The main objective of this study was to examine the difficulties related to the interpretation of the DH and MASW tests and the reliability limits inherent in the application of the noninvasive method in complex stratigraphic settings. As is well known, DH tests provide good determinations of shear wave velocities (Vs) for different lithologies and man-made materials, whereas MASW tests provide average values for the subsoil volume investigated. The data obtained from each method with blind tests were compared and were correlated to site-specific subsurface conditions, including lateral variability. Differences between punctual (DH) and global (MASW) Vs measurements are discussed, quantifying the errors by synthetic comparison and by site response analyses. This study demonstrates that, for archeological sites, VS profiles obtained from the DH and MASW methods differ by more than 15 %. However, the local site effect showed comparable results in terms of natural frequencies, whereas the resolution of the inverted shear wave velocity was influenced by the fundamental mode of propagation.

  7. From "sapienza" to "sapienza, State Archives in Rome". a Looping Effect Bringing Back to the Original Source Comunication and Culture by Innovative and Low Cost 3d Surveying, Imaging Systems and GIS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Forti, G.; Catalani, G.; Lucchetti, S.; Menghini, A.; Mirandola, A.; Pistacchio, S.; Porzia, U.; Roberti, M.

    2016-04-01

    High Quality survey models, realized by multiple Low Cost methods and technologies, as a container to sharing Cultural and Archival Heritage, this is the aim guiding our research, here described in its primary applications. The SAPIENZA building, a XVI century masterpiece that represented the first unified headquarters of University in Rome, plays since year 1936, when the University moved to its newly edified campus, the role of the main venue for the State Archives. By the collaboration of a group of students of the Architecture Faculty, some integrated survey methods were applied on the monument with success. The beginning was the topographic survey, creating a reference on ground and along the monument for the upcoming applications, a GNNS RTK survey followed georeferencing points on the internal courtyard. Dense stereo matching photogrammetry is nowadays an accepted method for generating 3D survey models, accurate and scalable; it often substitutes 3D laser scanning for its low cost, so that it became our choice. Some 360° shots were planned for creating panoramic views of the double portico from the courtyard, plus additional single shots of some lateral spans and of pillars facing the court, as a single operation with a double finality: to create linked panotours with hotspots to web-linked databases, and 3D textured and georeferenced surface models, allowing to study the harmonic proportions of the classical architectural order. The use of free web Gis platforms, to load the work in Google Earth and the realization of low cost 3D prototypes of some representative parts, has been even performed.

  8. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  9. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  10. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  11. Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  12. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  13. Laboratory and Industrial Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This handbook supplements the Facilities Engineering Handbook (NHB 7320.1) and provides additional policies and criteria for uniform application to ventilation systems. It expands basic requirements, provides additional design and construction guidance, and places emphasis on those design considerations which will provide for greater effectiveness in the use of these systems. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all NASA field installations and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Since supply of this handbook is limited, abstracts of the portion or portions applicable to a given requirement will be made for the individual specific needs encountered rather than supplying copies of the handbook as has been past practice.

  14. Preoperative Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Bock, Matthias; Fritsch, Gerhard; Hepner, David L

    2016-03-01

    Routine preoperative testing is not cost-effective, because it is unlikely to identify significant abnormalities. Abnormal findings from routine testing are more likely to be false positive, are costly to pursue, introduce a new risk, increase the patient's anxiety, and are inconvenient to the patient. Abnormal findings rarely alter the surgical or anesthetic plan, and there is usually no association between perioperative complications and abnormal laboratory results. Incidental findings and false positive results may lead to increased hospital visits and admissions. Preoperative testing needs to be done based on a targeted history and physical examination and the type of surgery. PMID:26927738

  15. Laboratory prototype flash evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory prototype flash evaporator that is being developed as a candidate for the space shuttle environmental control system expendable heat sink is described. The single evaporator configuration uses water as an evaporant to accommodate reentry and on-orbit peak heat loads, and Freon 22 for terrestrial flight phases below 120,000 feet altitude. The design features, fabrication techniques used for the prototype unit, redundancy considerations, and the fluid temperature control arrangement are reported in detail. The results of an extensive test program to determine the evaporator operational characteristics under a wide variety of conditions are presented.

  16. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  17. Novae as Thermonuclear Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    2003-07-01

    Fred Hoyle undertook a study of observational consequences of the thermonuclear paradigm for the nova event in the years following his 1972 resignation from Cambridge University. The most fruitful of these have been in the areas of gamma-ray astronomy, by which one attempts to measure the level of radioactivity in the nova envelope, and of presolar grain studies in laboratories, by which one measures anomalous isotopic ratios that fingerprint condensation in the thermonuclear event. This work summarizes progress with these two astronomical measures of the novae.

  18. The Laboratory in Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Harold N.

    1979-01-01

    The role of laboratory experience in professional education is discussed. Although laboratory experiments are often expensive and demanding on faculty time, they can offer a unique experience to the veterinary medicine student. (BH)

  19. How Reliable Is Laboratory Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to day in a laboratory. The other two, sensitivity and specificity, deal with how well the test ... are frequently monitored by the professional laboratory personnel. Sensitivity and specificity data are determined by research studies ...

  20. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  1. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  2. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  3. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodnight, Thomas W.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2001-01-01

    The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed for the support, simulation, and verification of the International Space Station microgravity environment. The MEL utilizes an inertial measurement system using acceleration emissions generated by various operating components of the space station. These emissions, if too large, could hinder the science performed on the space station by disturbing the microgravity environment. Typical test components are disk drives, pumps, motors, solenoids, fans, and cameras. These components will produce inertial forces, which disturb the microgravity on-orbit station environment. These components, usually housed within a station rack, must meet acceleration limits imposed at the rack interface for minimizing the onboard station-operating environment. The NASA Glenn Research Center developed this one-of-a-kind laboratory for testing components and, eventually, rack-level configurations. The MEL approach is to measure the component's generated inertial forces. This force is a product of the full diagonal mass matrix including the test setup (the center of gravity, mass moment of inertia, and weight) and the resolved diagonal rigid-body acceleration determined from measurements using the 10 apparatus accelerometers. The mass matrix can be test derived. The bifilar torsional pendulum method is used to measure the moment of inertia for the test component.

  4. Introductory Archaeology: The Inexpensive Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a number of student-focused laboratory exercises that are inexpensive, yet show the scientific character of archaeology. Describes the environmental laboratory exercise which includes the following analysis topics: (1) pollen; (2) earth core; (3) microfaunal; and (4) microwear. Describes the ceramic laboratory which involves…

  5. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  6. Laboratory Materials: Affordances or Constraints?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is critical to the understanding of biology and is a central piece of biological sciences instruction. Although much investigation has focused on the content of biology laboratory exercises, we contend that understanding the extent to which the laboratory materials can aid or limit experimental investigation is of equal…

  7. Federal Laboratory Consortium Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist both the private and public sectors to locate and utilize technological expertise within the federal laboratories, this directory lists the federal laboratories and centers that are affiliated with the Federal Laboratory Consortium and describes the area of technological expertise they can make available to solve problems. This…

  8. Diversifying the Introductory Physics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.; Lessie, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Describes a two-semester laboratory program designed to motivate students. The program consists of computer-oriented modules and discovery approach laboratory exercises. Students complete similar computer/laboratory material during the first semester but elect one of three tracks during the second semester (computer, every-day life, and…

  9. Managing the Occupational Education Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, George

    This guide for occupational educators deals with laboratory and instructional management on an interdisciplinary basis within the broad field of occupational education. The principles discussed are intended to be applied at all levels and in all types of laboratories. The text suggests effective ways of organizing laboratories so that students can…

  10. Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

  11. Tochilinite Produced in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozerenko, S. V.; Organova, N. J.; Fadeev, V. V.; Magazina, L. O.; Kolpakova, N. N.; Kopneva, L. A.

    1996-03-01

    Tochilinite was firstly identified in the serpentinites from Voronezh region, Russia, in 1971. Later this mineral was recognized to be a major matrix phase of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM) where tochilinite as a mixed-layer structure occurs among serpentine group minerals, olivine, pyroxene, pyrrhotite etc. Terrestrial tochilinite has been suggested to result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of serpentinite. The origin of the chondritic tochilinite is still not known, partly because of failure to synthesis this mineral. As for as we know, since 1971, there was no publication about successful synthesis of tochilinite. Here we present results of the first laboratory synthesis of tochilinite as a product of interaction of Fe(II) hydroxides with H2S at 80 degrees C, and total concentration of reduced sulfur ions in solution lower than 10-4M at pH 7.8 and lower than 1M at pH 11.5.

  12. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  13. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  14. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  15. FORT Molecular Ecology Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stevens, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Fort Collins Science Center Molecular Ecology Laboratory is to use the tools and concepts of molecular genetics to address a variety of complex management questions and conservation issues facing the management of the Nation's fish and wildlife resources. Together with our partners, we design and implement studies to document genetic diversity and the distribution of genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species. Information from these studies is used to support wildlife-management planning and conservation actions. Current and past studies have provided information to assess taxonomic boundaries, inform listing decisions made under the Endangered Species Act, identify unique or genetically depauperate populations, estimate population size or survival rates, develop management or recovery plans, breed wildlife in captivity, relocate wildlife from one location to another, and assess the effects of environmental change.

  16. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  18. Laminar laboratory rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizilles, Grégoire; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Éric; Métivier, François

    2014-05-01

    A viscous fluid flowing over fine plastic grains spontaneously channelizes into a few centimeters-wide river. After reaching its equilibrium shape, this stable laboratory flume is able to carry a steady load of sediments, like many alluvial rivers. When the sediment discharge vanishes, the river size, shape and slope fit the threshold theory proposed by Glover and Florey (1951), which assumes that the Shields parameter is critical on the channel bed. As the sediment discharge is increased, the river widens and flattens. Surprisingly, the aspect ratio of its cross section depends on the sediment discharge only, regardless of the water discharge. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these findings based on the balance between gravity, which pulls particles towards the center of the channel, and the diffusion of bedload particles, which pushes them away from areas of intense bedload.

  19. Computer integrated laboratory testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the integration of computers into the Engineering Materials Science Laboratory course, where existing test equipment is not computerized. The first lab procedure is to demonstrate and produce a material phase change curve. The second procedure is a demonstration of the modulus of elasticity and related stress-strain curve, plastic performance, maximum and failure strength. The process of recording data by sensors that are connected to a data logger which adds a time base, and the data logger in turn connected to a computer, places the materials labs into a computer integrated mode with minimum expense and maximum flexibility. The sensor signals are input into a spread sheet for tabular records, curve generation, and graph printing.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dogliani, Harold O

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  1. Interaction between clinic and laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elina; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Lassila, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians order laboratory tests to diagnose, monitor, and screen for diseases, to evaluate or confirm previously abnormal results and to develop prognoses. The rigorous quality assurance programs, large automated processes and economic constraints may induce direct challenges to tailored diagnosis. Clinicians will have to gain an understanding of the underlying principles of laboratory technologies without losing their ability to practice 'the art of medicine' at their primary focus - the patient. Specialized laboratory services and expertise play especially important roles in coagulation hematology. Assays are technically demanding and often based on functional properties of proteins, producing results that are far more than plain numbers. Interpretation of laboratory data poses many challenges, such as pre-analytical and patient-dependent factors, of which the laboratory is often not well informed, but which the clinicians are required to take into account. The laboratory scientist needs to understand the multiple clinical circumstances causing variance or interference in the laboratory results. Direct interaction between clinic and laboratory is needed. When laboratory-specific issues are uncertain to the clinician, the laboratory scientist should become the clinician's primary consultant. The better the education and knowledge of both directions, the better the outcome. Regular multidisciplinary rounds by the clinicians and the laboratory scientists are of great benefit. This interaction at its best fosters research and development by identifying new mechanisms and tools. PMID:21193109

  2. [ISO 15189 medical laboratory accreditation].

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tsutomu

    2004-10-01

    This International Standard, based upon ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO 9001, provides requirements for competence and quality that are particular to medical laboratories. While this International Standard is intended for use throughout the currently recognized disciplines of medical laboratory services, those working in other services and disciplines will also find it useful and appropriate. In addition, bodies engaged in the recognition of the competence of medical laboratories will be able to use this International Standard as the basis for their activities. The Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (AB) and the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CCLS) are jointly developing the program of accreditation of medical laboratories. ISO 15189 requirements consist of two parts, one is management requirements and the other is technical requirements. The former includes the requirements of all parts of ISO 9001, moreover it includes the requirement of conformity assessment body, for example, impartiality and independence from any other party. The latter includes the requirements of laboratory competence (e.g. personnel, facility, instrument, and examination methods), moreover it requires that laboratories shall participate proficiency testing(s) and laboratories' examination results shall have traceability of measurements and implement uncertainty of measurement. Implementation of ISO 15189 will result in a significant improvement in medical laboratories management system and their technical competence. The accreditation of medical laboratory will improve medical laboratory service and be useful for patients. PMID:15624503

  3. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  4. Creating the laboratory`s future; A strategy for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    ``Creating The Laboratory`s Future`` describes Livermore`s roles and responsibilities as a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory and sets the foundation for decisions about the Laboratory`s programs and operations. It summarizes Livermore`s near-term strategy, which builds on recent Lab achievements and world events affecting their future. It also discusses their programmatic and operational emphases and highlights program areas that the authors believe can grow through application of Lab science and technology. Creating the Laboratory`s Future reflects their very strong focus on national security, important changes in the character of their national security work, major efforts are under way to overhaul their administrative and operational systems, and the continuing challenge of achieving national consensus on the role of the government in energy, environment, and the biosciences.

  5. Laboratory development TPV generator

    SciTech Connect

    Holmquist, G.A.; Wong, E.M.; Waldman, C.H.

    1996-02-01

    A laboratory model of a TPV generator in the kilowatt range was developed and tested. It was based on methane/oxygen combustion and a spectrally matched selective emitter/collector pair (ytterbia emitter-silicon PV cell). The system demonstrated a power output of 2.4 kilowatts at an overall efficiency of 4.5{percent} without recuperation of heat from the exhaust gases. Key aspects of the effort include: (1) process development and fabrication of mechanically strong selective emitter ceramic textile materials; (2) design of a stirred reactor emitter/burner capable of handling up to 175,000 Btu/hr fuel flows; (3) support to the developer of the production silicon concentrator cells capable of withstanding TPV environments; (4) assessing the apparent temperature exponent of selective emitters; and (5) determining that the remaining generator efficiency improvements are readily defined combustion engineering problems that do not necessitate breakthrough technology. The fiber matrix selective emitter ceramic textile (felt) was fabricated by a relic process with the final heat-treatment controlling the grain growth in the porous ceramic fiber matrix. This textile formed a cylindrical cavity for a stirred reactor. The ideal stirred reactor is characterized by constant temperature combustion resulting in a uniform reactor temperature. This results in a uniform radiant emission from the emitter. As a result of significant developments in the porous emitter matrix technology, a TPV generator burner/emitter was developed that produced kilowatts of radiant energy. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Spectrometers beyond the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1996-11-01

    Two new types of miniature Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) presently being built have enabled this technology to be taken out of the laboratory and into the field. Both designs are very rugged, use little power to run, and can be made extremely small and lightweight. They are excellent candidates for airborne use, both in aircraft and satellite applications. One, the Mcro FT, is a mass balanced linear reciprocating scan operating in the 1-2 scan per second speed range. The other, the Turbo FT, uses a rotary scan, enabling it to run at much higher speeds, from 10 to 1000 scans per second. Either type can be built in the visible, near K and thermal IR wavelength ranges, and provide spectral resolution of 1-2 wave-numbers. Results obtained in all these wavelength ranges are presented here. The rotary configuration is more suited to airborne and satellite survey type deployments, due mostly to its rapid scan rate. Either of these sensors will fit into a small, commercially available stabilized pod which can easily be attached to a helicopter or light plane. This results in a very economical flight spectrometer system. 11 figs.

  7. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory (AMML) 1971-1972 program involved the investigation of three separate life detection schemes. The first was a continued further development of the labeled release experiment. The possibility of chamber reuse without inbetween sterilization, to provide comparative biochemical information was tested. Findings show that individual substrates or concentrations of antimetabolites may be sequentially added to a single test chamber. The second detection system which was investigated for possible inclusion in the AMML package of assays, was nitrogen fixation as detected by acetylene reduction. Thirdly, a series of preliminary steps were taken to investigate the feasibility of detecting biopolymers in soil. A strategy for the safe return to Earth of a Mars sample prior to manned landings on Mars is outlined. The program assumes that the probability of indigenous life on Mars is unity and then broadly presents the procedures for acquisition and analysis of the Mars sample in a manner to satisfy the scientific community and the public that adequate safeguards are being taken.

  8. BNL Sources Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Graves, W.; Heese, R.; Johnson, E.D.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    The NSLS has a long-standing interest in providing the best possible synchrotron radiation sources for its user community, and hence, has recently established the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) to pursue research into fourth generation synchrotron radiation sources. A major element of the program includes development of a high peak power FEL meant to operate in the vacuum ultraviolet. The objective of the program is to develop the source, and experimental technology together to provide the greatest impact on UV science. The accelerator under construction for the SDL consists of a high brightness RF photocathode electron gun followed by a 230 MeV short pulse linac incorporating a magnetic chicane for pulse compression. The gun drive laser is a wide bandwidth Ti: Sapphire regenerative amplifier capable of pulse shaping which will be used to study non- linear emittance compensation. Using the compressor, 1 nC bunches with a length as small as 50 {mu}m sigma (2 kA peak current) are available for experiments. In this paper we briefly describe the facility and detail our plans for utilizing the 10 m long NISUS wiggler to carry out single pass FEL experiments. These include a 1 {mu}m SASE demonstration, a seeded beam demonstration at 300 nm, and a High Gain Harmonic Generation experiment at 200 mn. The application of chirped pulse amplification to this type of FEL will also be discussed.

  9. Adult Political Education in Republican Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Graham

    1969-01-01

    Focusing on the later Roman republic, an account is given of the political roles of aristocrats and plebeians and of how public meetings, presided over by the tribunes, gave the common people a practical form of adult political education. (LY)

  10. Socially Determined Variation in Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D.; Wallace, Rex E.

    1992-01-01

    Social implications of phonological and morphological variation in Classical Latin is examined. Arguments for the social factor are instances of hypercorrection, private and domestic instances of certain datives and Augustus' use of rural "domos" for "domus." It is understood in terms of the model of urbanization. (35 references) (Author/LB)

  11. Letter from Gustavus. While Rome burns.

    PubMed

    Brown, W E

    1994-01-01

    The religious command to the ancient nomads in Israel to multiply and subdue the earth is still obeyed across the world. In India and China high fertility ensures the requisite work force for intensive agriculture and the care of the elderly. In pastoral societies wealth and social status depend on the number of livestock possessed, with the result of overgrazing, soil erosion, and desertification. Most ecosystem and biospheric deterioration stems from two causes: 1) the false notion inherited from ancient religious beliefs that human beings are exempt from natural constraints; and 2) the fallacious idea that science and technology will overcome the looming prospects of environmental catastrophe. The ill-fated examples of the Aswan Dam in Egypt, the devastation of the rich soils in the Mississippi Basin, and the destruction of California attest to the contrary. In addition, the existing nuclear arsenal as well as obsolescent nuclear power plants harbor a potential disaster. There is a desperate struggle to feed multiplying populations, which results in mining all the resources within the boundaries of nation states, or, once they become exhausted, taking the lands and resources of others. Unless the same rules are applied to the human species as are to scientific investigation, there will be no more preserved lands, seas, and ecosystems left. In Third World countries this phenomenon is already taking place on a large scale when parks and nature preserves must resort to armed wardens to protect the wildlife and habitat from encroachers scavenging for food and fuelwood. In the industrialized countries this desperation does not appear so manifestly yet because it is allayed by the rapacious extraction of the resources of poorer nations by multinationals. PMID:12290865

  12. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-03-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  13. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  14. Wentworth Institute Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Manual. Laboratory Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avakian, Harry; And Others

    This publication is a laboratory study guide designed for mechanical engineering students. All of the experiments (with the exception of experiment No. 1) contained in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Manual have been included in this guide. Brief theoretical backgrounds, examples and their solutions, charts, graphs, illustrations, and…

  15. Mice examined in Animal Laboratory of Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Landrum Young (seated), Brown and Root-Northrup, and Russell Stullken, Manned Spacecraft Center, examine mice in the Animal laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory which have been inoculated with lunar sample material. wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  16. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappala, J. C.; Jiang, W.; Bailey, K. G.; Lu, Z. T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport in the terrestrial environment, 81Kr (half-life = 230,000 yr) is the ideal tracer for old water and ice with mean residence times in the range of 105-106 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr-dating is now available to the earth science community at large thanks to the development of an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method. ATTA is a laser-based atom counting method where individual neutral atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured by laser beams, and their fluorescence detected via a CCD camera. ATTA is unique among trace analysis techniques in that it is free of interferences from any other isotopes, isobars, atomic or molecular species. The ATTA instrument at Argonne's Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10-14-10-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 kyr - 1500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 kg of water or 40 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the sample size can be smaller by an order of magnitude. We are continually developing the method towards higher counting efficiency, smaller sample sizes requirements, and higher sample throughput rates. In the past four years, we have performed radiokrypton analysis of over 150 groundwater and ice samples extracted by collaborators from all seven continents. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Bern, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  18. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Magma transport in volcanic plumbing systems induces surface deformation, which can be monitored by geodetic techniques, such as GPS and InSAR. These geodetic signals are commonly analyzed through geodetic models in order to constrain the shape of, and the pressure in, magma plumbing systems. These models, however, suffer critical limitations: (1) the modelled magma conduit shapes cannot be compared with the real conduits, so the geodetic models cannot be tested nor validated; (2) the modelled conduits only exhibit shapes that are too simplistic; (3) most geodetic models only account for elasticity of the host rock, whereas substantial plastic deformation is known to occur. To overcome these limitations, one needs to use a physical system, in which (1) both surface deformation and the shape of, and pressure in, the underlying conduit are known, and (2) the mechanical properties of the host material are controlled and well known. In this contribution, we present novel quantitative laboratory results of shallow magma emplacement. Fine-grained silica flour represents the brittle crust, and low viscosity vegetable oil is an analogue for the magma. The melting temperature of the oil is 31°C; the oil solidifies in the models after the end of the experiments. At the time of injection the oil temperature is 50°C. The oil is pumped from a reservoir using a volumetric pump into the silica flour through a circular inlet at the bottom of a 40x40 cm square box. The silica flour is cohesive, such that oil intrudes it by fracturing it, and produces typical sheet intrusions (dykes, cone sheets, etc.). During oil intrusion, the model surface deforms, mostly by doming. These movements are measured by an advanced photogrammetry method, which uses 4 synchronized fixed cameras that periodically image the surface of the model from different angles. We apply particle tracking method to compute the 3D ground deformation pattern through time. After solidification of the oil, the

  19. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  20. Laboratory Activities for Introductory Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglak, Haym

    1973-01-01

    Presents sample laboratory activities designed for use in astronomy teaching, including naked eye observations, instrument construction, student projects, and cloudy weather activities. Appended are bibliographies of journal articles and reference books and lists of films, laboratory manuals, and distributors of apparatus and teaching aids. (CC)