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1

Roof-Integrated Solar Thermal System (Dawn Solar Systems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dawn Solar Systems team worked on improving the efficiency of a roof-integrated solar thermal system used for residential hot water heating. Through the use of a comprehensive system model and a simulated roof test stand, the team predicted the type of design improvements that would increase efficiency while keeping the cost to within 15% of the baseline. A strategic

Jonathan Chambers; Que Anh Nguyen; Bret Richmond; Sara Schwalbenberg; Polina Segalova; Greg Neufeld; Holly Mead

2006-01-01

2

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15

3

Thermal performance analysis and economic evaluation of roof-integrated solar concrete collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the thermal performance of a roof-integrated solar concrete collector for reducing heat gain to a house and providing domestic hot water. The solar concrete collector is made of PVC pipes embedded in deck slab or concrete roof. No glazing on the top of the solar concrete collector or insulation at the back has been used as in

Rangsit Sarachitti; Chaicharn Chotetanorm; Charoenporn Lertsatitthanakorn; Montana Rungsiyopas

2011-01-01

4

Solar potential for the solar photovoltaic roof integration system in China explored by the geographic information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the potential solar power for the solar photovoltaic Roof Integration System (RIS) using the Geographic Information System (GIS) method, taking into account the geographic distribution of solar irradiation and the estimate of costs for the RIS and identifies the distribution of potential solar energy radiating on the RIS and power. The total urban roof area is estimated

Xinping Zhou; Jiakuan Yang; Xudong Yuan; Bo Xiao; Guoxiang Hou

2009-01-01

5

Solar power roof shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon solar cell module provides both all-weather protection and electrical power. Module consists of array of circular silicon solar cells bonded to fiberglass substrate roof shingle with fluorinated ethylene propylene encapsulant.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G.

1975-01-01

6

Solar energy absorbing roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roof structure has a supporting base on which a layer of insulating material is placed and over which is a metal layer having water circulating channels. The metal layer is covered by a water proofing layer, the outer surface of which is covered with mineral particles. The roof structure serves both the function of a conventional roof and a

Ronc

1980-01-01

7

Analysis by simulation of a solar still integrated in a greenhouse roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simulation model for fresh water production and derived performance parameters for a water desalination system integrated in a greenhouse roof. Several typical daily weather patterns taken from a 10-year period for three arid regions in Tunisia were analyzed. The simulation model is based on a set of heat balance equations including material layers and a brackish

M. T. Chaibi

2000-01-01

8

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2013-07-01

9

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2014-07-01

10

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2010-07-01

11

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2011-07-01

12

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2012-07-01

13

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-print Network

the under side of the roof can not only cause discomfort in a ndn air-conditioned bui1din9 but can neces sitate a lower temperature setting in an air-conditioned building to achieve a com fortable condition. Tests run at BIGELOW-SANFORD plant in Lan...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01

14

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-print Network

the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 spray nozzles. but it was found that the tiny (Sprayed Roof) m Savings of 100 tons ? 1 ton serrations in the spray head. which were per 1.000 sq. ft. necessary to put a...

Patterson, G. V.

1980-01-01

15

Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than under the tilted PV array. The maximum downward heat flux was 18.7 Watts per square meters for the exposed roof and 7.0 Watts per square meters under the tilted PV array, a 63% reduction due to the PV array. This study is unique as the impact of tilted and flush PV arrays could be compared against a typical exposed roof at the same roof for a commercial uninhabited building with exposed ceiling and consisting only of the building envelope. Our results indicate a more comfortable indoor environment in PV covered buildings without HVAC both in hotter and cooler seasons.

Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

2010-01-01

16

Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same  

DOEpatents

A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

1999-11-16

17

SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER  

E-print Network

absorb whatever light is left in the night sky. It's fascinating. In an age when natural resources the university nearly $30,000 a year in electric bills. NJIT received a $216,000 rebate from the New Jersey Board on the roof of the new Campus Center. Baptiste, who graduated from NJIT in 1991 with a degree in electrical

Bieber, Michael

18

Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

2006-10-01

19

Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.  

SciTech Connect

Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

2014-12-01

20

Analysis of Wind Forces on Roof-Top Solar Panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural loads on solar panels include forces due to high wind, gravity, thermal expansion, and earthquakes. International Building Code (IBC) and the American Society of Civil Engineers are two commonly used approaches in solar industries to address wind loads. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-02) can be used to calculate wind uplift loads on roof-mounted solar panels. The present study is primarily focused on 2D and 3D modeling with steady, and turbulent flow over an inclined solar panel on the flat based roof to predict the wind forces for designing wind management system. For the numerical simulation, 3-D incompressible flow with the standard k-? was adopted and commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT was used. Results were then validated with wind tunnel experiments with a good agreement. Solar panels with various aspect ratios for various high wind speeds and angle of attacks were modeled and simulated in order to predict the wind loads in various scenarios. The present study concluded to reduce the strong wind uplift by designing a guide plate or a deflector before the panel.

Panta, Yogendra; Kudav, Ganesh

2011-03-01

21

Solar heat collection with suspended metal roofing and whole house ventilation  

SciTech Connect

A south pitched roof is employed for solar collection directly onto a roofing with chocolate brown color. The roofing is structural and is suspended over plywood decking so as to create an air space which receives input from the coolest and lowest basement air of the house interior. Air heated beneath the metal roofing is returned to a basement storage wall. Full length plenum cavities are formed into the ordinary rafter truss framing--at the knee wall and collar tie spaces. Preliminary testing of BTU gain at known air flows is acquired with a microprocessor system continuously collecting input and output temperatures at the roof collector into disk data files.

Maynard, T.

1996-10-01

22

EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks Amitangshu Pal experiments on solar-powered sensor nodes. Due to constraints in cost and size, the solar panels of solar energy available at such solar-powered sensor nodes can be highly unpredictable and at times

Nasipuri, Asis

23

Experimental study of a roof solar collector towards the natural ventilation of new houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the possibility of offering thermal comfort in new housing built in European style and situated in a hot and humid climate, without inducing mechanical energy cost, by means of a constructive element: the Roof Solar Collector (RSC). With this RSC it is possible, on the one hand, to minimize the fraction of the solar flux absorbed by

Joseph Khedari; Jongjit Hirunlabh; Tika Bunnag

1997-01-01

24

Automatic Roof Plane Detection and Analysis in Airborne Lidar Point Clouds for Solar Potential Assessment  

PubMed Central

A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m2. PMID:22346695

Jochem, Andreas; Höfle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert

2009-01-01

25

Automatic roof plane detection and analysis in airborne lidar point clouds for solar potential assessment.  

PubMed

A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m(2). PMID:22346695

Jochem, Andreas; Höfle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert

2009-01-01

26

Integration of LiDAR data and optical multi-view images for 3D reconstruction of building roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach by integrating airborne LiDAR data and optical multi-view aerial imagery is presented for automatic reconstruction of 3D building roof models. It includes two main steps: roof point segmentation and 3D roof model reconstruction. A coarse-to-fine LiDAR data segmentation is proposed to separate LiDAR points of a building into a set of roof planar segments, which includes initial segmentation by using point normal estimate, and segmentation refinement by using a new Shrink-Expand technique. A point-based integration mechanism by incorporating the segmented roof points and 2D lines extracted from optical multi-view aerial images is then proposed for 3D step line determination, with which 3D roof models are reconstructed. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can provide high-quality 3D roof models with diverse roof structure complexities.

Cheng, Liang; Tong, Lihua; Chen, Yanming; Zhang, Wen; Shan, Jie; Liu, Yongxue; Li, Manchun

2013-04-01

27

The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL] [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

28

Photovoltaic Roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1984-01-01

29

REGION REFINEMENT AND PARAMETRIC RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING ROOFS BY INTEGRATION OF IMAGE AND HEIGHT DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The refinement of the features extracted from image data is a key issue in automated building extraction since feature extraction algorithms often result in incomplete features. This paper describes a method for the integration of image and Lidar height data, which leads to the refinement of initial image regions and the reconstruction of the parametric forms of roof planes. Region

Kourosh Khoshelham

2005-01-01

30

Automatic Reconstruction of Building Roofs Through Effective Integration of LIDAR and Multispectral Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic 3D reconstruction of building roofs from remotely sensed data is important for many applications including city modeling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic 3D roof reconstruction through an effective integration of LIDAR data and multispectral imagery. Using the ground height from a DEM, the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first group contains the ground points that are exploited to constitute a 'ground mask'. The second group contains the non-ground points that are used to generate initial roof planes. The structural lines are extracted from the grey-scale version of the orthoimage and they are classified into several classes such as 'ground', 'tree', 'roof edge' and 'roof ridge' using the ground mask, the NDVI image (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index from the multi-band orthoimage) and the entropy image (from the grey-scale orthoimage). The lines from the later two classes are primarily used to fit initial planes to the neighbouring LIDAR points. Other image lines within the vicinity of an initial plane are selected to fit the boundary of the plane. Once the proper image lines are selected and others are discarded, the final plane is reconstructed using the selected lines. Experimental results show that the proposed method can handle irregular and large registration errors between the LIDAR data and orthoimagery.

Awrangjeb, M.; Zhang, C.; Fraser, C. S.

2012-07-01

31

Performance of a building integrated photovoltaic\\/thermal (BIPVT) solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of combining photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors (PVT collectors) to provide electrical and heat energy is an area that has, until recently, received only limited attention. Although PVTs are not as prevalent as solar thermal systems, the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors into the walls or roofing structure of a building could provide greater opportunity for

T. N. Anderson; M. Duke; G. L. Morrison; J. K. Carson

2009-01-01

32

Sleep Medicine Care Under One Roof: A Proposed Model for Integrating Dentistry and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrating oral appliance therapy into the delivery of care for sleeprelated breathing disorders has been a challenge for dental and medical professionals alike. We review the difficulties that have been faced and propose a multidisciplinary care delivery model that integrates dental sleep medicine and sleep medicine under the same roof with educational and research components. The model promises to offer distinct advantages to improved patient care, continuity of treatment, and the central coordination of clinical and insurance-related benefits. Citation: Sharma S; Essick G; Schwartz D; Aronsky AJ. Sleep medicine care under one roof: a proposed model for integrating dentistry and medicine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):827-833. PMID:23946715

Sharma, Sunil; Essick, Greg; Schwartz, David; Aronsky, Amy J.

2013-01-01

33

An Integrative Analysis of an Extensive Green Roof System: A Case Study of the Schleman Green Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban environments where populations continue to rise, the need for affective stormwater management and runoff control methods is ever prevalent. Increased population growth and city expansion means greater impervious surfaces and higher rates of stormwater runoff. In well-established cities, this proves particularly difficult due to a constraining built environment and limited pervious spaces, even in cities as small as 40,000 residents. Work to reduce runoff in combined sewer systems (CSS) and municipal separated storm sewer systems (MS4) by use of best-management practices is one route currently under investigation. The Purdue University campus is making efforts to reduce their impact on the West Lafayette CSS and MS4. Green roofs are one management practice being used for runoff mitigation. Specifically, Schleman Hall, an administrative student affairs building, has a small green roof located on the second floor installed in 2008. In cooperation with Purdue Physical Facilities, monitoring and analysis for the Schleman extensive green roof at Purdue University was performed from June 2012 to December 2012. The objective was to determine the stormwater retention, output water quality and net present value for the 165 m2 roof. The results from the water balance analysis revealed retention rates on average of 58% of precipitation per rain event, where retention included soil moisture, evaporation and detention/depression storage. The water quality metrics tested were Nitrate-Nitrite (NO2-NO3), Orthophosphate (PO4), Ammonia-Ammonium ion (NH3-NH4), Sulfate (SO4), total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. The pollutant concentration and load results varied, but the pH levels from precipitation increased in all samples after passing through the substrate. SO4 and PO4 results yielded higher concentrations and loads in the green roof output than the control output and precipitation, while NO2-NO3 and NH3-NH4 yielded concentrations and loads that were reduced by the green roof when compared to the control output and precipitation. The green roof caused a decrease in the energy load (KJ/hr) needed to maintain a near constant temperature in the conference room situated below the green roof. These results combined with potential carbon pricing, stormwater fees and an installment grant resulted in a net present value of $32,350 for the Schleman Hall roof. The analysis demonstrates potential benefits, but highlights the need for further research that involves a more detailed simulation and the valuing of ecosystem services offered by the green roof.

Hoover, F.; Bowling, L. C.

2013-12-01

34

Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

2013-12-01

35

Interdisciplinary design study of a high-rise integrated roof wind energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's market in micro-wind turbines is in constant development introducing more efficient solutions for the future. Besides the private use of tower supported turbines, opportunities to integrate wind turbines in the built environment arise. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System (IRWES) presented in this work is a modular roof structure integrated on top of existing or new buildings. IRWES is build up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels used for both wind inlet and outlet. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) in the center-top of the roof unit for the generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The scope of this research aims to make an optimized structural design of IRWES to be placed on top of the Vertigo building in Eindhoven; analysis of the structural performance; and impact to the existing structure by means of Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Results show that the obvious impact of wind pressure to the structural design is easily supported in different configurations of fairly simple lightweight structures. In particular, the weight addition to existing buildings remains minimal.

Dekker, R. W. A.; Ferraro, R. M.; Suma, A. B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

2012-10-01

36

Integrated Modelling and Performance Analysis of Green Roof Technologies in Urban Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the changing global climate and increase in urbanisation, the behaviour of the urban environment has been significantly altered, causing an increase in both the frequency of extreme weather events, such as flooding and drought, and also the associated costs. Moreover, uncontrolled or inadequately planned urbanisation can exacerbate the damage. The Blue-Green Dream (BGD) project therefore develops a series of components for urban areas that link urban vegetated areas (green infrastructure) with existing urban water (blue) systems, which will enhance the synergy of urban blue and green systems and provide effective, multifunctional BGD solutions to support urban adaptation to future climatic changes. Coupled with new urban water management technologies and engineering, multifunctional benefits can be gained. Some of the technologies associated with BGD solutions include green roofs, swales that might deal with runoff more effectively and urban river restoration that can produce benefits similar to those produced from sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). For effective implementation of these technologies, however, appropriate tools and methodologies for designing and modelling BGD solutions are required to be embedded within urban drainage models. Although several software packages are available for modelling urban drainage, the way in which green roofs and other BGD solutions are integrated into these models is not yet fully developed and documented. This study develops a physically based mass and energy balance model to monitor, test and quantitatively evaluate green roof technology for integrated BGD solutions. The assessment of environmental benefits will be limited to three aspects: (1) reduction of the total runoff volume, (2) delay in the initiation of runoff, and (3) reduction of building energy consumption, rather than water quality, visual, social or economic impacts. This physically based model represents water and heat dynamics in a layered soil profile covered with vegetation which can be used to simulate the physical behaviour of different green roof systems in response to rainfall under various climatic conditions. Because it is a physically based model, this model could be generalised to other atmosphere-plant-soil systems. The validity of this mass and energy balance approach will be demonstrated by comparing its outcomes with observations from a green roof experimental site in London, UK.

Liu, Xi; Mijic, Ana; Maksimovic, Cedo

2014-05-01

37

Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

38

Roof pond systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a single-source document useful to architects, engineers, builders, and homeowners that addresses numerous aspects of roof pond design, construction, and performance. An introduction to the roof pond passive solar space heating and cooling concept is provided, including basic methods of operation and system configurations adaptable to different climates. A brief history of the development of the roof pond concept is presented, and several existing roof pond buildings located throughout the United States are described. The regional applicability of roof ponds in both heating and cooling service; design considerations relating to architecture, heating and cooling aspects, and structural requirements; and current heat transfer relations important in roof pond design are examined. A chapter on roof pond system materials and components is included. It contains tables of material properties; descriptions of available and installed components; installation, operation, and maintenance concerns; and a compilation of operating experience to date. The results of actual performance testing of several instrumented roof pond buildings are presented, and in certain cases, these results are compared with roof pond performance simulation results. A life-cycle cost study of two roof pond homes is developed, and the results are compared with the life-cycle costs of two similar conventional residences. This document has application to many related roof pond concepts, such as the Cool Pool and Energy Roof. An extensive bibliography is provided.

Marlatt, W.P.; Murray, K.A.; Squier, S.E.

1984-04-01

39

Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

Tombari, C.

2005-09-01

40

Integrated solar cell and battery  

SciTech Connect

An integrated solar cell and battery is described comprising: (a) a substrate; and (b) a solar cell and a thin film battery including a solid electrolyte, deposited by thin film deposition techniques on the substrate; (c) the substrate and the solar cell together comprising a bulk type solar cell.

Little, R.G.

1988-04-26

41

Integrated solar heating unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an integral solar heating unit with an integral solar collector and hot water storage system, the unit comprising: (a) a housing; (b) a flat plate solar collector panel mounted in the housing and having a generally horizontal upper edge and an uninsulated, open back surface; (c) a cylindrical hot water tank operatively connected to the solar collector panel and mounted in the housing generally parallel to and adjacent to the upper edge; (d) the housing comprising a hood around the tank a pair of side skirts extending down at the sides of the panel. The hood and side skirts terminate at lower edges which together substantially define a plane such that upon placing the heating unit on a generally planar surface, the housing substantially encapsulates the collector panel and hot water tank in a substantially enclosed air space; (e) the collector including longitudinally extended U-shaped collector tubes and a glazed window to pass radiation through to the collector tubes, and a first cold water manifold connected to the tubes for delivering fresh water thereto and a second hot water manifold connected to the tubes to remove heated water therefrom. The manifolds are adjacent and at least somewhat above and in direct thermal contact with the tank; and, (f) the skirts and hood lapping around the collector panel, exposing only the glazed window, such that everything else in the heating unit is enclosed by the housing such that heat emanating from the uninsulated, open back face of the collector and tank is captured and retained by the housing to warm the manifolds.

Larkin, W.J.

1987-01-20

42

30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters...roof bolts with roof bolting machines and continuous-mining machines with integral roof bolters...effectiveness of the two-way communication systems; and (vi)...

2011-07-01

43

30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters...roof bolts with roof bolting machines and continuous-mining machines with integral roof bolters...transportation from the section to the main line. (3) The plan...

2010-07-01

44

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES FOR IMPROVED SOLAR REFLECTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Elastomeric cool-roof coatings can be applied to buildings to decrease heat gain, yielding energy savings and mitigating the ?urban heat island? effect. Most cool-roof formulations are based on titanium dioxide (TiO2). While TiO2 and several TiO2...

45

Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials  

SciTech Connect

Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

2013-11-18

46

Integrated solar collector  

DOEpatents

A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

Tchernev, Dimiter I. (9 Woodman Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167)

1985-01-01

47

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

48

Analysis of urban land use in the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Roof-top detection in the context of assessing solar photovoltaic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh is considered to be one of the world’s fastest growing urban centers. With nearly 14 million people Dhaka currently faces tremendous power crisis. The available power supply of Dhaka Megacity is currently 1000-1200 MW against the maximum demand of nearly 2000 MW. The objective of this study is to classify land cover of Dhaka to locate roof-top areas which are adequate for solar photovoltaic applications. Usually this task is performed with additional building-heights data. With lack of that, we present an object-based classification approach which is based on high resolution Quickbird data only. Extensive formal buildings in Dhaka mostly have flat roof-tops made from concrete which are well suited for PV applications. The classification is focused to detect these ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ to assess a lower limit for potential PV areas. With that conservative approach bright roof-top areas of 10.554 km2 out of the city’s 134.282 km2 could be found. The overall classification accuracy is 0.918, the producer’s accuracy of ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ is 0.833. Preliminary result of the PhD work of Humayun Kabir indicates that the application of only 75 Wp stand-alone solar modules on these available bright roof-tops can generate nearly 1,000 MW of electricity. The application of solar modules with high capacity (i.e., >200 Wp) preferably through grid-connected PV systems can substantially meet-up the city’s power demand, although several techno-economic and socio-political factors are certainly involved.

Jaegermeyr, J.; Kabir, H.; Endlicher, W.

2009-12-01

49

A theoretical study on area compensation for non-directly-south-facing solar collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy integrated with the building is an important approach for the synchronous development of solar energy and architecture. The energy gain of the solar collector integrated with the pitched roof has been greatly influenced by the roof azimuth and tilted angle. Investment cost of the collectors is mainly decided by the size of the collector area. Accordingly, it is

Sheng-Xian Wei; Li Ming; Xi-Zheng Zhou

2007-01-01

50

Solar receiver with integrated optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

2012-10-01

51

Automatic Analysis and Classification of the Roof Surfaces for the Installation of Solar Panels Using a Multi-Data Source and Multi-Sensor Aerial Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost multi-sensor aerial platform, aerial trike, equipped with visible and thermographic sensors is used for the acquisition of all the data needed for the automatic analysis and classification of roof surfaces regarding their suitability to harbour solar panels. The geometry of a georeferenced 3D point cloud generated from visible images using photogrammetric and computer vision algorithms, and the temperatures measured on thermographic images are decisive to evaluate the surfaces, slopes, orientations and the existence of obstacles. This way, large areas may be efficiently analysed obtaining as final result the optimal locations for the placement of solar panels as well as the required geometry of the supports for the installation of the panels in those roofs where geometry is not optimal.

López, L.; Lagüela, S.; Picon, I.; González-Aguilera, D.

2015-02-01

52

SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector.

Randy C. Gee

2004-01-01

53

Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology  

SciTech Connect

During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

54

Solar electric and thermal conversion system in close proximity to the consumer. [solar panels on house roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells may be used to convert sunlight directly into electrical energy and into lowgrade heat to be used for large-scale terrestrial solar-energy conversion. Both forms of energy can be utilized if such cells are deployed in close proximity to the consumer (rooftop). Cadmium-sulfide/copper-sulfide (CdS/Cu2S) solar cells are an example of cells which may be produced inexpensively enough to become economically attractive. Cell parameters relevant for combined solar conversion are presented. Critical issues, such as production yield, life expectancy, and stability of performance, are discussed. Systems-design parameters related to operating temperatures are analyzed. First results obtained on Solar One, the experimental house of the University of Delaware, are given. Economic aspects are discussed. Different modes of operation are discussed in respect to the power utility and consumer incentives.

Boeer, K. W.

1975-01-01

55

Solar Grid Integration Industrial Research Perspectives  

E-print Network

Solar Grid Integration Industrial Research Perspectives Kathleen O'Brien, GE Global Research March;4 Presenter and Event 3/30/2011 Solar Power Generation Traditional Power Generation 500 MW Coal Power Plant 10 with 25 inverters) Substation 1 Substation 2 Solar Power Generation Wind Generation 100 MW Wide variety

Homes, Christopher C.

56

Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

1992-01-01

57

Green roofs: potential at LANL  

SciTech Connect

Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

58

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

SciTech Connect

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m/sup 3//d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal wind/solar ratio is very dependent upon site conditions. 7 refs.

Szostak, R.M.; Agarwal, D.; Callahan, J.T.; Mohn, J.V. III

1981-01-01

59

Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

60

ROOF GARDENS IN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green roof technology has its origin in several different countries and in various climates. Green roofs have become an important element of sustainable architecture. Actually green roofs are spreading out worldwide (1,2). Green roofs can be divided into three categories: • Spontaneous green roofs • Extensive green light weight roofs with low maintenance, without additional irrigation and fertilizing. •

Manfred Köhler; Marco Schmidt; Michael Laar

61

Solar central receiver integration with Hoover Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of integrating a 100 MWe solar central receiver powerplant located in Yuma, Arizona with the Hoover Dam hydroelectric power system is discussed. Technical feasibility was determined by evaluating the effects of integration on the hydrologic and power operations of the existing hydro system. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of the integrated system

H. E. Remmers; R. L. Zelenka; J. H. Kitchen

1980-01-01

62

Integrating soil solarization into crop production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil solarization remains one of but a handful of nonchemical soil disinfestation methods suitable for high-value crops such as cut-flowers, strawberry and fresh market tomato and pepper. Recognition of soil solarization within the context of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach is paramoun...

63

OPTIMIZATION STUDIES FOR INTEGRATED SOLAR COMBINED CYCLE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated solar plant concept was initially proposed by Luz Solar International (1) as a means of integrating a parabolic trough solar plant with modern combined cycle power plants. An integrated plant consists of a conventional combined cycle plant, a solar collector field, and a solar steam generator. During sunny periods, feedwater is withdrawn from the combined cycle plant heat

Bruce Kelly; Ulf Herrmann; Mary Jane Hale

64

Multi-service dual-mode spiral antenna for conformal integration into vehicle roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a planar four-arm spiral designed for the radio services AMPS, GSM900, DAB, GPS, GSM1800, GSM1900 and UMTS, intended for integration into cars. The different patterns for terrestrial and satellite services are obtained by feeding the four-arm spiral with two different modes. The dual mode feeding is performed with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The two radiation modes

E. Gschwendtner; W. Wiesbeck

2000-01-01

65

Solar central receiver integration with Hoover Dam  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of integrating a 100 MWe solar central receiver powerplant located in Yuma, Arizona with the Hoover Dam hydroelectric power system is discussed. Technical feasibility was determined by evaluating the effects of integration on the hydrologic and power operations of the existing hydro system. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of the integrated system with that of the most likely alternative source of power generation--an oil-fired,combined-cycle plant.

Remmers, H.E. (Water and Power Resources Service, Denver, CO); Zelenka, R.L.; Kitchen, J.H.

1980-01-01

66

Integrated Access to Solar Data using EGSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Grid of Solar Observations (EGSO) is a virtual observatory based on Grid technology that will change the way users analyze solar data. EGSO is funded under the IST (Information Society Technologies) thematic priority of the European Commission's Fifth Framework Programme (FP5). It started in March 2002 and will last for 3 years. The EGSO Consortium comprises eleven groups from five countries in Europe and the US, and is led by the Mullard Space Science Laboratory of University College London. The project aims to overcome one of the major hurdles in the analysis of solar data - finding what data are available and retrieving those that are needed. EGSO is creating layers of metadata catalogues that will for the first time provide the ability to select solar data based on phenomena and events. It is also integrating access to solar data by building a Grid including solar archives around the world. This combination of metadata and tools for selecting, processing and retrieving distributed and heterogeneous solar data, will radically change the way that data are distributed and analyzed. EGSO is collaborating closely with groups in the US who are working on similar virtual observatory projects for the solar, solar-terrestrial and heliospheric communities with the objective of providing integrated access to these data. In particular, strong synergies between the EGSO and CoSEC projects are producing innovative ways of accessing the data that will be deployed in both projects. Since the first release of EGSO in September 2003, members of the solar community have been involved in product testing. The constant testing and feedback allows us to continue to improve the quality and usability of the system. The capabilities of the latest release (R4) will be described, and the scientific problems that it addresses discussed.

Bentley, R. D.; Csillaghy, A.; Scholl, I.; Vial, J.-C.; Aboudarham, J.; Antonucci, E.; Zharkova, V. V.; Pike, C. D.

67

Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof  

E-print Network

ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OF A FLORIDA GREEN ROOF Jeffrey K. Sonne Senior Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Previous green roof studies have found that planted roofs significantly reduce roof temperatures... Proceedings, Atlanta, GA, May 2005. 5. Wong, et al., “The Effects of Rooftop Garden on Energy Consumption of a Commercial Building in Singapore”, Energy and Buildings, Volume 35, 2003, p. 353-364. 6. Christian, Jeffrey E. and Thomas W. Petrie...

Sonne, J.

2006-01-01

68

Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

Jane Davidson

2008-09-30

69

Integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH) developed from early systems comprised simply of a simple black tank placed in the sun. The ICSSWH, by its combined collection and storage function suffers substantial heat losses to ambient, especially at night-time and non-collection periods. To be viable economically, the system has evolved to incorporate new and novel methods of maximising

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; Brian Norton

2006-01-01

70

Temperature reduction in attic and ceiling via insulation of several passive roof designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ambient temperatures coupled with high humidity lead to uncomfortable conditions that are non-conducive for human comfort and productivity. Heat transmission through the roof could be reduced by providing insulation in the attic under the roof or above the ceiling. A roof solar collector could provide both ventilation and cooling in the attic. Several laboratory sized units of passive roof

K. S. Ong

2011-01-01

71

Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to  

E-print Network

Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated to a building as solar panels on a roof or facades are. Ref. TU Delft OCT-13-022 TU Delft / Valorisation Centre of the window, integrated in the window frames, strip-shaped CIGS PV solar cells convert the light

Langendoen, Koen

72

Integrated Solar Concentrator and Shielded Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shielded radiator is integrated within a solar concentrator for applications that require protection from high ambient temperatures with little convective heat transfer. This innovation uses a reflective surface to deflect ambient thermal radiation, shielding the radiator. The interior of the shield is also reflective to provide a view factor to deep space. A key feature of the shield is the parabolic shape that focuses incoming solar radiation to a line above the radiator along the length of the trough. This keeps the solar energy from adding to the radiator load. By placing solar cells along this focal line, the concentration of solar energy reduces the number and mass of required cells. By shielding the radiator, the effective reject temperature is much lower, allowing lower radiator temperatures. This is particularly important for lower-temperature processes, like habitat heat rejection and fuel cell operations where a high radiator temperature is not feasible. Adding the solar cells in the focal line uses the concentrating effect of the shield to advantage to accomplish two processes with a single device. This shield can be a deployable, lightweight Mylar structure for compact transport.

Clark, David Larry

2010-01-01

73

Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by the winter-time penalty, and the net benefit from adopting white roof technology in Portland is small. That said, there are other potential benefits of white roofing such as impact on urban heat islands and roof life that must also be considered.

Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

74

A fully integrated solar battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a solar charger ASIC for Nickel-based (NiCd or NiMH) batteries. The system is fully integrated and no external component is needed. The ASIC includes a voltage reference, a low-impedance switch, an oscillator, a power-on reset, and a digital control block. The circuit is fabricated in a fully digital 0.35 mum 3.3 V process. It features a low

Marc Pastre; François Krummenacher; Roberto Robortella; Raphaël Simon-Vermot; Maher Kayal

2009-01-01

75

How Do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date, examining the operational impact of up to 35% wind, photovoltaics, and concentrating solar power on the WestConnect grid in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming. This paper reviews the scope of the study, the development of wind and solar

D. Lew; M. Milligan; G. Jordan; L. Freeman; N. Miller; K. Clark; R. Piwko

2009-01-01

76

Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution  

E-print Network

10/31/2008 1 Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution Brett LongBrett Long Shirley Clark:Relating to traditional stormwater design methods: ­­ Rational coefficients of green roofs:Rational coefficients of green roofs: Green roofs have a rational coefficient of about 0.5Green roofs have a rational coefficient

Clark, Shirley E.

77

LIGHTWEIGHT GREEN ROOF SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Applying a Lightweight Green Roof System to a building can achieve in managing storm water runoff, decreasing heat gain, yielding energy savings, and mitigating the heat island effect. Currently, Most green roof systems are considerably heavy and require structural reinforceme...

78

Which Roof Is Tops?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When you walk or drive around your neighborhood, what do the roofs look like? What if you lived in an area with a different climate, how might that affect the style of roofs that you see? Through this introductory engineering activity, students explore the advantages of different roof shapes for different climates or situations. They observe and discuss what happens in a teacher demo when a "snow load" (sifted cups of flour) is placed on three model roof shapes.

Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

79

Transparent antennas for solar cell integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

Yasin, Tursunjan

80

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11

81

Summer Roof Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the items to review in roofing maintenance to prepare for the impact of summer, including checking drainage, roof-field surface and membrane, flashings, sheet metal, and rooftop equipment, such as skylights and penthouses. A list of roofing facts facility managers should know are highlighted. (GR)

Liscum, Curtis L.

1999-01-01

82

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA  

SciTech Connect

Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL

2011-01-01

83

Integrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes  

E-print Network

gathering power is the 4-meter ATST7 under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory, which has conditions for solar observations: Big Bear Solar Observatory in California, Haleakala on Maui, HawaiiIntegrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes C. Denker and A. P. Verdoni

84

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01

85

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, T.L.

1998-05-05

86

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

2006-02-28

87

Integral Glass Encapsulation for Solar Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work reported was performed during the period from August 1977 to December 1978. The program objective was to continue the development of electrostatic bonding (ESB) as an encapsulation technique for terrestrial cells. Economic analyses shows that this process can be a cost-effective method of producing reliable, long lifetime solar modules. When considered in sufficient volume, both material and equipment costs are competitive with conventional encapsulation systems. In addition, the possibility of integrating cell fabrication into the encapsulation process, as in the case of the preformed cell contacts discussed in this report, offers the potential of significant overall systems cost reduction.

Younger, P. R.; Tobin, R. G.; Kreisman, W. S.

1979-01-01

88

Low concentration solar louvres for building integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building integration of CPV modules offers several advantages over the integration of flat panel systems, but the decreasing price trend of standard modules observed in the last years has hampered the market expansion of CPV systems, which still don't rely on a low-cost mass production supply chain. To overcome this contingent issue and to foster the diffusion of innovative PV systems we developed a low concentration BIPV module with added functionalities, such as sunlight shading and building illumination. The electrical performances, retrieved under outdoor conditions, and the lighting performances of the Solar F-Light are shown. The latter indicate that it is suitable for ambient lighting, with a very limited power draw.

Vincenzi, D.; Aldegheri, F.; Baricordi, S.; Bernardoni, P.; Calabrese, G.; Guidi, V.; Pozzetti, L.

2013-09-01

89

Development of integral covers for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process has been developed by which integral solar cell covers (ISCCs) can be applied directly to the front surface of solar cell modules. The covers are a codeposited mixture of silica and alumina. The tensile-stressed alumina serves to compensate for the compressive stress of the silica. These covers are applied by a plasma-activated chemial vapor deposition (PACVD), which is a low-temperature CVD process (145 C). The process utilizes a proprietery plasma-activated source to generate an activated oxygen species that simultaneously oxidizes silicon tetrahydride (silane) and trimethylaluminum, forming silica and alumina on the substrate surface. By adjusting the reactant flow rates, the stress of the codeposited covers stress can be adjusted to low levels, typically 0-3 kpsi. Besides serving to protect the pn junction of the solar cells from particle damage, the cover can also serve as an electrical insulator in high-voltage-array applications. A significant advantage of ISCCs over conventional covers is that the minimum degradation temperature of the assembly is significantly increased by elimination of the adhesive used to bond the conventional covers.

Adams, Craig D.; Morris, Robert K.

90

Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting  

DOEpatents

The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

1983-01-01

91

Data Integration in the Virtual Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is the integration of diverse data archives relevant to the study of Solar Physics into a virtual collection providing common search and delivery services. The back-end query services are implemented as Web Services and accessible via the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). SOAP defines a remote procedure call mechanism that employs HTTP as its transport and encodes the client-server interactions in XML documents. In addition to its core function in identifying relevant datasets locally, a SOAP server at each data provider acts as a wrapper that maps descriptions in an abstract data model to those in the provider's specific model, and vice versa. Heterogeneous data search services can thereby be integrated with a common interface. This allows scientists to access multiple archives with differing data organizations at once, enhancing their ability to discover and and analyze correlative data from multiple sources. We have chosen two SOAP implementations for the VSO: SOAP::Lite and OpenSOAP. The former, written in Perl, is suitable for fast and flexible prototyping in data search applications. SOAP::Lite servers have been set up at each of the VSO archives, and can be readily installed at other servers. OpenSOAP, written in C with built-in support for service description and dispatch, may prove useful in transforming current computing utilities into Web Services. We report on initial experiments using OpenSOAP to provide additional services to the basic query functionality of VSO.

Bogart, R. S.; Davey, A.; Dimitoglou, G.; Gurman, J. B.; Hill, F.; Martens, P. C.; Tian, K. Q.; Wampler, S.

2003-12-01

92

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

93

Solar stills integrated with a mini solar pond — analytical simulation and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison between theoretical and experimental analysis of a mini solar pond assisted solar still is presented in this paper. In a mini solar pond, experiments were conducted for different salinity. It was found that the optimum value of salinity in the mini solar pond is 80 g\\/kg of water. Effect of sponge cubes in the still, effect of integrating mini

V. Velmurugan; K. Srithar

2007-01-01

94

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

Not Available

2012-09-01

95

IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

96

Mine roof support structure  

SciTech Connect

A mine roof support structure includes a floor skid, a supporting shield pivotally connected thereto by a pair of rocker arms forming a lemniscate guide, a roof cap pivotally connected at a roof cap joint to the shield, and hydraulic props supporting the roof cap. A hydraulic actuator is pivotally connected at opposite ends to the skid and to one of the arms, and the other of the rocker arms is disposed nearer the coal-face end of the support than the one arm. Such other arm is longitudinally adjustable and is pivotally connected at opposite ends to the skid and to the shield. This other arm is so constructed that its opposite ends may be adjusted relative to one another to enable the cap and the roof cap joint to follow a lemniscate path during settling of the roof and to follow a circular arc during a lowering of the cap toward the skid upon actuation of the hydraulic actuator.

Boer, W.; Lachner, H.; Maschonat, G.; Richter, J.; Schulte, H.; Warnke, H.

1981-10-06

97

Simulation of an Integrated Steam Generator for Solar Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical and thermal simulation of a new solar tower steam generator is presented. The steam generator, placed on top of a solar tower, has two integrated receivers, external for boiling the steam and a cavity for its superheating. These two parts of the solar steam generator are facing different sections in a surrounding heliostat field and therefore can be operated

R. Ben-Zvi; M. Epstein; A. Segal

98

Environmental assessment of solar thermal collectors with integrated water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal systems feed on a “clean” energy source. However, a complete analysis of the environmental performance of solar thermal collectors should take into account not only their operation phase, but also their whole life cycle. This paper reports the results of a life cycle assessment of a solar thermal collector with integrated water storage. The study, carried out by

Riccardo Battisti; Annalisa Corrado

2005-01-01

99

Performance of trombe walls and roof pond systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analysis of the periodic heat transfer through thermal storage walls and roof pond systems subjected to periodic solar radiation and atmospheric air on one side and in contact with room air at constant temperature (corresponding to air-conditioned rooms) on the other. A one-dimensional heat conduction equation for temperature distribution in the walls and roof has been

M. S. Sodha; S. C. Kaushik; J. K. Nayak

1981-01-01

100

Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?  

SciTech Connect

A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2014-01-01

101

77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof...Westinghouse Solar, Inc. and Andalay Solar, Inc., both of Campbell, California...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof...

2012-07-05

102

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

103

Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview  

SciTech Connect

An overview of several aspects of the weathering of roofing materials is presented. Degradation of materials initiated by ultraviolet radiation is discussed for plastics used in roofing, as well as wood and asphalt. Elevated temperatures accelerate many deleterious chemical reactions and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage. Soiling of roofing materials causes objectionable stains and reduces the solar reflectance of reflective materials. (Soiling of non-reflective materials can also increase solar reflectance.) Soiling can be attributed to biological growth (e.g., cyanobacteria, fungi, algae), deposits of organic and mineral particles, and to the accumulation of flyash, hydrocarbons and soot from combustion.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

2006-03-30

104

Why Cool Roofs?  

ScienceCinema

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

105

Why Cool Roofs?  

SciTech Connect

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2010-01-01

106

Evaluation of Green Roof Plants and Materials for Semi-Arid Climates  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract While green roof systems have proven to be highly effective in the evaporative cooling of buildings, reduction of roof top temperatures, protection of roof membranes from solar radiation degradation, reducing stormwater runoff, as well as beautification of the urban roo...

107

76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components...

2011-11-08

108

30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and (3) All existing machines operated in mining heights...with existing roof bolting machines and continuous-mining machines with integral roof bolters...failure. (4) Except for the main tram controls, tram...

2010-07-01

109

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

110

Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

Roodvoets, David L.

2003-01-01

111

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Rigid Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test. Eight topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives and information sheets are provided. Information sheets are…

Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

112

GREEN ROOFS ? A GROWING TREND  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are ?green roofs?. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

113

Energetic analysis of a passive solar design, incorporated in a courtyard after refurbishment, using an innovative cover component based in a sawtooth roof concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results and specific thermal and energetic saving analysis from the systematic monitoring carried out to analyse the energetic performance of a building with an innovative component, which is based on an optimisation of the sawtooth roof concept.This component has been installed at a building of the University of Almería. The constructive goal has been to

M. R. Heras; M. J. Jiménez; M. J. San Isidro; L. F. Zarzalejo; M. Pérez

2005-01-01

114

Installation package - home solar heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Installation of commerical solar-heating system at two story, three bedroom house in New Hampshire is described in 65 page report. System collectors are integrated part of building replacing conventional roofing or siding. Report also includes general description of system, its operation and guidelines, orientation and references.

1980-01-01

115

Mine roof support plate  

SciTech Connect

A support plate is disclosed for a mine roof including a substantially flat body engageable with the mine roof, the body having an enlarged central opening through which are passed one end of a roof bolt on which is threaded an expansion shell which is inserted into a mine roof opening. Ribs extend longitudinally of the flat body on both sides of the central opening for additional strength. The ribs are spaced a predetermined distance apart on opposite sides of the central opening. Centering members are provided on the body portion intermediate the ribs on opposite sides of the central opening, the centering members and ribs serving to center the washer and bolt portion of the bolt assembly.

White, C.C.

1981-02-10

116

Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association, a trade association which represents manufacturers of cold-applied coatings and cements used in the roofing industry, this site provides users with a useful assortment of materials as well as some basic information about the association itself. The easy to navigate site offers users an overview that details some specifics on cold applied roof coatings including a brief history, the types of coatings available and the product's advantages. A list of organizational links, articles and technical bulletins provide more in depth information on topics related to application of roof coatings, weather related concerns, fire ratings, white coatings and much more. A news and events page and a supplier�s directory are valuable additions to this useful site.

117

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

Not Available

2013-09-01

118

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

2013-09-01

119

Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study Solar Dataset (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory produced solar power production data for the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) including "real time" 5-minute interval data, "four hour ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data, and "day-ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data for the year 2006. This presentation provides a brief overview of the three solar power datasets.

Hummon, M.

2014-04-01

120

Experience on integration of solar thermal technologies with green buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green buildings of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science include an office building for the demonstration of public building and two residential buildings, which are for the demonstration of flat and villa, respectively. Here, a solar-powered integrated energy system including heating, air-conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supply was designed and constructed for the office building. However, only solar

X. Q. Zhai; R. Z. Wang; Y. J. Dai; J. Y. Wu; Q. Ma

2008-01-01

121

Building structure and integral solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting apparatus is disclosed which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes solar energy absorptive panels which are

Mcarthur

1981-01-01

122

AN INTEGRATED SOLAR DRYING SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURAL CROP DRYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated solar drying system essentially consists of two selective flat plate collectors, one of them being black nickel and the other of manganese oxide deposited on galvanized iron sheet. A packed bed solar storage collector also forms a part of the system to supplement the energy required for drying after sun set. The design of the system with the

A. S. C. Bose; T. P. Ojha

1983-01-01

123

Science Nation: Green Roofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rooftops of Manhattan are as varied as the city itself. But on some, something new is taking root--literally! A green roof is a continuous layer of living plants. Looking down several stories from the windows of neighboring buildings, the rooftop resembles a well-manicured, suburban lawn that is simply contained within the boundaries of a flat Manhattan rooftop. Researchers are investigating what benefits green roofs might have on harsh urban environments.

124

Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers have improved roofing designs and materials in order to protect the contents of buildings. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect, and learn about nanotechnology. Then, they work in teams to design a roof structure both in terms of shape and materials to protect a box and its contents from a simulated rainstorm. Teams build, test, and evaluate their designs and those of other teams.

IEEE

2014-05-23

125

Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: integration testing and commissioning planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), has been in its construction phase since 2010, anticipating the onset of the integration, test, and commissioning (IT&C) phase late in 2016, and the commencement of science verification in early 2019. In this paper we describe the planning of the Integration, Testing and Commissioning (IT&C) phase of the project.

Craig, Simon; Bulau, Scott E.; Gonzales, Kerry; Hansen, Eric; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Eric; Liang, Chen; Kneale, Ruth A.; McBride, William; Sekulic, Predrag; Williams, Timothy R.

2014-08-01

126

Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations  

SciTech Connect

This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved relative to DA forecasts, but still imperfect. Finally, we represent decisions within the operating hour by schedulers and transmission system operators as real-time (RT) balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. We consider only the generation units and load of the utility in this analysis; we do not consider opportunities to trade power with neighboring utilities. We also do not consider provision of reserves from renewables or from demand-side options. We estimate dynamic reserve requirements in order to meet reliability requirements in the RT operations, considering the uncertainty and variability in load, solar PV, and wind resources. Balancing reserve requirements are based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of 1-min deviations from the HA schedule in a previous year. We then simulate RT deployment of balancing reserves using a separate minute-by-minute simulation of deviations from the HA schedules in the operating year. In the simulations we assume that balancing reserves can be fully deployed in 10 min. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, wind, and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations and deployment of balancing reserves, we evaluate the impact of PV on system reliability through the calculation of the standard reliability metric called Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). Broadly speaking, the CPS2 score measures the percentage of 10-min periods in which a balancing area is able to balance supply and demand within a specific threshold. Compliance with the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards requires that the CPS2 score must exceed 90% (i.e., the balancing area must maintain adequate balance for 90% of the 10-min periods). The combination of representing DA forecast errors in the

Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

2013-10-31

127

Compact integrated solar energy generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy generation systems, or any renewable systems, usually include energy storages, local dc loads and grid-tied dc-ac inversion stages. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for processing the intermediate solar energy transferred through the systems. Having individual converters does have some advantages like more flexible individual control and easier design, but it does not provide opportunities

Poh Chiang Loh; Lei Zhang; Shun He; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

128

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

2013-09-01

129

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic bonding has been used to join silicon solar cells to borosilicate glass without the aid of any organic binders or adhesives. The results of this investigation have been to demonstrate, without question, the feasibility of this process as an encapsulation technique. The potential of ESB for terrestrial solar arrays was clearly shown. The process is fast, reproducible, and produces a permanent bond between glass and silicon that is stronger than the silicon itself. Since this process is a glass sealing technique requiring no organics it makes moisture tight sealing of solar cells possible.

Young, P. R.

1977-01-01

130

A Review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential RoofingMaterials  

SciTech Connect

Shingles, tiles, and metal products comprise over 80% (by roof area) of the California roofing market (54-58% fiberglass shingle, 8-10% concrete tile, 8-10% clay tile, 7% metal, 3% wood shake, and 3% slate). In climates with significant demand for cooling energy, increasing roof solar reflectance reduces energy consumption in mechanically cooled buildings, and improves occupant comfort in non-conditioned buildings. This report examines methods for manufacturing fiberglass shingles, concrete tiles, clay tiles, and metal roofing. The report also discusses innovative methods for increasing the solar reflectance of these roofing materials. We have focused on these four roofing products because they are typically colored with pigmented coatings or additives. A better understanding of the current practices for manufacturing colored roofing materials would allow us to develop cool colored materials creatively and more effectively.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul

2003-06-01

131

Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

None

2012-02-09

132

CAN PV OR SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS BE COST EFFECTIVE WAYS OF REDUCING CO2 EMISSIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two solar systems, an actual building integrated, photovoltaic roof (BIPV) and a notional solar thermal system for a residential block in London, UK. The carbon payback for the solar thermal system is 2 years, the BIPV system has a carbon payback of 6 years. Simple economic payback times for both systems are more than 50 years. Calculations

Ben Croxford; Kat Scott

133

Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips—Part II: CIGS Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the monolithic integration of deep- submicrometer complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells on top show an efficiency of 8.4 ± 0.8% and a yield of 84%, both values being close to the glass

Jiwu Lu; Wei Liu; Alexey Y. Lu; Yun Sun; Jurriaan Lu

2011-01-01

134

ROOF, A view looking north from the stair tower roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ROOF, A view looking north from the stair tower roof at the external piping - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

135

5. MAIN BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, ROOF TRUSS, CLERESTORY MONITOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. MAIN BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, ROOF TRUSS, CLERESTORY MONITOR, AND GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE (BOTTOM) - Oldman Boiler Works, Boilershop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

136

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-print Network

-air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade...

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01

137

Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials  

SciTech Connect

For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-07-10

138

Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

2014-07-01

139

Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System  

SciTech Connect

Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

2014-02-01

140

Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

141

Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control  

EPA Science Inventory

¿This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

142

24. Roof detail from liftbed truck, showing pan roof above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Roof detail from lift-bed truck, showing pan roof above breezeway, with sawn redwood trim, tube-type drains; note missing rain gutter at roof edge, deteriorated condition of slates; view to south, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

143

Influence of solar heating on the performance of integrated solar cell microstrip patch antennas  

SciTech Connect

The integration of microstrip patch antennas with photovoltaics has been proposed for applications in autonomous wireless communication systems located on building facades. Full integration was achieved using polycrystalline silicon solar cells as both antenna ground plane and direct current power generation in the same device. An overview of the proposed photovoltaic antenna designs is provided and the variation characterised of the electromagnetic properties of the device with temperature and solar radiation. Measurements for both copper and solar antennas are reported on three different commercial laminates with contrasting values for thermal coefficient of the dielectric constant. (author)

Roo-Ons, M.J.; Shynu, S.V.; Ammann, M.J. [Antenna and High Frequency Research Centre, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Seredynski, M. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); McCormack, S.J. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

2010-09-15

144

Numerical integration through force discontinuities: Solar radiation pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar radiation pressure is an important contributor to the orbital motion of a satellite, particularly over long periods of time. Two of the most significant problems associated with numerically integrating the equations of motion that include the effect of solar radiation pressure are: (1) properly defining the boundary of the shadow region, and (2) including the proper contribution of solar radiation pressure to the total force as the satellite passes from sunlight to total shadow. To illustrate the integration errors associated with these procedures, a set of initial conditions representing the Starlett satellite (altitude approximately 955 km) is used. The integrations which neglect to take any special action at the shadow boundaries may cause an unacceptable error growth, even over a moderate number of revolutions. This error may be reduced sustantially by using the modification of back differences (mbd) method.

1985-01-01

145

High-Tech Roof Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions. (GR)

Benzie, Tim

1997-01-01

146

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

PubMed Central

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g?1 at 0.5 A g?1 and 287 F g?1 at 1 A g?1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-01-01

147

Development of integral covers on solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electron-beam technique for evaporating a dielectric material onto solar cells is investigated. A process has been developed which will provide a highly transparent, low stress, 2 mil thick cover capable of withstanding conventional space type qualification tests including humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycling. The covers have demonstrated the ability to withstand 10 to the 15th power 1 MeV electrons and UV irradiation with minor darkening. Investigation of the cell AR coating has produced a space qualifiable titanium oxide coating which will give an additional 6% current output over similar silicon oxide coated cells when covered by glass.

Stella, P.; Somberg, H.

1971-01-01

148

Building-integrated fluorescent solar collector  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a building wall wherein the building wall includes windows, window parapets and areas below the window parapets. The window parapets include overhanging lips defining slots with the areas beneath the parapets. Fluorescent solar collectors are received in the slots to form an exterior facing over the area beneath the parapets. A photoelectric cell means is arranged with the fluorescent panels and has leads thereon for conducting electric current therefrom, the photoelectric cell means being positioned within the slots so as to be protected thereby.

Neuroth, N.

1987-02-24

149

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Interim report No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers Phase II of a program to develop integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. The program objective has been to continue the development of electrostatic bonding (ESB) as an encapsulation technique for terrestrial cells. Electrostatic bonding is a process with general applicability to joining metals, semiconductors, and insulators to glass without the aid of adhesives. Elevated temperature is

Young

1979-01-01

150

Solar thermal power cycle with integration of methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have proposed a new solar thermal power cycle which integrates methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy, and investigated its features based on the principle of the cascade utilization of chemical exergy. Also, the methanol decomposition with a catalyst was experimentally studied at temperatures of 150–300°C and under atmospheric pressure. The chemical energy released by methanol

Hui Hong; Hongguang Jin; Jun Ji; Zhifeng Wang; Ruixian Cai

2005-01-01

151

Solar cells having integral collector grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device is described, comprising a conductive base metal layer. A back surface field region was formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device. A metal alloy grid network was included. An insulating layer prevented electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1978-01-01

152

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-print Network

at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

Tora, Eman

2012-02-14

153

Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

1971-01-01

154

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

2012-09-01

155

Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

2012-12-01

156

Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

2014-05-01

157

Design and testing of a structurally integrated steel solar collector unit based on expanded flat metal plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LASL flat plate collector design is based on combining the solar collector into a structural unit so that the collector doubles as the building roof. It is weather tight and insulated. It is easily installed and maintained by building craftsmen. Two mild steel plates are welded and pressure expanded to form a heat transfer panel. Extensions of the plates

S. W. Moore; J. D. Baccomb; J. C. Hedstrom

1974-01-01

158

Mine roof geology information system  

SciTech Connect

A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

2005-05-01

159

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

2014-07-01

160

Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and…

Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

161

Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01

162

Thesis Title : Field Comparative Analysis of Thermal Performance of a Solar Chimney Ventilated House with Common House  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis presents a comparative study of thermal performance of solar chimney (SC) house compared to a common house. The SC house is a common conventional one that was modified (retrofit) by integrating roof solar collector (RSC) and modified trombe wall (MTW) units. The RSC is facing due east and west whereas the wall is facing due south. The surface

Joseph Khedari

163

13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

164

12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

165

Heat retaining integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) that can significantly reduce heat loss to ambient during non-collection periods has been developed. Two thirds of the ICS vessel is mounted within a concentrating cusp, McIntire ‘W’ modified concentrator and incorporates an inner heat retaining vessel. The remaining upper 1\\/3 of the vessel is situated outside the reflector cavity and is heavily

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2003-01-01

166

Energy saving potential of various roof technologies  

E-print Network

Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2010-01-01

167

Energy Performance Impacts from Competing Low-slope Roofing Choices and Photovoltaic Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With such a vast quantity of space, commercial low-slope roofs offer significant potential for sustainable roofing technology deployment. Specifically, building energy performance can be improved by installing rooftop energy technologies such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, and/or including designs such as white or green roofs instead of traditional black. This research aims to inform and support roof decisions through quantified energy performance impacts across roof choices and photovoltaic technologies. The primary dataset for this research was measured over a 16 month period (May 24, 2011 to October 13, 2012) from a large field experiment in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on top of a commercial warehouse with white, black and green roof sections, each with portions covered by polycrystalline photovoltaic panels. Results from the Pittsburgh experiment were extended to three different cities (San Diego, CA; Huntsville, AL; and Phoenix, AZ) chosen to represent a wide range of irradiance and temperature values. First, this research evaluated the difference in electricity production from a green-moss roof and black roof underneath photovoltaic panels to determine if the green roof's cooler air increases the panel efficiency. Second, separate studies examine 1) average hourly heat flux by month for unobstructed and shaded roof membranes 2) heat flux peak time delay, and 3) air temperature across roof types. Results of this research show green roofs slightly increased (0.8-1.5%) PV panel efficiency in temperatures approximately at or above 25° C (77°F) compared to black roofs. However in cool climates, like Pittsburgh, the roof type under the PV panels had little overall impact on PV performance when considering year round temperatures. Instead, roof decisions should place a stronger emphasis on heat flux impacts. The green roof outperformed both black and white roofs at minimizing total conductive heat flux. These heat flow values were used to develop a new, straight-forward methodology to roughly estimate heat flux impacts of different roof types in other climates using ambient temperature and solar irradiance. While managing heat flow is important for building energy performance, roof choices need to include a systems level analysis encompassing a year for the specific region to best quantify the overall energy impacts.

Nagengast, Amy L.

168

How Cool Is Your Roof?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a concept called cool roof that is used to reduce electricity costs for air conditioning, and also reduce the price of air conditioning units. Discusses the light reflecting capabilities of metal roofing as well as coatings that can stop leaks. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

2001-01-01

169

Experiences With Using Solar Photovoltaics to Heat Domestic Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar photovoltaic (PV) industry continues to make progress in increasing the efficiency while reducing the manufacturing costs of PV cells. Economies of scale are being realized as manufacturers expand their production capabilities. Products are commercially available that integrate photovoltaic cells within building façade, fenestration, and roofing components. Legislation and incentive programs by government and commercial entities are supporting both

Brian P. Dougherty; A. Hunter Fanney

2003-01-01

170

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOEpatents

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

171

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-07-01

172

Modelling the effects of a solar flare on INTEGRAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delayed effects of a large solar flare proton flux on the ?-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL have been modelled. We simulated exposing INTEGRAL to a varying flux over a period of five days. The total integrated input proton flux for the flare chosen was 1.5×1014 protons. The induced count rates due to this proton flux over an energy range of 30 MeV - 2 GeV one minute after the end of the flare are 345.9+/-0.5 c/s for IBIS (the imager) and 10.03+/-0.06 c/s for SPI (the spectrometer). Spectra one minute after the end of the flare are shown for each instrument. The most significant spectral lines have been identified and the isotopic half-lives compared to the half-lives of the total count rates.

Perfect, C. L.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Diallo, N.; Ferguson, C.; Lei, F.; Lockley, J. J.

2001-09-01

173

Heat flux through a Trombe wall\\/roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the behaviour of a Trombe wall\\/roof consisting of pipes, laid in a solid block, one surface of which is exposed to the sun, the other surface being in direct contact with a room maintained at a constant temperature, [theta]R. Numerical calculations were performed for the relevant parameters of the system, corresponding to the solar

Sant Ram; H. P. Garg

1985-01-01

174

Multi-Application Solar Telescope: assembly, integration, and testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is a 50 cm diameter class telescope to be installed by AMOS on the Udaipur Solar Observatory's Island on the Lake Fatehsagar in India. Despite its limited size, the telescope is expected to be competitive with respect to worldwide large and costly projects thanks to its versatility regarding science goals and due to its demanding optomechanical and thermal specification. This paper describes the latest, on-going and forthcoming activities, including factory assembly, integration and testing, followed by on-site installation and commissioning activities. Emphasis is put on the highly demanding thermal control of the telescope, showing development and results for the specific techniques employed on this purpose. Other key features also depicted are the unusual tracking and alignment control solutions on such a specific science target like the Sun.

Denis, Stefan; Coucke, Pierre; Gabriel, Eric; Delrez, Christophe; Venkatakrishnan, Parameshwaran

2010-07-01

175

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

176

Using Remote Sensing to Quantify Roof Albedo in Seven California Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool roofs reflect sunlight and therefore can reduce cooling energy use in buildings. Further, since roofs cover about 20-25% of cities, wide spread deployment of cool roofs could mitigate the urban heat island effect and partially counter urban temperature increases associated with global climate change. Accurately predicting the potential for increasing urban albedo using reflective roofs and its associated energy use and climate benefits requires detailed knowledge of the current stock of roofs at the city scale. Until now this knowledge has been limited due to a lack of availability of albedo data with sufficient spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral information. In this work we use a novel source of multiband aerial imagery to derive the albedos of individual roofs in seven California cities: Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego, Bakersfield, Sacramento, San Francisco, and San Jose. The radiometrically calibrated, remotely sensed imagery has high spatial resolution (1 m) and four narrow (less than 0.1 ?m wide) band reflectances: blue, green, red, and near-infrared. To derive the albedo of roofs in each city, we first locate roof pixels within GIS building outlines. Next we use laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectances of 190 roofing products to empirically relate solar reflectance (albedo) to reflectances in the four narrow bands; the root-mean-square of the residuals for the albedo prediction is 0.016. Albedos computed from remotely sensed reflectances are calibrated to ground measurements of roof albedo in each city. The error (both precision and accuracy) of albedo values is presented for each city. The area-weighted mean roof albedo (× standard deviation) for each city ranges from 0.17 × 0.08 (Los Angeles) to 0.29 × 0.15 (San Diego). In each city most roofs have low albedo in the range of 0.1 to 0.3. Roofs with albedo greater than 0.4 comprise less than 3% of total roofs and 7% of total roof area in each city. The California Building Energy Efficiency Standard (Title-24, Part 6) includes the use of high-albedo surfaces on low-sloped roofs on non-residential buildings. Analyzing a subset of large presumably commercial buildings, we find high albedo roofs represent 0.5% and 10% of total roofs and roof surface area, respectively. The potential for high albedo roofs to reduce urban temperatures was investigated for a California city (Bakersfield) with warm summers using a state-of-the-art meteorological model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF). Base case and cool roof scenarios were simulated with the only difference being that the surface albedo was increased under the cool roof scenario. Roof albedos derived from the aerial imagery were used as an input to the climate model in the base case scenario. Simulation results indicate that seasonal average afternoon (1500 h) temperatures could be reduced by up to 0.2 °C across Bakersfield during both the summer and winter. While temperature changes are similar during winter and summer, only summer shows statistically significant temperature changes downwind (southeast) from Bakersfield. This indicates that reduced summertime temperatures may be felt over a distance that is 2 or 3 times the length scale of the region with high albedo roofs.

Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Woods, J.; Millstein, D.; Levinson, R.

2013-12-01

177

Integrated Solar-Energy-Harvesting and -Storage Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular, integrated, completely solid-state system designed to harvest and store solar energy is under development. Called the power tile, the hybrid device consists of a photovoltaic cell, a battery, a thermoelectric device, and a charge-control circuit that are heterogeneously integrated to maximize specific energy capacity and efficiency. Power tiles could be used in a variety of space and terrestrial environments and would be designed to function with maximum efficiency in the presence of anticipated temperatures, temperature gradients, and cycles of sunlight and shadow. Because they are modular in nature, one could use a single power tile or could construct an array of as many tiles as needed. If multiple tiles are used in an array, the distributed and redundant nature of the charge control and distribution hardware provides an extremely fault-tolerant system. The figure presents a schematic view of the device.

whitacre, Jay; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Mojarradi, Mohammed; Johnson, Travis; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Bugga, Ratnakumar; West, William; Surampudi, Subbarao; Blosiu, Julian

2004-01-01

178

High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate high efficiency triple junction solar cells with submillimeter dimensions in an all-back-contact architecture. 550 × 550 ?m2 cells flash at 41.3% efficiency under the air mass 1.5 direct normal spectrum at 50 W/cm2 at 25 °C. Compared to standard size production cells, the micro cells have reduced performance at 1-sun due to perimeter recombination, but the performance gap closes at higher concentrations. Micro cells integrated with lens arrays were tested on-sun with an efficiency of 34.7%. All-back-contact architecture and submillimeter dimensions are advantageous for module integration and heat dissipation, allowing for high-performance, compact, lightweight, and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic modules.

Fidaner, Onur; Suarez, Ferran A.; Wiemer, Michael; Sabnis, Vijit A.; Asano, Tetsuya; Itou, Akihiro; Inoue, Daijiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Nakagawa, Tohru

2014-03-01

179

Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops  

SciTech Connect

The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2012-01-01

180

Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

2002-12-15

181

Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

182

Factory-built integrated solar homes - A progress report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past fifteen years, hundreds of people across the US have built for themselves highly advanced residences which integrated passive solar architecture; photovoltaic power systems; high-efficiency lights, appliances, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and cooling) equipment; high-level insulation and airtight construction; and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Such a home can be referred to as an {open_quotes}integrated solar home{close_quotes}. As the essential technologies have improved in performance, price, and availability, the performance of such homes has steadily advanced to the point where they could provide amenities at more-or-less normal US standards of luxury, yet require as little as 5% to 10% of the level of fossil fuel or biomass use that are required in an average US home. However, the resources required to build such a home, both in terms of the time and dedication needed for research, design, and construction of the homes, and in terms of the additional cost of the renewable energy/energy efficient features, have prevented such construction from moving beyond a tiny handful of highly motivated homeowners and into the mainstream of residential construction. This paper has design summaries of six different houses.

Rawlings, L.K.

1995-12-31

183

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

Acker, T.; Pete, C.

2012-03-01

184

Low Impact Development (LID) Technologies for Sustainable Water Management: Studies from a Green Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic induced landscape alterations, such as urbanization, can cause drastic alterations to predevelopment hydrologic conditions and the systems linked to these cycles. Low impact development (LID) technologies, such as green roofs, can help to minimize these impacts given their ability to retain and detain stormwater and subsequently evapotranspire or infiltrate excess water. An innovative technique for simultaneously monitoring stormwater retention, allowing for runoff quantification, as well as evapotranspiration from a small scale green roof box was employed for a green roof at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School located in the Bronx, NY. A 1.2 meter long by 0.6 meter wide green roof box was created as a replica section of the 525 m2 green roof on the building. The layers of the green roof box consisted of a roof membrane, drainage layer, four inch media layer, and vegetative Sedum layer. Monitoring equipment on the green roof included a weather station and real time environmental sensors which quantify wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture, temperature, humidity, albedo, and incident solar radiation. In addition to this equipment, a platform scale was positioned beneath the green roof box. Data was collected at 5 minute time intervals over a six month monitoring period between Spring and Fall 2009. A mass balance technique was utilized to quantify runoff from the green roof box. Evapotranspiration during antecedent conditions was also quantified utilizing a mass balance methodology and compared to energy balance estimates based on climatic conditions measured on the green roof. Results of runoff generation under a variety of rainfall conditions, as well as a comparison between mass balance and energy balance measures of evapotranspiration will be presented. The incorporation of this and further data collection into model development and calibration activities will be informative in predicting the impact that the implementation of green roof technologies could have on hydrologic patterns in urban areas and the subsequent impact on systems linked to these hydrologic cycles.

Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.; Gaffin, S.

2009-12-01

185

The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs  

SciTech Connect

Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2006-01-01

186

NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

D. Lew; G. Brinkman; E. Ibanez; B. Hodge; S. Lefton; N. Kumar; D. Agan; G. Jordan; S. Venkatataman

2012-01-01

187

NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

2012-07-01

188

Integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction toward efficient solar cells.  

PubMed

We successfully demonstrated an integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic device for efficient light harvesting and energy conversion. Our device efficiently integrated two photovoltaic layers, namely a perovskite film and organic BHJ film, into the device. The device structure is ITO/TiO2/perovskite/BHJ/MoO3/Ag. A wide bandgap small molecule DOR3T-TBDT was used as donor in the BHJ film, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.3% was achieved in the integrated device with a high short circuit current density (JSC) of 21.2 mA cm(-2). The higher JSC as compared to that of the traditional perovskite/HTL (hole transporting layer) device (19.3 mA cm(-2)) indicates that the BHJ film absorbs light and contributes to the current density of the device. Our result further suggests that the HTL in traditional perovskite solar cell, even with good light absorption capability, cannot contribute to the overall device photocurrent, unless this HTL becomes a BHJ layer (by adding electron transporting material like PC71BM). PMID:25513830

Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Qi; Chang, Weihsuan; Zhou, Huanping; Song, Tze-Bin; Young, Eric; Yang, Yang Michael; You, Jingbi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

2015-01-14

189

DEMONSTRATION OF ENERGY STORAGE INTEGRATED WITH A SOLAR DISH FIELD IN WHYALLA  

E-print Network

system, having been demonstrated on both a tower system (Solar Two) [1], and a number of recent trough temperature (~ 565°C) was demonstrated at Solar Two. Salt reticulation is relatively simple for a tower systemDEMONSTRATION OF ENERGY STORAGE INTEGRATED WITH A SOLAR DISH FIELD IN WHYALLA Joe Coventry 1

190

Integrated collector-storage solar water heater with extended storage unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is one of the simplest designs of solar water heater. In ICSSWH systems the conversion of solar energy into useful heat is often simple, efficient and cost effective. To broaden the usefulness of ICSSWH systems, especially for overnight applications, numerous design modifications have been proposed and analyzed in the past. In the present

Rakesh Kumar; Marc A. Rosen

2011-01-01

191

Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within

M. Smyth; P. McGarrigle; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2005-01-01

192

Thermal performance of integrated collector storage solar water heater with corrugated absorber surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is reported of the thermal performance of an integrated solar water heater with a corrugated absorber surface. The thermal performance of the rectangular collector\\/storage solar water heater depends significantly on the heat transfer rate between the absorber surface and the water, and on the amount of solar radiation incident on the absorber surface. In this investigation, the surface

Rakesh Kumar; Marc A. Rosen

2010-01-01

193

INTEGRATION OF HELIOCLIM-1 DATABASE INTO PV-GIS TO ESTIMATE SOLAR ELECTRICITY POTENTIAL IN AFRICA  

E-print Network

a typical solar home system. Assuming a 100 Wp installation with a battery and battery charger, togetherINTEGRATION OF HELIOCLIM-1 DATABASE INTO PV-GIS TO ESTIMATE SOLAR ELECTRICITY POTENTIAL IN AFRICA T. Following this, we analyse the geographical and time variability of the solar energy potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

1978-01-01

195

Roof selection for rainwater harvesting: quantity and quality assessments in Spain.  

PubMed

Roofs are the first candidates for rainwater harvesting in urban areas. This research integrates quantitative and qualitative data of rooftop stormwater runoff in an urban Mediterranean-weather environment. The objective of this paper is to provide criteria for the roof selection in order to maximise the availability and quality of rainwater. Four roofs have been selected and monitored over a period of 2 years (2008-2010): three sloping roofs - clay tiles, metal sheet and polycarbonate plastic - and one flat gravel roof. The authors offer a model for the estimation of the runoff volume and the initial abstraction of each roof, and assess the physicochemical contamination of roof runoff. Great differences in the runoff coefficient (RC) are observed, depending mostly on the slope and the roughness of the roof. Thus, sloping smooth roofs (RC>0.90) may harvest up to about 50% more rainwater than flat rough roofs (RC=0.62). Physicochemical runoff quality appears to be generally better than the average quality found in the literature review (conductivity: 85.0 ± 10.0 ?S/cm, total suspended solids: 5.98 ± 0.95 mg/L, total organic carbon: 11.6 ± 1.7 mg/L, pH: 7.59 ± 0.07 upH). However, statistically significant differences are found between sloping and flat rough roofs for some parameters (conductivity, total organic carbon, total carbonates system and ammonium), with the former presenting better quality in all parameters (except for ammonium). The results have an important significance for local governments and urban planners in the (re)design of buildings and cities from the perspective of sustainable rainwater management. The inclusion of criteria related to the roof's slope and roughness in city planning may be useful to promote rainwater as an alternative water supply while preventing flooding and water scarcity. PMID:21492898

Farreny, Ramon; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Guisasola, Albert; Tayà, Carlota; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

2011-05-01

196

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

2013-06-01

197

Polycrystalline silicon solar cells utilizing an integral screen printing technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies reported by Haigh (1976) and Frisson et al. (1978) indicate that a screen printing process represents an attractive possibility for the fabrication of silicon solar cells. Investigations related to the implementation of such a process for potentially low-cost silicon material were conducted. Yoo et al. (1981) have evaluated low-cost silicon materials, taking into account a use of conventional processing technology. The present investigation is concerned with silicon materials similar to those considered by Yoo et al. However, the employment of nonconventional, low-cost cell processing techniques is explored. Attention is given to cell processing, and a comparison of three potentially low-cost materials with respect to their suitability for the integral screen printing process.

Cheek, G.; Janssens, R.; Leempoels, M.; Frisson, L.; Mertens, R.; van Overstraeten, R.

198

Lightweight, Flexible, Thin, Integrated Solar-Power Packs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, flexible, thin, one-piece, solar-power packs are undergoing development. Each power pack of this type is a complete, modular, integrated power-supply system comprising three power subsystems that, in conventional practice, have been constructed as separate units and connected to each other by wires. These power packs are amenable to a variety of uses: For example, they could be laminated to the tops of tents and other shelters to provide or augment power for portable electronic equipment in the field, and they could be used as power sources for such small portable electronic systems as radio transceivers (including data relays and cellular telephones), laptop computers, video camcorders, and Global Positioning System receivers.

Hanson, Robert R.

2004-01-01

199

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed. It is found that the drilling power can be used as a supplementary method for detecting voids/fractures and rock interfaces.

Syd S. Peng

2003-01-15

200

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More field tests have been performed. A trendline analysis method has been developed. This method would improve the accuracy in detecting the locations of fractures and in determining the rock strength.

Syd S. Peng

2003-04-15

201

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed in this quarter. The development of the data interpretation methodology and other related tasks are still continuing.

Syd S. Peng

2002-10-15

202

The green roof dilemma - discussion of Francis and Lorimer (2011).  

PubMed

Urban ecosystems are the most complex mosaics of vegetative land cover that can be found. In a recent paper, Francis and Lorimer (2011) evaluated the reconciliation potential of living roofs and walls. For these authors, these two techniques for habitat improvement have strong potential for urban reconciliation ecology. However they have some ecological and societal limitations such as the physical extreme environmental characteristics, the monetary investment and the cultural perceptions of urban nature. We are interested in their results and support their conclusions. However, for a considerable time, green roofs have been designed to provide urban greenery for buildings and the green roof market has only focused on extensive roof at a restricted scale within cities. Thus, we have strong doubts about the relevance of their use as possible integrated elements of the network. Furthermore, without dynamic progress in research and the implementation of well-thought-out policies, what will be the real capital gain from green roofs with respect to land-use complementation in cities? If we agree with Francis and Lorimer (2011) considering that urban reconciliation ecology between nature and citizens is a current major challenge, then "adaptive collaborative management" is a fundamental requirement. PMID:22484659

Henry, Alexandre; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2012-08-15

203

Integration of solar sail and thin film solar cell using spectrum splitting technology for deep space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to lighten weight for deep space exploration. Thin film type spacecrafts like solar sails may be the good choice. Due to the favourable photoelectric effect in weak light and light weight, flexible thin film solar sell will also be considered as new generation energy. In order to integrate thin film solar cell into solar sail perfectly, the spectrum splitting technology using optical multilayer film is employed to divide the solar spectrum. The transmissivity of the designed optical film is calculated by a developed computer program. It shows that that the transmissivity is larger than 95% in the range 400-1000nm, and obviously decrease above 400 nm, and below 1000 nm. The result given in this work will provide a new way to realize a low area mass of the solar sail.

Feng, Yudong; Zuo, Huaping; Wang, Zhimin

204

IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

2010-02-22

205

B.4 ROOF SYSTEMS B.4 Roof System  

E-print Network

: clay tile, wood, shingle, metal, glass. Built-up, modified bitumen, epdm, durbigum. Fastening failure Flashing failure Blisters Expansion joints Flat Roof Physical condition Structural movement Material: Structural movement Material deterioration Leaks Clay tile, wood, shingle, metal, glass. Clean outs Pitch

Gelfond, Michael

206

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

207

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-01

208

77 FR 32698 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Safety Standards for Roof Bolts in Metal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...injuries and deaths. Prevention or control of falls of roof, face, and...nature of the forces affecting ground stability at any given operation...accessories are an integral part of ground control systems at these mines and are used...

2012-06-01

209

Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential

S. Konopacki; L. Gartland; H. Akbari; L. Rainer

1998-01-01

210

Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public awareness in the context of climate-neutral actions, and in a long run, contribute to significantly reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions.

Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

2012-12-01

211

Effect of Photocatalytic Coatings on the Weathering of Elastomeric Roofing Membrane  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF PHOTOCATALYTIC COATINGS ON THE WEATHERING OF ELASTOMERIC ROOFING MEMBRANE Dr. Clovis A. Linkous Senior Research Scientist Florida Solar Energy Center University of Central Florida Cocoa, FL Ross H. Robertson Senior Engineer..., Systems Firestone Building Products Company Indianapolis, IN abstract A continuing problem associated with reflective roofing membranes, particularly those installed in the southeast section of the US, is the gradual loss of reflectivity due...

Linkous, C. A.; Robertson, R. H.

2006-01-01

212

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equivalent may be used. (3) Bearing plates used with wood or metal...materials that are used between a bearing plate and the mine roof in...shape of the roof bolt head and bearing plate. (e)(1) The...the roof bolt nor anchorage capacity of the strata....

2010-07-01

213

Roof Structure for the Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of wooden roof structure with an attached ceiling is idealized for construction in tropical climates. A scissors truss system is used for roof structure dictated by architectural considerations. The roof structure was developed using computer aided design in order to achieve an optimized construction system. This prototype project uses 3 trusses spaced 2.75m over a 5-m span,

Sá Ribeiro

214

510 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 10, 2011 A Scalable Solar Antenna for Autonomous Integrated  

E-print Network

that can be integrated underneath a solar panel is presented. The topology alleviates the effect of solar--3-D RF modules, autonomous modules, omni- directional antenna, solar antenna, solar panel, wireless consumption of every individual node [11]. Currently, solar panels harvest the largest reported amount

Tentzeris, Manos

215

Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.  

PubMed

The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended. PMID:17368704

Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

2008-05-01

216

Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.  

PubMed

The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so that eventually even communities of low-mobility species become connected. Furthermore, improving the design of green roofs (composition and configuration of vegetation and soil types) could enhance the ecological value, particularly for low-mobility species. PMID:24933819

Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

2014-04-01

217

Hawaii Solar Integration Study Final Technical Report for Oahu  

E-print Network

Energy Laboratory Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Hawaii Electric Company Maui Electric Company Prepared ................................................................................................................................... 21 5.1. Solar Site Selection Process.................................................................................................................................26 5.2.2. Selection of the Solar and Wind data for the study year

218

Radiation control coatings on rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility: Two summers of monitoring plus roof and whole building modeling  

SciTech Connect

Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) allowed the authors to learn the effect of radiation control coatings on roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray coated with a white, latex-based product with ceramic beads. Samples of the coated roofs were brought periodically to the laboratory to measure the solar reflectance as the coatings weathered. The authors monitored the power demand of the all-electric buildings that the roofs covered and temperatures and heat fluxes for two instrumented areas on each roof. Average decreases in the sunlit temperatures of the coated vs. the uncoated surfaces show weathering effects. They also show that the shading enhanced the effect of the coating on the significantly shaded roof because the coated instrumented area on it was preferentially shaded near noon of sunny days. Whole building models were constructed for DOE 2.1E and model predictions were compared to measurements of total electrical power for each all-electric building. The building with the significantly shaded roof had very high internal loads. The effect of the shading on annual energy use for cooling was twice that of the coating but the coating decreased annual cooling energy needs only by 0.5%. The building with the heavyweight concrete-decked roof had small internal loads. For it, the DOE 2.1E model predicted a 7.4% decrease in annual cooling energy use due to the coating and a comparatively small effect of the less extensive shading.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

219

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting designs. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mechanisms of modern roof bolting systems including both the tension and fully grouted bolts. Parameters to be studied are: bolt length, bolt spacing, bolt size/strength, grout annulus, in-situ stress condition, overburden depth, and roof geology (massive strata, fractured, and laminated or thinly-bedded). Based on the analysis of the mechanisms of both bolting systems and failure modes of the bolted strata, roof bolting design criteria and programs for modern roof bolting systems were developed. These criterion and/or programs were combined with the MRGIS for use in conjunction with roof bolt installation.

Syd S. Peng

2005-10-01

220

TryEngineering: Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan on surface engineering, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students learn about nanotechnology and its application in developing hydrophobic surfaces. (Hydrophobicity is a physical property, and is defined as the tendency of a molecule to repel water.) Students work in teams to to design a roof from simple materials that will keep the contents of a box dry during a water test. The driving question of the lesson: How do civil engineers apply principles of nanotechnology to develop waterproof roofs? This resource includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Editor's Note: Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar, whereas H2O is a polar molecule. Examples of hydophobic molecules include oils and fats. But as the size of objects is reduced to the nanoscale, the effects of surface properties become even more pronounced. To extend this lesson, see Related Materials for an article by the Nanoterra Group that provides information on newer applications of nanotechnology in surface design.

221

Hydrological Response of Sedum-Moss Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-roofs are becoming popular for aesthetic reasons and also as units of stormwater systems. It is thought that such roofs with soil cover and vegetation reduces the total runoff, the peak flows and improves the quality of the roof water. Here are reported investigations of runoff from thin, 3-4 cm soil, extensive green roofs with sedum-moss in southern Sweden. The two-year study was performed on new roofs in the eco-city Augustenborg and also on nearby old vegetative roofs. The rain intensity and the roof runoff were measured with 5 min, or in some experiments with 1 min, resolution. The annual runoff from the eco-roofs was about half that from hard roofs and was close to that of small natural rivers. However, although most rainy days there was no or little runoff from the roofs, the highest observed daily runoff values were close to the daily rainfall. Runoff is initiated, when the soil is at field capacity. Thereafter the hourly runoff corresponds closely to the hourly rainfall. For short-term high intensity storms, the runoff peak is attenuated relative the rain intensity. The time of concentration for runoff was experimentally determined applying artificial rains on existing roofs and on experimental roof plots with varying slopes and using different drainage layers. The peak runoff from the roofs was found to correspond to the rain intensity over 20-30 minutes. The probability of high rain intensity is much higher than the probability of high runoff. When intensity-duration-frequency curves were constructed, runoff with 0.4 year return period corresponded to rain with 1.5 year return period. The influence of the slope of the roofs on the runoff peak was minor as was the effect of drainage layer. The vertical flow in the soil dominates the runoff process. The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff quality was also studied to ascertain whether vegetated roofs behave as sink or source of pollutants and whether the runoff quality changes with roof age. The results show that in general vegetated roofs behave as a source of contaminants. With the exception of a 15-year old roof, the studied vegetated roofs contributed phosphate-phosphorus to the runoff. Some metals appeared in concentrations that corresponds to moderately polluted water. However, nitrate-nitrogen is retained by the vegetation and the soil.

Bengtsson, L.

2004-12-01

222

Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

2003-01-01

223

A Roof for ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 10 March, an official ceremony took place on the 2,900m high site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility, from where the ALMA antennas will be remotely controlled. The ceremony marked the completion of the structural works, while the building itself will be finished by the end of the year. This will become the operational centre of one of the most important ground-based astronomical facilities on Earth. ESO PR Photo 13a/07 ESO PR Photo 13a/07 Cutting the Red Ribbon The ceremony, known as 'Tijerales' in Chile, is the equivalent to the 'roof-topping ceremony' that takes place worldwide, in one form or another, to celebrate reaching the highest level of a construction. It this case, the construction is the unique ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located near the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "The end of this first stage represents an historic moment for ALMA," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Once completed in December 2007, this monumental building of 7,000 square metres will be one of the largest and most important astronomical operation centres in the world." ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. The OSF buildings are designed to suit the requirements of this exceptional observatory in a remote, desert location. The facility, which will host about 100 people during operations, consists of three main buildings: the technical building, hosting the control centre of the observatory, the antenna assembly building, including four antenna foundations for testing and maintenance purposes, and the warehouse building, including mechanical workshops. Further secondary buildings are the transporter shelters and the vehicle maintenance facilities as well as the ALMA gate house. The construction started in August 2006 and will be completed in December 2007. ESO PR Photo 13b/07 ESO PR Photo 13b/07 The Ceremony The ceremony took place in the presence of representatives of the regional authorities, members of the Chilean Parliament, and representatives of the local community, including the mayor of San Pedro, Ms. Sandra Berna, who joined more than 40 representatives of ESO, NRAO and NAOJ - the organisations that are, together, building ALMA. "This is certainly a big step in the realisation of the ALMA Project. The completion of this facility will be essential for assembly, testing and adjustment as well as operation and maintenance of all ALMA antennas from Europe, North America and from Japan," said Ryusuke Ogasawara, the representative of NAOJ in Chile. "This is a tremendous achievement and represents a major milestone for the ALMA project," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. ESO PR Photo 13c/07 ESO PR Photo 13c/07 The OSF (Artist's View) The first ALMA antennas, the prototypes of which successfully achieved their first combined astronomical observation last week, are expected to arrive at the ALMA site in a few months. These huge antennas will travel in pieces from Europe, USA and Japan and will be assembled next to the OSF building. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership among Europe, Japan and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of Japan by the National As

2007-03-01

224

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form  

E-print Network

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

225

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

226

Three-dimensional building roof boundary extraction using high-resolution aerial image and LiDAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a semiautomatic method for rectilinear building roof boundary extraction, based on the integration of high-resolution aerial image and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. The proposed method is formulated as an optimization problem, in which a snakes-based objective function is developed to represent the building roof boundaries in an object-space coordinate system. Three-dimensional polylines representing building roof boundaries are obtained by optimizing the objective function using the dynamic programming optimization technique. The results of our experiments showed that the proposed method satisfactorily performed the task of extracting different building roof boundaries from aerial image and LiDAR data.

Dal Poz, A. P.; Fazan, Antonio J.

2014-10-01

227

Comparative study of transparent insulation materials cover systems for integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of transparently insulated integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters is investigated theoretically as well as experimentally for a comparative study of cover systems having transparent insulation materials devices placed between the top glazing and the absorber. The data on solar transmittance, heat loss reduction characteristics and solar collector-storage efficiencies of various configurations is generated for the system performance comparisons.

K. S. Reddy; N. D. Kaushika

1999-01-01

228

Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

2004-01-01

229

Submodule Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications  

E-print Network

This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use of submodule integrated maximum power point trackers (MPPT). We propose a system architecture that provides ...

Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

230

System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

1979-01-01

231

Integration of distributed on site control actions via combined photovoltaic and solar panels system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic evaluation of the potential energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction on buildings was carried out, when a renewable energy system is locally installed. The exploitation of a combined solar and photovoltaic system and the integration of suitable energy management actions were deeply investigated. A model of these solar and photovoltaic components has been developed and included within a

G. C. Giaconia; G. Fiscelli; F. L. Bue; A. Di Stefano; D. La Cascia; R. Miceli

2009-01-01

232

Performance analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle using Direct Steam Generation in parabolic trough collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of solar thermal power to improve the performance of gas-fired combined cycles in very hot and dry environmental conditions is analyzed in this work, in order to assess the potential of this technique, and to feature Direct Steam Generation (DSG) as a well suited candidate for achieving very good results in this quest. The particular Integrated Solar Combined

M. J. Montes; A. Rovira; M. Muñoz; J. M. Martínez-Val

2011-01-01

233

innovati nNREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power  

E-print Network

innovati nNREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from penetrations of wind power. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy

234

Solar air collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-collecting apparatus is constructed for placement against a structure as against a wall or roof. When installed in a wall or roof it may form a portion of the structure. The apparatus includes an elongate housing having sides and a backing and a transparent glazing covering the housing. A collector assembly in the housing is composed of an outer

Mcalaster

1982-01-01

235

High temperature integrated thermal storage for solar thermal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature (1500 to 2000 K) heat transfer and storage system for solar thermal applications is described. A silica glass in bead form is melted in a solar receiver and stored in a large, refractory lined vessel. The molten glass is available for later discharge in a direct contact droplet heat exchanger, where a working gas is heated and

A. P. Bruckner; A. Hertzberg; R. T. Taussig

1982-01-01

236

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, retrofitting work to build a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been started. A number of numerical methods have been developed to improve the quality of and to analyze the collected drilling parameters. Finite element modeling of roof bolting mechanism is continuing.

Syd S. Peng

2001-07-15

237

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. The retrofitting works for a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been completed. The laboratory tests performed using this machine on simulated roof blocks have been conducted. The analysis performed on the testing data showed promising signs to detect the rock interface, fractures, as well as the rock types. The other tasks were progressing as planned.

Syd S. Peng

2001-10-15

238

Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies Higher operating frequencies enable greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of GaAs solar cell MIMs (Monolithically Integrated Module) with a single patch antenna on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the integration of MIMs and antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

2004-01-01

239

High-performance broadband optical coatings on InGaN/GaN solar cells for multijunction device integration  

E-print Network

High-performance broadband optical coatings on InGaN/GaN solar cells for multijunction device coatings on InGaN/GaN solar cells for multijunction device integration N. G. Young,1,a) E. E. Perl,2 R. MGaN, making the cells suitable for multijunction solar cell integration. Application of optical coatings

Bowers, John

240

Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies  

SciTech Connect

Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

Bird, L.; Lew, D.

2012-09-01

241

Integrating perovskite solar cells into a flexible fiber.  

PubMed

Perovskite solar cells have triggered a rapid development of new photovoltaic devices because of high energy conversion efficiencies and their all-solid-state structures. To this end, they are particularly useful for various wearable and portable electronic devices. Perovskite solar cells with a flexible fiber structure were now prepared for the first time by continuously winding an aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube sheet electrode onto a fiber electrode; photoactive perovskite materials were incorporated in between them through a solution process. The fiber-shaped perovskite solar cell exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which remained stable on bending. The perovskite solar cell fibers may be woven into electronic textiles for large-scale application by well-developed textile technologies. PMID:25047870

Qiu, Longbin; Deng, Jue; Lu, Xin; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng

2014-09-22

242

Design and Performance Analysis of Low Temperature Solar Thermal Electric Generation Integrated PV Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed system mainly consists of flat-plate compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) integrated with photovoltaic (PV) cells and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The fundamental of the hybrid PV-CPC module is illustrated and its feasibility is analyzed. Mathematical formulations are developed to study the heat transfer and energy conversion processes. The results indicate that the low temperature solar thermal electric generation integrated

Li Jing; Pei Gang; Li Yunzhu; Ji Jie

2010-01-01

243

Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae. PMID:24163861

Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

2013-01-01

244

40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

2014-07-01

245

40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal...regulated material emissions by using an external floating roof converted into an...

2010-07-01

246

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The selected site and the field testing plan enabled us to test all three aspects of roof geological features. The development of the data interpretation methodologies and the geology mapping computer program have also been preceding well.

Syd S. Peng

2003-07-15

247

The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2011-01-01

248

Simulating Nonlinear Deformations of Solar Sail Membranes Using Explicit Time Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, the explicit time integration method is employed to predict deformation of highly flexible solar sail structural components. The nonlinear static analysis of a highly flexible ribbon structure is presented to demonstrate the need for having the explicit time integration method in the analysis toolbox for solar sail. Static analyses of the ribbon structure produce ambiquous results whereas the explicit time integration method determines the correct results. Extensive benchmarking examples are also presented to build confidence in the use of the explicit method. Previously determined nonlinear wrinkling deformations of solar sail membranes are found by the explicit method. As the explicit method is known to often require more computational time than nonlinear static methods, a study on mass scaling was also conducted. The computational times are reported for the nonlinear static and explicit time integration solutions to calibrate the advantage of using mass scaling for these problems.

Wang, John T.; Chen, Tzikang; Sleight, David W.; Tessler, Alex

2004-01-01

249

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

250

Integrally regulated solar array demonstration using an Intel 8080 microprocessor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for regulating the voltage of a solar array by using a microprocessor to effect discrete voltage changes was demonstrated. Eight shorting switches were employed to regulate a simulated array at set-point voltages between 10,000 and 15,000 volts. The demonstration showed that the microprocessor easily regulated the solar array output voltage independently of whether or not the switched cell groups were binary sized in voltage. In addition, the microprocessor provided logic memory capability to perform additional tasks such as locating and insolating a faulty switch.

Petrik, E. J.

1977-01-01

251

Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22m wide×3.66m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof types×two aspects×four

Mingteh Chang; Matthew W. McBroom; R. Scott Beasley

2004-01-01

252

Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems  

SciTech Connect

Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40% in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. It should be noted that these values are climate dependent. Vegetative roofs also reduced the temperature (heat exposure) and temperature fluctuations (thermal stress) experienced by the membrane. In the cooling season of East Tennessee, the average peak temperature of the 4-inch and tray systems was found to be approximately 94 F cooler than the control black roofing system. The average temperature fluctuations at the membrane for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 10 F compared to 125 F for black and 64 F for white systems. As expected, the 8-inch vegetative roof had the lowest fluctuations at approximately 2 F. Future work will include modeling of the energy performance of vegetative roof panels in the test climate of East Tennessee. The validated model then will be used to predict energy use in roofs with different insulation levels and in climates different from the test climate.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ennis, Mike J [ORNL

2010-01-01

253

Interpretation of 2d and 3d Building Details on Facades and Roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Internet-inspired mapping data are in the form of street maps, orthophotos, 3D models or street-side images and serve to support mostly search and navigation. Yet the only mapping data that currently can really be searched are the street maps via their addresses and coordinates. The orthophotos, 3D models and street-side images represent predominantly "eye candy" with little added value to the Internet-user. We are interested in characterizing the elements of the urban space from imagery. In this paper we discuss the use of street side imagery and aerial imagery to develop descriptions of urban spaces, initially of building facades and roofs. We present methods (a) to segment facades using high-overlap street side facade images, (b) to map facades and facade details from vertical aerial images, and (c) to characterize roofs by their type and details, also from aerial photography. This paper describes a method of roof segmentation with the goal of assigning each roof to a specific architectural style. Questions of the use of the attic space, or the placement of solar panels, are of interest. It is of interest that roofs have recently been mapped using LiDAR point clouds. We demonstrate that aerial images are a useful and economical alternative to LiDAR for the characterization of building roofs, and that they also contain very valuable information about facades.

Meixner, P.; Leberl, F.; Brédif, M.

2011-04-01

254

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. A new mechanical approach to estimate rock strengths using the acquired drilling parameters has been proposed. This approach takes a number of important factors, that have never been studied in the previous researches, into the considerations. Good results have been shown using the new approach on the testing data.

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-15

255

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More laboratory tests have been performed in this quarter. The analysis performed on the testing data showed: (1) abnormal rotational accelerations can be used as the indicator of the rock interfaces, and (2) the sharp drops of drilling thrust and torque agree well with the locations of fractures.

Syd S. Peng

2002-04-15

256

OPTIMIZING GREEN ROOF TECHNOLOGIES IN THE MIDWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Green roofs, while extensively used in Europe, are an emerging technology in the U.S. They have an array of potential benefits (including improved storm water management, increased energy conservation of buildings, reduced urban heat island effects, and extended roof life) ...

257

Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of

Bracha Y Schindler; Alden B Griffith; Kristina N Jones

2011-01-01

258

Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of

B. M. Jakosky

2003-01-01

259

Integrated passive solar and wood design for the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, construction and performance of a 240 m² (2600 ft²) passive solar home in Missoula, Montana are described. The design is of particular interest for Pacific Northwest sites characterized by poor to moderate levels of sun and environmental constraints on the type of supplemental fuel. While wood is an abundant and relatively cheap fuel in western Montana, winter inversion

Duffield

1981-01-01

260

An Innovative Building-Integrated Solar-Air Collector: Presentation and First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new solar air collector totally integrated into a shutter. The air is moved by a fan supplied with electricity\\u000a by a PV module inserted into the shutter. The produced hot air is injected in the house to heat it and to maintain a healthy\\u000a air. This solar air shutter is reversible and can run in all positions.

Jean Louis Canaletti; Gilles Notton; Christian Cristofari

261

Aluminum-Based Mechanical and Electrical Laser Interconnection Process for Module Integration of Silicon Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an interconnection method for the module integration of silicon solar cells by laser microwelding of the Al-metalized rear side of the solar cell to a metalized substrate is introduced. This laser microwelding process forms a direct mechanical and electrical connection between two Al-layers without the need for any soldering, conductive adhesives, or Ag-pastes. With a tensile tester,

Henning Schulte-Huxel; Robert Bock; Susanne Blankemeyer; Agnes Merkle; Rolf Brendel

2012-01-01

262

An integrated planning structure for commercial applications of active solar cooling: Methodology and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The likely market for solar cooling is evaluated within an integrated planning framework. A major objective is to develop the set of tools that are needed to determine performance and cost targets that will make solar cooling cost-effective in a given time frame. Cooling needs and solar cooling's possible role in fulfilling those needs are reviewed. The commercial market is isolated as the one with the greatest potential for using solar cooling. The theory and application of market modeling in the industrial/commercial sector are reviewed in detail. Adoption and market penetration models are discussed and reviewed and the results of studies of the solar market place are presented. The philosophy followed is that no one knows the future exactly; therefore, the best we can do is develop methodology that can project, under various scenarios, what is most likely to happen. The assumptions that go into that analysis and the development of the appropriate tools are discussed in detail.

1982-05-01

263

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

264

Solar Reserve Methodology for Renewable Energy Integration Studies Based on Sub-Hourly Variability Analysis: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Increasing penetrations of wind a solar energy are raising concerns among electric system operators because of the variability and uncertainty associated with power sources. Previous work focused on the quantification of reserves for systems with wind power. This paper presents a new methodology that allows the determination of necessary reserves for high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) power and compares it to the wind-based methodology. The solar reserve methodology is applied to Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. A summary of the results is included.

Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Hummon, M.; Lew, D.

2012-08-01

265

Cooler Tile-Roofed Buildings with Near-Infrared-ReflectiveNon-white Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Owners of homes with pitched roofs visible from ground leveloften prefer non-white roofing products for aesthetic considerations.Non-white, near-infrared-reflective architectural coatings can be appliedin-situ to pitched concrete or clay tile roofs to reduce tiletemperature, building heat gain, and cooling power demand, whilesimultaneously improving the roof s appearance. Scale model measurementsof building temperatures and heat-flux were combined with solar andcooling energy use data to estimate the effects of such cool roofcoatings in various California data. Under typical conditions e.g., 1 kWm-2 summer afternoon insolation, R-11 attic insulation, no radiantbarrier, and a 0.3 reduction in solar absorptance absolute reductions inroof surface temperature, attic air temperature, and ceiling heat fluxare about 12 K, 6.2 K, and 3.7 W m-2, respectively. For a typical 1,500ft2 (139 m2) house with R-11 attic insulation and no radiant barrier,reducing roof absorptance by 0.3 yields whole-house peak power savings of230, 210, and 210 W in Fresno, San Bernardino, and San Diego,respectively. The corresponding absolute and fractional cooling energysavings are 92 kWh yr-1 (5 percent), 67 kWh yr-1 (6 percent), and 8 kWhyr-1 (1 percent), respectively. These savings are about half thosepreviously reported for houses with non-tile roofs. With theseassumptions, the statewide peak cooling power and annual cooling energyreductions would be 240 MW and 63 GWh yr-1, respectively. These energysavings would reduce annual emissions from California power plants by 35kilotonnes CO2, 11 tonnes NOx,and 0.86 tonnes SOx. The economic value ofcooling energy savings is well below the cost of coating a tile roof, butthe simple payback times for using cool pigments in a rooftile coatingare modest (5-7 years) in the hot climates of Fresno and SanBernardino.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Reilly, Joeseph C.

2004-06-25

266

PN junction fabrication of solar cells and integration with metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon is the primary material used for the fabrication of solar cells and it is responsible for about 40% of the cost. Metamaterials show promise in enhancing the performance of silicon solar cells thus, improving the efficiency. Here we report on the fabrication of a broadband, antireflective, conductive metamaterial capable of channeling light into a solar cell. As a precursor to making the metamaterial, standard p-n junctions were fabricated. Conventional phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3) furnace diffusion was used to create the p-n junction. When the p-n junction was forward biased, the measured current exhibited a diode characteristic. The measured photocurrent response yielded an open circuit voltage for the p-n junction at 0.48 VDC. The metamaterial film was fabricated, placed atop the p-n junction and characterized. Initial tests showed that the metamaterial antireflective properties were on par with those of standard industrial single-layer silicon nitride coatings. Further testing is being performed to assess the full optical and electrical performance of the metamaterial film.

Enemuo, Amarachukwu; Crouse, David T.; Crouse, Michael

2011-05-01

267

HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME  

E-print Network

or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi: Double-skin roof; Radiation; Natural convection; Passive cooling; Solar loads. * Corresponding author

Boyer, Edmond

268

A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting  

SciTech Connect

Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

2013-02-21

269

HYDROSOL: a forward looking energy model for currently hydro sufficient provinces and states. [Integrated hydro- and solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

HYDRO-SOL, an integrated hydroelectric and solar power system, offers a model for using water power and solar conversion to augment local energy self-sufficiency while more research is conducted to make nuclear energy safer. The model takes advantage of the current capability for efficiently converting solar energy to electrical energy and allowing hydro power to be stored. Examples are drawn of

McKee

1977-01-01

270

Tracking-integrated optics: applications in solar concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems track the sun with high precision dual-axis trackers. The emergent field of tracking-integrated optics has the potential to simplify the mechanics of CPV systems by loosening or eliminating the need for dual-axis tracking. In a tracking-integrated scheme, external module tracking is complemented or entirely replaced by miniature tracking within the module. This internal tracking-integration may take the form of active small-motion translation, rotation of arrayed optics, or by passive material property changes induced by the concentrated light. These methods are briefly reviewed. An insolation weighting model is presented which will aid in the design of tracking-integrated optics by quantifying the tradeoff between angular operation range and annual sunlight collection. We demonstrate that when tracking-integrated optics are used to complement external module tracking about a horizontal, North-South oriented axis, truncating the operational range may be advantageous. At Tucson AZ latitude (32.2°N), 15.6% of the angular range may be truncated while only sacrificing 3.6% of the annual insolation. We show that modules tracked about a polar-aligned axis are poorly-suited for truncation.

Wheelwright, Brian M.; Angel, Roger; Coughenour, Blake

2014-12-01

271

Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology  

SciTech Connect

Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, No 593 Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

2010-09-15

272

Solar power: control systems, the integrating of components with the grid system, and the effective management\\/control of both  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this paper is to discuss and examine the integration of a solar (alternative) power source, with the traditional power grid. This discussion is limited to solar photovoltaic (PV), wind generators, and battery storage that must be integrated and controlled in a safe and predictable way while interfacing with the public's power source. The paper shows that the

2003-01-01

273

Automatic extraction of building roofs using LIDAR data and multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic 3D extraction of building roofs from remotely sensed data is important for many applications including city modelling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic 3D roof extraction through an effective integration of LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data and multispectral orthoimagery. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first group contains the ground points that are exploited to constitute a 'ground mask'. The second group contains the non-ground points which are segmented using an innovative image line guided segmentation technique to extract the roof planes. The image lines are extracted from the grey-scale version of the orthoimage and then classified into several classes such as 'ground', 'tree', 'roof edge' and 'roof ridge' using the ground mask and colour and texture information from the orthoimagery. During segmentation of the non-ground LIDAR points, the lines from the latter two classes are used as baselines to locate the nearby LIDAR points of the neighbouring planes. For each plane a robust seed region is thereby defined using the nearby non-ground LIDAR points of a baseline and this region is iteratively grown to extract the complete roof plane. Finally, a newly proposed rule-based procedure is applied to remove planes constructed on trees. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully remove vegetation and so offers high extraction rates.

Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Zhang, Chunsun; Fraser, Clive S.

2013-09-01

274

Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.  

PubMed

Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. PMID:24867709

Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

2014-08-15

275

Integrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 sq m panel (45 tubes)

R. Winston; J. J. Ogallagher

1982-01-01

276

Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of co- producing hydrogen and electricity from natural gas. Storage of hydrogen is not absolutely

K. Hemmes

2007-01-01

277

Green Roof Effect on Arthropod Biodiversity By Caitlin Race  

E-print Network

were collected, with a Shannon diversity index of 2.08. In the paved area of the roof, only 4 arthropodGreen Roof Effect on Arthropod Biodiversity By Caitlin Race A green roof is a roof sampling date. Samples were frozen for a period of one day before the arthropods were sorted out

Ginzel, Matthew

278

The Solar System/El Sistema Solar--A Fully Integrated Instructional Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan for the second grade uses information on the solar system to provide science education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in San Diego, California. The lesson has been developed to be taught in a bilingual class, a Spanish-language immersion class, or a two-way bilingual class. Lessons are arranged so that native…

Van Heukelem, Tom; Mercado, Maria de Jesus

279

Integration of soil solarization with Brassica carinata seed meals amendment in a greenhouse lettuce production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of integrated pest management is a valid alternative to conventional chemical treatments. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Brassica carinata seed meals amendment, combined with solarization, on soil activity and lettuce cultivation. B. carinata seed meals pellets are biofumigant plant tissues originated as byproducts of the biodiesel industry. Microbiological data combined with lettuce production

Catello Pane; Domenica Villecco; Alfonso Pentangelo; Ernesto Lahoz; Massimo Zaccardelli

2012-01-01

280

Integration of soil solarization with Brassica carinata seed meals amendment in a greenhouse lettuce production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of integrated pest management is a valid alternative to conventional chemical treatments. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Brassica carinata seed meals amendment, combined with solarization, on soil activity and lettuce cultivation. B. carinata seed meals pellets are biofumigant plant tissues originated as byproducts of the biodiesel industry. Microbiological data combined with lettuce production

Catello Pane; Domenica Villecco; Alfonso Pentangelo; Ernesto Lahoz; Massimo Zaccardelli

2011-01-01

281

Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

Mcdonald, R. R.

1982-01-01

282

Experimental study of small-scale solar wall integrating phase change material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar walls have been studied for decades as a way of heating building from a renewable energy source. A key ingredient of these wall is their storage capacity. However, this increases their weight and volume, which limits theirs integration into existing building. To aleviate this problem, storage mass is replaced by a phase change materials. These allow to store a

Laurent Zalewski; Annabelle Joulin; Stéphane Lassue; Yvan Dutil; Daniel Rousse

283

Combined photovoltaic and solar thermal systems for facade integration and building insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most photovoltaic (PV) facades are built as curtain facades in front of thermally insulated buildings, with air ducts in between. This causes additional costs for support structure and installation, while heat dissipation from the solar cells is often not optimal. Measurements carried out are facing both concerns: integration of a thermal insulating layer (which meets the latest German heat-preserving regulation,

Stefan Krauter; Rodrigo Guido Araújo; Sandra Schroer; Rolf Hanitsch; Mohammed J Salhi; Clemens Triebel; Reiner Lemoine

1999-01-01

284

Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 15th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period December 1979 to April 1980 is described. Project analysis and integration, technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheet and encapsulation, production process and equipment development, engineering, and operation are included.

1980-01-01

285

Controlled integration of Trombe wall and direct gain in passive solar residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper controlled integration of Trombe wall and direct gain are analyzed for Albuquerque, NM, Santa Maria, CA, and Madison, WI. Designs are critiqued for both comfort and backup requirements. It is demonstrated that proper control is necessary for the maintenance of comfort and the attainment of high solar fractions. A simple expression for backup requirements in all three climates as

A. V. Sebald; G. M. Phillips

1981-01-01

286

Thermal performance of a shallow solar-pond integrated with a baffle plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow solar-pond integrated with a baffle plate is investigated theoretically and experimentally under Tanta prevailing weather conditions. A transient mathematical model is presented for the pond. The energy-balance equations for various parts of the pond are solved analytically using the elimination technique. In order to validate the theoretical model, experiments are performed under the batch mode of heat extraction

A. A. El-Sebaii

2005-01-01

287

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

2013-10-01

288

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

2013-10-01

289

Simulation of solar-powered ammonia-water integrated hybrid cooling system  

SciTech Connect

a number of solar-operated air-conditioning systems based on the H{sub 2}O-LiBr absorption chiller were built, installed, and monitored. A systematic study at the University of Colorado has been published. This paper presents a simple cost-benefit analysis of the conventional vapor compression system (VCS), the vapor absorption system (VAS), and the integrated hybrid system (IHS). The cost of energy input to the VAS and the IHS were compared with the energy cost of the VCS that these solar-powered systems replace. It was found that cost savings can be realized with solar-powered systems, only after a critical overall solar fraction is exceeded. Typically, this value was about 0.7 for a VAS and about 0.12 for a IHS. These cost-benefit results provided the motivation for a more detailed study of the IHS. There has also been other efforts in this direction.

Chinnappa, J.C.V. (James Cook Univ., Townsville 4811 (AU)); Wijeysundera, N.E. (Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (SG))

1992-05-01

290

Solar/hydro integration study. Technical progress report, February-July 1980. [STORMRK code  

SciTech Connect

The Water and Power Resources Service in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the technical and economic feasibility of integrating solar central receiver powerplants with the Federal hydroelectric power system in the southwest United States. The principal hydro facility in this region is Hoover Dam. It is located on the Colorado River with Lake Mead on the upstream side and Lake Mohave on the downstream side. The central receiver was selected for this application because DOE has identified it as the most economically feasible design for large power systems, i.e., 100-MWe systems or larger. Typical meteorological year (TMY) data were obtained for Las Vegas from the Solar Energy Research Institute. Plots of available solar energy at Yuma and Mormon Mesa are presented for several operational threshold levels. The data show that a solar plant's operational time can be reduced by 20% and still utilize more than 97% of the available solar energy. The Mormon Mesa site has slightly more solar energy available than the Yuma site. A meteorological surface observation network (MESONET) weather station is being prepared for installation at the Yuma site. The MESONET station which normally measures temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction will be retrofitted to measure direct beam and global radiation. The radiation data will be used in dynamic simulations of solar power systems. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

291

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

292

The solar cube: A building-integrated photovoltaic incubator  

SciTech Connect

A huge tipped glass tube provides instruction to visitors to the Discovery Science Center in Los Angeles, and an educational diversion to commuters on Interstate 5. The project revealed that photovoltaic industry has a lot to learn from those in the construction industry about building-integrated photovoltaics. The industry must develop products pleasing to the architect and the architect's client, and easily adaptable to the rest of the building. This market requires PV manufacturers to look at photovoltaics as a building material that just so happens to produce electricity, too. Hence, price per square rules in this application over cost per watt. Most importantly, of course, demonstrating as pioneers the potential of building-integrated photovoltaics has delighted the client, The Science Discovery Center.

Perlin, J.

2000-06-01

293

Design considerations for retractable-roof stadia  

E-print Network

As existing open-air or fully enclosed stadia are reaching their life expectancies, cities are choosing to replace them with structures with moving roofs. This kind of facility provides protection from weather for spectators, ...

Frazer, Andrew H., 1981-

2005-01-01

294

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...any other purpose that could affect the tension of the bolt. Hanging...bolts are permitted. (8) Angle compensating devices shall be used to compensate for the angle when tensioned roof bolts are installed at angles greater than 5 degrees...

2011-07-01

295

Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains  

E-print Network

Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... procedures coupled with this experiment include an extensive assessment of obtainable literature and existing studies along with consultation from noted authorities in similar fields. In addition, a range of commercially available roof coatings...

Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

2006-01-01

296

The effect of roof strength on reducing occupant injury in rollovers.  

PubMed

Roof crush occurs and potentially contributes to serious or fatal occupant injury in 26% of rollovers. It is likely that glazing retention is related to the degree of roof crush experienced in rollover accidents. Occupant ejection (including partial ejection) is the leading cause of death and injury in rollover accidents. In fatal passenger car accidents involving ejection, 34% were ejected through the side windows. Side window glass retention during a rollover is likely to significantly reduce occupant ejections. The inverted drop test methodology is a test procedure to evaluate the structural integrity of roofs under loadings similar to those seen in real world rollovers. Recent testing on many different vehicle types indicates that damage consistent with field rollover accidents can be achieved through inverted drop testing at very small drop heights. Drop test comparisons were performed on 16 pairs of vehicles representing a large spectrum of vehicle types. Each vehicle pair includes a production vehicle and a vehicle with a reinforced roof structure dropped under the same test conditions. This paper offers several examples of post-production reinforcements to roof structures that significantly increase the crush resistance of the roof as measured by inverted drop tests. These modifications were implemented with minimal impact on vehicle styling, interior space and visual clearances. The results of these modifications indicate that roof crush can be mitigated by nearly an order of magnitude, as roof crush was reduced by 44-91% with only a 1-2.3% increase in vehicle weight. Additionally, this paper analyzes the glazing breakage patterns in the moveable tempered side windows on the side adjacent to the vehicle impact point in the inverted drop tests. A comparison is made between the production vehicles and the reinforced vehicles in order to determine if the amount roof crush is related to glazing integrity in the side windows. Lastly, two drop test pairs, performed with Hybrid III test dummies, indicates that the reduction of roof crush resulted in a direct reduction in neck loading and therefore an increase in occupant protection. PMID:15850089

Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Steve; Orton, Tia; Meyer, Steven E; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2005-01-01

297

Solar cell shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (inventors)

1977-01-01

298

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

1983-06-01

299

Control of receiver temperature and shaft speed in dish-Stirling solar power plants to meet grid integration requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dish-Stirling concentrating solar power systems are an efficient and reliable source of renewable energy, indicating a potential for large-scale grid integration in upcoming years. Various technical and policy considerations must be accounted for in the grid integration of dish-Stirling solar power plants, particularly related to potential grid integration requirements set by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regarding power factor correction

Dustin F. Howard; Jiaqi Liang; Ronald G. Harley

2010-01-01

300

Method for fabricating solar cells having integrated collector grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device comprising a conductive base metal layer compatible with and coating predominately the exposed surface of the p-type substrate of the device such that a back surface field region is formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device having a metal alloy grid network of the same metal elements of the oxide constituents of the mixed metal oxide layer embedded in the mixed metal oxide layer, an insulating layer which prevents electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer, and a metal contact means covering the insulating layer and in intimate contact with the metal grid network embedded in the transparent, conductive oxide layer for conducting electrons generated by the photovoltaic process from the device.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1979-01-01

301

Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.  

PubMed

Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers. PMID:20923966

Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

2010-11-01

302

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-01-01

303

Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

2005-01-01

304

Green Roofs for a Green Town: Possibilities of Green Roof Implementation in the Town of Normal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs have been growing in popularity throughout the world. Scientists have been studying them since the 1980’s. This research project reviews the literature regarding both the benefits and barriers to green roof construction and management. Policies around the nation are then examined and analyzed. Suggestions are made regarding possible additions to the local Stormwater Management Policy that would emphasize

Sihau Lindsey

2008-01-01

305

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

306

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

2008-07-01

307

Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

Fleeman, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

308

Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

2012-05-01

309

NREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from these renewable resources could be integrated reliably into the grid. To inform the discussion about the potential of such variable sources, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched two key regional studies, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically possible for U.S. power systems to integrate 20%-35% renewable electricity if infrastructure and operational improvements can be made.

Not Available

2011-10-01

310

Monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cell submodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell submodules with 15% efficiencies have been demonstrated on flexible ceramic and thin soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates. For ceramic substrates, alkali-doping control was performed using alkali–silicate glass thin layers deposited prior to the sputtering of the Mo back contact layer. An independently certified 15.9% submodule efficiency (17 cells, aperture area 75.7cm2) was demonstrated for a

Shogo Ishizuka; Takashi Yoshiyama; Kazuyuki Mizukoshi; Akimasa Yamada; Shigeru Niki

2010-01-01

311

Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by the absorber tubes. For this reason, the PV/T hybrid is not recommended over other options in new installations. The hybrid solar window is evaluated for a horizontal skylight and south and east facing vertical windows in Minneapolis, MN. The predicted visible transmittance for the solar window is 0.66 to 0.73 for single glazed systems and 0.61 to 0.67 for double glazed systems. The solar heat gain coefficient and the U-factor for the window are comparable to existing glazing technology. Annual thermal efficiencies of up to 24% and 26% are predicted for the vertical window and the horizontal skylight respectively. Experimental measurements of the solar thermal component of the window confirm the trends of the model. In conclusion, the hybrid solar window combines the functionality of an energy efficient fenestration system with hybrid thermal energy generation to provide a compelling solution towards sustainable design of the built environment.

Ulavi, Tejas

312

Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it`s nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.

Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.; Raman, M.

1995-03-01

313

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Interpretive Rule Governing Roof Removal Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...floor covering mastic, and asphalt roofing products containing...roof coatings and mastics; and asphalt-containing...flashings. ACM roofing products...the removal of roofing systems (i.e...coatings, flashings, mastic, shingles, and...

2011-07-01

314

Modeling and analysis of solar photovoltaic-electrolyzer-fuel cell hybrid power system integrated with a floriculture greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the modeling and analysis of a greenhouse-integrated power system consisting of solar photovoltaic panels, electrolyzer bank and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. Electric power is generated in an array of solar photovoltaic modules. Excess energy after meeting the requirements of the greenhouse during peak sunshine hours, is supplied to an electrolyzer bank to generate hydrogen

A. Ganguly; D. Misra; S. Ghosh

2010-01-01

315

A Mechanically Stable, Low Profile, Omni-Directional Solar-Cell Integrated Antenna for Outdoor Wireless Sensor Nodes  

E-print Network

to avoid node failure from the unexpected outdoor environments. Annular slot loop antennas, ASA, can have sensor network standard is proposed by integrating a circular array of slot antennas with solar cells. II. Circular Slot Antenna Design The "solar-enabled" antenna consists of 4 metal layers as shown in Fig 1

Tentzeris, Manos

316

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 -- Frequency Response and Transient Stability (Report and Executive Summary)  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) were to examine the large-scale transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection with high wind and solar penetration, and to identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, or other alternatives.

Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

2014-12-01

317

Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

Gardner, J. A.

1972-01-01

318

Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two

Viorel Badescu

2003-01-01

319

Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices  

SciTech Connect

This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

2012-01-01

320

Effects of roof and rainwater characteristics on copper concentrations in roof runoff.  

PubMed

Copper sheeting is a common roofing material used in many parts of the world. However, copper dissolved from roof sheeting represents a source of copper ions to watersheds. Researchers have studied and recently developed a simple and efficient model to predict copper runoff rates. Important input parameters include precipitation amount, rain pH, and roof angle. We hypothesized that the length of a roof also positively correlates with copper concentration (thus, runoff rates) on the basis that runoff concentrations should positively correlate with contact time between acidic rain and the copper sheet. In this study, a novel system was designed to test and model the effects of roof length (length of roof from crown to the drip edge) on runoff copper concentrations relative to rain pH and roof angle. The system consisted of a flat-bottom copper trough mounted on an apparatus that allowed run length and slope to be varied. Water of known chemistry was trickled down the trough at a constant rate and sampled at the bottom. Consistent with other studies, as pH of the synthetic rainwater decreased, runoff copper concentrations increased. At all pH values tested, these results indicated that run length was more important in explaining variability in copper concentrations than was the roof slope. The regression equation with log-transformed data (R(2)?=?0.873) accounted for slightly more variability than the equation with untransformed data (R(2)?=?0.834). In log-transformed data, roof angle was not significant in predicting copper concentrations. PMID:21713491

Bielmyer, Gretchen K; Arnold, W Ray; Tomasso, Joseph R; Isely, Jeff J; Klaine, Stephen J

2012-05-01

321

The wind resistance of asphalt roofing shingles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asphalt shingle roofing is the leading cause of hurricane wind-related insured losses in residential buildings. Damage statistics generated from recent hurricanes indicate shingle roofs sustain damage in wind velocities below design-level with damage frequency increasing with shingle roof age. The objective of this dissertation is the identification of primary mechanisms triggering the failure of shingle roof systems in wind. The research goal is to reduce future shingle roof wind damage and improve our ability to predict asphalt shingle wind resistance. Five studies comprising this dissertation addressed the adhesive consistency and strength of aged asphalt shingles, system-level wind resistance, and the load model underpinning the ASTM D7158 wind test standard. The most significant and unexpected finding was partially unsealed shingles on field, hip, and ridge locations on Florida and Texas homes. Location on the shingle's sealant strip where unsealed and failure mode were consistent at each location. Total quantity of partially unsealed shingles in the field of the roof significantly increased with age, aligning with damage statistics. Full-scale wind tunnel tests demonstrate partially unsealed shingles are more vulnerable than fully sealed due to increased distributed force on sealant strip and concentrated force at the adhered and non-adhered interface. Uplift resistance was measured in artificially and naturally aged shingles. For artificially aged shingles, one of three products evaluated had statistically significant decreases in mean uplift resistance as exposure time increased. However, resistance was above design-level at all exposure test intervals. Naturally aged shingles also had resistance above design-level. Combined results demonstrate that reduced uplift capacity can occur, but high initial bond strength promotes long-term uplift resistance. Wind loads exerted on the shingles sealant strip load path were directly measured on fully sealed and partially unsealed three-tab and laminate shingles. Results indicate that ASTM D7158 and load model is conservative in force prediction for fully sealed shingles. ASTM D7158 is not conservative for partially unsealed shingles. Research concludes that partially unsealed shingles occur naturally and represent a large contributor to wind damage. Retrofit of existing shingle roofs and further work identifying specific cause will provide significant reduction of wind risk in shingle roofing.

Dixon, Craig Robert

322

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

323

The Map to Cost-Effective Summer Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roofing is one of the major expense items in school district maintenance budgets. Outlines steps to take in project planning, developing budget estimates and specifications, and completing a roofing project on time. (MLF)

Waldron, Larry W.

1988-01-01

324

Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)

Williams, Jennifer Lynn

2002-01-01

325

Effect of Surface Mass on Roof Thermal Performance  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SURFACE MASS ON ROOF THERMAL PERFORMANCE KENNETH E. WILKES, PAUL H. SHIPP, AND JOHN P. SANDERS Staff Members Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT The roof of a building is exposed to the most severe...

Wilkes, K. E.; Shipp, P. H.; Sanders, J. P.

1988-01-01

326

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-print Network

coverage from a 360 degree spray pattern. Careful equipment selection and the expertise of the designer are the fool proof criteria to achieve optimum results. The American Society of Heating 6 Ventilating Engineers (forerunners of ASHRAE) conducted...°F, evaporative roof cooling can actually double or triple the life expectancy of the roof. There are three major factors that destroy a roof. They are: 1. Blisters. Blisters form when the roof temperatures reach 150°F to 160°F. The gravel...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01

327

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards-Separator floating roof. 63.1043 Section 63.1043... § 63.1043 Standards—Separator floating roof. (a) This section applies...separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof. (b) The separator shall...

2014-07-01

328

AUTOMATED DELINEATION OF ROOF PLANES FROM LIDAR DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an algorithm for roof line delineation from LIDAR data which aims at achieving models of a high level of detail. Roof planes are initially extracted by segmentation based on the local homogeneity of surface normal vectors of a digital surface model (DSM). A case analysis then reveals which of these roof planes intersect and which

F. Rottensteiner; J. Trinder; S. Clode; K. Kubik

2005-01-01

329

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

1984-02-02

330

Development of integral coating for solar cell modules. Final report, February 1985-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

A process was developed by which integral solar cell covers (ISCC's) can be applied directly to the front surface of solar cell modules. The covers are a codeposited mixture of silica and alumina. The tensile-stressed alumina serves to compensate for the compressive stress of the silica. The process by which these covers are applied is Plasma Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD) which is a low-temperature CVD process (145 C). The process utilizes the OCLI-proprietary Plasma Activated Source (PAS) to generate activated oxygen species to simultaneously oxidize silane and trimethylaluminum (TMA) to form silica and alumina on the substrate surface. By adjusting the reactant flow rates, the codeposited cover stress can be adjusted to quite low stress levels, typically zero to three kpsi. Besides serving to protect the junction of the solar cells from particle damage, the cover may also serve as an electrical insulator in high-voltage array applications. Tests as to the effectiveness of the integral cover as an insulator will be performed in the future by the Air Force. A significant advantage of ISCC's over conventional covers is that the minimum degradation temperature of the assembly is significantly increased by elimination of the adhesive used to bond the conventional covers. In this project, four ISCC modules were delivered: two for the Interaction Measurements Payload for Shuttle (IMPS)/Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP) project and two for a Living Plume Shield III (LIPS III) project.

Adams, C.D.

1986-12-01

331

Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley-Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above Te = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for Te = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented.

Wu, Chihhui; Neuner, Burton, III; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady

2012-02-01

332

An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays  

E-print Network

An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell material.11,15 Compared with other integrated solar power supplies,16,17 double-sided TiO2 NTs with large

Wang, Zhong L.

333

Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control System Design for Space Solar Power Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos

2001-01-01

334

Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control Systems Design for Space Solar Power Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control systems architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

2001-01-01

335

Development of a Roof Savings Calculator  

SciTech Connect

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.

New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2011-01-01

336

Development of a Roof Savings Calculator  

SciTech Connect

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.

New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2011-01-01

337

Roof Shield for Advance and Retreat Mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shield sections change their configuration to suit mining mode. Articulation cylinders raise rear shield to advance position, and locking cylinders hold it there. To change to retreat position articulation cylinders lower shield. Locking pins at edge of outermost shield plate latch shield to chock base. Shield accommodates roof heights ranging from 36 to 60 inches (0.9 to 1.52 meters).

Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

338

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

2009-11-20

339

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste burning of asphalt roofing waste  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report was designed to determine the general feasibility and specific requirements for burning asphalt roofing waste and recovering the energy resource as steam. The study combined technical market research with test burning in a three-task program to identify how to use burning as a means for reocvering the 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu in roofing waste landfilled annually.

Zolnick, E.L.; Markus, A.R.; Seigfried, J.N.; Powers, T.J.; Shepherd, P.B.; Graziano, G.J.; Battles, R.L.

1986-09-15

340

High-integrated spectral splitting solar concentrator with double-light guide layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual secondary optical components in a spectral splitting solar concentrator utilizing a microlens array require multiple photovoltaic (PV) cells, which leads to the complexity of system alignment and a high cost. In order to improve the integration of the PV cells and thermal management, a spectral splitting concentrator coupled to double-light guide layers has been proposed. Using one-axis tracking, we further investigate the optical performance of the concentrator combined with a cylindrical microlens array with double vertically staggered light guide layers in detail. The results show that this solar concentrator maintains a good acceptance angle of ±2 deg in the east-west direction and an acceptable angle of ±14 deg in the perpendicular direction on both low and high spectrums, achieving a concentration ratio of 10×. Finally, the capability of lateral displacement tracking has been explored for an aperture angle of ±24 deg in this concentrator.

Ma, Hongcai; Meng, Qingyu; Xu, Shuyan; Dong, Jihong; Li, Wei

2014-10-01

341

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

Bower, Ward

2011-09-01

342

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2007-06-01

343

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

344

Operational compatibility of 30-centimeter-diameter ion thruster with integrally regulated solar array power source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System tests were performed in which Integrally Regulated Solar Arrays (IRSA's) were used to directly power the beam and accelerator loads of a 30-cm-diameter, electron bombardment, mercury ion thruster. The remaining thruster loads were supplied from conventional power-processing circuits. This combination of IRSA's and conventional circuits formed a hybrid power processor. Thruster performance was evaluated at 3/4- and 1-A beam currents with both the IRSA-hybrid and conventional power processors and was found to be identical for both systems. Power processing is significantly more efficient with the hybrid system. System dynamics and IRSA response to thruster arcs are also examined.

Gooder, S. T.

1977-01-01

345

Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

2012-06-01

346

Periodic nanostructures on unpolished substrates and their integration in solar cells.  

PubMed

We present a novel fabrication process based on laser interference lithography, lift-off and reactive ion etching, which allows us to fabricate periodic nanostructures on photovoltaic substrates with an average root mean square (RMS) roughness of 750 nm. We fabricate nanostructures on unpolished crystalline silicon substrates, which reduces their reflectance 30% as fabricated. When an additional passivation layer is deposited, the light trapping grows, achieving a reflectance reduction of 60%. In addition, we have successfully integrated the nanostructured substrates in silicon wafer-based solar cells following standard processes, achieving a final efficiency of 15.56%. PMID:25665632

Cornago, I; Dominguez, S; Ezquer, M; Rodríguez, M J; Lagunas, A R; Pérez-Conde, J; Rodriguez, R; Bravo, J

2015-03-01

347

Periodic nanostructures on unpolished substrates and their integration in solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel fabrication process based on laser interference lithography, lift-off and reactive ion etching, which allows us to fabricate periodic nanostructures on photovoltaic substrates with an average root mean square (RMS) roughness of 750 nm. We fabricate nanostructures on unpolished crystalline silicon substrates, which reduces their reflectance 30% as fabricated. When an additional passivation layer is deposited, the light trapping grows, achieving a reflectance reduction of 60%. In addition, we have successfully integrated the nanostructured substrates in silicon wafer–based solar cells following standard processes, achieving a final efficiency of 15.56%.

Cornago, I.; Dominguez, S.; Ezquer, M.; Rodríguez, M. J.; Lagunas, A. R.; Pérez-Conde, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Bravo, J.

2015-03-01

348

Prospects for integrating utility-scale solar photovoltaics and industrial agriculture in the U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key challenges to many alternative energy options is land use competition, such as conflict with food production (e.g., corn or sugar cane ethanol) or natural resource protection (e.g., solar panels in desert habitat). Wind power has largely avoided these conflicts by leasing land from farmers and maintaining a small footprint on the landscape. Here, we ask whether similar opportunities exist for solar photovoltaics in agricultural settings. Our test case consists of a soybean field in Ames, Iowa (USA), with south-facing solar panels in rows spaced 16 m apart (~3 times further than typical), a center pole height of 3 m (3 times higher than in a typical ground-mounted system), and a fixed tilt of 25 degrees. Using a geometric shade model coupled to a common crop model (DSSAT) and driven by 14 years of weather data, we find that the average annual soybean yield is not significantly reduced (< 3% or < 0.1 t ha-1 yr-1) by the shade cast by the solar panels. Furthermore, shading appears to slightly improve yields during dry years. These results are consistent across five soybean cultivars spanning the three maturity groups commonly grown in Iowa, suggesting that incorporation of solar photovoltaics into agricultural fields may provide renewable energy with little or no reduction in yields. Using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model and assuming 18 to 20% efficient panels, we estimate that this configuration at this location will produce 295 MWh ha-1 in the first year of operation. With this configuration the United States' current (2007) electricity production could be met by incorporating photovoltaic panels into as little as 11% of currently cropped land. We are currently developing an independent model that will complement our DSSAT analyses by simulating the effects of solar photovoltaics on available light, albedo and temperature on a range of different crops. We also review some of the major challenges to and potential benefits of integrated solar-agricultural systems in different regions and cropping systems.

Dahlin, K.; Anderegg, W.; Hernandez, R. R.; Hiza, N.; Johnson, J. E.; Maltais-landry, G.; Wolf, A.; Zimmerman, N. B.

2011-12-01

349

Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

2012-01-01

350

TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING  

SciTech Connect

Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within the attic and the whole building. Field measures and computer predictions showed that the d

Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2010-03-01

351

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

352

Solar heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

353

Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

Hummon, M.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Mehos, M.

2013-10-01

354

Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

Hummon, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

2013-10-01

355

The Abacus/Reflector and Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator: Concepts for Space Solar Power Collection and Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New energy sources are vital for the development of emerging nations, and the growth of industry in developed economies. Also vital is the need for these energy sources to be clean and renewable. For the past several years, NASA has been taking a new look at collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it to Earth, to planetary surfaces, and to orbiting spacecraft. Several innovative concepts are being studied for the space segment component of solar power beaming. One is the Abacus/Reflector, a large sun-oriented array structure fixed to the transmitter, and a rotating RF reflector that tracks a receiving rectenna on Earth. This concept eliminates the need for power-conducting slip rings in rotating joints between the solar collectors and the transmitter. Another concept is the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator (ISC), composed of two very large segmented reflectors which rotate to collect and reflect the incident sunlight onto two centrally-located photovoltaic arrays. Adjacent to the PV arrays is the RF transmitter, which as a unit track the receiving rectenna, again eliminating power-conducting joints, and in addition reducing the cable lengths between the arrays and transmitter. The metering structure to maintain the position of the reflectors is a long mast, oriented perpendicular to the equatorial orbit plane. This paper presents a status of ongoing systems studies and configurations for the Abacus/Reflector and the ISC concepts, and a top-level study of packaging for launch and assembly.

Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John; Gerry, Mark; Perkinson, Don

2000-01-01

356

Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge performances. Also, the active materials did not decompose at 80°C, and the battery was performing well under low temperature of -27°C. Lastly, the batteries were embedded inside a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate to characterize their performance under fatigue loading. Finally, an intense pulsed light (IPL) was used to sinter printed silver nanoink patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find grain size of printed silver nanoink patterns. From these analyses it was confirmed that IPL is able to adequately sinter silver nanoink patterns for printed electronics without degradation of the substrates in less than 30 ms.

Kang, Jin Sung

357

Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is formulated and presented for the integrated structural dynamic analysis of space stations with controllable solar arrays and non-controllable appendages. The structural system flexibility characteristics are considered in the dynamic analysis by a synthesis technique whereby free-free space station modal coordinates and cantilever appendage coordinates are inertially coupled. A digital simulation of this analysis method is described and verified by comparison of interaction load solutions with other methods of solution. Motion equations are simulated for both the zero gravity and artificial gravity (spinning) orbital conditions. Closed loop controlling dynamics for both orientation control of the arrays and attitude control of the space station are provided in the simulation by various generic types of controlling systems. The capability of the simulation as a design tool is demonstrated by utilizing typical space station and solar array structural representations and a specific structural perturbing force. Response and interaction load solutions are presented for this structural configuration and indicate the importance of using an integrated type analysis for the predictions of structural interactions.

Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.

1972-01-01

358

You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

359

Reflective ‘cool’ roofs under aerosol-burdened skies: radiative benefits across selected Indian cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of reflective surfaces offers one low-cost solution for reducing solar loading to urban environments and the Earth that should be considered as part of sustainable urban design. Here, we characterize the radiative benefits, i.e. the additional shortwave radiation leaving the atmosphere, from the installation of highly reflective ‘cool’ roofs in urban areas in India that face relatively large local aerosol burdens. We use a previously tested column radiative transfer model to estimate the energy per unit area reflected to space from increasing the surface albedo at six cities within India. The model is used to characterize radiative transfer each day over five years (2008–2012) based on mid-day satellite retrievals of MODIS aerosol depth, cloud water path, and average surface albedo and MERRA atmospheric profiles of temperature and composition. Compared against ten months of field observations in two cities, the model derived incoming surface shortwave radiation estimates relative to observations show small biases (0.5% and ?2.6%, at Pantnagar and Nainital, respectively). Despite the high levels of local aerosols we found cool roofs provided significant radiative benefits at all locations. Averaged over the five year period we found that increasing the albedo of 1 m2 of roof area by 0.5 would reflect to space 0.9–1.2 kWh daily from 08:30–15:30 LST, depending on location. This is equivalent to a constant forcing of 37–50 W m?2 (equivalent to reducing CO2 emissions by 74 to 101 kg CO2 m?2 roof area). Last, we identify a co-benefit of improving air quality, in that removing aerosols from the atmosphere could increase the radiative benefits from cool roofs by 23–74%, with the largest potential increase found at Delhi and the smallest change found at Nainital.

Millstein, D. E.; Fischer, M. L.

2014-10-01

360

Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

In February 2011 the US Department of Energy announced their new Sunshot Initiative. The Sunshot goal is to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75 percent before the end of the decade. The DOE estimated that a total installed cost of $1 per watt for photovoltaic systems would be equivalent to 6���¢/kilowatt hour (kWh) for energy available from the grid. The DOE also estimated that to meet the $1 per watt goal, PV module costs would need to be reduced to $.50 per watt, balance of systems costs would need to be reduced to $.40 per watt, and power electronic costs would need to reach $.10 per watt. To address the BOS balance of systems cost component of the $1 per watt goal, the DOE announced a funding opportunity called (BOS-X) Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reductions. The DOE identified eight areas within the total BOS costs: 1) installation labor, 2) installation materials, 3) installation overhead and profit, 4) tracker, 5) permitting and commissioning, 6) site preparation, 7) land acquisition, 8) sales tax. The BOS-X funding announcement requested applications in four specific topics: Topic 1: Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Modules Topic 2: Roof and Ground Mount Innovations Topic 3: Transformational Photovoltaic System Designs Topic 4: Development of New Wind Load Codes for PV Systems The application submitted by ARaymond Tinnerman reflected the requirements listed in Topic #2, Roof and Ground Mount Innovations. The goal of topic #2 was to develop technologies that would result in the extreme reduction of material and labor costs associated with applications that require physical connections and attachments to roof and ground mount structures. The topics researched in this project included component cost reduction, labor reduction, weight reduction, wiring innovations, and alternative material utilization. The project objectives included: 1) The development of an innovative quick snap bracket assembly that would be bonded to frameless PV modules for commercial rooftop installations. 2) The development of a composite pultruded rail to replace traditional racking materials. 3) In partnership with a roofing company, pilot the certification of a commercial roof to be solar panel compliant, eliminating the need for structural analysis and government oversight resulting in significantly decreased permitting costs. 4) Reduce the sum of all cost impacts in topic #2 from a baseline total of $2.05/watt to $.34/watt.

Murray, Todd

2013-01-30

361

The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; Livi, S. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roelof, E. C.; Stone, E. C.; Schwardron, N. A.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

2011-01-01

362

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (4) about 98% of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed, (5) A real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, has already been verified to perform very well in underground production condition.

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-15

363

Comparison of Conventional Flat-Plate Solar Collector and Solar Boosted Heat Pump Using Unglazed Collector for Hot Water Production in Small Slaughterhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents simulated results of solar water heating systems in a small slaughterhouse using two techniques. The first one is a normal solar water heating system using a flat-plate solar collector and the second one uses a solar-boosted heat pump system having a corrugated metal sheet roof as a solar collector. The number of solar collector units is between

Chatchawan Chaichana; Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat; Atipoang Nuntaphan

2010-01-01

364

Solar heating system final design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

1979-01-01

365

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

366

Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

1989-01-01

367

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-print Network

rely on multiple overlaps to insure coverage from a 360 degree spray pattern. Careful equipment selection and the expertise of the designer are the fool proof criteria to achieve optimum results. The American Society of Heating & Ventilating... actually double or triple the life expectancy of the roof. There are three major factors that destroy a roof. They are: 1. Blisters. Blisters form when the roof temperatures reach l40?F to l60?F. The gravel falls off the blister and this allows...

Abernethy, D.

368

RIS-M-2471 RUN-OFF FROM ROOFS  

E-print Network

for estimating maximum rate of surface run-off: Q=C«p-A 2.2. Where C is the run-off coefficient, p the rainfallRIS�-M-2471 RUN-OFF FROM ROOFS Jørn Roed Abstract. In order to find the run-off from roof material used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown

369

Monitored passive-solar buildings  

SciTech Connect

Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two-story Trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete-and-water Trombe wall; two-story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond. (LEW)

Jones, R.W. (comp.)

1982-06-01

370

The first disaggregated solar atlas of Djibouti: a decision-making tool for solar systems integration in the energy scheme  

E-print Network

1 The first disaggregated solar atlas of Djibouti: a decision-making tool for solar systems@univ-corse.fr 2 Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche de Djibouti, Route de l'aéroport, B.P. 486 Djibouti, République de Djibouti Email: ihared1@yahoo.fr Corresponding author; Email: pillot@univ-corse.fr, Mobile: +33 (0)6 28 49

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

The Integrative Application Study on Solar Energy Technology Used In a Student Dormitory  

E-print Network

.1Heating Vertilation System of SolarWall Solar energy heating vertilation technology is a hot topic recently studied by national and international experts. It can effectively reduce heating cost in winter, lower environmental polution, realize... heating system. It is the first solar wall project in our country. Fig. 3 The sketch map of the solar wall 3.2 Solar Energy Water Heating System The student dorm also adopts centralized solar energy water heating system. This system...

Xue, Y.; Wang, C.

2006-01-01

372

roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

373

71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND BUILDING TRUSS STRUCTURE - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

374

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07

375

5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ROOF. ROOF MONITOR WINDOWS HAVE BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. THE VENTILATION HOUSES ARE PART OF THE ORIGINAL CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND CONTAINED AIR WASHERS, FANS AND OTHER HUMIDFYING EQUIPMENT FROM PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS. LOCATING THIS EQUIPMENT ON THE ROOF MADE IT UNNECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT A FULL BASEMENT, AND THEREFORE LOWERED CONSTRUCTION COSTS. THIS ARRANGEMENT ALSO PUT THE AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT CLOSEST TO THE TOP FLOOR SPINNING ROOM, WHICH HAD THE GREATEST COOLING REQUIREMENTS. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

376

An innovative system for heating and cooling a gymnasium using integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new solar energy based system to heat and cool a gymnasium and to generate electricity in the city of Palermo, Italy. The gymnasium will be built in 1996 as part of the structures that will host the Universiadi Games in 1997. Main objectives of the project are: (a) to grant better environmental conditions in the area occupied by the public, with limited use of fossil energy; (b) to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic elements, thus increasing their efficiency. The system consists of an array of 203 m{sup 2} integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar air collectors. In the winter mode of operation, the heated air is passed through the concrete benches where the public is seated. In the summer mode of operation outside air is evaporatively cooled, passed through the benches, then exhausted to the outside after passing through the collectors. The paper presents some of the results obtained by simulating the system at the design stage for winter conditions.

Fanchiotti, A. [Terza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Herkel, S.; Laukamp, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Priolo, C. [Conphoebus, Piano d`Arci (Italy)

1996-11-01

377

Component integration strategies in metamorphic 4-junction III-V concentrator solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressing beyond 3-junction inverted-metamorphic multijunction solar cells grown on GaAs substrates, to 4-junction devices, requires the development of high quality metamorphic 0.7 eV GaInAs solar cells. Once accomplished, the integration of this subcell into a full, monolithic, series connected, 4J-IMM structure demands the development of a metamorphic tunnel junction lattice matched to the 1eV GaInAs subcell. Moreover, the 0.7 eV junction adds about 2 hours of growth time to the structure, implying a heavier annealing of the subcells and tunnel junctions grown first. The final 4J structure is above 20 ?m thick, with about half of this thickness used by the metamorphic buffers required to change the lattice constant throughout the structure. Thinning of these buffers would help reduce the total thickness of the 4J structure to decrease its growth cost and the annealing time. These three topics: development of a metamorphic tunnel junction for the 4th junction, analysis of the annealing, and thinning of the structure, are tackled in this work. The results presented show the successful implementation of an antimonide-based tunnel junction for the 4th junction and of pathways to mitigate the impact of annealing and reduce the thickness of the metamorphic buffers.

García, Iván; Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J.

2014-09-01

378

Space Solar Power Multi-body Dynamics and Controls, Concepts for the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiting space solar power systems are currently being investigated for possible flight in the time frame of 2015-2020 and later. Such space solar power (SSP) satellites are required to be extremely large in order to make practical the process of collection, conversion to microwave radiation, and reconversion to electrical power at earth stations or at remote locations in space. These large structures are expected to be very flexible presenting unique problems associated with their dynamics and control. The purpose of this project is to apply the expanded TREETOPS multi-body dynamics analysis computer simulation program (with expanded capabilities developed in the previous activity) to investigate the control problems associated with the integrated symmetrical concentrator (ISC) conceptual SSP system. SSP satellites are, as noted, large orbital systems having many bodies (perhaps hundreds) with flexible arrays operating in an orbiting environment where the non-uniform gravitational forces may be the major load producers on the structure so that a high fidelity gravity model is required. The current activity arises from our NRA8-23 SERT proposal. Funding, as a supplemental selection, has been provided by NASA with reduced scope from that originally proposed.

Glaese, John R.; McDonald, Emmett J.

2000-01-01

379

Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly  

DOEpatents

A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2001-10-02

380

THE EVERGREEN ROOF PROJECT: STANDARDS, METHODS AND SOFTWARE FOR EVALUATING LIVING ROOF SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Evergreen Roof Project set out four objectives for Phase I of our project and has made sufficient progress on all of those objectives to qualify this phase as a success. Through an extensive literature review and discussions with researchers, designers, inst...

381

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...floating roof, the seal, gaskets, slotted membranes, and sleeve seals (if any) each time...the secondary seal, gaskets, slotted membranes, and sleeve seals (if any) each time...the secondary seal, gaskets, slotted membranes, and sleeve seals (if any) each...

2011-07-01

382

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...floating roof, the seal, gaskets, slotted membranes, and sleeve seals (if any) each time...the secondary seal, gaskets, slotted membranes, and sleeve seals (if any) each time...the secondary seal, gaskets, slotted membranes, and sleeve seals (if any) each...

2010-07-01

383

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR AN INTEGRATED SOLAR THERMAL-BIOGAS CO-GENERATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The immediate goal is a system based on the integration of the suite of modules developed solar thermal, biogas, ORC, absorption-chiller) that can be assembled together to create systems tailored to the unique demands of individual communities and climates, optimized for effic...

384

Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, respectively, in the terms of design and climatic parameters. Further, an analysis has also been extended

Arvind Tiwari; Swapnil Dubey; G. S. Sandhu; M. S. Sodha; S. I. Anwar

2009-01-01

385

Solar heating system for greenhouses and the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating collector is employed in the form of a plenum constituted of the greenhouse translucent roof and a roof floor of black plastic sheeting. Hot air from the plenum is distributed by air directing means to a heat storage chamber in a charge cycle or directly to the greenhouse in a direct heat cycle. In a discharge cycle

Proctor

1983-01-01

386

Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

Tabares Velasco, P. C.

2011-04-01

387

Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.  

PubMed

This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives. PMID:23722180

Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

2013-10-15

388

An Integrated Approach to Modeling Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles During Long Duration, Near-Earth Orbit Transfers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent NASA interest in utilizing solar electronic propulsion (SEP) technology to transfer payloads, e.g. from low-Earth orbit (LEO) to higher energy geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) or to Earth escape, has necessitated the development of high fidelity SEP vehicle models and simulations. These models and simulations need to be capable of capturing vehicle dynamics and sub-system interactions experienced during the transfer trajectories which are typically accomplished with continuous-burn (potentially interrupted by solar eclipse), long duration "spiral out" maneuvers taking several months or more to complete. This paper presents details of an integrated simulation approach achieved by combining a high fidelity vehicle simulation code with a detailed solar array model. The combined simulation tool gives researchers the functionality to study the integrated effects of various vehicle sub-systems (e.g. vehicle guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), electric propulsion system (EP)) with time varying power production. Results from a simulation model of a vehicle with a 50 kW class SEP system using the integrated tool are presented and compared to the results from another simulation model employing a 50 kW end-of-life (EOL) fixed power level assumption. These models simulate a vehicle under three degree of freedom dynamics (i.e. translational dynamics only) and include the effects of a targeting guidance algorithm (providing a "near optimal" transfer) during a LEO to near Earth escape (C (sub 3) = -2.0 km (sup 2) / sec (sup -2) spiral trajectory. The presented results include the impact of the fully integrated, time-varying solar array model (e.g. cumulative array degradation from traversing the Van Allen belts, impact of solar eclipses on the vehicle and the related temperature responses in the solar arrays due to operating in the Earth's thermal environment, high fidelity array power module, etc.); these are used to assess the impact on vehicle performance (i.e. propellant consumption) and transit times.

Smith, David A.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Sjauw, Waldy K.

2014-01-01

389

TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

2013-11-01

390

Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

1986-01-01

391

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

392

Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers at The Newark Museum's Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss Planetarium teamed up with the New Jersey Institute of Technology's (NJIT) Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and the Big Bear Solar Observatory in presenting Solar Fireworks. The exhibit opened on May 15, 2004 and features two exhibition kiosks with interactive touch screen displays, where students and other visitors can take "virtual tours" in the fields of solar physics, solar activity, Sun-Earth connection, and geo-sciences. Planetarium and museum visits are an integral part of the introductory physics and astronomy classes at NJIT and the exhibition has been integrated in the astronomy curriculum. For example, NJIT students of the Astronomy Club and regular astronomy courses were closely involved in the design and development of the exhibit. The exhibit is the latest addition to the long-running natural science exhibit "Dynamic Earth: Revealing Nature's Secrets" at the museum. More than 30,000 people per year attend various programs offered by the planetarium including public shows, more than a dozen programs for school groups, after school activities, portable planetarium outreach, outdoor sky watches, solar observing and other family events. More than 1,000 high school students visited the planetarium in 2004. The exhibit is accompanied by a yearly teacher workshop (the first one was held on October 18-20, 2004) to enhance the learning experience of classes visiting the Newark Museum. The planetarium and museum staff has been working with teachers of Newark high schools and has presented many workshops for educators on a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology. At the conclusion of the exhibit in December 2005, the exhibit will go "on the road" and will be made available to schools or other museums. Finally, the exhibit will find its permanent home at the new office complex of CSTR at NJIT. Acknowledgements: Solar Fireworks was organized by The Newark Museum and the New Jersey Institute of Technology's Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research and supported by a two-year grant from NASA's Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Program (NASA NAG5-12733 EPO-02-219). http://www.bbso.njit.edu

Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.

2005-05-01

393

Controlled integration of Trombe wall and direct gain in passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

Proper controlled integration of Trombe wall and direct gain are analyzed for Albuquerque, NM, Santa Maria, CA, and Madison, WI. Designs are critiqued for both comfort and backup requirements. It is demonstrated that proper control is necessary for the maintenance of comfort and the attainment of high solar fractions. A simple expression for backup requirements in all three climates as a function of glazing areas and control flags is presented. In order to properly analyze the above integration problem, many variables must be simultaneously optimized. Among them are proper sizing of Trombe wall and direct gain apertures on the south, east and west sides of the building. This paper specifically considers night insulation on both Trombe wall and direct gain, shading and venting to control overheating, a night and/or day setback thermostat and forced convection of a vented Trombe wall. The problem is further complicated by the size of the model (approx. = 40 modes). This problem can be solved efficiently in such a way that results can be easily implemented. This paper demonstrates how the proper integration of three mathematical techniques results in such a solution. The first involves a very efficient matrix thermal network (TN) solution algorithm. Second, a comfort index mapping the building temperature time series into several sufficient statistics is used to analyze the comfort tradeoffs among possible designs.Finally, response surfaces are used to summarize the results and provide a simplified design tool which accurately represents the underlying TN simulations. The response surface essentially allows a designer to specify building descriptions, control options and weather zone and then compute the resultant comfort and auxiliary energy requirements for an entire season. Both theoretical and practical results are presented.

Sebald, A.V.; Phillips, G.M.

1981-01-01

394

Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles  

SciTech Connect

The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

2012-01-01

395

Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average service life of roofing membranes used in low-slope applications on U.S. Army buildings is estimated to be considerably shorter than the industry-presumed 20-year design life, even when installers carefully adhere to the latest guide specifications. This problem is due in large part to market-driven product development cycles, which do not include time for long-term field testing. To reduce delivery costs, contractors may provide untested, interior membranes in place of ones proven satisfactory in long-term service. Federal procurement regulations require that roofing systems and components be selected according to desired properties and generic type, not brand name. The problem is that a material certified to have satisfactory properties at installation time will not necessarily retain those properties in service. The overall objective of this research is to develop a testing program that can be executed in a matter of weeks to adequately predict a membrane's long-term performance in service. This report details accelerated aging tests of 12 popular membrane materials in the laboratory, and describes outdoor experiment stations set up for long-term exposure tests of those same membranes. The laboratory results will later be correlated with the outdoor test results to develop performance models and predictive service life tests.

Bailey, David M.; Cash, Carl G.; Davies, Arthur G.

2002-09-01

396

Roof Bolting: Bolts from the blue  

SciTech Connect

Mechanization and subsequent automation of the roof support function are, as noted in studies of developments in underground excavation technology, critical steps in the development of more productive hard rock mining systems, whether these be based on drill-and-blast or continuous excavation systems. Overall, mechanized rock bolting is said to deliver consistency and reliability. The more specific advantages include: rapid, precise bolt installation; increased safety and less exposure to hazards for the roof bolting crew; areas that are high and difficult to access easily bolted by one man; precise control of bolt installation parameters; rapid execution of bolting operations, ensuring increased productivity and economy. However, achieving success with mechanized bolting is not simply a matter of placing an order for a machine. As the experiences of White Pine and Henderson testify, you need the right machine, the right type of bolt and anchoring system, the right size of bolt to get the right result in each specific set of mining conditions, and properly trained operators and maintenance people. This paper describes these procedures.

Casteel, K.

1993-12-01

397

Roofing in the Urban Environment: Pollution Source of Opportunity for  

E-print Network

of test frames at PSH (and UAB). Slight design modifications resulting in larger surface area intact installations on test frames at UAB. Destroyed in Hurricane Ivan. · Winter 2004 ­ Laboratory for Laboratory Testing · Galvanized metal · Aluminum gutters/siding · Vinyl roofing/siding · Asphalt roofing

Clark, Shirley E.

398

23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS GROUND LEVEL USE OF FLOOR SPACE FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CRATES. MOISTURE ON SURFACE IS FROM LEAKY HANGAR ROOF. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

399

Green roof retrofit potential in the central business district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential for green roof retrofit to commercial buildings in a city centre to property managers and other property professionals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper addresses the research question: what is the potential of existing buildings in the CBD to accommodate a retrofitted green roof? Furthermore, it questions how many buildings

Sara J. Wilkinson; Richard Reed

2009-01-01

400

Traditional roof coverings in the North York Moors National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to deal with vernacular roofing practices within the North York Moors National Park. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initially the paper carries out a literature review of the geography and geology of the area and identifies what makes it physically unique. The paper then examines the development of various roofing materials, including thatch, stone slates and pantiles with

Alan W. Scott

2006-01-01

401

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg...roof leg supports. (6) Rim space vents are to be set to open...completely cover the annular space between the external floating...8 inch) diameter uniform probe passes freely (without...

2012-07-01

402

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg...roof leg supports. (6) Rim space vents are to be set to open...completely cover the annular space between the external floating...8 inch) diameter uniform probe passes freely (without...

2014-07-01

403

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg...roof leg supports. (6) Rim space vents are to be set to open...completely cover the annular space between the external floating...8 inch) diameter uniform probe passes freely (without...

2011-07-01

404

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg...roof leg supports. (6) Rim space vents are to be set to open...completely cover the annular space between the external floating...8 inch) diameter uniform probe passes freely (without...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg...roof leg supports. (6) Rim space vents are to be set to open...completely cover the annular space between the external floating...8 inch) diameter uniform probe passes freely (without...

2013-07-01

406

ROOF, Taken looking southeast from the southeast corner of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ROOF, Taken looking southeast from the southeast corner of the stair tower roof, showing external piping and west facade of Penthouse 201P. The large stack is seen behind the Penthouse - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

407

IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN ROOF SUSTAINABILITY IN ARID CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

We successfully designed and fabricated accurately scaled prototypes of a green roof and a conventional white roof and began testing in simulated conditions of 115-70°F with relative humidity of 13%. The design parameters were based on analytical models created through ver...

408

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

409

Analysis of roof systems thermal performance from field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the most recent Project Pinpoint, the percentage of new and replacement low-slope roofs in the United States now being insulated exceeds 88 percent. This is dramatic evidence that good thermal performance is a worthy investment and has become an accepted design characteristic of roof systems despite higher initial costs. As the interest in thermal performance increases so do

G. E. Courville; P. W. Childs; R. L. Linkous

1991-01-01

410

Automatic Reconstruction of Building Roofs Using LIDAR and Multispectral Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic 3D reconstruction of building roofs from remotely sensed data is important for many applications including automatic city modeling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic roof reconstruction using LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data and multispectral imagery. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first

Mohammad Awrangjeb; Chunsun Zhang; Clive S. Fraser

2011-01-01

411

A Contribution to Roof Reconstruction from Airborne Laserscanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building models are an important part of contemporary 3D GIS. Airborne laser scanning provides good opportunities for automation of their acquisition. In that the main task is the reconstruction of the roof geometry, as the complete model could then be obtained by projecting its outlines to the surface of a digital terrain model. A strategy for roof reconstruction from airborne

Angelina Novacheva

2007-01-01

412

Getting a Clear Focus on Roof Replacement and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a new generation of X-ray-like vision--the patented INFRARED2k--provides roof-condition reports that help extend roof life, conserve energy, and survey for mold-supporting environments, thereby improving indoor air quality. (EV)

Patterson, Valerie B.

2002-01-01

413

Kettlebottoms: their relation to mine roof and support  

Microsoft Academic Search

kettlebottoms are columnar masses of rock - the preserved casts of ancient tree stumps - embedded in coal-mine roof strata. Unsupported Kettlebottoms are a hazard to miners because they can detach from a mine roof without warning. Information obtained from interviews with mine operators and MSHA personnel and from visits to mines in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky, indicates that

F. E. Chase; G. P. Sames

1983-01-01

414

Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University  

EPA Science Inventory

In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

415

Energy Star{reg{underscore}sign} label for roof products  

SciTech Connect

Home and buildings owners can save up to 40% of cooling energy costs by installing reflective roofs, especially in hot and sunny climates. The increase in exterior albedo and subsequent decrease in heat flow across the building envelope reduces the energy requirements to maintain air-conditioned space. Indirectly, the increase in overall albedo of a community as these roofs are installed in a large fraction of the buildings results in lower ambient air temperature and less need for air conditioning. Another indirect effect is a decrease in smog formation due to lower ambient air temperatures and less air pollution from power plants because of minimized electrical demand and use. The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy are currently developing the Energy Star Roof Products Program to create a vibrant market for energy-efficient, cost-effective roof materials through the widespread availability of products, clear recognition of the benefits by consumers, and active promotion of products by manufacturers. Several activities, including pilot procurements of room materials, and the development of outreach and training materials, will be performed to assist the transformation of the roofing market toward more energy-efficient products. Using the experiences gained in establishing the Energy Star Roof Products Program as an example, this paper will discuss the barriers to the development of energy-efficient roofing practices, program implementation, and program successes. This paper will further describe the specifics of the Energy Star Roof Products Program, its goals, benefits, activities, and timeframe.

Schmeltz, R.S.; Bretz, S.E.

1998-07-01

416

Green roof soil system affected by soil structural changes: A project initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic soil systems and structures such as green roofs, permeable or grassed pavements comprise appreciable part of the urban watersheds and are considered to be beneficial regarding to numerous aspects (e.g. carbon dioxide cycle, microclimate, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). Expected performance of these systems is significantly affected by water and heat regimes that are primarily defined by technology and materials used for system construction, local climate condition, amount of precipitation, the orientation and type of the vegetation cover. The benefits and potencies of anthropogenic soil systems could be considerably threatened in case when exposed to structural changes of thin top soil layer in time. Extensive green roof together with experimental green roof segment was established and advanced automated monitoring system of micrometeorological variables was set-up at the experimental site of University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings as an interdisciplinary research facility of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The key objectives of the project are (i) to characterize hydraulic and thermal properties of soil substrate studied, (ii) to establish seasonal dynamics of water and heat in selected soil systems from continuous monitoring of relevant variables, (iii) to detect structural changes with the use of X-ray Computed Tomography, (iv) to identify with the help of numerical modeling and acquired datasets how water and heat dynamics in anthropogenic soil systems are affected by soil structural changes. Achievements of the objectives will advance understanding of the anthropogenic soil systems behavior in conurbations with the temperate climate.

Jelínková, Vladimíra; Dohnal, Michal; Šácha, Jan; Šebestová, Jana; Sn?hota, Michal

2014-05-01

417

November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 1 Solar Cells  

E-print Network

November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 1 ­ Solar Cells Prepared for the Oregon Million Solar Roofs High School Gary Grace ­ South Eugene High School In Schools #12;1 Solar Cells Lesson Plan Content: In this lesson, students are introduced to the basic physics and chemistry behind the operation of a solar cell

Oregon, University of

418

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-print Network

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

419

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

420

Solar Powered Classroom  

SciTech Connect

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-13

421

Numerical Simulations of a Roof-Top Wind Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady numerical simulations of a high efficiency roof-top wind turbine have been performed. The wind turbine cross section design was based on geometrical optimization study of Rahai and Hefazi for increasing contributions of the lift force to the torque, resulting in significant improvements in the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine. The wind turbine was 30 cm in diameter and 75 cm length, with 45 cm diameter end-plates, placed in the spanwise direction above a 26 degree slanted roof at 20 percent from the roof's highest elevation and one turbine diameter away from the roof surface. The approaching wind velocity was 30 m/sec and the wind turbine RPM was 233. Results indicate nearly 20 percent improvements in the power output, when compared with the corresponding results for a free standing wind turbine. However, the wind turbine operation imposes oscillatory stress on the roof, which could results in structural vibration and damage and noise generation.

Moayedian, Shahab; Rahai, Hamid

2010-11-01

422

A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.  

PubMed

The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). PMID:25666437

Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

2015-04-01

423

Kettlebottoms: their relation to mine roof and support  

SciTech Connect

kettlebottoms are columnar masses of rock - the preserved casts of ancient tree stumps - embedded in coal-mine roof strata. Unsupported Kettlebottoms are a hazard to miners because they can detach from a mine roof without warning. Information obtained from interviews with mine operators and MSHA personnel and from visits to mines in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky, indicates that the size and frequency of kettlebottoms in a mine roof are dependent upon past geologic events during the deposition of roof sediments. To ensure the safety of mine personnel, all undermined kettlebottoms should be supported. The roof next to kettlebottoms less than 3ft in diameter should be bolted cose enough to allow a portion of a wood or steel header to be extended beneath each kettlebottom for support. Two bolts and a wooden plank or steel strap should be used to support kettlebottoms over 3 ft in diameter.

Chase, F.E.; Sames, G.P.

1983-01-01

424

Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells and durabilityand durability  

E-print Network

: · Window area >> rooftop space · PV windows produce power and reduce Solar Heat Gain (SHG). Generate power bl d ) (very poor aesthetics) (good efficiency but venetian blind appearance, expensive) Solar RoofSemitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells

Rollins, Andrew M.

425

3.2: New Directions in Green Roof Research GREEN ROOF RESEARCH IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002 a stakeholder workshop held in Vancouver identified the major barriers to the market penetration of green roofs in BC as the lack of climate-specific performance data, the absence of third party testing and verification of green roof systems, and a lack of demonstrated feasibility. To address these issues the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT), supported by a

Maureen Connelly; Karen Liu

426

The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by the use of solar cells with an average efficiency of 13.3 percent at 1 kW/sq m air-mass-1.5 insolation and at a cell temperature of 28 C. When these modules are mounted on a sloping south-facing roof which is insulated on the rear surface, the annual energy generated at the maximum power operating point will vary from 255.6 to 137.3 kWh/sq m of module area depending on the site location, with Albuquerque, NM, and Seattle, WA, representing the highest and lowest values of the thirteen sites considered.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

1978-01-01

427

Thermal performance and embodied energy analysis of a passive house – Case study of vault roof mud-house in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates thermal performance of an existing eco-friendly and low embodied energy vault roof passive house (or mud-house) located at Solar Energy Park of IIT Delhi, New Delhi (India). Based on embodied energy analysis, the energy payback time for the mud-house was determined as 18 years. The embodied energy per unit floor area of R.C.C. building (3702.3MJ\\/m2) is quiet

Arvind Chel; G. N. Tiwari

2009-01-01

428

Dual Mechatronic MPPT Controllers With PN and OPSO Control Algorithms for the Rotatable Solar Panel in PHEV System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at increasing the efficiency of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by using rotatable solar panel. Conventionally, the PHEV with solar panel has a critical problem of putting on the roof of a PHEV. Since the limited space on the roof of the vehicle is not large enough, rotatable structure is considered to track the sunlight by

Jian-Long Kuo; Kai-Lun Chao; Li-Shiang Lee

2010-01-01

429

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) the relationship among feed pressure, penetration rate and rotation rate seems to be a good indicator for estimating rock strength when both penetration rate and rotation rate are controlled or kept constant, (4) the empirical equations for eliminating the machine effect on drilling parameters were developed and verified, and (5) a real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, performs very well in underground production condition.

Syd S. Peng

2005-04-15

430

Battery Energy Storage for Enabling Integration of Distributed Solar Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As solar photovoltaic power generation becomes more commonplace, the inherent intermittency of the solar resource poses one of the great challenges to those who would design and implement the next generation smart grid. Specifically, grid-tied solar power generation is a distributed resource whose output can change extremely rapidly, resulting in many issues for the distribution system operator with a large

Cody A. Hill; Matthew Clayton Such; Dongmei Chen; W. Mack Grady

2012-01-01

431

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system is disclosed. A roof mounted panel collects heat from the sun; the panel having an upper sunlight-absorbing surface. A translucent cover is mounted above the panel to protect it from the weather. The panel has a lower surface for heat transfer to a stream of water. The panel is mounted in cooperative relation with a roof to form a passage for the stream of water. Means are connected to the panel for maintaining the stream of water in substantially uniform contact with said lower surface of the panel. Insulated tank means connected for receiving and storing the stream of water. Means are provided for controlling the stream of water under the panel in response to the temperature of the panel and the water in the tank, whereby the water collects heat from the panel only at useful temperatures. Air stream means are provided for preventing the roof from overheating.

Harrison, H.

1983-07-26

432

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the research effort is to develop the drill control unit (DCU) that acquire, store drilling parameters and control the drilling operation. The relevant publications have been reviewed and the methodology developed by previous researchers has been evaluated using the collected data in our laboratory and field tests conducted prior to the start of this project. Numerical modeling for exploring roof bolting mechanism has been started.

Syd S. Peng

2001-04-15

433

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

434

Solar-induced weathering of rocks: integrating instrumental and numerical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is controversial. We introduce a current study of the physical state in boulders that integrates modern instrumental and numerical approaches to quantify the surface temperature, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the processes underlying this form of mechanical weathering. We are monitoring the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for ~1 yr each. Each rock is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously. These sensors and a full meteorological station, including soil-moisture probes, are combined into a single, remotely accessible system. AE events can be located to within 2.5 cm. We are able 1) to spatially and temporally correlate microcrack growth (AE events) with the rock surface and environmental conditions experienced by the rock, and 2) to validate modeling results. The modeling work addresses two coupled problems: 1) the time-varying thermal regime of rocks exposed to diurnal variations in solar radiation as dictated by latitude, and time of the year, as well as the surface emissivity and thermal properties of the rock and soil, and size and shape of the rock, and 2) the corresponding time-varying stress and strain fields in the rocks using representative elastic properties and realistic rock shape and orientation. AE events tend to occur shortly after sunset (6-9 pm) in the upper portion of the boulder. Most of the events occur in summer and winter months for the NC boulder. The majority occur in bursts of tens to hundreds over periods of a few minutes, and are often associated with environmental factors other than simple diurnal warming and cooling, such as wind gusts, that result in rapid rock surface temperature changes. Numerical results illuminate the evolution of thermal stresses, their relation to the direction of solar radiation, and their strong non-linear dependence on the size of the rocks. Because thermal tensile stresses decrease with size for rocks smaller than about 1 m-dia., we expect solar exposure to be effective in breaking down boulders and cobbles, while having little impact on gravel size and smaller clasts. This leads to a fining of the size distribution of surface clasts in deserts, and contributes to desert pavement formation. Our quantitative experimental and modeling studies document a direct link between rock cracking and stresses associated with the thermal conditions arising from natural diurnal change. This approach holds considerable promise for advancing research on this theme with diverse potential applications including the deterioration of man-made structures, monuments and sculptures, and breakdown of surface rocks or bedrock on other planets.

Hallet, B.; Eppes, M. C.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Warren, K.; McFadden, L.; Gillespie, A.; Putkonen, J.; Swami, S.; Shi, J.

2011-12-01

435

New real-time correlation solar observing system based on GPU for acquiring the deep-integration magnetogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time correlation solar observing system (RCSOS) has been finished recently at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) in National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) parallel programming environment is employed in this system to speed up correlation tracking (CT) process for acquiring deep integration magnetogram and improving the spatial resolution. Observers can choose an interesting area interactively for CT calculation, and then the registration and accumulation of observed images can be processed during the interval period of two images acquisition. In this paper, designing and implementation details of the system are described, and the time costs of all processing modules are analyzed as well. We conclude that the approach is very effective and successful in real-time correlation solar observation at HSOS.

Shen, Yang-bin; Lin, Jia-ben; Ji, Kai-fan; Deng, Yuan-yong

2013-12-01

436

Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.  

PubMed

Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

2013-09-01

437

Hydrological Modelling and Parameter Identification for Green Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green roofs, a multilayered system covered by plants, can be used to replace traditional concrete roofs as one of various measures to mitigate the increasing stormwater runoff in the urban environment. Moreover, facing the high uncertainty of the climate change, the present engineering method as adaptation may be regarded as improper measurements; reversely, green roofs are unregretful and flexible, and thus are rather important and suitable. The related technology has been developed for several years and the researches evaluating the stormwater reduction performance of green roofs are ongoing prosperously. Many European counties, cities in the U.S., and other local governments incorporate green roof into the stormwater control policy. Therefore, in terms of stormwater management, it is necessary to develop a robust hydrologic model to quantify the efficacy of green roofs over different types of designs and environmental conditions. In this research, a physical based hydrologic model is proposed to simulate water flowing process in the green roof system. In particular, the model adopts the concept of water balance, bringing a relatively simple and intuitive idea. Also, the research compares the two methods in the surface water balance calculation. One is based on Green-Ampt equation, and the other is under the SCS curve number calculation. A green roof experiment is designed to collect weather data and water discharge. Then, the proposed model is verified with these observed data; furthermore, the parameters using in the model are calibrated to find appropriate values in the green roof hydrologic simulation. This research proposes a simple physical based hydrologic model and the measures to determine parameters for the model.

Lo, W.; Tung, C.

2012-12-01

438

Triple-junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cells integrated with polymethyl methacrylate subwavelength structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaAs-based triple-junction tandem solar cells incorporating an antireflection coating (ARC) consisting of a subwavelength structure (SWS) and bilayer thin films are reported. A high aspect ratio SWS was realized on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) using a two-step etched silicon template and a stamping method. The fabricated PMMA SWS consisting of a two-dimensional array of nanoscale needles with a period of 300 nm and an aspect ratio exceeding 2.3 exhibited significantly improved optical performance. The average reflectance of the PMMA SWS was reduced from 7.1 to 4.4% as compared to that of the bare PMMA film, which resulted in an improvement of the transmittance from 90.7 to 92.9% in the wavelength range between 300 and 1700 nm. By integrating the PMMA SWS together with a TiO2/Al2O3 bilayer AR coating onto the top of an InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell, the surface reflection of the solar cell could be minimized. The integrated PMMA SWS on the bilayer thin film ARC enhanced the power-conversion efficiency (?) of the triple-junction solar cell from 30.2 to 31.6% and from 37.8 to 40.8% under 1 and 157 sun condition, respectively.

Kim, Dae-Seon; Jeong, Yonkil; Jeong, Hojung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

2014-11-01

439

Large improvement of photon capture for a dye-sensitized solar cell integrated with a fluorescent layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated design of dye-sensitized solar cell with fluorescent layer is realized. A fluorescent layer is deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with a blank right above a N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 coating which is printed on the central area of the conductive face of the FTO glass. Current density-voltage characteristic measurement indicates that our integrated system largely enhances photon harvesting by 44% compared with a cell without a fluorescent layer, which is attributed to the improvement of photon harvesting from the spectrum range and the space area.

Li, Da; Ding, Cairong; Shen, Hui; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yueli; Li, Ming; Yan, Jin

2010-01-01

440

Actinometric measurement of solar ultraviolet and development of a weighted solar UV integral. [photochemical reaction rate determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An actinometer has been developed to measure outdoor irradiance in the range 295-400 nm. Actinometric measurements of radiation are based on determination of photochemical reaction rates for reactions of known quantum efficiency. Actinometers have the advantage of providing irradiance data over surfaces of difficult accessibility; in addition, actinometrically determined irradiance data are wavelength weighted and therefore provide a useful means of assessing the degradation rates of polymers employed in solar energy systems.

Gupta, A.; Coulbert, C.

1978-01-01

441

Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanowires and their integration into dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO nanowires, grown on transparent conducting oxide substrates from aqueous solutions of methenamine and Zn(NO3)2, were integrated as the wide band gap semiconductor into dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanowires and their growth mechanisms were studied using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The solution growth method forms dense arrays of long nanowires oriented normal to the substrate surface because

J B Baxter; A M Walker; K van Ommering; E S Aydil

2006-01-01

442

Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. PMID:24362771

Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

2014-01-01

443

Nondestructive testing of the concrete roof shell at the Seattle Kingdome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of major rehabilitation and repair of the 360,000 square foot reinforced concrete shell roof of the Kingdome in Seattle, a comprehensive nondestructive testing program reemploying IR thermographic and impact echo techniques was performed to evaluate various in-situ concrete conditions. Questions had developed regrading the extent and significance of areas that exhibited honeycomb or paste voiding near reinforcing steel on the underside of the roof shell following removal of acoustical ceiling tile. The objective of the nondestructive testing program was to identify locations of large, planar-type regions of deep voiding or delamination associated with the consolidation and reinforcement placement conditions. The combined use of IR thermography and impact echo techniques allowed for efficient and effective scanning of the large roof shell structure entirely from the interior. Anomalous areas identified by the testing were verified by additional nondestructive testing, visual inspection, local exploratory openings and core samples. Based on results of the nondestructive testing, a broad-based repair program was implemented to correct conditions of near surface voiding and through-thickness honeycomb. Repairs consisted of the application of structural shortcrete to restore integrity in thickened, key load transfer zones of the shell and the overall treatment of the entire underside of the shell with sprayed mortar. This paper present an overview of IR thermographic testing theories and discusses the specific applications, logistics, and result from testing of the concrete shell of the Seattle Kingdome.

Weil, Gary J.

1998-03-01

444

Green roofs for a wide brown land: Opportunities and barriers for rooftop greening in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing public, industry and government interest in establishing green roofs in Australian cities due to their demonstrated environmental benefits. While a small number of green roofs have been constructed in Australia, most are roof gardens or intensive green roofs. Despite their potential as a climate change adaptation and mitigation tool and their widespread use in the northern hemisphere,

Nicholas S. G. Williams; John P. Rayner; Kirsten J. Raynor

2010-01-01

445

Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT&T Regeneration Buildings  

E-print Network

roofs save an accumu- lated 3750 kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof. Introduction Cool roofs in seasonal cooling energy use. Hildebrandt et al. (1998) ob- served daily AC savings of 17%, 26%, and 39 to field studies, computer simulations of cooling energy savings from an increased roof albedo have been

446

Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

2015-02-01

447

NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

2011-07-01

448

Thermal and electrical assessment of an integrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV\\/T) water collector equipped with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a thermal and electrical model for an integrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV\\/T) water collector equipped with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). For this purpose, initially a detailed energy balance is carried out to get a thermal model for the system and as the result analytical expressions are provided for finding solar cell

Mahdi Hedayatizadeh; Yahya Ajabshirchi; Faramarz Sarhaddi; Ali Safavinejad; Said Farahat; Hossein Chaji

2012-01-01

449

46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF DAMAGE AND NOT QUITE AS WIDE AN ANGLE VIEW. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

450

Looking south at the trusses and monitor roof inside of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking south at the trusses and monitor roof inside of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

451

99. View of monitors and roof of powerhouse looking south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. View of monitors and roof of powerhouse looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

452

19. VIEW OF SECTION BC, ROOF, RAISED PARAPET OVER SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF SECTION B-C, ROOF, RAISED PARAPET OVER SOUTH PIER (PIER B) EAST WALL, PIER DERRICK MASTS AND WEST MONITOR, LOOKING EAST - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

453

1. WEST END OF ROOF MONITOR OF THE 160' PLATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WEST END OF ROOF MONITOR OF THE 160' PLATE MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

454

INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

455

9. Detail view of chimney penetrasting jerkinhead at roof and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Detail view of chimney penetrasting jerkin-head at roof and log purlins; view to southwest. - Rebecca S. Marriott Cabin, Big Springs Summer Home Area, Lot 1, Block L, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

456

Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling  

E-print Network

around for some time, and is being employed increasingly by large U.S. industrial firms, its operation, principles, and application, both empirically and practically, have not been widely discussed. The impact of roofing construction, building location...

Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

1985-01-01

457

52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, SACKING SHED-FLOTATION UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

458

Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

459

3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. 1860, from A History of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society 1816-1916, page 64. - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 306 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

460

21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

461

7. SANDSORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXCAVATED SAND PIT - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

462

30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall be conducted— (1)...

2013-07-01

463

30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall be conducted— (1)...

2012-07-01

464

30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall be conducted— (1)...

2011-07-01

465

30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall be conducted— (1)...

2010-07-01

466

30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...examination does not disclose a hazardous condition, sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent tests, shall be made where supports are to be installed. When sound and vibration tests are made, they shall be conducted— (1)...

2014-07-01

467

7. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, FLAME DEFLECTOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, FLAME DEFLECTOR AT RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, CaptiveTest Stand D-3, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

468

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, FLAME DEFLECTOR AT RIGHT, CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, FLAME DEFLECTOR AT RIGHT, CONTROL BUILDING B AT FAR CENTER RIGHT. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-4, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

469

3. SOUTH FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS EAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO