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1

Research on Integrated Solar Collector Roof Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several prototype models for an integrated solar collector-roof structure member are described and operating data are given. Fabrication and costs are briefly discussed. The prototypes include both liquid and air cooled models.

J. D. Balcomb J. C. Hedstrom S. W. Moore K. C. Herr

1975-01-01

2

Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of 'Invisible' Solar Collectors: Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integr...

C. J. Colon

2001-01-01

3

Design, construction and performance prediction of integrated solar roof collectors using finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated roof solar collector was designed to achieve ease of construction, energy efficiency, functional integration, composite behavior, sustainability, reliability, flexibility, and cost effectiveness. A construction strategy was developed for the collector to ensure quality, ease and repeatability of manufacturing. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element models were then developed to evaluate the thermal performance of the integrated roof solar collector. The

Marwa M. Hassan; Yvan Beliveau

2007-01-01

4

Performance of a solar dryer using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors for drying herbs and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar dryer for drying herbs and spices using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors was developed. The dryer is a bin type with a rectangular perforated floor. The bin has a dimension of 1.0m×2.0m×0.7m. Hot air is supplied to the dryer from fiberglass-covered solar collectors, which also function as the roof of a farmhouse. The total area of the

S. Janjai; P. Tung

2005-01-01

5

Udvikling af tagsolfanger med glas. (Development of roof-integrated solar collector with a glass cover).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model of a solar collector, for roof integration, with a glass cover was designed and produced. Temperature and efficiency was measured and the design was tested for reliability and durability, taking into account the influence of the weather during the...

S. Ejsing N. C. Helgogaard O. Holck

1995-01-01

6

Tagintegreret solfanger til varmt brugsvand. Nordisk demonstrationsanlaeg i Ballerup. (Roof-integrated solar collector for domestic hot water. Nordic demonstration plant in Ballerup).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A demonstration project with a new type of a large roof integrated solar collector for DHW was built in 1984, for the KAB Building Society, in Ballerup near Copenhagen as part of a Nordic cooperation on solar energy. The 156 m2 solar collector used, repla...

P. Vejsig Pedersen

1989-01-01

7

A hierarchical methodology for the mesoscale assessment of building integrated roof solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings and other engineered structures that form cities are responsible for a significant portion of the global and local impacts of climate change. Consequently, the installation of building integrated renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic or solar thermal systems on building rooftops is being widely investigated. Although the advantages for individual buildings have been studied, as yet there is little

J. H. Jo; T. P. Otanicar

2011-01-01

8

Structurally Integrated Steel Solar Collector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flat plate solar heat collector unit is described. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structura...

S. W. Moore

1977-01-01

9

Integrated roof wind energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

2012-10-01

10

75 FR 7029 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment for Solar Roof Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Final Environmental Assessment for Solar Roof Project AGENCY: United States Geological...Final Environmental Assessment for the Solar Roof Project and by this notice is announcing...of the Environmental Assessment for the Solar Roof Project should immediately...

2010-02-16

11

Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same  

DOEpatents

A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

1999-11-16

12

Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than under the tilted PV array. The maximum downward heat flux was 18.7 Watts per square meters for the exposed roof and 7.0 Watts per square meters under the tilted PV array, a 63% reduction due to the PV array. This study is unique as the impact of tilted and flush PV arrays could be compared against a typical exposed roof at the same roof for a commercial uninhabited building with exposed ceiling and consisting only of the building envelope. Our results indicate a more comfortable indoor environment in PV covered buildings without HVAC both in hotter and cooler seasons.

Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

2010-01-01

13

Solar space heating using galvanised iron sheet roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the feasibility of utilising solar energy to heat buildings having galvanised iron sheet roofs with false ceilings beneath. Numerical predictions are presented for a typical roof area of 2200 m2, below which air is blown at a speed of 2·16 km\\/h. If, for proper ventilation, the inside air is replaced by fresh air three times an hour,

S. S. Mathur; A. K. Seth

1980-01-01

14

Udvikling af tagsolfangere. (Development of roof solar collectors).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two new solar roof cover systems for apartment buildings, one from BATEC and one from LfV, have been developed for collectors based on a corrugated acrylic sheet. The cover from BATEC has been fixed by thread sticks with nuts. The thread sticks clutch tra...

F. Kristiansen S. Svendsen

1990-01-01

15

The strategic siting and the roofing area requirements of building-integrated photovoltaic solar energy generators in urban areas in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) generators are typically small and distributed solar power plants that occupy virtually no space because they are part of the building envelope, and they generate power at point of use. A more widespread use of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) is hindered by a number of reasons which include the declining, but still high costs of the photogenerated kilowatt

Carolina da Silva Jardim; Ricardo Rüther; Isabel Tourinho Salamoni; Trajano de Souza Viana; Samuel Hilário Rebechi; Paulo José Knob

2008-01-01

16

Analysis of Wind Forces on Roof-Top Solar Panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural loads on solar panels include forces due to high wind, gravity, thermal expansion, and earthquakes. International Building Code (IBC) and the American Society of Civil Engineers are two commonly used approaches in solar industries to address wind loads. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-02) can be used to calculate wind uplift loads on roof-mounted solar panels. The present study is primarily focused on 2D and 3D modeling with steady, and turbulent flow over an inclined solar panel on the flat based roof to predict the wind forces for designing wind management system. For the numerical simulation, 3-D incompressible flow with the standard k-? was adopted and commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT was used. Results were then validated with wind tunnel experiments with a good agreement. Solar panels with various aspect ratios for various high wind speeds and angle of attacks were modeled and simulated in order to predict the wind loads in various scenarios. The present study concluded to reduce the strong wind uplift by designing a guide plate or a deflector before the panel.

Panta, Yogendra; Kudav, Ganesh

2011-03-01

17

Modeling of an integrated solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using low-cost solar collection and storage technology to provide energy for residential units is investigated. Different construction strategies were compared including traditional housing practice against newly innovative ideas such as low radiant heating system, desiccant dehumidification, integrated low-cost solar collection, and phase-change material (PCM) storage. The selected building, located in Blacksburg, VA, integrated a solar thermal roof

Marwa M. Hassan; Yvan Beliveau

2008-01-01

18

Technical evaluation of a USSC Integrated/Direct Mount PV Roofing Module system at NREL  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 16 month technical evaluation performed on a nominal 1 kW{sub ac} utility-interconnect amorphous silicon PV system deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s PV outdoor test site are given here. The system employs 64 prototype United Solar Systems Corp. Integrated/Direct Mount PV Roofing Modules mounted on simulated attic/roof structures. In this paper we show that the PV array fill factor has been relatively stable with respect to time and that the seasonal variations in performance can be largely attributed to seasonal variations in current. We also show that in determining the summer and winter ac power output, the summation of the manufacturer-supplied module peak powers at STC for a similarly located and configured a-Si PV array should be derated by factors of approximately of 0.83 and 0.78 for summer and winter operation, respectively.

Strand, T.; Hansen, R.; Mrig, L.

1995-05-01

19

Prolong Your Roof's Performance: Roof Asset Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the roof asset management process for maintaining a roof system's integrity and value in a cost-effective manner. Included is a breakdown of roofing surface characteristics for multiply and single ply roofing systems. (GR)

Teitsma, Jerry

2001-01-01

20

Correlating thermal transmittance limits of walls and roofs to orientation and solar absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented research addresses the association of maximum thermal transmittance (U value) of walls and roofs with orientation and solar absorption. The study is performed on walls and a roof typically used in Kuwait when subjected to local hot climate conditions. A computer program employing the total equivalent temperature difference (TETD) method is developed to estimate the U values corresponding

E. O. Assem

2011-01-01

21

Thermal Comparison of Reflective and Non-Reflective Roofs with Thin-Film Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper illustrates an experimental and comparative thermal analysis of reflective (white) and non-reflective (black) roofing membranes paired with thin-film solar photovoltaic panels. Tests were carried out on two different membranes, thermoplastic olefin (TPO), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM). Solar irradiance along with temperature readings on the surface, between the panel and membrane, and below the membrane were

Grant Irvine; Serdar Celik

2012-01-01

22

Automatic Roof Plane Detection and Analysis in Airborne Lidar Point Clouds for Solar Potential Assessment  

PubMed Central

A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m2.

Jochem, Andreas; Hofle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert

2009-01-01

23

Evaporative roof cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaporative roof cooling system is described for placement upon a roof surface exposed to relatively high levels of solar radiation causing high under roof temperatures and comprising: (a) water distribution mist\\/spray nozzles positioned on the roof surface for supplying substantially uniform mist\\/sprays of water to lay down a substantially uniform thin film of water on the roof surface; (b)

Viner

1988-01-01

24

Sleep Medicine Care Under One Roof: A Proposed Model for Integrating Dentistry and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrating oral appliance therapy into the delivery of care for sleeprelated breathing disorders has been a challenge for dental and medical professionals alike. We review the difficulties that have been faced and propose a multidisciplinary care delivery model that integrates dental sleep medicine and sleep medicine under the same roof with educational and research components. The model promises to offer distinct advantages to improved patient care, continuity of treatment, and the central coordination of clinical and insurance-related benefits. Citation: Sharma S; Essick G; Schwartz D; Aronsky AJ. Sleep medicine care under one roof: a proposed model for integrating dentistry and medicine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):827-833.

Sharma, Sunil; Essick, Greg; Schwartz, David; Aronsky, Amy J.

2013-01-01

25

City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

2012-08-31

26

Methods of creating solar-reflective nonwhite surfaces and their application to residential roofing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe methods for creating solar-reflective nonwhite surfaces and their application to a wide variety of residential roofing materials, including metal, clay tile, concrete tile, wood, and asphalt shingle. Reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum (0.7–2.5?m) is maximized by coloring a topcoat with pigments that weakly absorb and (optionally) strongly backscatter NIR radiation, and by adding an NIR-reflective basecoat (e.g.,

Ronnen Levinson; Paul Berdahl; Hashem Akbari; William Miller; Ingo Joedicke; Joseph Reilly; Yoshi Suzuki; Michelle Vondran

2007-01-01

27

Automatic Reconstruction of Building Roofs Through Effective Integration of LIDAR and Multispectral Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic 3D reconstruction of building roofs from remotely sensed data is important for many applications including city modeling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic 3D roof reconstruction through an effective integration of LIDAR data and multispectral imagery. Using the ground height from a DEM, the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first group contains the ground points that are exploited to constitute a 'ground mask'. The second group contains the non-ground points that are used to generate initial roof planes. The structural lines are extracted from the grey-scale version of the orthoimage and they are classified into several classes such as 'ground', 'tree', 'roof edge' and 'roof ridge' using the ground mask, the NDVI image (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index from the multi-band orthoimage) and the entropy image (from the grey-scale orthoimage). The lines from the later two classes are primarily used to fit initial planes to the neighbouring LIDAR points. Other image lines within the vicinity of an initial plane are selected to fit the boundary of the plane. Once the proper image lines are selected and others are discarded, the final plane is reconstructed using the selected lines. Experimental results show that the proposed method can handle irregular and large registration errors between the LIDAR data and orthoimagery.

Awrangjeb, M.; Zhang, C.; Fraser, C. S.

2012-07-01

28

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar Radiation Atlas. After identifying the shadow free area of the roof we recognize manufacturer dependent device sizes as well as lifetime of the building. While more and more CityGML data will be available in future or approach is a valuable contribution for decision makers and private households to estimate the return on invest of solar energy plants.

Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

2009-04-01

29

Effects of Soiling and Cleaning on the Reflectance and Solar HeatGain of a Light-Colored Roofing Membrane  

SciTech Connect

A roof with high solar reflectance and high thermalemittance (e.g., a white roof) stays coolin the sun, reducing coolingpower demand in a conditioned building and increasing comfort in anunconditioned building. The high initial solar reflectance of a whitemembrane roof (circa 0.8) can be degraded by deposition of soot, dust,and/or algae to about 0.6 (range 0.3 to 0.8, depending on exposure) Weinvestigate the effects of soiling and cleaning on the solar spectralreflectance and solar absorptance of 15 initially white or light-graymembrane samples taken from roofs across the United States. Soot andorganic carbon were the two identifiable strongly absorbing contaminantson the membranes. Wiping was effective at removing soot, and less so atremoving organic carbon. Rinsing and/or washing removed nearly all of theremaining soil layer, with the exceptions of (a) thin layers of organiccarbon and (b) isolated dark spots of algae. Bleach was required toremove the last two features. The ratio of solar reflectance to unsoiledsolar reflectance (a measure of cleanliness) ranged from 0.41 to 0.89 forthe soiled samples; 0.53to 0.95 for the wiped samples; 0.74 to 0.98 forthe rinsed samples; 0.79 to 1.00 for the washed samples; and 0.94 to 1.02for the bleached samples. However, the influence of membrane soiling andcleaning on roof heat gain is better gauged by variations in solarabsorptance. Relative solar absorptances (indicating solar heat gainrelative to that of the unsoiled membrane) ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 for thesoiled samples; 1.1 to 3.1 for the wiped samples; 1.0 to 2.0 for therinsed samples; 1.0 to 1.9 for the washed samples; and 0.9 to 1.3 for thebleached samples.

Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Akbari,Hashem

2005-04-12

30

Comparison of transient performance predictions of a solar-operated diffusion-type still with a roof-type still  

SciTech Connect

A new type of solar-operated diffusion still is proposed. The still is powered directly by solar radiation and is easy to operate and maintain. Analyses of the proposed diffusion still and the conventional roof-type still are carried out to predict the transient performance of both stills at various operating and design conditions. Comparison of the performance of both stills on four sample days through the year is considered. The comparison shows that, although the diffusion still has a higher cover temperature, (i.e., larger heat loss to ambient) than the roof-type still, the diffusion still is superior to the roof-type still in both production rate and operation efficiency. The results also show that an increase in ambient temperature improves the performance of both stills.

Elsayed, M.M.

1982-02-01

31

Integrated Modelling and Performance Analysis of Green Roof Technologies in Urban Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the changing global climate and increase in urbanisation, the behaviour of the urban environment has been significantly altered, causing an increase in both the frequency of extreme weather events, such as flooding and drought, and also the associated costs. Moreover, uncontrolled or inadequately planned urbanisation can exacerbate the damage. The Blue-Green Dream (BGD) project therefore develops a series of components for urban areas that link urban vegetated areas (green infrastructure) with existing urban water (blue) systems, which will enhance the synergy of urban blue and green systems and provide effective, multifunctional BGD solutions to support urban adaptation to future climatic changes. Coupled with new urban water management technologies and engineering, multifunctional benefits can be gained. Some of the technologies associated with BGD solutions include green roofs, swales that might deal with runoff more effectively and urban river restoration that can produce benefits similar to those produced from sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). For effective implementation of these technologies, however, appropriate tools and methodologies for designing and modelling BGD solutions are required to be embedded within urban drainage models. Although several software packages are available for modelling urban drainage, the way in which green roofs and other BGD solutions are integrated into these models is not yet fully developed and documented. This study develops a physically based mass and energy balance model to monitor, test and quantitatively evaluate green roof technology for integrated BGD solutions. The assessment of environmental benefits will be limited to three aspects: (1) reduction of the total runoff volume, (2) delay in the initiation of runoff, and (3) reduction of building energy consumption, rather than water quality, visual, social or economic impacts. This physically based model represents water and heat dynamics in a layered soil profile covered with vegetation which can be used to simulate the physical behaviour of different green roof systems in response to rainfall under various climatic conditions. Because it is a physically based model, this model could be generalised to other atmosphere-plant-soil systems. The validity of this mass and energy balance approach will be demonstrated by comparing its outcomes with observations from a green roof experimental site in London, UK.

Liu, Xi; Mijic, Ana; Maksimovic, Cedo

2014-05-01

32

Roof-top solar energy potential under performance-based building energy codes: The case of Spain  

SciTech Connect

The quantification at regional level of the amount of energy (for thermal uses and for electricity) that can be generated by using solar systems in buildings is hindered by the availability of data for roof area estimation. In this note, we build on an existing geo-referenced method for determining available roof area for solar facilities in Spain to produce a quantitative picture of the likely limits of roof-top solar energy. The installation of solar hot water systems (SHWS) and photovoltaic systems (PV) is considered. After satisfying up to 70% (if possible) of the service hot water demand in every municipality, PV systems are installed in the remaining roof area. Results show that, applying this performance-based criterion, SHWS would contribute up to 1662 ktoe/y of primary energy (or 68.5% of the total thermal-energy demand for service hot water), while PV systems would provide 10 T W h/y of electricity (or 4.0% of the total electricity demand). (author)

Izquierdo, Salvador; Montanes, Carlos; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto [Fluid Mechanics Group, University of Zaragoza and LITEC (CSIC), Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

2011-01-15

33

Effects of soiling and cleaning on the reflectance and solar heat gain of a light-colored roofing membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A roof with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance (e.g., a white roof) stays cool in the sun, reducing cooling power demand in a conditioned building and increasing summertime comfort in an unconditioned building. The high initial solar reflectance of a white membrane roof (circa 0.8) can be lowered by deposition of soot, dust, and/or biomass (e.g., fungi or algae) to about 0.6; degraded solar reflectances range from 0.3 to 0.8, depending on exposure. We investigate the effects of soiling and cleaning on the solar spectral reflectances and solar absorptances of 15 initially white or light-gray polyvinyl chloride membrane samples taken from roofs across the United States. Black carbon and organic carbon were the two identifiable strongly absorbing contaminants on the membranes. Wiping was effective at removing black carbon, and less so at removing organic carbon. Rinsing and/or washing removed nearly all of the remaining soil layer, with the exception of (a) thin layers of organic carbon and (b) isolated dark spots of biomass. Bleach was required to clear these last two features. At the most soiled location on each membrane, the ratio of solar reflectance to unsoiled solar reflectance (a measure of cleanliness) ranged from 0.41 to 0.89 for the soiled samples; 0.53 to 0.95 for the wiped samples; 0.74 to 0.98 for the rinsed samples; 0.79 to 1.00 for the washed samples; and 0.94 to 1.02 for the bleached samples. However, the influences of membrane soiling and cleaning on roof heat gain are better gauged by fractional variations in solar absorptance. Solar absorptance ratios (indicating solar heat gain relative to that of an unsoiled membrane) ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 for the soiled samples; 1.1 to 3.1 for the wiped samples; 1.0 to 2.0 for the rinsed samples; 1.0 to 1.9 for the washed samples; and 0.9 to 1.3 for the bleached samples.

Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret; Akbari, Hashem

34

Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

2011-01-01

35

Roof pond systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a single-source document useful to architects, engineers, builders, and homeowners that addresses numerous aspects of roof pond design, construction, and performance. An introduction to the roof pond passive solar space heating and cooling concept is provided, including basic methods of operation and system configurations adaptable to different climates. A brief history of the development of the roof pond concept is presented, and several existing roof pond buildings located throughout the United States are described. The regional applicability of roof ponds in both heating and cooling service; design considerations relating to architecture, heating and cooling aspects, and structural requirements; and current heat transfer relations important in roof pond design are examined. A chapter on roof pond system materials and components is included. It contains tables of material properties; descriptions of available and installed components; installation, operation, and maintenance concerns; and a compilation of operating experience to date. The results of actual performance testing of several instrumented roof pond buildings are presented, and in certain cases, these results are compared with roof pond performance simulation results. A life-cycle cost study of two roof pond homes is developed, and the results are compared with the life-cycle costs of two similar conventional residences. This document has application to many related roof pond concepts, such as the Cool Pool and Energy Roof. An extensive bibliography is provided.

Marlatt, W.P.; Murray, K.A.; Squier, S.E.

1984-04-01

36

Performance evaluation of green roof and shading for thermal protection of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a mathematical model for evaluating cooling potential of green roof and solar thermal shading in buildings. A control volume approach based on finite difference methods is used to analyze the components of green roof, viz. green canopy, soil and support layer. Further, these individual decoupled models are integrated using Newton's iterative algorithm until the convergence for

Rakesh Kumar; S. C. Kaushik

2005-01-01

37

67 FR 7676 - Million Solar Roofs Initiative Small Grant Program For State And Local Partnerships  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Partnerships who agree to install solar energy systems on one million buildings...This effort includes two types of solar energy technology: (1) solar electric...pre-determined number (at least 500) of solar energy systems. There were...

2002-02-20

38

68 FR 27993 - Million Solar Roofs Initiative Small Grant Program for State and Local Partnerships  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Partnerships who agree to install solar energy systems on one million buildings...This effort includes two types of solar energy technology: (1) Solar electric...pre-determined number (at least 500) of solar energy systems. A complete...

2003-05-22

39

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

40

Evaporative roof cooling system  

SciTech Connect

An evaporative roof cooling system is described for placement upon a roof surface exposed to relatively high levels of solar radiation causing high under roof temperatures and comprising: (a) water distribution mist/spray nozzles positioned on the roof surface for supplying substantially uniform mist/sprays of water to lay down a substantially uniform thin film of water on the roof surface; (b) conduit means on the one roof surface for supplying the nozzles with water; (c) solenoid-controlled valve means in water flow communication with the conduit means to supply controlled quantities of water to the nozzles through the conduit means over periods during which the temperature of the roof surface is measured to be within a predetermined temperature range; (d) temperature measurement means comprised of a thermistor encapsulated in an epoxy block in direct contact with the roof surface for monitoring and measuring the actual temperature of the surface substantially by thermal conductivity and developing an electrical resistance value in direct relationship with the temperature of the surface; and (e) cooling system control means in electric communication with the temperature measurement means for comparing the electric resistance value developed by the temperature measurement means and a range of current values related to the predetermined temperature range.

Viner, S.G.

1988-08-09

41

Roof Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The roof management program at the University of Wyoming involved a consulting firm that provided a computer analysis of the condition of each roof on campus and trained university personnel to act as inspectors in the future. (MLF)

American School and University, 1984

1984-01-01

42

Building structure and integral solar energy collecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting apparatus is disclosed which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes solar energy absorptive panels which are adapted to be mounted between the conventional support members in the wall or roof of a building, and wherein the absorptive panels and support members define in part an air passageway, whereby air may be passed along the absorptive panel to absorb heat therefrom. The inlet of the passageway has provision for admitting predetermined relative quantities of outside and inside air, and the outlet of the passageway communicates with a plenum chamber inside the building so that the heated air from several such passageways may be efficiently collected and utilized.

Mcarthur, W.H.

1981-05-26

43

Analysis of urban land use in the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Roof-top detection in the context of assessing solar photovoltaic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh is considered to be one of the world’s fastest growing urban centers. With nearly 14 million people Dhaka currently faces tremendous power crisis. The available power supply of Dhaka Megacity is currently 1000-1200 MW against the maximum demand of nearly 2000 MW. The objective of this study is to classify land cover of Dhaka to locate roof-top areas which are adequate for solar photovoltaic applications. Usually this task is performed with additional building-heights data. With lack of that, we present an object-based classification approach which is based on high resolution Quickbird data only. Extensive formal buildings in Dhaka mostly have flat roof-tops made from concrete which are well suited for PV applications. The classification is focused to detect these ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ to assess a lower limit for potential PV areas. With that conservative approach bright roof-top areas of 10.554 km2 out of the city’s 134.282 km2 could be found. The overall classification accuracy is 0.918, the producer’s accuracy of ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ is 0.833. Preliminary result of the PhD work of Humayun Kabir indicates that the application of only 75 Wp stand-alone solar modules on these available bright roof-tops can generate nearly 1,000 MW of electricity. The application of solar modules with high capacity (i.e., >200 Wp) preferably through grid-connected PV systems can substantially meet-up the city’s power demand, although several techno-economic and socio-political factors are certainly involved.

Jaegermeyr, J.; Kabir, H.; Endlicher, W.

2009-12-01

44

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. It was initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado,

D. Lew; R. Piwko; G. Jordan; N. Miller; K. Clark; L. Freeman; M. Milligan

2011-01-01

45

Spatio-temporal dynamics of solar shading for a parametrically defined roof system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of shading devices is generally carried out using a sequence of shadow-pattern images showing the progression of solar penetration for particular times of the day or year. This approach can reveal when solar penetration may occur, say at the summer solstice, but it cannot give a quantitative measure of the degree and likelihood of solar penetration over a

J Mardaljevic

2004-01-01

46

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m³\\/d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal

R. M. Szostak; D. Agarwal; J. T. Callahan; J. V. Mohn

1981-01-01

47

Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

1992-01-01

48

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

SciTech Connect

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m/sup 3//d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal wind/solar ratio is very dependent upon site conditions. 7 refs.

Szostak, R.M.; Agarwal, D.; Callahan, J.T.; Mohn, J.V. III

1981-01-01

49

GIS-Based Assessment of Roof-Mounted Solar Energy Potential in Jiangsu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to high risk of unstable supply from fossil energy and growing concern with the preservation of the environment, well-developed Jiangsu province in China is hungering for alternative energy resources to catalyze stupendous economic growth. Assessing the technically available potential of solar energy spatially and temporally over the whole province might be able to improve the unfavorable situation. This paper

Guangxu Liu; Wenxiang Wu; Quansheng Ge; Erfu Dai; Zhiwei Wan; Yang Zhou

2011-01-01

50

Solar electric and thermal conversion system in close proximity to the consumer. [solar panels on house roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells may be used to convert sunlight directly into electrical energy and into lowgrade heat to be used for large-scale terrestrial solar-energy conversion. Both forms of energy can be utilized if such cells are deployed in close proximity to the consumer (rooftop). Cadmium-sulfide/copper-sulfide (CdS/Cu2S) solar cells are an example of cells which may be produced inexpensively enough to become economically attractive. Cell parameters relevant for combined solar conversion are presented. Critical issues, such as production yield, life expectancy, and stability of performance, are discussed. Systems-design parameters related to operating temperatures are analyzed. First results obtained on Solar One, the experimental house of the University of Delaware, are given. Economic aspects are discussed. Different modes of operation are discussed in respect to the power utility and consumer incentives.

Boeer, K. W.

1975-01-01

51

Calculation of bright roof-tops for solar PV applications in Dhaka Megacity, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh has already been known as the country of power crisis. Although the country's electricity generation capacity is 4275MW, around 3000–3500MW of electricity can be generated against the demand of more than 5000MW. The country's power is being generated mostly with conventional fuel (82% indigenous natural gas, 9% imported oil, 5% coal) and renewable sources (4% hydropower and solar). But

Wilfried Endlicher; Jonas Jägermeyr

2010-01-01

52

Methods of Creating Solar-Reflective Nonwhite Surfaces and theirApplication to Residential Roofing Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe methods for creating solar-reflective nonwhitesurfaces and their application to a wide variety of residential roofingmaterials, including metal, clay tile, concrete tile, wood, and asphaltshingle. Reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum (0.7 2.5mu m) ismaximized by coloring a topcoatwith pigments that weakly absorb and(optionally) strongly backscatter NIR radiation, and adding anNIR-reflective basecoat (e.g., titanium dioxide white) if both thetopcoat

Ronnen Levinson; Paul Berdahl; Hashem Akbari; William Miller; Ingo Joedicke; Joseph Reilly; Yoshi Suzuki; Michelle Vondran

2005-01-01

53

New Integrated Solar Collector Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new design for a thermal solar collector has been invented, which represents an essential improvement in the cost-benefit ratio compared to other commercially available solar collectors. (ERA citation 11:013129)

M. Mehlen J. Skjaeret J. Rekstad

1984-01-01

54

Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).  

PubMed

The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the treatment of stored rainwater for potable purposes. PMID:19783275

Amin, M T; Han, M Y

2009-12-01

55

Integrated Solar Energy Collector Final Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flat plate solar collector originated by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories was studied for mass production manufacturing techniques, design improvements, costs, and architectural integration into arrays for residences and light commercial buildings. Th...

R. B. Toenjes

1975-01-01

56

Building with integral solar-heat storage--Starkville, Mississippi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Column supporting roof also houses rock-storage bin of solar-energy system supplying more than half building space heating load. Conventional heaters supply hot water. Since bin is deeper and narrower than normal, individual pebble size was increased to keep airflow resistance at minimum.

1981-01-01

57

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion\\/power systems were identified as key technologies in the operational effectiveness and cost comparison study (OECS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory (PL). These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions. The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by PL represents

P. Frye

1996-01-01

58

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion\\/power systems were identified as key technologies by the Operational Effectiveness and Cost Comparison Study. These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions (Feuchter 1996). The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by Phillips Laboratory represents development of one

Patrick Frye

1997-01-01

59

Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

60

Solar tunnel dryer with integrated collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar tunnel dryer with integrated collector was developed and tested. This low-cost system can be produced either by small scale industries of farmers themselves using simple tools and relatively cheap materials. Depending on weather conditions about 1000 kg grapes can be dried within 4 to 7 days. According to the drying capacity the solar drying system can be successfully applied to farms with an acreage of 0.5 to 1.0 hectare.

Lutz, K.; Muhlbauer, W.

1986-01-01

61

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion/power systems were identified as key technologies by the Operational Effectiveness and Cost Comparison Study. These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions (Feuchter 1996). The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by Phillips Laboratory represents development of one such solar thermal propulsion/power system. This paper presents conceptual designs, mission analysis results, and trade study results for a system evaluation of ISUS for future military payloads. These payloads primarily include high power communication satellites for geo-synchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) applications.

Frye, Patrick

1997-01-01

62

Understanding Roofing Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the various types of multi- and single-ply roofing commonly used today in educational facilities. Roofing types described involve built-up systems, modified bitumen systems; ethylene propylene diene terpolymer roofs; and roofs of thermoplastic, metal, and foam. A description of the Roofing Industry Educational Institute is included. (GR)

Michelsen, Ted

2001-01-01

63

Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

2006-01-01

64

Integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH) developed from early systems comprised simply of a simple black tank placed in the sun. The ICSSWH, by its combined collection and storage function suffers substantial heat losses to ambient, especially at night-time and non-collection periods. To be viable economically, the system has evolved to incorporate new and novel methods of maximising

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; Brian Norton

2006-01-01

65

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic bonding technology, an encapsulation technique for terrestrial solar array was developed. The process produces full integral, hermetic bonds with no adhesives or pottants. Panels of six solar cells on a simple glass superstrate were produced. Electrostatic bonding for making the cell front contact was also developed. A metal mesh is trapped into contact with the cell front during the bonding process. Six cell panels using the bonded mesh as the only cell front contact were produced. The possibility of using lower cost glass, with a higher thermal expansion mismatch to silicon, by making lower temperature bonds is developed. However, this requires a planar surface cell.

Landis, G. A.

1981-01-01

66

Integrated Solar Concentrator and Shielded Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shielded radiator is integrated within a solar concentrator for applications that require protection from high ambient temperatures with little convective heat transfer. This innovation uses a reflective surface to deflect ambient thermal radiation, shielding the radiator. The interior of the shield is also reflective to provide a view factor to deep space. A key feature of the shield is the parabolic shape that focuses incoming solar radiation to a line above the radiator along the length of the trough. This keeps the solar energy from adding to the radiator load. By placing solar cells along this focal line, the concentration of solar energy reduces the number and mass of required cells. By shielding the radiator, the effective reject temperature is much lower, allowing lower radiator temperatures. This is particularly important for lower-temperature processes, like habitat heat rejection and fuel cell operations where a high radiator temperature is not feasible. Adding the solar cells in the focal line uses the concentrating effect of the shield to advantage to accomplish two processes with a single device. This shield can be a deployable, lightweight Mylar structure for compact transport.

Clark, David Larry

2010-01-01

67

Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

Jane Davidson

2008-09-30

68

SWIFT: A solar system integration software package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SWIFT follows the long-term dynamical evolution of a swarm of test particles in the solar system. The code efficiently and accurately handles close approaches between test particles and planets while retaining the powerful features of recently developed mixed variable symplectic integrators. Four integration techniques are included: Wisdom-Holman Mapping; Regularized Mixed Variable Symplectic (RMVS) method; fourth order T+U Symplectic (TU4) method; and Bulirsch-Stoer method. The package is designed so that the calls to each of these look identical so that it is trivial to replace one with another. Complex data manipulations and results can be analyzed with the graphics packace SwiftVis.

Levison, Harold F.; Duncan, Martin J.

2013-03-01

69

Transparent antennas for solar cell integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

Yasin, Tursunjan

70

Weather effect on thermal and energy performance of an extensive tropical green roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the weather effect on thermal performance of a retrofitted extensive green roof on a railway station in humid-subtropical Hong Kong. Absolute and relative (reduction magnitude) ambient and surface temperatures recorded for two years were compared amongst antecedent bare roof, green roof, and control bare roof. The impacts of solar radiation, relative humidity, soil moisture and wind speed

C. Y. Jim; Lilliana L. H. Peng

71

Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by the winter-time penalty, and the net benefit from adopting white roof technology in Portland is small. That said, there are other potential benefits of white roofing such as impact on urban heat islands and roof life that must also be considered.

Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

72

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work reported was performed during the period from August 1977 to December 1978. The program objective was to continue the development of electrostatic bonding (ESB) as an encapsulation technique for terrestrial cells. Economic analyses shows that this process can be a cost-effective method of producing reliable, long lifetime solar modules. When considered in sufficient volume, both material and equipment costs are competitive with conventional encapsulation systems. In addition, the possibility of integrating cell fabrication into the encapsulation process, as in the case of the preformed cell contacts discussed in this report, offers the potential of significant overall systems cost reduction.

Younger, P. R.; Tobin, R. G.; Kreisman, W. S.

1979-01-01

73

Data Integration in the Virtual Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is the integration of diverse data archives relevant to the study of Solar Physics into a virtual collection providing common search and delivery services. The back-end query services are implemented as Web Services and accessible via the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). SOAP defines a remote procedure call mechanism that employs HTTP as its transport and encodes the client-server interactions in XML documents. In addition to its core function in identifying relevant datasets locally, a SOAP server at each data provider acts as a wrapper that maps descriptions in an abstract data model to those in the provider's specific model, and vice versa. Heterogeneous data search services can thereby be integrated with a common interface. This allows scientists to access multiple archives with differing data organizations at once, enhancing their ability to discover and and analyze correlative data from multiple sources. We have chosen two SOAP implementations for the VSO: SOAP::Lite and OpenSOAP. The former, written in Perl, is suitable for fast and flexible prototyping in data search applications. SOAP::Lite servers have been set up at each of the VSO archives, and can be readily installed at other servers. OpenSOAP, written in C with built-in support for service description and dispatch, may prove useful in transforming current computing utilities into Web Services. We report on initial experiments using OpenSOAP to provide additional services to the basic query functionality of VSO.

Bogart, R. S.; Davey, A.; Dimitoglou, G.; Gurman, J. B.; Hill, F.; Martens, P. C.; Tian, K. Q.; Wampler, S.

2003-12-01

74

Integrated Access to Solar Observations With EGSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

{\\b Co-Authors}: J.Aboudarham (2), E.Antonucci (3), R.D.Bentely (4), L.Ciminiera (5), A.Finkelstein (4), J.B.Gurman(6), F.Hill (7), D.Pike (8), I.Scholl (9), V.Zharkova and the EGSO development team {\\b Institutions}: (2) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France); (3) INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); (4) University College London (U.K.); (5) Politecnico di Torino (Italy), (6) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA); (7) National Solar Observatory (USA); (8) Rutherford Appleton Lab. (U.K.); (9) Institut d'Astrophysique Spatial, Universite de Paris-Sud (France) ; (10) University of Bradford (U.K) {\\b Abstract}: The European Grid of Solar Observations is the European contribution to the deployment of a virtual solar observatory. The project is funded under the Information Society Technologies (IST) thematic programme of the European Commission's Fifth Framework. EGSO started in March 2002 and will last until March 2005. The project is categorized as a computer science effort. Evidently, a fair amount of issues it addresses are general to grid projects. Nevertheless, EGSO is also of benefit to the application domains, including solar physics, space weather, climate physics and astrophysics. With EGSO, researchers as well as the general public can access and combine solar data from distributed archives in an integrated virtual solar resource. Users express queries based on various search parameters. The search possibilities of EGSO extend the search possibilities of traditional data access systems. For instance, users can formulate a query to search for simultaneous observations of a specific solar event in a given number of wavelengths. In other words, users can search for observations on the basis of events and phenomena, rather than just time and location. The software architecture consists of three collaborating components: a consumer, a broker and a provider. The first component, the consumer, organizes the end user interaction and controls requests submitted to the grid. The consumer is thus in charge of tasks such as request handling, request composition, data visualization and data caching. The second component, the provider, is dedicated to data providing and processing. It links the grid to individual data providers and data centers. The third component, the broker, collects information about providers and allows consumers to perform the searches on the grid. Each component can exist in multiple instances. This follows a basic grid concept: The failure or unavailability of a single component will not generate a failure of the whole system, as other systems will take over the processing of requests. The architecture relies on a global data model for the semantics. The data model is in some way the brains of the grid. It provides a description of the information entities available within the grid, as well as a description of their relationships. EGSO is now in the development phase. A demonstration (www.egso.org/demo) is provided to get an idea about how the system will function once the project is completed. The demonstration focuses on retrieving data needed to determine the energy released in the solar atmosphere during the impulsive phase of flares. It allows finding simultaneous observations in the visible, UV, Soft X-rays, hard X-rays, gamma-rays, and radio. The types of observations that can be specified are images at high space and time resolutions as well as integrated emission and spectra from a yet limited set of instruments, including the NASA spacecraft TRACE, SOHO, RHESSI, and the ground-based observatories Phoenix-2 in Switzerland and Meudon Observatory in France

Csillaghy, A.

2003-12-01

75

Photovoltaic roof construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a batten-seam roof construction employing at least one photovoltaic cell module, the electrical conduits employed with the at least one photovoltaic cell module are disposed primarily under the battens of the roof.

Hawley

1980-01-01

76

Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as

A. Zahedi

2006-01-01

77

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

78

Which Roof is Tops?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When you walk or drive around your neighborhood what do the roofs look like? What if you lived in an area with a different climate, how would that effect the style of roof that you might find. This is an introductory activity to explore the advantages of different roof shapes for different climates or situations.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

79

Roof System EPDM Shrinkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer rubber roof membranes and the potential problems associated with this material's shrinkage. Discusses how long such a roof should perform and issues affecting repair or replacement. Recommends that a building's function be considered in any roofing decision. (RJM)

Betker, Edward

1998-01-01

80

Selecting a Roof Membrane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a brief synopsis of the unique characteristics of the following roof membranes: (1) built-up roofing; (2) elastoplastic membranes; (3) modified bitumen membranes; (4) liquid applied membranes; and (5) metal roofing. A chart compares the characteristics of the raw membranes only. (MLF)

Waldron, Larry W.

1990-01-01

81

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11

82

Simulation of an Integrated Steam Generator for Solar Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical and thermal simulation of a new solar tower steam generator is presented. The steam generator, placed on top of a solar tower, has two integrated receivers, external for boiling the steam and a cavity for its superheating. These two parts of the solar steam generator are facing different sections in a surrounding heliostat field and therefore can be operated

R. Ben-Zvi; M. Epstein; A. Segal

83

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, T.L.

1998-05-05

84

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Berkeley, CA) [Berkeley, CA

1998-01-01

85

77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof...Westinghouse Solar, Inc. and Andalay Solar, Inc., both of Campbell, California...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof...

2012-07-05

86

Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: aSi Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the monolithic integration of deep- submicrometer complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values above 7%. The yield of photovoltaic cells on planarized CMOS chips is 92%. This integration allows integrated energy harvesting using established process

Jiwu Lu; Alexey Y. Kovalgin; Karine H. M. van der Werf; Ruud E. I. Schropp; Jurriaan Schmitz

2011-01-01

87

Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting  

DOEpatents

The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

1983-01-01

88

Integrated Solar Powered Climate Conditioning Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating; seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single-fami...

J. C. Denton

1974-01-01

89

Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating. Seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled

J. C. Denton

1974-01-01

90

Roof detail, roof vent with star decoration, east section of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof detail, roof vent with star decoration, east section of roof - U.S. Department of the Treasury, South Court, Fifteenth Street & Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

91

Integrated passive-solar demonstration project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives were to collect data on a combination of several passive solar heating and cooling systems. A passive solar test structure was constructed and monitored and the demonstration of passive systems designed into the structure was evaluated. Passive solar cooling principles include: shading all mass walls and windows from direct solar gain, maintaining cool attic and ceiling temperatures using solar induced ventilation, maintaining cool mean radiant wall temperatures, recirculating internal air, and using natural cross-ventilation through the conditioned space in spring and fall. Passive solar heating principles include: orientation of windows and sunspaces towards the south, providing double pane south windows, providing a double pane solar sunspace, using night insulation over glazing, extended thermal storge mass, and using a fan-forced rock/earth/air storage system.

Garrison, M. L.

1982-09-01

92

29. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM STATION BUILDING ROOF, SHOWING ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM STATION BUILDING ROOF, SHOWING ROOF OF WEST SHED - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

93

Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview  

SciTech Connect

An overview of several aspects of the weathering of roofing materials is presented. Degradation of materials initiated by ultraviolet radiation is discussed for plastics used in roofing, as well as wood and asphalt. Elevated temperatures accelerate many deleterious chemical reactions and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage. Soiling of roofing materials causes objectionable stains and reduces the solar reflectance of reflective materials. (Soiling of non-reflective materials can also increase solar reflectance.) Soiling can be attributed to biological growth (e.g., cyanobacteria, fungi, algae), deposits of organic and mineral particles, and to the accumulation of flyash, hydrocarbons and soot from combustion.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

2006-03-30

94

Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

Schreitmueller, K. R.

1982-11-01

95

Integration of Antennas and Solar Cells for Autonomous Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is becoming an attractive alternative for powering autonomous communication systems. These devices often involve the use of separate photovoltaics and antennas, which demand a compromise in the utilization of the limited space available. This thesis deals with the design, analysis, fabrication and validation of different techniques for the integration of antennas and solar cells in a single multifunctional

Maria Jose Roo Ons

2010-01-01

96

Why Cool Roofs?  

ScienceCinema

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

97

Roofing Felt on Polystyrene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of instructions is presented on methods to install compact flat roofs which, on the upper side of the supporting construction, are heat-insulated with expanded polystyrene and covered with roofing paper. Directions are also given for repairing, rero...

T. Isaksen E. M. Paulsen H. Juul

1980-01-01

98

Environmentally Adaptable Roof Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application related to an energy-conserving roof structure for use in construction in low-slope roofs comprising two layers of permeable insulation and a layer of non-permeable insulation sandwiched between a pair of water vapor impermeable lay...

N. E. Nelson

1983-01-01

99

Tension roofs and bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘Tension Structures’ is commonly used for those structures wherein one or more primary load bearing elements are in tension. Such structures include membrane roofs, cable roofs, cable bridges, guyed masts or towers, cooling towers though some of these are less common. The tension elements are strands, ropes or membranes, which have to combine with structural elements carrying compression,

P Krishna

2001-01-01

100

The Rehab Guide: Roofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who has been on a roof on a hot day can attest to the difficulty of performing basic maintenance on that particular part of a building. Fortunately, this time-consuming process can be made simpler with this handy online guide to rehabbing a roof. Created by the PATH Group, this 99-page document covers major roofing systems, âÂÂâ¦as well as protective strategies, energy and air filtration issues, roofing materials, and gutters and downspouts.â Throughout the document, users can rely on drawings and photographs that illustrate various rehabbing techniques. Much is revealed here, including timely information on low-slope and metal roofing, along with suggestions on installing moisture barriers.

1999-01-01

101

Evaluation of Green Roof Plants and Materials for Semi-Arid Climates  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract While green roof systems have proven to be highly effective in the evaporative cooling of buildings, reduction of roof top temperatures, protection of roof membranes from solar radiation degradation, reducing stormwater runoff, as well as beautification of the urban roo...

102

Next Generation Roofs and Attics for Homes  

SciTech Connect

Prototype residential roof and attic assemblies were constructed and field tested in a mixed-humid U.S. climate. Summer field data showed that at peak day irradiance the heat transfer penetrating the roof deck dropped almost 90% compared with heat transfer for a conventional roof and attic assembly. The prototype assemblies use a combination of strategies: infrared reflective cool roofs, radiant barriers, above-sheathing ventilation, low-emittance surfaces, insulation, and thermal mass to reduce the attic air temperature and thus the heat transfer into the home. The prototype assemblies exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor air temperature. Field results were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for the densely populated, hot and dry southeastern and central-basin regions of California. New construction in the central basin could realize a 12% drop in ceiling and air-conditioning annual load compared with a code-compliant roof and attic having solar reflectance of 0.25 and thermal emittance of 0.75. In the hot, dry southeastern region of California, the combined ceiling and duct annual load drops by 23% of that computed for a code-compliant roof and attic assembly. Eliminating air leakage from ducts placed in unconditioned attics yielded savings comparable to the best simulated roof and attic systems. Retrofitting an infrared reflective clay tile roof with 1 -in (0.032-m) of EPS foam above the sheathing and improving existing ductwork by reducing air leakage and wrapping ducts with insulation can yield annual savings of about $200 compared with energy costs for pre-1980 construction.

Miller, William A [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL

2008-01-01

103

Compact integrated solar energy generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy generation systems, or any renewable systems, usually include energy storages, local dc loads and grid-tied dc-ac inversion stages. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for processing the intermediate solar energy transferred through the systems. Having individual converters does have some advantages like more flexible individual control and easier design, but it does not provide opportunities

Poh Chiang Loh; Lei Zhang; Shun He; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

104

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic bonding has been used to join silicon solar cells to borosilicate glass without the aid of any organic binders or adhesives. The results of this investigation have been to demonstrate, without question, the feasibility of this process as an encapsulation technique. The potential of ESB for terrestrial solar arrays was clearly shown. The process is fast, reproducible, and produces a permanent bond between glass and silicon that is stronger than the silicon itself. Since this process is a glass sealing technique requiring no organics it makes moisture tight sealing of solar cells possible.

Young, P. R.

1977-01-01

105

Solar heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heater for heating room air or home hot water includes a transparent plastics material arched panel set over an opening in a roof with air inlet passages between the roof and panel around the periphery of the panel, a sheet metal pan under the roof opening having an inlet and outlet for water and filled with lava rock

Bloxsom

1981-01-01

106

Improved roof stabilization technologies  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users` Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

107

The performance of the heating system in the solar house of the Eindhoven University of Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated solar house at Eindhoven, The Netherlands, has a solar roof tilted at an angle of 48 deg consisting of 51 sq m of aluminum finned tube absorber plates coated with black chrome. In the 4.1 cu m solar heat storage tank the advantages of thermal stratification are exploited to the limits of their potential. For example, the return

C. W. J. van Koppen; JP Simon Thomas

1978-01-01

108

Roof bolting equipment & technology  

SciTech Connect

Technology provides an evaluator path to improvement for roof bolting machines. Bucyrus offers three different roof bolts models for various mining conditions. The LRB-15 AR is a single-arm boiler recommended for ranges of 32 inches and above; the dual-arm RB2-52A for ranges of 42 inches and above; and the dual-arm RB2-88A for ranges of 54 inches and above. Design features are discussed in the article. Developments in roof bolting technology by Joy Mining Machinery are reported. 4 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-04-15

109

SOLAR CONTROL: An integrated approach to solar control techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the CE JOULE III Programme, further to the SCL activities in PASCOOL Project, the project SOLAR CONTROL has been supported. The project participants, co-ordinated by Conphoebus, include also Universities of Sevilla and Ljubljana, NOA, TNO, BRE, VTT, Fraunhofer and GENEC, as well as leading manufacturers such as SOMFY and Pilkington.The project is aimed at undertaking investigations

Salvo Sciuto

1998-01-01

110

A procedure to evaluate the resistance to biological colonization as a characteristic for product quality of ceramic roofing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic roofing tiles suffer deterioration through time due to environmental exposure. Biological colonization affects the appearance and integrity of building materials, such as roofing tiles. The resistance to biocolonization represents an important property affecting the product quality of ceramic roofing tiles. While natural colonization of roofing tiles by organisms is a progressive, heterogeneous, and slow process, laboratory assessment of this

M. C. Portillo; M. F. Gazulla; E. Sanchez; J. M. Gonzalez

2011-01-01

111

Exploring the building energy impacts of green roof design decisions – a modeling study of buildings in four distinct climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the complex and interacting physical mechanisms that lead to building energy use implications of green roof design decisions. The EnergyPlus building energy simulation program, complete with an integrated green roof simulation module, was used to analyze the effects of roof surface design on building energy consumption. Simulations were conducted for both black and white membrane control roofs

David J. Sailor; Timothy B. Elley; Max Gibson

2012-01-01

112

GREEN ROOFS ? A GROWING TREND  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are ?green roofs?. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

113

Installation package - home solar heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Installation of commerical solar-heating system at two story, three bedroom house in New Hampshire is described in 65 page report. System collectors are integrated part of building replacing conventional roofing or siding. Report also includes general description of system, its operation and guidelines, orientation and references.

1980-01-01

114

Mine roof support plate  

SciTech Connect

A support plate is disclosed for a mine roof including a substantially flat body engageable with the mine roof, the body having an enlarged central opening through which are passed one end of a roof bolt on which is threaded an expansion shell which is inserted into a mine roof opening. Ribs extend longitudinally of the flat body on both sides of the central opening for additional strength. The ribs are spaced a predetermined distance apart on opposite sides of the central opening. Centering members are provided on the body portion intermediate the ribs on opposite sides of the central opening, the centering members and ribs serving to center the washer and bolt portion of the bolt assembly.

White, C.C.

1981-02-10

115

Science Nation: Green Roofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rooftops of Manhattan are as varied as the city itself. But on some, something new is taking root--literally! A green roof is a continuous layer of living plants. Looking down several stories from the windows of neighboring buildings, the rooftop resembles a well-manicured, suburban lawn that is simply contained within the boundaries of a flat Manhattan rooftop. Researchers are investigating what benefits green roofs might have on harsh urban environments.

116

Integrated thermal solar heat pump system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or

Shaw

1980-01-01

117

Simple Measurement of Integrated Solar Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fading of colour acetate films impregnated with several azo-dyes was applied to measure conveniently the global solar radiation. The dye-remaining percentage was measured at ?max of the films after fading on different exposure. In the case of the film impregnated with Oil Red O, the logarithm value of the percentage of each film presents a linear relationship to the amounts

T. Yoshimura; T. Ishikawa; K. Komiyama

1990-01-01

118

Development of a new integral solar cell protective cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique polyimide polymer has been developed which shows promise as an encapsulant for interconnected solar cell modules. Such an integral cover offers important weight and cost advantages. The polymer has been characterized on silicon solar cells with respect to electrical output and spectral response. The response of the material-coated cells to electron, low-energy proton, and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation, thermal shock and humidity tests was determined.

Naselow, A. B.; Dupont, P. S.; Scott-Monck, J.

1983-01-01

119

Influence of solar heating on the performance of integrated solar cell microstrip patch antennas  

SciTech Connect

The integration of microstrip patch antennas with photovoltaics has been proposed for applications in autonomous wireless communication systems located on building facades. Full integration was achieved using polycrystalline silicon solar cells as both antenna ground plane and direct current power generation in the same device. An overview of the proposed photovoltaic antenna designs is provided and the variation characterised of the electromagnetic properties of the device with temperature and solar radiation. Measurements for both copper and solar antennas are reported on three different commercial laminates with contrasting values for thermal coefficient of the dielectric constant. (author)

Roo-Ons, M.J.; Shynu, S.V.; Ammann, M.J. [Antenna and High Frequency Research Centre, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Seredynski, M. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); McCormack, S.J. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

2010-09-15

120

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative

D. Hartman; D. Kosar

1983-01-01

121

Solar energy systems installed on Chinese-style buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A building-integrated solar energy system is proposed, with the panels installed such that the overall morphology resembles that of a traditional Chinese building, i.e., roofing (eaves) at each storey, in addition to that on top of the building. The panels include photovoltaic cells and solar thermal collectors, thus producing electric power as well as heating. The particular morphology provides a

D. Johnston

2007-01-01

122

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 287 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-12-01

123

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

PubMed Central

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g?1 at 0.5 A g?1 and 287 F g?1 at 1 A g?1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-01-01

124

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.  

PubMed

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-01-01

125

Solar heating of integrated greenhouse-animal shelter systems  

SciTech Connect

An analytical procedure to determine the effectiveness of greenhouses as solar collectors was presented. This procedure was used to predict the effect of several construction parameters on solar radiation input to greenhouses. The orientation of the greenhouse was found to be the most effective construction parameter controlling solar radiation input to greenhouses. The effective albedo of the plant canopy was also found to be a significant factor. A new solar greenhouse design, suitable for high latitude regions was developed. The results showed that an internal solar collector could be incorporated as an integral part of the greenhouse design. The concept developed could be used as a free-standing greenhouse or in a combination with livestock building. The efficiency of the solar input was investigated for the conventional and the shed greenhouses, both as a free-standing unit and a greenhouse-animal shelter system, using computer simulation analyses. The results indicated that the efficiency of solar input is highly dependent on location; the effect of location on the shed type design is more profound. A typical case of a greenhouse-hog barn production system was investigated using computer simulation analyses. The results showed that such a food production system achieves a significant reduction in conventional fuel consumption due to both animal waste heat recovery and solar energy utilization.

Ben-Abdallah, N.

1983-01-01

126

A Review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential RoofingMaterials  

SciTech Connect

Shingles, tiles, and metal products comprise over 80% (by roof area) of the California roofing market (54-58% fiberglass shingle, 8-10% concrete tile, 8-10% clay tile, 7% metal, 3% wood shake, and 3% slate). In climates with significant demand for cooling energy, increasing roof solar reflectance reduces energy consumption in mechanically cooled buildings, and improves occupant comfort in non-conditioned buildings. This report examines methods for manufacturing fiberglass shingles, concrete tiles, clay tiles, and metal roofing. The report also discusses innovative methods for increasing the solar reflectance of these roofing materials. We have focused on these four roofing products because they are typically colored with pigmented coatings or additives. A better understanding of the current practices for manufacturing colored roofing materials would allow us to develop cool colored materials creatively and more effectively.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul

2003-06-01

127

Development of integral covers on solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electron-beam technique for evaporating a dielectric material onto solar cells is investigated. A process has been developed which will provide a highly transparent, low stress, 2 mil thick cover capable of withstanding conventional space type qualification tests including humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycling. The covers have demonstrated the ability to withstand 10 to the 15th power 1 MeV electrons and UV irradiation with minor darkening. Investigation of the cell AR coating has produced a space qualifiable titanium oxide coating which will give an additional 6% current output over similar silicon oxide coated cells when covered by glass.

Stella, P.; Somberg, H.

1971-01-01

128

Integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater (ISAHP) is designed and tested in the present study. The storage tank and the Rankine cycle unit are integrated together to make a more compact size. A thermosyphon loop is used to transfer the heat from the condenser to the water storage tank. The highest COP obtained in the tests is 3.83.

B. J. Huang; J. P. Chyng

1999-01-01

129

Up on the Roof: A Systematic Approach to Roof Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic roof maintenance program is characterized by carefully prepared long- and short-range plans. An essential feature of a systematic approach to roof maintenance is the stress on preventive measures rather than the patching of leaks. (Author)

Burd, William

1979-01-01

130

8. Detail of interior roof showing truss bracing and roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of interior roof showing truss bracing and roof plank decking; view to east from approximately the center of the shelter. - Warm River Shelter, Warm River Campground, Ashton, Fremont County, ID

131

Performance of 3sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive

Lewis Fraas; James E. Avery; Leonid M Minkin; Curt Maxey; Tony Gehl; Rick A Hurt; Robert F Boehm

2008-01-01

132

A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

2012-04-01

133

Long-term integrations of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

While long-term numerical integrations of the outer Solar System have become routine, the inner planets have received much less attention. The present work uses physical models of increasing complexity, which include General Relativistic and Earth-Moon tidal corrections. Even small modifications in the physical model can lead to changes in orbits over a few million years that are larger than what

F. Varadi

2000-01-01

134

Solar Energy Delivering Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this investigation is the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures. As a first measure, the spectral selective cover material,

P. J. Sonneveld; G. L. A. M. Swinkels; H. J. Holterman; Tuijl van B. A. J; G. P. A. Bot

2008-01-01

135

Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Built-up Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in roofing apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains eight units on skills used in built-up roofing, a listing of instructional materials, a glossary, and the text of Labor Code Article 30, Construction Safety Orders, "Roofing Operations and Equipment." Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and…

Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

136

24. Roof detail from liftbed truck, showing pan roof above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Roof detail from lift-bed truck, showing pan roof above breezeway, with sawn redwood trim, tube-type drains; note missing rain gutter at roof edge, deteriorated condition of slates; view to south, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

137

Solar cells having integral collector grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device is described, comprising a conductive base metal layer. A back surface field region was formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device. A metal alloy grid network was included. An insulating layer prevented electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1978-01-01

138

Code check floating tank roofs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that both API 650 and BS 2654 contain criteria for design of single deck pontoon-type tank floating roofs. The codes states that the floating roof shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat under the following conditions: tank content specific gravity is 0.7; the roof center deck is punctured; any two adjacent pontoon compartments are punctured; no water or live loads are present; and the roof primary drain is inoperative.

Hassan, H.M.K. (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co. (United Arab Emirates))

1992-10-01

139

Design and Spacecraft-Integration of RTGs for Solar Probe  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 41st Congress of the IAF, October 6-12, 1990 in Dresden, FRG. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators integrated with JPL's planned Solar Probe spacecraft. The principle purpose of the Solar probe mission is to explore the solar corona by performing in-situ measurements at distances as close as four solar radii or 0.02 AU from the sun. This proximity to the sun imposes some unusual design constraints on the RTG and on its integration with the spacecraft. The results demonstrated that the obstructions result in significant performance penalties for the case of the standard GPHS-RTG design. Finally, the paper describes a simple empirical method for predicting the combined effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the RTG's power output, and applies that method to predict the long-term power profile of the obstructed Solar Probe RTGs. The results indicate that the existing GPHS-RTG design, even without modifications can meet the JPL-prescribed EOM power requirement. There is also three copies in the file of an earlier version of this dated 8/3/1990 with the report number of FSC-ESD-217-90-470. The most current one is the IAF version (IAD-90-208) dated October 6-12, 1990.

Schock, Alfred

1990-10-01

140

High-Tech Roof Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions. (GR)

Benzie, Tim

1997-01-01

141

Code check floating tank roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that both API 650 and BS 2654 contain criteria for design of single deck pontoon-type tank floating roofs. The codes states that the floating roof shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat under the following conditions: tank content specific gravity is 0.7; the roof center deck is punctured; any two adjacent pontoon compartments are punctured; no water

Hassan

1992-01-01

142

Green roofs: potential at LANL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze

Pacheco; Elena M

2009-01-01

143

Hail Resistance of Roofing Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test was developed for evaluating the hail resistance of roofings, in which synthetic hail-stones (ice spheres) of various sizes were shot at roof assemblies at their free-fall terminal velocities. Indentations, granule loss and roofing fracture were ob...

S. H. Greenfeld

1969-01-01

144

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Roof bolting. 75.204 Section...Support § 75.204 Roof bolting. (a) For roof bolts...Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories...deterioration. (d) When washers are used with roof bolts... (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the...

2009-07-01

145

Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

1971-01-01

146

SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

Randy C. Gee

2004-11-15

147

Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

2012-12-01

148

Reconstructing the solar integrated radial velocity using MDI/SOHO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Searches for exoplanets with radial velocity techniques are increasingly sensitive to stellar activity. It is therefore crucial to characterize how this activity influences radial velocity measurements in their study of the detectability of planets in these conditions. Aims: In a previous work we simulated the impact of spots and plages on the radial velocity of the Sun. Our objective is to compare this simulation with the observed radial velocity of the Sun for the same period. Methods: We use Dopplergrams and magnetograms obtained by MDI/SOHO over one solar cycle to reconstruct the solar integrated radial velocity in the Ni line 6768 Å. We also characterize the relation between the velocity and the local magnetic field to interpret our results. Results: We obtain a stronger redshift in places where the local magnetic field is larger (and as a consequence for larger magnetic structures): hence we find a higher attenuation of the convective blueshift in plages than in the network. Our results are compatible with an attenuation of this blueshift by about 50% when averaged over plages and network. We obtain an integrated radial velocity with an amplitude over the solar cycle of about 8 m s-1, with small-scale variations similar to the results of the simulation, once they are scaled to the Ni line. Conclusions: The observed solar integrated radial velocity agrees with the result of the simulation made in our previous work within 30%, which validates this simulation. The observed amplitude confirms that the impact of the convective blueshift attenuation in magnetic regions will be critical to detect Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars.

Meunier, N.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Desort, M.

2010-09-01

149

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which is adapted to be mounted between the conventional support members in the wall or roof of a building, and which includes an outwardly facing dark collecting surface, and an opposite inner surface having fins integrally formed therein to facilitate transfer of heat to air passed therealong.

Mcarthur, W.H.

1980-01-22

150

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

151

Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01

152

Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.  

PubMed

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island. PMID:16856752

Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

2006-07-01

153

STUDY ON ROOF SYSTEM REFLECTIVITY AND NEAR-SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURES IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2001, the City of Chicago revised its energy code. As a result, all low-slope roof systems constructed were prescribed to have a minimum thermal resistance along with an initial solar reflectivity of 0.65. After three years, the roof reflectivity was to achieve a minimum of 0.50 (washed or unwashed). A Roofing Industry Alliance was formed and a study

RENÉ M. DUPUIS; MARK S. GRAHAM

154

Scalable methodology for the photovoltaic solar energy potential assessment based on available roof surface area: Further improvements by ortho-image analysis and application to Turin (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing rush of the UE member states to the 2020 overall targets on the national renewable energy share (see Directive 2009\\/28\\/EC), is propelling the large exploitation of the solar resource for the electricity production. However, the incentives to the large employment of PV solar modules and the relative perspective profits, are often cause of massive ground-mounted installations. These kind

Luca Bergamasco; Pietro Asinari

2011-01-01

155

Structural testing of corrugated asbestos-cement roof panels at the Hanford Facilities, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a roof testing program that was carried out at the 105KE/KW Spent Fuel Storage Basins and their surrounding facilities at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof panels were constructed in the mid 1950`s of corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C), which showed common signs of aging. Based on the construction specifications, the panels capacity to meet current design standards was questioned. Both laboratory and in-situ load testing of the corrugated A/C panels was conducted. The objective of the complete test program was to determine the structural integrity of the existing A/C roof panels installed in the 105KE and 105KW facilities. The data from these tests indicated that the roofs are capable of resisting the design loads and are considered safe. A second phase test to address the roof resistance to personnel and roof removal/roofing system installation equipment was recommended and is underway.

Moustafa, S.E.; Rodehaver, S.M. [Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Frier, W.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-10-01

156

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

2009-07-01

157

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

2013-07-01

158

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

2010-07-01

159

12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

160

13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

161

Built-Up Roof Construction Quality Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report recommends ways to improve the performance of built-up roofing in Army facilities by advancing roof construction quality control and quality assurance. This study assessed the state of the art in roofing quality control; evaluated existing Arm...

E. S. Lindow E. Marvin M. J. Rosenfield J. Blair

1979-01-01

162

High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate high efficiency triple junction solar cells with submillimeter dimensions in an all-back-contact architecture. 550 × 550 ?m2 cells flash at 41.3% efficiency under the air mass 1.5 direct normal spectrum at 50 W/cm2 at 25 °C. Compared to standard size production cells, the micro cells have reduced performance at 1-sun due to perimeter recombination, but the performance gap closes at higher concentrations. Micro cells integrated with lens arrays were tested on-sun with an efficiency of 34.7%. All-back-contact architecture and submillimeter dimensions are advantageous for module integration and heat dissipation, allowing for high-performance, compact, lightweight, and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic modules.

Fidaner, Onur; Suarez, Ferran A.; Wiemer, Michael; Sabnis, Vijit A.; Asano, Tetsuya; Itou, Akihiro; Inoue, Daijiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Nakagawa, Tohru

2014-03-01

163

Integrated Solar-Energy-Harvesting and -Storage Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular, integrated, completely solid-state system designed to harvest and store solar energy is under development. Called the power tile, the hybrid device consists of a photovoltaic cell, a battery, a thermoelectric device, and a charge-control circuit that are heterogeneously integrated to maximize specific energy capacity and efficiency. Power tiles could be used in a variety of space and terrestrial environments and would be designed to function with maximum efficiency in the presence of anticipated temperatures, temperature gradients, and cycles of sunlight and shadow. Because they are modular in nature, one could use a single power tile or could construct an array of as many tiles as needed. If multiple tiles are used in an array, the distributed and redundant nature of the charge control and distribution hardware provides an extremely fault-tolerant system. The figure presents a schematic view of the device.

whitacre, Jay; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Mojarradi, Mohammed; Johnson, Travis; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Bugga, Ratnakumar; West, William; Surampudi, Subbarao; Blosiu, Julian

2004-01-01

164

Floating roof storage tank boilover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage tanks are important facilities for the major hazard installations (MHIs) to store large quantity of crude oil. There is several fire types can occur with large diameter open top floating roof storage tanks. Boilover is considered one of the most dangerous fires in large-scale oil tank. The world has witnessed many incidents due to boilover in floating roof storage

Ibrahim M. Shaluf; Salim A. Abdullah

2011-01-01

165

Housing structure utilizing solar energy  

SciTech Connect

A solar cell array consisting of individually rotatable elongated segments is flexibly supported beneath a translucent panel in the exterior roof of a building. A thermal solar collector is supported beneath the solar cell array for maximum utilization of the solar energy received through the roof opening.

Whittaker, R.E.

1983-02-15

166

A study of suspended roofs for near-source seismic motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-linear behavior of multi-suspended roof systems for seismic loads is studied. The study is based on a formulation that can be easily employed for a preliminary design of multi-suspended roofs subjected to seismic loads. Specifically, applying Lagrange’s equations, the corresponding set of equations of motion for discrete models of multiple suspension roofs is obtained and numerical integration of the

Ioannis G. Raftoyiannis; Constantine C. Spyrakos

2008-01-01

167

Transient analysis of integrated solar\\/diesel hybrid power system using MATLAB Simulink  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Matlab simulation the dynamic behavior of small autonomous power system with solar and diesel power sources. The solar power system and the diesel generator operate in parallel. It is more cost effective than a diesel generator acting alone. For the effective integration of the solar power into the power system, a method for controlling the Inverter's operation

Takyin Taky Chan

168

Integration of a desiccant unit in crops solar drying installation: optimization by numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adsorption unit of silica gel is designed and integrated in a crops solar drying installation. The installation consists of a direct flat plate forced convective solar dryer connected with a similar solar collector. The daily sorption cycle of the desiccant unit is first investigated and a suitable coupling of the collector, the dryer and the adsorption unit has been

Riyad Hodali; Jacques Bougard

2001-01-01

169

Monte Carlo Simulations of Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Front-Facing Photovoltaic Cells for Building Integrated Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles and concentrate the captured light on to small photo active areas. This enables LSCs to be integrated more extensively into buildings as windows and wall claddings on top of roof installations. LSCs with front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. It also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells when designing panels to balance reabsorption losses, power output and the level of concentration desired. A Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels and aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters. Interactions of photons with the LSC panel are determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. Simulation results reveal optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts to achieve maximum power output.

Woei Leow, Shin; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue

2013-03-01

170

Lightweight, Flexible, Thin, Integrated Solar-Power Packs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, flexible, thin, one-piece, solar-power packs are undergoing development. Each power pack of this type is a complete, modular, integrated power-supply system comprising three power subsystems that, in conventional practice, have been constructed as separate units and connected to each other by wires. These power packs are amenable to a variety of uses: For example, they could be laminated to the tops of tents and other shelters to provide or augment power for portable electronic equipment in the field, and they could be used as power sources for such small portable electronic systems as radio transceivers (including data relays and cellular telephones), laptop computers, video camcorders, and Global Positioning System receivers.

Hanson, Robert R.

2004-01-01

171

Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops  

SciTech Connect

The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2012-01-01

172

Simulating Nonlinear Deformations of Solar Sail Membranes Using Explicit Time Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the explicit time integration method is employed to predict deformations of highly flexible solar sail structural components. The nonlinear static analysis of a highly flexible ribbon structure is presented to demonstrate the need for having the explicit time integration method in the analysis toolbox for solar sails. Static analyses of the ribbon structure produce ambiguous results whereas

John T. Wang; David W. Sleight; Alex Tessler

173

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

174

Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

175

Dynamic model of a solar thermochemical water-splitting reactor with integrated energy collection and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-splitting solar thermochemical cycles are important in meeting the challenges of global climate change and limited fossil fuels. However, solar radiation varies in availability, leading to unsteady state operation. We propose a solar receiver-reactor with integrated energy collection and storage. The reactor consists of a double-pipe heat exchanger placed at the focal line of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. Molten

Rong Xu; Theodore F. Wiesner

176

Experimental investigation of hydrogen production integrated methanol steam reforming with middle-temperature solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a hydrogen production method that utilizes solar thermal energy in an effective manner is a great challenge. In this paper we propose a new approach to solar hydrogen production with the integration of methanol steam reforming and middle-temperature solar thermal energy. An experiment on hydrogen production is conducted using a 5-kW solar reactor at 150?300°C under atmosphere pressure. The

Qibin Liu; Hui Hong; Jianli Yuan; Hongguang Jin; Ruixian Cai

2009-01-01

177

Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

2002-12-15

178

Life-cycle cost–benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop—commonly called a green roof—as an alternative to traditional roofing

Timothy Carter; Andrew Keeler

2008-01-01

179

Automated roof identification systems and methods  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Automatic roof identification systems and methods are described. Example embodiments include a roof estimation system configured to automatically detect a roof in a target image of a building having a roof. In one embodiment, automatically detecting a roof in a target image includes training one or more artificial intelligence systems to identify likely roof sections of an image. The artificial intelligence systems are trained on historical image data or an operator-specified region of interest within the target image. Then, a likely outline of the roof in the target image can be determined based on the trained artificial intelligence systems. The likely roof outline can be used to generate a roof estimate report. This abstract is provided to comply with rules requiring an abstract, and it is submitted with the intention that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims.

2014-05-20

180

Analytical integrated functions for daily solar radiation on slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a procedure for estimating daily global solar radiation for inclined surfaces having specified slope and aspect for application with surface energy balance models for determining evapotranspiration. Procedures are provided for developing clear sky solar curves and for translating measured solar radiation from a horizontal surface to slopes. The procedure assumes an extensive surface having uniform slope at

Richard G. Allen; Ricardo Trezza; Masahiro Tasumi

2006-01-01

181

PN junction fabrication of solar cells and integration with metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon is the primary material used for the fabrication of solar cells and it is responsible for about 40% of the cost. Metamaterials show promise in enhancing the performance of silicon solar cells thus, improving the efficiency. Here we report on the fabrication of a broadband, antireflective, conductive metamaterial capable of channeling light into a solar cell. As a precursor

Amarachukwu Enemuo; David T. Crouse; Michael Crouse

2011-01-01

182

Solar Equipment System Packages for Old and New Buildings to Provide Domestic Water and Partial Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inspected commercial solar collectors for heating of domestic water and space heating from 1977/78 failed in an long-time-test. From architectural viewpoint it is difficult to integrate the collectors into roof- or wall surfaces due to its typical box...

G. Berg F. J. Mueller

1982-01-01

183

Validation of a simulation model for water desalination in a greenhouse roof through laboratory experiments and conceptual parameter discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water desalination in a greenhouse roof means that solar energy is absorbed for evaporation from a thin, flowing layer of water. Earlier a quite detailed simulation model was developed for analysis of the thermal and optical characteristics of this desalination system concept. This paper describes laboratory experiments with a small roof module and presents measurements compared to simulations obtained in

M. T. Chaibi

2002-01-01

184

Self advancing mine roof supports  

SciTech Connect

A self-advancing mine-roof-support for use in or aligned with a main roadway or gate has a floor-engaging part and a roof engaging part spaced apart by extensible load-bearing prop or jack means, and engagement means for a face-conveyor and a transversely acting transfer conveyor whereby their relative positions are constrained to facilitate discharge of mineral from one conveyor to the other. The engagement means for the face conveyor comprises sliding anchor beams that assure maintenance of the relative attitudes of the support and the face conveyor and the transfer conveyor is held fore and aft of the support.

Seddon, J.; Jones, F.

1985-03-19

185

Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

2004-01-01

186

System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

1979-01-01

187

Techno-economic appraisal of an integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters, due to their simple compact structure and inherent freeze protection, offer a promising approach for solar water heating in colder climates. Such a system, designed specifically for application at a Northern latitude, has been developed incorporating a heat retaining storage vessel mounted within a concentrating cusp reflector supported by a novel exo-skeleton framework. The performance

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2004-01-01

188

Field Investigation of Externally Insulated Sheeting Roofs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation of externally insulated sheeting roofs comprised field investigations in addition to the tests in the laboratory. The field investigation consisted of collection of insulation and sheeting data from roof laying in progress, and the proc...

B. Gullbrandson G. Johansson

1975-01-01

189

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

190

D Local Scale Solar Radiation Model Based on Urban LIDAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study is to obtain the direct, diffuse and reflected solar energy that reaches a generic point of an urban landscape regardless of its location on a roof, on the ground or on a façade. The vertical façades embody a discontinuity in a digital elevation surface function and most models fail in the determination of solar radiation for points on façades. The presented algorithm solves the problem in an integrated way: starting with a georreferenced LIDAR data cloud covering a 400 × 400 m2 urban area resampled in a 1m × 1m mesh, applies a new shadow algorithm over roofs, terrain and façades for each time frame, applies the Kumar solar radiation model for the calculation of direct, diffuse and reflected irradiation for each 1x1m raster cell on non vertical surfaces of roof and terrain, and calculates total and mean irradiation of each 1 meter wide column of vertical façade based on the illuminated area at each time frame. The results for each time frame are integrated for the wished time period from one hour to one year, being the time steps also selectable, allowing several kinds of solar radiation and shadowing studies. GIS were used to evaluate monthly averages of solar radiation for a particular location as well as to map the photovoltaic potential of the building façades and their roofs according to determined classes of potential.

Redweik, P. M.; Catita, C.; Brito, M. C.

2011-09-01

191

Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public awareness in the context of climate-neutral actions, and in a long run, contribute to significantly reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions.

Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

2012-12-01

192

Guidelines for Inspecting Your Roof Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides guidelines for inspecting the roof of a facility. Suggests that periodic roof inspections should be performed on a quarterly or semi-annual basis and after severe storms. Proactively identifying potential problem areas is the best defense against roof leaks. (SLD)

Watkins, Daniel L.

2003-01-01

193

Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one

1993-01-01

194

Floating roof tank with rim space seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vertical cylindrical liquid storage tank having a circular floating roof of smaller diameter than the tank thereby defining a clearance space between the roof edge and the tank wall; a seal joined to the roof and extending upwardly therefrom into slidable contact with the tank wall; the seal completely covering the clearance space; the seal comprising

R. B. Grove; S. W. Peters; M. L. Tellalian

1986-01-01

195

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the mine operator...the strata. (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the...bolt installed during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or...

2011-07-01

196

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the mine operator...the strata. (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the...bolt installed during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or...

2012-07-01

197

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standard Specification for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories,” the mine operator...the strata. (4) In each roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the...bolt installed during each roof bolting cycle shall be tested during or...

2010-07-01

198

Floating-roof tank evaporation  

SciTech Connect

The book describes an improved method for estimating the total evaporative losses of the equivalent atmospheric hydrocarbon emissions from external floating-roof tanks that contain multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures (such as gasolines and crude oils) or single-component stocks (such as petro-chemicals).

Not Available

1989-01-01

199

Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies Higher operating frequencies enable greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of GaAs solar cell MIMs (Monolithically Integrated Module) with a single patch antenna on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the integration of MIMs and antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

2004-01-01

200

Can One Million PV Roof Tops be Realistically Achieved in Thailand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major problems are the expensive cost and low effectiveness of the solar cells (only 14.5 %). In the past it seems impossible to create a high standard of living in a house relying only on electricity from solar cells on the roof. The equipment that can adequately supply the domestic demand costs around 20 millions Baht. It is not

Soontorn Boonyatikarn

2004-01-01

201

Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies  

SciTech Connect

Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

Bird, L.; Lew, D.

2012-09-01

202

A Roof for ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 10 March, an official ceremony took place on the 2,900m high site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility, from where the ALMA antennas will be remotely controlled. The ceremony marked the completion of the structural works, while the building itself will be finished by the end of the year. This will become the operational centre of one of the most important ground-based astronomical facilities on Earth. ESO PR Photo 13a/07 ESO PR Photo 13a/07 Cutting the Red Ribbon The ceremony, known as 'Tijerales' in Chile, is the equivalent to the 'roof-topping ceremony' that takes place worldwide, in one form or another, to celebrate reaching the highest level of a construction. It this case, the construction is the unique ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located near the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "The end of this first stage represents an historic moment for ALMA," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Once completed in December 2007, this monumental building of 7,000 square metres will be one of the largest and most important astronomical operation centres in the world." ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. The OSF buildings are designed to suit the requirements of this exceptional observatory in a remote, desert location. The facility, which will host about 100 people during operations, consists of three main buildings: the technical building, hosting the control centre of the observatory, the antenna assembly building, including four antenna foundations for testing and maintenance purposes, and the warehouse building, including mechanical workshops. Further secondary buildings are the transporter shelters and the vehicle maintenance facilities as well as the ALMA gate house. The construction started in August 2006 and will be completed in December 2007. ESO PR Photo 13b/07 ESO PR Photo 13b/07 The Ceremony The ceremony took place in the presence of representatives of the regional authorities, members of the Chilean Parliament, and representatives of the local community, including the mayor of San Pedro, Ms. Sandra Berna, who joined more than 40 representatives of ESO, NRAO and NAOJ - the organisations that are, together, building ALMA. "This is certainly a big step in the realisation of the ALMA Project. The completion of this facility will be essential for assembly, testing and adjustment as well as operation and maintenance of all ALMA antennas from Europe, North America and from Japan," said Ryusuke Ogasawara, the representative of NAOJ in Chile. "This is a tremendous achievement and represents a major milestone for the ALMA project," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. ESO PR Photo 13c/07 ESO PR Photo 13c/07 The OSF (Artist's View) The first ALMA antennas, the prototypes of which successfully achieved their first combined astronomical observation last week, are expected to arrive at the ALMA site in a few months. These huge antennas will travel in pieces from Europe, USA and Japan and will be assembled next to the OSF building. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership among Europe, Japan and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of Japan by the National As

2007-03-01

203

Integrating Multiple Approaches to Solving Solar Wind Turbulence Problems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate understanding of the solar wind turbulence must explain the physical process and their connection at all scales ranging from the largest down to electron kinetic scales. This is a daunting task and as a result a more piecemeal approach to the problem has been followed. For example, the role of each wave has been explored in isolation and in simulations with scales limited to those of the underlying waves. In this talk, we present several issues with this approach and offer an alternative with an eye towards more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence. The main simulation techniques used have been MHD, Hall MHD, hybrid, fully kinetic, and gyrokinetic. We examine the limitations of each approach and their viability for studies of solar wind turbulence. Finally, the effect of initial conditions on the resulting turbulence and their comparison with solar wind are demonstrated through several kinetic simulations.

Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.

2013-12-01

204

Condensation Risk of Mechanically Attached Roof Systems in Cold Climate Zones  

SciTech Connect

A white roof, cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with mechanically attached membrane, have shown to have a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparisons with similar construction with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in Northern U.S. climate zones. A white roof surface reflects more of the incident solar radiation in comparisons with a dark surface, which makes a distinguished difference on the surface temperature of the roof. However, flat roofs with either a light or dark surface and if facing a clear sky, are constantly losing energy to the sky due to the exchange of infrared radiation. This phenomenon exists both during the night and the day. During the day, if the sun shines on the roof surface, the exchange of infrared radiation typically becomes insignificant. During nights and in cold climates, the temperature difference between the roof surface and the sky can deviate up to 20 C (Hagentoft, 2001) which could result in a very cold surface temperature compared to the ambient temperature. Further, a colder surface temperature of the roof increases the energy loss and the risk of condensation in the building materials below the membrane. In conclusion, both light and dark coated roof membranes are cooled by the infrared radiation exchange during the night, though a darker membrane is more heated by the solar radiation during the day, thus decreasing the risk of condensation. The phenomenon of night time cooling from the sky and the lack of solar gains during the day is not likely the exclusive problem concerning the risk of condensation in cool roofs with mechanically attached membranes. Roof systems with thermoplastic membranes are prone to be more effected by interior air intrusion into the roof construction; both due to the wind induced pressure differences and due to the flexibility and elasticity of the membrane (Molleti, Baskaran, Kalinger, & Beaulieu, 2011). Depending on the air permeability of the material underneath the membrane, wind forces increase the risk of fluttering (also referred as billowing) of the thermoplastic membrane. Expectably, the wind induced pressure differences creates a convective air flow into the construction i.e. Page 2 air intrusion. If the conditions are right, moisture from the exchanging air may condensate on surfaces with a temperature below dew-point. The definite path of convective airflows through the building envelope is usually very difficult to determine and therefore simplified models (K nzel, Zirkelbach, & Scfafaczek, 2011) help to estimate an additional moisture loads as a result of the air intrusion. The wind uplifting pressure in combination with wind gusts are important factors for a fluttering roof. Unfortunately, the effect from a fluctuating wind is difficult to estimate as this is a highly dynamic phenomenon and existing standards (ASTM, 2011a) only take into account a steady state approach i.e. there is no guidance or regulations on how to estimate the air intrusion rate. Obviously, a more detailed knowledge on the hygrothermal performance of mechanically attached cool roof system is requested; in consideration to varying surface colors, roof air tightness, climate zones and indoor moisture supply.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2013-01-01

205

Simulating Nonlinear Deformations of Solar Sail Membranes Using Explicit Time Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, the explicit time integration method is employed to predict deformation of highly flexible solar sail structural components. The nonlinear static analysis of a highly flexible ribbon structure is presented to demonstrate the need for having the explicit time integration method in the analysis toolbox for solar sail. Static analyses of the ribbon structure produce ambiquous results whereas the explicit time integration method determines the correct results. Extensive benchmarking examples are also presented to build confidence in the use of the explicit method. Previously determined nonlinear wrinkling deformations of solar sail membranes are found by the explicit method. As the explicit method is known to often require more computational time than nonlinear static methods, a study on mass scaling was also conducted. The computational times are reported for the nonlinear static and explicit time integration solutions to calibrate the advantage of using mass scaling for these problems.

Wang, John T.; Chen, Tzikang; Sleight, David W.; Tessler, Alex

2004-01-01

206

Roof Polishing of Optical Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bevealed tip gives optimum coupling efficiency. Abrasive tape used to grind tip of optical fiber. Grinding force depends on stiffness of optical fiber. "Roof" shape on end of optical glass fiber increases efficiency which couples laser light. End surface angle of 65 degrees with perpendicular required for optimum coupling. Since fiber and tape are light in weight and compliant, ridge defect-free, and chipping on fiber edge totally eliminated.

Dholakia, A. R.

1985-01-01

207

Solar Energy Demonstrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

1979-01-01

208

Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!  

SciTech Connect

Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

Desjarlais, A.

1995-12-31

209

Model calculations on a flat-plate solar heat collector with integrated solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed physical model of a hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal system is proposed, and algorithms for making quantitative predictions regarding the performance of the system are presented. The motivation for the present work is that solar cells act as good heat collectors and are fairly good selective absorbers. Additionally, most solar cells increase their efficiency when heat is drawn from the cells.

Trond Bergene; Ole Martin Løvvik

1995-01-01

210

Thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film silicon solar cells need efficient light absorption to achieve high efficiencies. The standard light trapping approach consists of a randomly textured transparent substrate and a highly reflective back contact. In this case, light scattering at the rough TCO–silicon interface leads to a prolonged absorption path and consequently to an increased short circuit current. In this study, we will discuss

E. Moulin; J. Sukmanowski; M. Schulte; A. Gordijn; F. X. Royer; H. Stiebig

2008-01-01

211

The integral method of treatment of experimental data from radiochemical solar neutrino detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical errors in solar neutrino detection are analyzed for gallium-germanium and chlorine-argon detectors for different times of exposure and counter backgrounds. It is shown that short exposures (0.5-1 half-life) produce a minimal (under 10 percent) one-year error. The possibility of detecting the solar neutrino flux variation due to annual changes of the earth-sun distance is examined. An integral approach to

V. N. Gavrin; A. V. Kopylov; A. V. Streltsov

1985-01-01

212

System requirements specification for a Solar Central Receiver System integrated with a cogeneration facility  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics, design and environmental requirements, and economic data are defined for a Solar Central Receiver System Integrated with a Cogeneration Facility for Copper Smelting. The added solar capacity will supply process heat to an existing copper smelting flash furnace of Finnish design as well as providing for the cogeneration of electricity by an added gas turbine system. Heat storage to accommodate periods of low solar insolation is accomplished by the innovative utilization of copper slag in a thermal energy storage system. The proposed modifications and existing site conditions and facilities are described. Applicable standards and codes, publications, reference documentation, and regulatory information are listed. Design and performance requirements to be met by this solar cogeneration facility are outlined, and the environmental criteria applicable to the plant are addressed. The solar cogeneration facility's characteristics and performance data are specified, along with the plant cost and economic data. Simulation models are also described.

Not Available

1981-02-24

213

Solar Reserve Methodology for Renewable Energy Integration Studies Based on Sub-Hourly Variability Analysis: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Increasing penetrations of wind a solar energy are raising concerns among electric system operators because of the variability and uncertainty associated with power sources. Previous work focused on the quantification of reserves for systems with wind power. This paper presents a new methodology that allows the determination of necessary reserves for high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) power and compares it to the wind-based methodology. The solar reserve methodology is applied to Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. A summary of the results is included.

Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Hummon, M.; Lew, D.

2012-08-01

214

Research on integrated system for solar simulator performance calibration according to IEC 60904-9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar simulators are widely used for indoor measurement of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics as well as irradiance exposure tests of terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) devices. The influence of solar simulator's performance, commonly including spectral mismatch and irradiance uniformity/temporal stability, can never be ignored, especially in the case of I-V characteristics measurement. Herein, we present an integrated system for solar simulator's performance calibration according to IEC 60904-9, which proposed requirements and defined classifications for solar simulators, with items of spectral mismatch compared with AM 1.5 reference solar spectral irradiance (AM 1.5 G), non-uniformity and temporal instability of irradiance. This integrated system is composed of two major departments, i) a calibrated optic fiber spectrometer for spectral mismatch characteristic, ii) data acquisition equipments for detecting irradiance uniformity/temporal stability and calibrating Isc/Voc measurements. It is applicable to various kinds of solar simulators and portable to satisfy the requirements of on-site calibration for solar simulator users.

Meng, Hai-Feng; Xiong, Li-Min; He, Ying-Wei; Liu, Ding-Pu

2011-11-01

215

In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented curr...

A. O. Desjarlais J. E. Christian R. S. Graves

1993-01-01

216

Integral solar and heat pump water heating system  

SciTech Connect

A multi-mode water heating system wherein a capacity control mechanism is provide so that no additional heat source is required and via use of capacity control, either solar radiation energy or ambient air energy is selectively utilized dependent on the availability of sunshine. A system configuration is so arranged as to maximize the system seasonal coefficient of performance by a refrigeration cycle optimization which adjusts both a pump/compressor speed and pressure regulating valve opening.

Yoshino, H.

1985-04-02

217

Efficient use of gas by the employment of assembly-type radiant roofs in industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with conventional flame burner heating systems, special burners such as radiant burners allow a more efficient utilization of gas in industrial furnaces in many cases of application. Practice has shown that the integration of radiant burners into assembly-type roof elements and the additional application of radiation-active ceramic protective layers permit an efficient design and employment of radiant roofs. Self-supporting

F. Borrmann; K. Hafner

1988-01-01

218

PN junction fabrication of solar cells and integration with metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon is the primary material used for the fabrication of solar cells and it is responsible for about 40% of the cost. Metamaterials show promise in enhancing the performance of silicon solar cells thus, improving the efficiency. Here we report on the fabrication of a broadband, antireflective, conductive metamaterial capable of channeling light into a solar cell. As a precursor to making the metamaterial, standard p-n junctions were fabricated. Conventional phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3) furnace diffusion was used to create the p-n junction. When the p-n junction was forward biased, the measured current exhibited a diode characteristic. The measured photocurrent response yielded an open circuit voltage for the p-n junction at 0.48 VDC. The metamaterial film was fabricated, placed atop the p-n junction and characterized. Initial tests showed that the metamaterial antireflective properties were on par with those of standard industrial single-layer silicon nitride coatings. Further testing is being performed to assess the full optical and electrical performance of the metamaterial film.

Enemuo, Amarachukwu; Crouse, David T.; Crouse, Michael

2011-05-01

219

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

2007-08-28

220

Micro-financing solar power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posing for the camera, Mr. Gunapala Seneviratne and family stand on their porch under a solar lamp. The light is powered by a solar photovoltaic panel that has just been installed on their roof. For five hours technicians from SELCO Solar Lanka, a local solar company, have been busy installing this 40 W, five light, one electric outlet, solar home

Judith Lipp

2001-01-01

221

40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

2013-07-01

222

A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting  

SciTech Connect

Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

2013-02-21

223

Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology  

SciTech Connect

Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, No 593 Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

2010-09-15

224

Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) on Solar Probe Plus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. There is still a lot of uncertainty about the specific acceleration processes that generate high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher-energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements in the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide critical measurements that, when integrated with the measurements of other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and the origin of SEPs.

Christian, E. R.; McComas, D. J.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Livi, S. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Schwadron, N. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

2013-05-01

225

40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140... § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal...

2013-07-01

226

Adaptation of soil solarization to the integrated management of soilborne pests of tomato under humid conditions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Soil solarization was shown to be cost effective, compatible with other pest management tactics, readily integrated into standard production systems, and a valid alternative to preplant fumigation with methyl bromide under the tested conditions. Solarization using clear, photoselective, or gas-impermeable plastic was evaluated in combination with metham sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, methyl bromide + chloropicrin, pebulate, or cabbage residue. Strip solarization, applied to 20-cm-high, 0.9-m-wide beds, was conducted to achieve compatibility with standard production practices and resulted in soil temperatures 2 to 4 degrees C above those temperatures resulting when using conventional flatbed solarization. Soil temperatures were 1 to 2 degrees C higher at the edges of the raised beds, eliminating any border effects associated with solarization. Following a 40- to 55-day solarization period, the plastic was painted white and used as a production mulch for a subsequent tomato crop. The incidence of Southern blight and the density of Paratrichodorus minor and Criconemella spp. were lower (P < 0.05) in solarized plots. No differences (P < 0.05) in the incidence of Fusarium wilt and the density of nutsedge and Helicotylenchus spp. were observed between plots receiving solarization and plots fumigated with a mixture of methyl bromide + chloropicrin. The severity of root galling was lower (P < 0.05) when soil solarization was combined with 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin (16.2 + 3.4 g/m(2)) and a gas-impermeable film. The incidence of bacterial wilt was not affected by soil treatments. Marketable yields in plots using various combinations of soil solarization and other tactics were similar (P < 0.05) to yields obtained in plots fumigated with methyl bromide + chloropicrin. The results were validated in several large scale field experiments conducted by commercial growers. PMID:18945167

Chellemi, D O; Olson, S M; Mitchell, D J; Secker, I; McSorley, R

1997-03-01

227

Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems  

SciTech Connect

Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40% in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. It should be noted that these values are climate dependent. Vegetative roofs also reduced the temperature (heat exposure) and temperature fluctuations (thermal stress) experienced by the membrane. In the cooling season of East Tennessee, the average peak temperature of the 4-inch and tray systems was found to be approximately 94 F cooler than the control black roofing system. The average temperature fluctuations at the membrane for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 10 F compared to 125 F for black and 64 F for white systems. As expected, the 8-inch vegetative roof had the lowest fluctuations at approximately 2 F. Future work will include modeling of the energy performance of vegetative roof panels in the test climate of East Tennessee. The validated model then will be used to predict energy use in roofs with different insulation levels and in climates different from the test climate.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ennis, Mike J [ORNL

2010-01-01

228

See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.  

PubMed

See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. PMID:23966106

Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

2013-10-25

229

Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 15th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period December 1979 to April 1980 is described. Project analysis and integration, technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheet and encapsulation, production process and equipment development, engineering, and operation are included.

1980-01-01

230

Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles, produced by thermal evaporation and a subsequent annealing treatment, were integrated at the back side of thin-film silicon solar cells. Metallic nanoparticles can lead to (i) a strong enhancement of the electric field in their surrounding when they are irradiated by light and (ii) significant scattering of the light when they have the proper diameter (>100nm). In this

E. Moulin; J. Sukmanowski; P. Luo; R. Carius; F. X. Royer; H. Stiebig

2008-01-01

231

Output Air Temperature Prediction in a Solar Air Heater Integrated with Phase Change Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical investigation of output air temperature due to thermal energy discharge process from a phase change material (PCM) unit consists of in- line single row of cylinders contain a compound of paraffin wax with aluminum powder. This system consists of a single-glazed solar air collector integrated with a PCM unit which is divided into cylinders as

M. M. Alkilani; K. Sopian

232

Simulation of solar-powered ammonia-water integrated hybrid cooling system  

SciTech Connect

a number of solar-operated air-conditioning systems based on the H{sub 2}O-LiBr absorption chiller were built, installed, and monitored. A systematic study at the University of Colorado has been published. This paper presents a simple cost-benefit analysis of the conventional vapor compression system (VCS), the vapor absorption system (VAS), and the integrated hybrid system (IHS). The cost of energy input to the VAS and the IHS were compared with the energy cost of the VCS that these solar-powered systems replace. It was found that cost savings can be realized with solar-powered systems, only after a critical overall solar fraction is exceeded. Typically, this value was about 0.7 for a VAS and about 0.12 for a IHS. These cost-benefit results provided the motivation for a more detailed study of the IHS. There has also been other efforts in this direction.

Chinnappa, J.C.V. (James Cook Univ., Townsville 4811 (AU)); Wijeysundera, N.E. (Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (SG))

1992-05-01

233

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

234

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-07-01

235

Wax scraper for floating roof tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wax scraper is described for removing waxy deposits from the inside surface of floating roof storage tanks during the operation of such tanks, without requiring the removal of all obstructions from the inside surface of the tanks. The floating roof structure has affixed to it a number of support means. Each support means carries a scraper blade having scraper

H. A. Maeder; A. H. Nelson; F. R. Neely

1971-01-01

236

Metal Roofing in a "Class" by Itself.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structural standing seam roof has the advantages of ease of application, low maintenance, and low life-cycle costs. Explains and illustrates how the system's concealed clip attachments are designed so that the roof panels can expand and contract independently of the insulation. (MLF)

Nimtz, Paul D.

1990-01-01

237

Behavior of suspended roofs under blast loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the nonlinear dynamic behavior of initially imperfect dissipative multi-suspended roof systems under blast loading. For various realistic combinations of geometrical, stiffness and damping parameters, the systems do not experience either snapping or large amplitude chaotic motions, contrary to findings reported for single and double suspension roof systems. A nonlinear analysis is employed to establish that global

Ioannis G. Raftoyiannis; Constantine C. Spyrakos; George T. Michaltsos

2007-01-01

238

Roofs--Their Problems and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most roofs are meant to withstand the elements for a period of 20 years; to achieve this goal, however, school officials must believe in a dedicated maintenance program and sell it to their superiors and school boards. Establishment of a school district roof maintenance program is explained. Job qualifications and training methods for an inhouse…

Swentkofske, Carl J.

239

Building Digest - Roofing, Flooring and Construction Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a compilation of 9 bulletins. These are: Waffle unit floor/roof; Doubly curved tile roof; Unit frame scaffolding; High strength deformed bars; Sealants for joint and cracks in buildings; Cement as a substitute for lead in jointing C.I. pi...

P. B. Rao J. George S. K. Sharma M. P. Jaisingh V. K. Jain

1974-01-01

240

Interpretation of 2d and 3d Building Details on Facades and Roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Internet-inspired mapping data are in the form of street maps, orthophotos, 3D models or street-side images and serve to support mostly search and navigation. Yet the only mapping data that currently can really be searched are the street maps via their addresses and coordinates. The orthophotos, 3D models and street-side images represent predominantly "eye candy" with little added value to the Internet-user. We are interested in characterizing the elements of the urban space from imagery. In this paper we discuss the use of street side imagery and aerial imagery to develop descriptions of urban spaces, initially of building facades and roofs. We present methods (a) to segment facades using high-overlap street side facade images, (b) to map facades and facade details from vertical aerial images, and (c) to characterize roofs by their type and details, also from aerial photography. This paper describes a method of roof segmentation with the goal of assigning each roof to a specific architectural style. Questions of the use of the attic space, or the placement of solar panels, are of interest. It is of interest that roofs have recently been mapped using LiDAR point clouds. We demonstrate that aerial images are a useful and economical alternative to LiDAR for the characterization of building roofs, and that they also contain very valuable information about facades.

Meixner, P.; Leberl, F.; Brédif, M.

2011-04-01

241

The solar cube: A building-integrated photovoltaic incubator  

SciTech Connect

A huge tipped glass tube provides instruction to visitors to the Discovery Science Center in Los Angeles, and an educational diversion to commuters on Interstate 5. The project revealed that photovoltaic industry has a lot to learn from those in the construction industry about building-integrated photovoltaics. The industry must develop products pleasing to the architect and the architect's client, and easily adaptable to the rest of the building. This market requires PV manufacturers to look at photovoltaics as a building material that just so happens to produce electricity, too. Hence, price per square rules in this application over cost per watt. Most importantly, of course, demonstrating as pioneers the potential of building-integrated photovoltaics has delighted the client, The Science Discovery Center.

Perlin, J.

2000-06-01

242

Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their p...

T. W. Petrie P. W. Childs J. E. Christian

1998-01-01

243

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-01-01

244

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-06-01

245

Method for fabricating solar cells having integrated collector grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device comprising a conductive base metal layer compatible with and coating predominately the exposed surface of the p-type substrate of the device such that a back surface field region is formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device having a metal alloy grid network of the same metal elements of the oxide constituents of the mixed metal oxide layer embedded in the mixed metal oxide layer, an insulating layer which prevents electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer, and a metal contact means covering the insulating layer and in intimate contact with the metal grid network embedded in the transparent, conductive oxide layer for conducting electrons generated by the photovoltaic process from the device.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1979-01-01

246

Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

2005-01-01

247

Green roofs for a drier world: Effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.  

PubMed

Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8cm or 12cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. PMID:24867709

Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

2014-08-15

248

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

249

Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by the absorber tubes. For this reason, the PV/T hybrid is not recommended over other options in new installations. The hybrid solar window is evaluated for a horizontal skylight and south and east facing vertical windows in Minneapolis, MN. The predicted visible transmittance for the solar window is 0.66 to 0.73 for single glazed systems and 0.61 to 0.67 for double glazed systems. The solar heat gain coefficient and the U-factor for the window are comparable to existing glazing technology. Annual thermal efficiencies of up to 24% and 26% are predicted for the vertical window and the horizontal skylight respectively. Experimental measurements of the solar thermal component of the window confirm the trends of the model. In conclusion, the hybrid solar window combines the functionality of an energy efficient fenestration system with hybrid thermal energy generation to provide a compelling solution towards sustainable design of the built environment.

Ulavi, Tejas

250

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

1983-06-01

251

A solar cooker using vacuum-tube collectors with integrated heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar cooking system is described which consists of a vacuum-tube collector with integrated long heat pipes directly leading to the oven plate. The cooker was tested during several clear days in Marburg (latitude 51°). The heat-up times were measured under cold- and hot-start conditions. Detailed temperature distributions and their time dependences were measured. The maximum temperature obtained in a

A. Balzar; P. Stumpf; S. Eckhoff; H. Ackermann; M. Grupp

1996-01-01

252

Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, the authors report that by integrating organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with solar cells, luminous ambient-light reflection as low as 1.4% (even superior to that achieved with polarizers) can be achieved without compromising the electroluminescence efficiency for high-contrast display applications. Furthermore, in such a configuration, the photon energies of the incident ambient light and the portion of OLED

Chih-Jen Yang; Ting-Yi Cho; Chun-Liang Lin; Chung-Chih Wu

2007-01-01

253

Measured performance and modeling of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage water heater was conducted in an indoor solar simulator. Useful collected energy, radiation-induced stratification and draw-induced mixing are characterized in eight trials in which test duration, initial tank water temperature, flow rate during withdrawal of heated water from the collector, withdrawal pattern and reflectance of the backplane were varied. All tests were performed

A. A. Mason; J. H. Davidson

1995-01-01

254

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress report No. 14  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth quarterly report under a JPL/DOE program to develop electrostatic bonding as a method of integral encapsulation of solar cells in glass. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue demonstrations of process uniformity of electrostatic bonding encapsulation by production of 24-cell minimodules by ESB. Additional goals of this program are to develop preformed (wire-mesh) contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure, resulting in a low-cost module assembly technique, and to investigate low-temperature bonding to commercially available glass (Pyrex) superstrates. Progress is reported.

None

1980-08-01

255

Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

2012-05-01

256

Guide for Airborne Infrared Roof Moisture Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents guidance for the conduct of aerial roof moisture surveys using thermal infrared (IR) scanner systems. Specific information is presented concerning assembly of relevant data prior to the thermal IR imagery acquisition, planning the ima...

L. E. Link

1978-01-01

257

Suspension roof support. Progress report 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

How the Bureau of Mines has adapted suspension supports to conditions found in American coal mines is given in an intensive attack upon the problem of preventing mine roof and rock from falling prematurely.

E. Thomas; A. J. Barry; A. Metcalfe

1949-01-01

258

Radiometric calibration of a 100 cm sphere integrating source for VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS) mission has a solar diffuser as a reflective band calibrator. Due to UV solarization of the solar diffuser, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is on-board to track the reflectance change of the solar diffuser in visible to near IR wavelengths. A 100 cm Sphere Integrating Source (SIS) has been used to configure and test the SDSM on the ground since MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) programs. Recent upgrades of the radiance transfer and BRDF measurement instruments in Raytheon have enabled more spectral data and faster measurement time with comparable uncertainty to the previous methods. The SIS has a Radiance Monitor, which has been mainly used as a SIS real-time health checker. It has been observed that the Radiance Monitor response is sufficiently linear and stable thus the Radiance Monitor can be used as a calibrator for ground tests. This paper describes the upgraded SIS calibration instruments, and the changes in the calibration philosophy of the SIS for the SDSM bands.

Kim, Eugene D.; Murgai, Vijay; Menzel, Reinhard W.

2012-09-01

259

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

SciTech Connect

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

260

Energy factors and temperature distribution in insulated built-up roofs. Technical note July 1977-January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating) required, radiative cooling, and insulation efficiency. Results indicate that for a black surface, solar heat response is significantly higher in the roof portion with the higher R-value. Solar heat response is directly affected by color of surfacing; lowest to highest values were found with white, white gravel, gray gravel, aluminum-gray, and black. Recommendations are given for reducing surface temperatures of insulated built-up roofs.

Keeton, J.R.; Alumbaugh, R.L.

1981-02-01

261

Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

Fleeman, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

262

Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure  

SciTech Connect

In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one cylindrical guide sleeve extending downwardly from said floatable roof; a shoe depending laterally from said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve's lower end for engaging the tank floor when the level of contained liquid is insufficient to support said floatable roof, said shoe having means forming a passage there through to register a support column and, an elongated support column removably positioned in said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve, of being sufficient length to extend downward beyond the shoe to engage the tank floor, whereby to sustain the floatable roof a predetermined distance above said floor after the contained liquid has drained from the tank.

Vaughn, L.G.

1993-07-27

263

Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

Gardner, J. A.

1972-01-01

264

Energy and economic analysis of an integrated solar absorption cooling and heating system in different building types and climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solar energy in buildings is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and harmful emissions to the environment. Solar thermal cooling systems are still in their infancy regarding practical applications, although the technology is sufficiently developed for a number of years. In many cases, their application has been conditioned by the lack of integration

Tiago Mateus; Armando C. Oliveira

2009-01-01

265

Supervisory Predictive Control for Long-Term Scheduling of an Integrated Wind\\/Solar Energy Generation and Water Desalination System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we design a supervisory control system via model predictive control (MPC) for the optimal management and operation of an integrated wind-solar energy generation and reverse-osmosis (RO) water desalination system. The supervisory MPC is able to coordinate the wind and solar subsystems as well as a battery bank to provide enough energy to the RO subsystem so that

Wei Qi; Jinfeng Liu; Panagiotis D. Christofides

2012-01-01

266

The effect of roof strength on reducing occupant injury in rollovers.  

PubMed

Roof crush occurs and potentially contributes to serious or fatal occupant injury in 26% of rollovers. It is likely that glazing retention is related to the degree of roof crush experienced in rollover accidents. Occupant ejection (including partial ejection) is the leading cause of death and injury in rollover accidents. In fatal passenger car accidents involving ejection, 34% were ejected through the side windows. Side window glass retention during a rollover is likely to significantly reduce occupant ejections. The inverted drop test methodology is a test procedure to evaluate the structural integrity of roofs under loadings similar to those seen in real world rollovers. Recent testing on many different vehicle types indicates that damage consistent with field rollover accidents can be achieved through inverted drop testing at very small drop heights. Drop test comparisons were performed on 16 pairs of vehicles representing a large spectrum of vehicle types. Each vehicle pair includes a production vehicle and a vehicle with a reinforced roof structure dropped under the same test conditions. This paper offers several examples of post-production reinforcements to roof structures that significantly increase the crush resistance of the roof as measured by inverted drop tests. These modifications were implemented with minimal impact on vehicle styling, interior space and visual clearances. The results of these modifications indicate that roof crush can be mitigated by nearly an order of magnitude, as roof crush was reduced by 44-91% with only a 1-2.3% increase in vehicle weight. Additionally, this paper analyzes the glazing breakage patterns in the moveable tempered side windows on the side adjacent to the vehicle impact point in the inverted drop tests. A comparison is made between the production vehicles and the reinforced vehicles in order to determine if the amount roof crush is related to glazing integrity in the side windows. Lastly, two drop test pairs, performed with Hybrid III test dummies, indicates that the reduction of roof crush resulted in a direct reduction in neck loading and therefore an increase in occupant protection. PMID:15850089

Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Steve; Orton, Tia; Meyer, Steven E; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2005-01-01

267

Integral radial cosmic ray gradients in the solar system from 1972 to 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic-ray telescope data on IMP 8, Voyagers 1 and 2, and Pioneer 10 have been used to determine the integral radial cosmic-ray intensity gradients for energies greater than 60 MeV per nucleon. When the 26 day average counting rates are time-shifted for the effects of the outward propagation speed of the solar modulation, the average integral radial gradients (Gr) are 3.0 + or - 0.35 (percent/AU) from 1975 to 1982. Gr is independent to the first order of the cosmic-ray intensity and radial heliocentric distance out to about 30 AU. After the large transient variations in the cosmic-ray intensity in mid-1982, the integral gradients returned to their original values.

Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.

1984-01-01

268

Surface heat budget on green roof and high reflection roof for mitigation of urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the surface temperature, net radiation, water content ratio, etc., of green roofs and high reflection roofs are observed. The heat and water budget are compared to each other. In the daytime, the temperature of the cement concrete surface, the surface with highly reflective gray paint, bare soil surface, green surface and the surface with highly reflective white

Hideki Takebayashi; Masakazu Moriyama

2007-01-01

269

Green Roofs for a Green Town: Possibilities of Green Roof Implementation in the Town of Normal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs have been growing in popularity throughout the world. Scientists have been studying them since the 1980’s. This research project reviews the literature regarding both the benefits and barriers to green roof construction and management. Policies around the nation are then examined and analyzed. Suggestions are made regarding possible additions to the local Stormwater Management Policy that would emphasize

Sihau Lindsey

2008-01-01

270

Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley-Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above Te = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for Te = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented.

Wu, Chihhui; Neuner, Burton, III; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady

2012-02-01

271

1.9 AN ANALYSIS OF SOLAR DRIVEN CIRCULATION CHANGES IN THE EARTH'S UPPER TROPOSPHERE AND LOWER STRATOSPHERE USING THE INTEGRATED GLOBAL REANALYSIS DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Reanalysis Data (GRD) with integrated worldwide observations is basis of this analysis which searches for solar driven circulations. The search is predicated on a previously described solar mechanism (Powell, et al 2000). The mechanism presumes the solar UV flux, which varies with the 28-day solar rotation, generates changes in the growth and

Alfred M. Powell Jr; Phillip A. Zuzolo; Brenda J. Zuzolo

272

Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control Systems Design for Space Solar Power Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control systems architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

2001-01-01

273

An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.  

PubMed

This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day). PMID:23596946

Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

2013-02-01

274

Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control System Design for Space Solar Power Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos

2001-01-01

275

The synergistic effect of nanocrystal integration and process optimization on solar cell efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the roles of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metallic SWNTs in the SWNT/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based photovoltaic conversion system. SWNTs containing different fractions of semiconducting nanotubes were conjugated with P3HT by virtue of ?-? interaction. The energy transfer and carrier transport mechanisms in the photovoltaic composites were experimentally investigated by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and carrier mobility measurements. At low loading of SWNTs, a high percentage of semiconducting nanotubes result in diminished non-radiative decay of exciton and lower carrier mobility, causing higher open circuit voltage and lower photocurrent. At an optimized morphology, SWNT/P3HT/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) hybrid-based solar cells demonstrated much higher photocurrent than a reference solar cell (P3HT:PCBM) due to the improved carrier mobility. Further thermal annealing of the devices significantly increased the open circuit voltage to 610 mV, resulting in an 80% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference solar cell. These results are expected to lay a foundation for the integration of various nanocrystals into solar cells for efficient photovoltaic conversion.

Ren, Liqiang; Wang, Shiren; Holtz, Mark; Qiu, Jingjing

2012-02-01

276

The synergistic effect of nanocrystal integration and process optimization on solar cell efficiency.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the roles of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metallic SWNTs in the SWNT/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based photovoltaic conversion system. SWNTs containing different fractions of semiconducting nanotubes were conjugated with P3HT by virtue of ?-? interaction. The energy transfer and carrier transport mechanisms in the photovoltaic composites were experimentally investigated by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and carrier mobility measurements. At low loading of SWNTs, a high percentage of semiconducting nanotubes result in diminished non-radiative decay of exciton and lower carrier mobility, causing higher open circuit voltage and lower photocurrent. At an optimized morphology, SWNT/P3HT/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) hybrid-based solar cells demonstrated much higher photocurrent than a reference solar cell (P3HT:PCBM) due to the improved carrier mobility. Further thermal annealing of the devices significantly increased the open circuit voltage to 610 mV, resulting in an 80% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference solar cell. These results are expected to lay a foundation for the integration of various nanocrystals into solar cells for efficient photovoltaic conversion. PMID:22261189

Ren, Liqiang; Wang, Shiren; Holtz, Mark; Qiu, Jingjing

2012-02-24

277

Mine roof support method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A rock formation, such as the roof of a mine tunnel, is reinforced by use of the apparatus of the invention to provide an anchor for a rock bolt which is tensioned to hold a support plate or similar structure in firm engagement with the face of the rock structure. The apparatus includes an elongated bar threadedly engaged with one end of an open, cylindrical coupling member, the other end of which is threaded to receive the rock bolt. One or more fixed members, preferably in the form of integral, dieformed ears, extend outwardly from the bolt shank a predetermined distance from the end of the threaded portion. Prior to threading into the coupling member the end of the bolt is inserted through an open, cylindrical collar having an internal radius greater than that of the bolt shank but less than the radial distance by which the fixed members project outwardly therefrom. The bolt is threaded into the coupling members until the collar is firmly engaged between the fixed members on the bolt shank and the end of the coupling member. Rotation of the bolt may thus be transmitted to the coupling member and bar to break a resin cartridge within a blind drill hole in the rock formation. After the resin grouting mix hardens sufficiently to prevent further rotation of the bar and collar sufficient torque is applied to the bolt to break at least one of the collar and fixed members, thereby permitting threaded advance of the bolt into the coupling member to bring a support plate into engagement with the surface of the rock formation surrounding the drill hole and tensioning the bolt to the desired degree.

Vass, G.S.

1980-03-18

278

Study on functional integration of the SKA and the solar thermal power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A separate building of solar power plants may take hundreds of millions of euros. The dish-stirling system is one of the concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) technologies. Considering the dish-stirling system is structurally similar to a radio telescope, with its diameter similar to the antenna that is used in the SKA, It is assumed that a radio telescope and the dish-stirling system could be functionally integrated in the design for time-based sharing, thus to reduce the SKA and the dish-stirling system in the repeated construction costs on the reflecting surface, the two-axis tracking mechanism, the civil engineering, and the roads, etc. Based on the above idea on the functional integration of devices, whilst taking account on the functional requirements of the SKA and the dish-stirling system, the Principle design of functional integration is conducted. In addition, the control system and multi-functional reflector regarding its processing and coating technology is covered.

Dong, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Dehua; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xuebin

2012-09-01

279

Optimal Design of Integration of Intelligent, Adaptive Solar (PV) Power Generator with Grid for Domestic Energy Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel system based on integration of solar power generator with grid for optimal utilization of energy by minimizing the power drawn from grid. A prototype grid integrated PV system comprising of PV module (2*75 Wp), battery bank (12 V, 2*80 Ah) as an energy storage device and an intelligent, adaptive inverter (300 W) has been developed

S. N. Singh; Pooja Singh; Swati Kumari; Swati

2010-01-01

280

An instrument for measuring concentrated solar-radiation: a photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of the intensity of light reflected by the internal surface of an integrating sphere with an input power provided by a concentrated solar beam is established using a model of multiple reflection of photons. This intensity appears to be proportional to the input power, and thus makes viable the utilization of a photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere

A Ferriere; B Rivoire

2002-01-01

281

Operational compatibility of 30-centimeter-diameter ion thruster with integrally regulated solar array power source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System tests were performed in which Integrally Regulated Solar Arrays (IRSA's) were used to directly power the beam and accelerator loads of a 30-cm-diameter, electron bombardment, mercury ion thruster. The remaining thruster loads were supplied from conventional power-processing circuits. This combination of IRSA's and conventional circuits formed a hybrid power processor. Thruster performance was evaluated at 3/4- and 1-A beam currents with both the IRSA-hybrid and conventional power processors and was found to be identical for both systems. Power processing is significantly more efficient with the hybrid system. System dynamics and IRSA response to thruster arcs are also examined.

Gooder, S. T.

1977-01-01

282

Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

2012-06-01

283

Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication of two-dimensional periodic photonic nanostructures by nanoimprint lithography and dry etching and their integration into a 1-?m-thin mono-crystalline silicon solar cell. Thanks to the periodic nanopatterning, a better in-coupling and trapping of light is achieved, resulting in an absorption enhancement. The proposed light trapping mechanism can be explained as the superposition of a graded index effect and of the diffraction of light inside the photoactive layer. The absorption enhancement is translated into a 23% increase in short-circuit current, as compared to the benchmark cell, resulting in an increase in energy-conversion efficiency.

Trompoukis, Christos; El Daif, Ounsi; Depauw, Valérie; Gordon, Ivan; Poortmans, Jef

2012-09-01

284

Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.  

PubMed

Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22 m wide x 3.66 m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof types x two aspects x four replicates, in the study. Runoff from the roofs was collected through galvanized gutters, downspouts, and splitters. The roof runoff was compared to rainwater collected by a wet/dry acid rain collector for the concentrations of eight water quality variables, i.e. Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), EC and pH. Based on 31 storms collected between October 1997 and December 1998, the results showed: (1) concentrations of pH, Cu, and Zn in rainwater already exceed the EPA freshwater quality standards even without pollutant inputs from roofs, (2) Zn and Cu, the two most serious pollutants in roof runoff, exceeded the EPA national freshwater water quality standards in virtually 100% and more than 60% of the samples, respectively, (3) pH, EC, and Zn were the only three variables significantly affected by roofing materials, (4) differences in Zn concentrations were significant among all roof types and between all roof runoff and rainwater samples, (5) although there were no differences in Cu concentrations among all roof types and between roof runoff and rainwater, all means and medians of runoff and rainwater exceeded the national water quality standards, (6) water quality from wood shingles was the worst among the roof types studied, and (7) although SE is the most frequent and NW the least frequent direction for incoming storms, only EC, Mg, Mn, and Zn in wood shingle runoff from the SE were significantly higher than those from the NW; the two aspects affected no other elements in runoff from the other three roof types. Also, Zn concentrations from new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff. PMID:15531389

Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

2004-12-01

285

Creating the Dataset for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (U.S.A)  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the world's largest regional integration studies to date. This paper discusses the creation of the wind dataset that will be the basis for assessing the operating impacts and mitigation options due to the variability and uncertainty of wind power on the utility grids. The dataset is based on output from a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, covering over 4 million square kilometers with a spatial resolution of approximately two-kilometers over a period of three years with a temporal resolution of 10 minutes. The mesoscale model dataset includes all the meteorological variables necessary to calculate wind energy production. Individual time series were produced for over 30 thousand locations representing more than 900 GW of potential wind energy generation.

Potter, C. W.; Lew, D.; McCaa, J.; Cheng, S.; Eichelberger, S.; Grimit, E.

2008-01-01

286

Creating the Dataset for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (U.S.A.)  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the world's largest regional integration studies to date. This paper discusses the creation of the wind dataset that will be the basis for assessing the operating impacts and mitigation options due to the variability and uncertainty of wind power on the utility grids. The dataset is based on output from a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, covering over 4 million square kilometers with a spatial resolution of approximately two-kilometers over a period of three years with a temporal resolution of 10 minutes. The mesoscale model dataset includes all the meteorological variables necessary to calculate wind energy production. Individual time series were produced for over 30 thousand locations representing more than 900 GW of potential wind power generation.

Potter, C. W.; Lew, D.; McCaa, J.; Cheng, S.; Eichelberger, S.; Grimit, E.

2008-01-01

287

Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

2012-01-01

288

Integrated solar tracker positioning unit in distributed grid-feeding inverters for CPV power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total amount of photovoltaic (PV) energy production in the global energy mix has been increasing strongly all over the world in the last decade. This phenomenon has been mainly driven by the promotion of renewable energies, as well as by the well known feed-in tariffs. Although the major part of PV installations consists in roof mounted panels in private,

O. Stalter; B. Burger; S. Bacha; D. Roye

2009-01-01

289

62 FR 8906 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...220 test procedure for roof crush resistance of raised roof vehicles. Standard No...resulting in diminished roof crush resistance, the agency does not agree that the...windshield probably contributes to roof crush resistance in more representative, less...

1997-02-27

290

Health Hazard Evaluation/Toxicity Determination Report 75-194-324, Western Roofing Company, Sellers and Marquis Roofing Company, A. J. Shirk Roofing Company, Quality Roofing Company, Kansas City, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a medical-environmental evaluation indicates that employees were exposed to toxic concentrations of particulate polycyclic organic matter during roofing operations involving the tear-off of a 7 acre roof. The particulate polycyclic organic ...

R. L. Hervin E. A. Emmett

1976-01-01

291

Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)

Williams, Jennifer Lynn

2002-01-01

292

Interior view of the Sheet Metal Shop showing the roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the Sheet Metal Shop showing the roof trusses and corrugated metal roof covering, view facing northwest - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

293

Roofs That Last...And Last...And Last.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits of using protected membrane roofing (PMR) systems as a means of cutting maintenance and repair costs over the roof's lifetime. Addresses responses to arguments against using PMR systems. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

294

30 CFR 75.206 - Conventional roof support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.206 Conventional...mines using non-mechanized mining systems, when conventional roof support...

2013-07-01

295

DETAIL VIEW ABOVE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL SHOWING STEEL ROOF TRUSSES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW ABOVE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL SHOWING STEEL ROOF TRUSSES, ROOF MONITOR AND CATWALK AT COLUMN LINE U-28. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

296

18. Detail view of roof structure above the porte cochere, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Detail view of roof structure above the porte cochere, showing hipped roof construction, wooden beams and their intersection with columns - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

297

The Map to Cost-Effective Summer Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roofing is one of the major expense items in school district maintenance budgets. Outlines steps to take in project planning, developing budget estimates and specifications, and completing a roofing project on time. (MLF)

Waldron, Larry W.

1988-01-01

298

The Abacus/Reflector and Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator: Concepts for Space Solar Power Collection and Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New energy sources are vital for the development of emerging nations, and the growth of industry in developed economies. Also vital is the need for these energy sources to be clean and renewable. For the past several years, NASA has been taking a new look at collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it to Earth, to planetary surfaces, and to orbiting spacecraft. Several innovative concepts are being studied for the space segment component of solar power beaming. One is the Abacus/Reflector, a large sun-oriented array structure fixed to the transmitter, and a rotating RF reflector that tracks a receiving rectenna on Earth. This concept eliminates the need for power-conducting slip rings in rotating joints between the solar collectors and the transmitter. Another concept is the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator (ISC), composed of two very large segmented reflectors which rotate to collect and reflect the incident sunlight onto two centrally-located photovoltaic arrays. Adjacent to the PV arrays is the RF transmitter, which as a unit track the receiving rectenna, again eliminating power-conducting joints, and in addition reducing the cable lengths between the arrays and transmitter. The metering structure to maintain the position of the reflectors is a long mast, oriented perpendicular to the equatorial orbit plane. This paper presents a status of ongoing systems studies and configurations for the Abacus/Reflector and the ISC concepts, and a top-level study of packaging for launch and assembly.

Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John; Gerry, Mark; Perkinson, Don

2000-01-01

299

Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems. Semiannual progress report, 1 Jan30 Jun 1974. [Solar vs. conventional systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar-powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating; seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single-family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled to determine

Denton

1974-01-01

300

Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge performances. Also, the active materials did not decompose at 80°C, and the battery was performing well under low temperature of -27°C. Lastly, the batteries were embedded inside a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate to characterize their performance under fatigue loading. Finally, an intense pulsed light (IPL) was used to sinter printed silver nanoink patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find grain size of printed silver nanoink patterns. From these analyses it was confirmed that IPL is able to adequately sinter silver nanoink patterns for printed electronics without degradation of the substrates in less than 30 ms.

Kang, Jin Sung

301

Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is formulated and presented for the integrated structural dynamic analysis of space stations with controllable solar arrays and non-controllable appendages. The structural system flexibility characteristics are considered in the dynamic analysis by a synthesis technique whereby free-free space station modal coordinates and cantilever appendage coordinates are inertially coupled. A digital simulation of this analysis method is described and verified by comparison of interaction load solutions with other methods of solution. Motion equations are simulated for both the zero gravity and artificial gravity (spinning) orbital conditions. Closed loop controlling dynamics for both orientation control of the arrays and attitude control of the space station are provided in the simulation by various generic types of controlling systems. The capability of the simulation as a design tool is demonstrated by utilizing typical space station and solar array structural representations and a specific structural perturbing force. Response and interaction load solutions are presented for this structural configuration and indicate the importance of using an integrated type analysis for the predictions of structural interactions.

Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.

1972-01-01

302

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

2009-11-20

303

Solar Equipment System Packages for Old and New Buildings to Provide Domestic Water and Partial Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technically optimized and economically marketable system packages were investigated. Commercially available flat roof collectors failed long term (2 yr) tests. Architecturally, it is difficult to integrate the collectors into roof or wall surfaces due to ...

G. Berg F. J. Mueller

1982-01-01

304

40 CFR 63.902 - Standards-Tank fixed roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards-Tank fixed roof. 63.902 Section 63.902 ...Tanks-Level 1 § 63.902 StandardsâTank fixed roof. (a) This section applies...controlling air emissions from a tank using a fixed roof. This section does not apply to...

2013-07-01

305

EFFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING TOOLS FOR ROOFING MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic decision-making approach for roofing maintenance management that combines a stochastic Markovian performance prediction model with a multi-objective optimization method to determine the optimal allocation of funds and prioritization of roofs for maintenance, repair and replacement. A product model of the roof system is used to provide the data framework for collecting and processing data. The

Zoubir Lounis; Brian Kyle

1998-01-01

306

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Standards-Separator floating roof. 63.1043 Section 63.1043... § 63.1043 StandardsâSeparator floating roof. (a) This section applies...separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof. (b) The separator shall...

2009-07-01

307

40 CFR 63.1063 - Floating roof requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floating roof requirements. 63.1063 Section...Control Level 2 § 63.1063 Floating roof requirements. The owner or operator who elects to use a floating roof to comply with the...

2010-07-01

308

40 CFR 63.1063 - Floating roof requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Floating roof requirements. 63.1063 Section...Control Level 2 § 63.1063 Floating roof requirements. The owner or operator who elects to use a floating roof to comply with the...

2013-07-01

309

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External floating roof (EFR). 65.44 Section 65...Storage Vessels § 65.44 External floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR design requirements...material emissions by using an external floating roof shall comply with the design...

2013-07-01

310

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false External floating roof (EFR). 65.44 Section 65...Storage Vessels § 65.44 External floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR design requirements...material emissions by using an external floating roof shall comply with the design...

2009-07-01

311

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof (EFR). 65.44 Section 65...Storage Vessels § 65.44 External floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR design requirements...material emissions by using an external floating roof shall comply with the design...

2010-07-01

312

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards-Separator floating roof. 63.1043 Section 63.1043... § 63.1043 StandardsâSeparator floating roof. (a) This section applies...separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof. (b) The separator shall...

2013-07-01

313

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards-Separator floating roof. 63.1043 Section 63.1043... § 63.1043 StandardsâSeparator floating roof. (a) This section applies...separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof. (b) The separator shall...

2010-07-01

314

40 CFR 63.1063 - Floating roof requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Floating roof requirements. 63.1063 Section...Control Level 2 § 63.1063 Floating roof requirements. The owner or operator who elects to use a floating roof to comply with the...

2009-07-01

315

Wind performance evaluation of fully bonded roofing assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind performance investigation is critical in the design of durable roofing assemblies. In North America, mainly two types of low slope roofs, conventional and inverted, are in practice depending on the placement of the membrane in the system. The present study focuses on the wind uplift performance of fully bonded single ply roofing assembly. Past studies focused on the wind

A. Baskaran; S. Molleti; M. Sexton

2008-01-01

316

Which Roof is Tops? Grades PreK-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introductory activity explores the advantages of different roof shapes for different climates or situations. It addresses questions such as "When you walk or drive around your neighborhood, what do the roofs look like?" and "What if you lived in an area with a different climate, how would that affect the style of roof that you might find?"…

Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

317

Mine roof driller-bolter apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for bolting the roof of an underground mine is disclosed comprising a mobile frame, a boom extending from the frame and a housing provided at the end of the frame. The housing supports an upwardly extending stinger, a drilling mechanism including a drill centralizer having a central bore therethrough and a passageway in communication with the central bore, a device for delivering a container of roof bolting anchoring media through the passageway and through the drill centralizer and into a drilled hole, a device for indexing a roof bolt into alignment with the drilled hole and a spinner for driving the roof bolt into the drilled hole. The present invention also provides a method for bolting the roof of an underground mine comprising the steps of stinging a housing against the roof of the mine, moving a drill centralizer into communication with the roof and drilling a hole in the roof. Without retracting the drill centralizer from communication with the roof, a container of roof bolt anchoring media is delivered through the centralizer and into the drilled hole. The drill centralizer is thereafter retracted and the housing is moved to align a roof bolt with a drilled hole. Then the roof bolt is driven into the drilled hole and the bolt anchoring media sets around the bolt.

Hibbard, G.A.; Lumbra, R.C.; Morrison, W.D.

1983-12-13

318

Machine Modification for Roof Bolt Placement in Low Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A roof bolt bender/inserter was designed and built to install roof bolts in low coal mines where the bolts used are longer than the seam height. The bender/inserter was installed on a Fletcher LTDO roof drill and evaluated in Clinchfield Mine Moss No. 2, ...

W. Hermanson W. Rowe R. Sloan

1974-01-01

319

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

1984-02-02

320

Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

1981-01-01

321

Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

Tadolini, Stephen C. (Lakewood, CO); Dolinar, Dennis R. (Golden, CO)

1992-01-01

322

Waffle Shells for Roof and Floor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design and construction of the waffle shell system used for roofs and floors. It is based on the funicular shell, which was evolved as a structural element deriving its strength through shape. It develops a state of pure compress...

G. George N. Sethuraman

1981-01-01

323

Pluralism and Prayer under One Roof.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on increasing efforts by colleges and universities to meet the spiritual needs of minority students by providing religious centers where students of all faiths can worship under one roof. Examples include the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mount Holyoke College (Massachusetts), and Johns Hopkins University (Maryland). (DB)

McMurtrie, Beth

1999-01-01

324

Suspended roof construction for industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refractory brick panel module and suspended roof construction for high temperature furnaces wherein the panel module has a refractory support frame of at least two substantially parallel support members with at least one end of the support members having extension and retraction means forming an extendable and retractable refractory support frame end portion. The refractory support frame end portion

Merkle

1984-01-01

325

Construction of Experimental Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Roofing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) singly-ply roofing systems have been installed at three U.S. military facilities for long-term evaluation (10 years) in three environments. Commercial PVC systems previously had been shown to offer an alternative to conventional b...

M. J. Rosenfield

1984-01-01

326

Roof Shield for Advance and Retreat Mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shield sections change their configuration to suit mining mode. Articulation cylinders raise rear shield to advance position, and locking cylinders hold it there. To change to retreat position articulation cylinders lower shield. Locking pins at edge of outermost shield plate latch shield to chock base. Shield accommodates roof heights ranging from 36 to 60 inches (0.9 to 1.52 meters).

Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

327

Trough integration into power plants—a study on the performance and economy of integrated solar combined cycle systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabolic trough solar technology has been proven at nine commercial Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS) power plants that are operating in the California Mojave desert. These plants utilize steam Rankine cycle power plants, and as a result, most people associate parabolic trough solar technology with steam Rankine cycle power plant technology. Although these plants are clearly optimized for their particular

Jürgen Dersch; Michael Geyer; Ulf Herrmann; Scott A. Jones; Bruce Kelly; Rainer Kistner; Winfried Ortmanns; Robert Pitz-Paal; Henry Price

2004-01-01

328

The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; Livi, S. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roelof, E. C.; Stone, E. C.; Schwardron, N. A.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

2011-01-01

329

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

330

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2007-06-01

331

Design af montage- og integreringsprincipper for solfangere i forbindelse med altanlukninger. (Design of installation and integration principles for solar collectors in connection with balcony coverings).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for integrating solar collector panels in balcony-covering constructions. The result should be aesthetically pleasing and the solar panels should appear as a natural part of the building. The solar pa...

O. Hviid C. Larsen

1995-01-01

332

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

333

Integration of biological photonic crystals in dye-sensitized solar cells for enhanced photocurrent generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) rely on a network of titanium dioxide nanoparticles for electron transport and must balance carrier generation and collection. Adding photonic structures may increase light capture without affecting carrier collection. Diatoms are single-celled algae that biologically fabricate silicon dioxide cell walls which resemble photonic crystal slabs. We present a simple fabrication strategy that allows for uniform and controlled placement of biosilica within DSSCs. Integration of biosilica reduces photoanode transmittance to less than 5% prior to dye sensitization at loading levels as low as 6 wt% biosilica. Increased biosilica loading (17 wt%) provides additional enhancements in photocurrent generation. Reflectance measurements suggest that the enhancement results from the combined effects of photonic resonance and Mie scattering. Overall efficiency of these devices is improved by 8% and 14%, respectively.

Campbell, Jeremy; Rorrer, Greg

2013-10-01

334

Solar Flare Kernel Observations with Integral Field Spectroscopy in H-alpha Line and SDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a field integral spectroscopic instrument using a micro-lens array at the Domeless Solar Telescope, Hida Obervatory. and obtained data of H-alpha flares in X-ray C- and M-class flares taking place on 3 Nov 2011. The field of view was about 10 arc seconds square and time cadence was 12 seconds. The data demonstrate that simultaneous spectroscopic observations over extended solar structures, at a high spatial resolution and temporal cadence, are important to track and understand the physics of transient phenomena happening in impulsive flare kernels. With two-dimensional field spectral data, we made monochromatic images at given wavelengths in the H-alpha line and nearby continuum to co-align with X-ray and UV images from SDO. We also carried out line profile analysis to derive 2-D distribution of atmospheric parameters. Obtained H-alpha spectra clearly show the rapid development of red asymmetry at the flare kernels, giving a large downward Doppler shift of up to 50 km/sec. The accompanied formation of coronal flaring loop structures are consistent with a scenario of downward motion of compressed chromospheric flare kernels due do impulsive heat flow from the corona to the chromosphere and simultaneous evaporation of the chromospheric material into the corona.

Suematsu, Y.

2013-12-01

335

Space Solar Power Multi-Body Dynamics and Controls, Concepts for the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiting space solar power systems are currently being investigated for possible flight in the time frame of 2015-2020 and later. Such space solar power (SSP) satellites are required to be extremely large in order to make practical the process of collection, conversion to microwave radiation, and reconversion to electrical power at earth stations or at remote locations in space. These large structures are expected to be very flexible presenting unique problems associated with their dynamics and control. The purpose of this project is to apply the expanded TREETOPS multi-body dynamics analysis computer simulation program (with expanded capabilities developed in the previous activity) to investigate the control problems associated with the integrated symmetrical concentrator (ISC) conceptual SSP system. SSP satellites are, as noted, large orbital systems having many bodies (perhaps hundreds) with flexible arrays operating in an orbiting environment where the non-uniform gravitational forces may be the major load producers on the structure so that a high fidelity gravity model is required. The current activity arises from our NRA8-23 SERT proposal. Funding, as a supplemental selection, has been provided by NASA with reduced scope from that originally proposed.

Glaese, John R.; McDonald, Emmett J.

2000-01-01

336

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste: incorporation of roofing waste in asphalt paving. Volume 2. Laboratory investigation  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory test results obtained in this preliminary study indicate the following: Acceptable paving mixtures can be produced which contain 20 vol % roofing waste. With a proper selection of binder type, binder quantities, and aggregate gradations, mixtures containing roofing waste quantities to and perhaps beyond, 30% can probably be prepared with acceptable properties. The type of binder selected for use in a mixture containing roofing waste should be based on the stiffness (penetration and viscosity) of the asphalt cement in the roofing waste. Improved asphalt cement extraction and recovery processes need to be developed for roofing wastes in order to effectively determine the properties of the asphalt cement in the roofing waste. Gradations of conventional aggregates and roofing wastes should be considered when designing paving mixtures.

Paulsen, G.; Stroup-Gardiner, M.; Epps, J.A.

1986-09-15

337

Procedure calculates benefits of tank roof seals  

SciTech Connect

Installation of primary and secondary seals on floating-roof, oil-storage tanks can be a matter both of regulatory compliance and economic good judgment. In the U.S., federal and state regulations often require such installation. But where regulatory incentives are absent, there is a simple set of calculations to determine the economic benefits of primary-seal repair/replacement and/or addition of secondary seals. Early in 1976, floating-roof-tank seals were inspected at a California refinery by local air-pollution-control officials. As a result of that inspection, accusations were made of massive emissions from poorly maintained seals. In fact, this particular refinery was accused of emitting approximately 3,000 tons of hydrocarbons per year. This number was arrived at by calculating the emissions based upon the then-current edition of the American Petroleum Institute's bulletin API 2517 and multiplied by a factor of 4 to account for poor seal condition.

Thiltgen, R.W.

1986-09-01

338

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR AN INTEGRATED SOLAR THERMAL-BIOGAS CO-GENERATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The immediate goal is a system based on the integration of the suite of modules developed solar thermal, biogas, ORC, absorption-chiller) that can be assembled together to create systems tailored to the unique demands of individual communities and climates, optimized for effic...

339

Attempt of integration of a small commercial ammonia-water absorption refrigerator with a solar concentrator: Experience and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of a small commercial ammonia-water absorption refrigerator with a solar concentrator as heat source was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Operation parameters of the fridge were determined by parametric fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic model of the cycle leading to a working pressure of 25 bar, weak and strong solution concentrations of 15% and 30% respectively and a COP

A. Busso; J. Franco; N. Sogari; M. Cáceres

2011-01-01

340

Closed Greenhouse Systems with Integrated Solar Desalination Plant for Water Designed to Be Used in Arid Zones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experimental greenhouses are used as test cases to develop a concept for closed greenhouses for arid lands, which is described in this work. The aim is to include in the building a solar desalination plant for water as an integral part. The concept is...

K. H. Strauch

1985-01-01

341

Procedure calculates benefits of tank roof seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installation of primary and secondary seals on floating-roof, oil-storage tanks can be a matter both of regulatory compliance and economic good judgment. In the U.S., federal and state regulations often require such installation. But where regulatory incentives are absent, there is a simple set of calculations to determine the economic benefits of primary-seal repair\\/replacement and\\/or addition of secondary seals. Early

Thiltgen

1986-01-01

342

Floating roof tank with rim space seal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vertical cylindrical liquid storage tank having a circular floating roof of smaller diameter than the tank thereby defining a clearance space between the roof edge and the tank wall; a seal joined to the roof and extending upwardly therefrom into slidable contact with the tank wall; the seal completely covering the clearance space; the seal comprising a plurality of individual flexible sections of sheet material in substantially side-by-side arrangement but with adjacent section side edge portions overlapping each other; a gasket between the overlapping side edge portions; a clip attached to each section adjacent its edge portion which is overlapped by the edge portion of an adjacent section; the clip having a wing spaced upward from the section to which it is attached and extending over the edge portion of the adjacent section to press the edge portions together, but permit the edge portions to slide laterally with respect to each other; and a flexible elastometric tip joined to the outer end of the sections and in slidable contact with the tank wall.

Grove, R.B.; Peters, S.W.; Tellalian, M.L.

1986-10-07

343

Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

1986-01-01

344

TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.  

PubMed

Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. PMID:24107414

Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

2013-11-01

345

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

346

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

347

Effects of the integrated galactic IMF on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial mass function determines the fraction of stars of different initial mass born per stellar generation. In this paper, we test the effects of the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood. The IGIMF (Weidner & Kroupa 2005) is computed from the combination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), i.e. the mass function of single star clusters, and the embedded cluster mass function, i.e. a power law with index ?. By taking into account also the fact that the maximum achievable stellar mass is a function of the total mass of the cluster, the IGIMF becomes a time-varying IMF which depends on the star formation rate. We applied this formalism to a chemical evolution model for the solar neighbourhood and compared the results obtained by assuming three possible values for ? with the results obtained by means of a standard, well-tested, constant IMF. In general, a lower absolute value of ? implies a flatter IGIMF, hence a larger number of massive stars and larger metal ejection rates. This translates into higher type Ia and II supernova rates, higher mass ejection rates from massive stars and a larger amount of gas available for star formation, coupled with lower present-day stellar mass densities. Lower values of ? correspond also to higher metallicities and higher [?/Fe] values at a given metallicity. We consider a large set of chemical evolution observables and test which value of ? provides the best match to all of these constraints. We also discuss the importance of the present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) in providing a way to disentangle among various assumptions for ?. Our results indicate that the model adopting the IGIMF computed with ? ~= 2 should be considered the best since it allows us to reproduce the observed PDMF and to account for most of the chemical evolution constraints considered in this work.

Calura, F.; Recchi, S.; Matteucci, F.; Kroupa, P.

2010-08-01

348

Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span

Barrett

1989-01-01

349

Insulation system basics for built-up roofs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on the general characteristics and the use of various insulations in built-up roof systems. The emphasis is on system attributes; that is, issues that arise when insulations are considered in combination with other roof components and placed in the real outdoor environment. Short commentaries on generic insulation types and a partial list of good roofing practices are also provided.

Courville, G.E.; Walukas, D.J.

1985-06-01

350

System requirements specification for a solar central receiver system integrated with a cogeneration facility for copper smelting. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This specification defines the characteristics, design and environmental requirements, and economic data for a solar central receiver system integrated with a cogeneration facility for copper smelting. The added solar capacity will supply process heat to an existing copper smelting flash furnace of Finnish design as well as providing for the cogeneration of electricity by an added gas turbine system. Heat storage to accommodate periods of low solar insolation is accomplished by the innovative utilization of copper slag in a thermal energy storage system. This specification is limited (1) to those portions of the plant to be added or modified in order to accomplish the proposed solar retrofit, and (2) by the conceptual design nature of the contracted study. Section 1 of this specification describes the proposed modifications to existing site conditions and facilities, and the nomenclature used. Section 2 provides a listing of applicable standards and codes, publications, reference documentation, and regulatory information. Design and performance requirements to be met by this solar cogeneration facility are outlined in Section 3, and the environmental criteria applicable to the plant are addressed in Section 4. The solar cogeneration facility's characteristics and performance data are specified in Section 5, along with the plant cost and economic data. Simulation models are also described. Appendix B presents site facility information; Appendix C covers the determination of the physical and chemical properties of copper smelter slag; Appendix D presents estimating backup sheets.

Not Available

1981-08-01

351

Characterization of the Turbulent Magnetic Integral Length in the Solar Wind: From 0.3 to 5 Astronomical Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [?], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic-autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We used observations from the Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguished between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs), and also studied solar-wind samples with low and high proton beta [?p]. We find that in the last three regimes the PDF of ? is a log-normal function, consistent with the multiplicative and nonlinear processes that take place in the solar wind, the initial ? (before the Alfvénic point) being larger in ICMEs.

Ruiz, M. E.; Dasso, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.

2014-05-01

352

Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly  

DOEpatents

A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2001-10-02

353

Design and Wind Tunnel Performance Testing of a New Omnidirectional Roof Vent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-slope roofs are subjected to potentially high levels of suction pressure. Traditional methods of attaching roof membranes to substrates are prone to failure when the low pressure on the roof surface instigates a transfer of forces to the roof membrane. Existing pressure-equalized roof systems use the power of the wind to transmit low pressure to the space immediately beneath the

Elizabeth J. Grant; James R. Jones; Pavlos P. Vlachos

2007-01-01

354

Reflected Roof Plan (Span A), Ground Floor Plan (Span A) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Reflected Roof Plan (Span A), Ground Floor Plan (Span A) - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

355

THE EVERGREEN ROOF PROJECT: STANDARDS, METHODS AND SOFTWARE FOR EVALUATING LIVING ROOF SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Evergreen Roof Project set out four objectives for Phase I of our project and has made sufficient progress on all of those objectives to qualify this phase as a success. Through an extensive literature review and discussions with researchers, designers, inst...

356

Construct and Test Roofs for Different Climates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We design and create objects to make our lives easier and more comfortable. The houses in which we live are excellent examples of this. Depending on your local climate, the features of your house have been designed to satisfy your particular environmental needs: protection from hot, cold, windy and/or rainy weather. In this activity, students design and build model houses, then test them against various climate elements, and then re-design and improve them. Using books, websites and photos, students learn about the different types of roofs found on various houses in different environments throughout the world.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

357

An Overview of VOs for Integrating Space and Solar Physics Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA, NSF and other groups, both in the US and abroad, are developing an infrastructure for unified access to the wide range of heliophysics data products needed to respond to our evolving space mission set and research needs. This infrastructure will expand on existing services and use new computer technologies. The environment will continue to be distributed but integrated through the creation of virtual observatories. Starting in 2001, NASA sponsored the development of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and the Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO). Drawing upon the successes of these projects, NASA selected in 2006 five new "VxOs" spanning the heliosphere, the Earth's magnetosphere and radiation belts, and ITM regions. These projects are now underway, as are the NSF sponsored VSTO, the Canadian GAIA, the European EGSO, and the Japanese STARS as well as other service and data oriented projects. This paper will introduce existing and planned VOs, their attributes, data sources, the SPASE data model intended to unite them, and the communities served. In addition to providing search and access capabilities, the VxOs will enable value-added services by allowing machine access to a wide variety of datasets.

Weiss, M.; Roberts, D. A.

2007-05-01

358

A Novel Photo-Thermoelectric Generator Integrating Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Thermoelectric Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we adopt two different morphologies of self-made nano-TiO2 powder to prepare a double-layer photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Further, DSSC module and thermoelectric generator (TEG) coated with nano-Cu thin film were integrated with a novel photo-thermoelectric generator. For the fabrication of photoelectric conversion modules, TiO2 nanoparticles (H200) fabricated by the hydrothermal method and the powder of TiO2 nanofluid prepared by the submerged arc nanofluid synthesis system (SANSS) were utilized to prepare a double-layer thin film using a surgical blade as the photoelectrode of DSSCs. And then, commercial nano-Cu powder was coated on two sides of TEG to fabricate thermoelectric conversion module by surgical blade. Nano-Cu thin film, as the medium of thermal conductivity, can effectively transfer heat produced by sunlight on the surface of DSSC to the two sides of TEG. Finally, the two modules were combined into the optical thermoelectric generator. The overall experiment utilizes the intensity of 100 mW/cm2 illumination of simulated sunlight, which can produce 4.97 mW/cm2, an increase of 2.87% output compared with merely employing the DSSCs.

Ho Chang,; Mu-Jung Kao,; Kouhsiu David Huang,; Sih-Li Chen,; Zhi-Rong Yu,

2010-06-01

359

Solar-induced weathering of rocks: integrating instrumental and numerical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is controversial. We introduce a current study of the physical state in boulders that integrates modern instrumental and numerical approaches to quantify the surface temperature, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the processes underlying this form of mechanical weathering. We are monitoring the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for ~1 yr each. Each rock is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously. These sensors and a full meteorological station, including soil-moisture probes, are combined into a single, remotely accessible system. AE events can be located to within 2.5 cm. We are able 1) to spatially and temporally correlate microcrack growth (AE events) with the rock surface and environmental conditions experienced by the rock, and 2) to validate modeling results. The modeling work addresses two coupled problems: 1) the time-varying thermal regime of rocks exposed to diurnal variations in solar radiation as dictated by latitude, and time of the year, as well as the surface emissivity and thermal properties of the rock and soil, and size and shape of the rock, and 2) the corresponding time-varying stress and strain fields in the rocks using representative elastic properties and realistic rock shape and orientation. AE events tend to occur shortly after sunset (6-9 pm) in the upper portion of the boulder. Most of the events occur in summer and winter months for the NC boulder. The majority occur in bursts of tens to hundreds over periods of a few minutes, and are often associated with environmental factors other than simple diurnal warming and cooling, such as wind gusts, that result in rapid rock surface temperature changes. Numerical results illuminate the evolution of thermal stresses, their relation to the direction of solar radiation, and their strong non-linear dependence on the size of the rocks. Because thermal tensile stresses decrease with size for rocks smaller than about 1 m-dia., we expect solar exposure to be effective in breaking down boulders and cobbles, while having little impact on gravel size and smaller clasts. This leads to a fining of the size distribution of surface clasts in deserts, and contributes to desert pavement formation. Our quantitative experimental and modeling studies document a direct link between rock cracking and stresses associated with the thermal conditions arising from natural diurnal change. This approach holds considerable promise for advancing research on this theme with diverse potential applications including the deterioration of man-made structures, monuments and sculptures, and breakdown of surface rocks or bedrock on other planets.

Hallet, B.; Eppes, M. C.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Warren, K.; McFadden, L.; Gillespie, A.; Putkonen, J.; Swami, S.; Shi, J.

2011-12-01

360

ASTM standards for measuring solar reflectance and infrared emittance of construction materials and comparing their steady-state surface temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Numerous experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that painting roofs white reduces air conditioning load up to 50%, depending on the thermal resistance or amount of insulation under the roof. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of a building and climate. In earlier work, the authors have estimated the national energy savings potential from reflective roofs and paved surfaces. Achieving this potential, however, is conditional on receiving the necessary Federal, states, and electric utilities support to develop materials with high solar reflectance and design effective implementation programs. An important step in initiating an effective program in this area is to work with the american Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the industry to create test procedures, rating, and labeling for building and paving materials. A subcommittee of ASTM E06, E06.42, on Cool Construction Materials, was formed as the vehicle to develop standard practices for measuring, rating, and labeling cool construction materials. The subcommittee has also undertaken the development of a standard practice for calculating a solar reflectance index (SRI) of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces. SRI is a measure of the relative steady-state temperature of a surface with respect to a standard white surface (SRI = 100) and a standard black surface (SRI = 0) under standard solar and ambient conditions. This paper discusses the technical issues relating to development of these two ASTM standards.

Akbari, H.; Levinson, R.; Berdahl, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01

361

Solar heating system installed at Blakedale Professional Center, Greenwood, SC Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar heating system installed at the Blakedale Professional Center, in Greenwood, South Carolina. The information consists of site and building description, solar system description, performance evaluation, system problems, and installation drawings. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 85% of the building's heating requirements. The system was installed concurrently with building construction and heats 4440 ft/sup 2/ of the building. There are 954 ft/sup 2/ of liquid flat-plate collectors that are roof-mounted and have a drain-down system to protect the collectors from freezing. A 5000 gal steel, polyurethane insulated tank buried underground provides storage. The system was fully instrumented for performance evaluation and integrated into the National Solar Data Network.

Not Available

1980-03-01

362

30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. 75.202 Section 75.202 Mineral Resources...202 Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work or travel...

2010-07-01

363

30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. 75.202 Section 75.202 Mineral Resources...202 Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work or travel...

2009-07-01

364

Validation of the Thermal Effect of Roof-Spraying and Green Plants in an Insulated Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, roof-spraying and rooftop lawns have proven effective on roofs with poor thermal insulation. However, the roofs of most buildings have insulating material to provide thermal insulation during the winter. The effects of insulation has not ...

N. Zhou W. Gao C. Marnay M. Nishida T. Ojima

2004-01-01

365

Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.  

PubMed

This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives. PMID:23722180

Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

2013-10-15

366

Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

Tabares Velasco, P. C.

2011-04-01

367

40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table...Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information...Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations...

2013-07-01

368

A Roof for the Lion's House  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fans of the National Football League's Detroit Lions don't worry about gameday weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat "Silverdome" is the world's largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome-and many other types of buildings-is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency. Fabric structures-tents, for example have been around since the earliest years of human civilization. But their coverings-hides, canvas and more recently plastics-were considered temporary; though tough, these fabrics were subject to weather deterioration. Teflon TFE-coated Beta Fiberglas is virtually impervious to the effects of weather and sunlight and it won't stretch, shrink, mildew or rot, thus has exceptional longevity; it is also very strong, lightweight, flame resistant and requires no periodic cleaning, because dirt will not stick to the surface of Teflon TFE. And to top all that, it costs only 30 to 40 percent as much as conventional roofing.

1978-01-01

369

Mine roof support method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A rock formation, such as the roof of a mine tunnel, is reinforced by use of the apparatus of the invention to provide an anchor for a rock bolt which is tensioned to hold a support plate or similar structure in firm engagement with the face of the rock structure. The apparatus includes an elongated bar threadedly engaged with one end of a hollow collar, the other end of which is threaded to receive the rock bolt. An installation tool in the form of an elongated rod is provided at one end with outwardly extending fixed members for engagement with stop surfaces on the other end of the collar. Rotation of the tool is transmitted to the collar and bar to break a resin cartridge within a blind drill hole in the rock formation and mix the contents thereof. Upon hardening of the resin mixture about the bar, the installation tool is withdrawn and the rock bolt carrying a roof support plate is threaded into the anchored collar and tensioned to the desired degree.

Vass, G.S.

1980-03-11

370

Zinc and copper in roof runoff.  

PubMed

The zinc and copper content of roof runoff could originate from different sources such as dry and wet deposition and the corrosion of the material. The zinc runoff rate from a galvanized surface depends on the corrosion products formed during the dry days, the rain intensity and roof slope, which determinates the contact time. In the present study the contact time dependence of zinc rate and the re-dissolution of the zinc were investigated with steeping tests and a pilot study. The average zinc runoff measured in the first 2.8 l of runoff was 3.8 mg m(-2) (1.1-8.4 mg m(-2)), while in the following samples 1.2 mg m(-2) were detected. These results are in accordance with the 5-10 min, and 40-60 s contact time laboratory steeping test, respectively, which are realistic. The estimated specific yearly zinc runoff rate was 0.7 g m(-2)y(-1), while the dry and wet deposition rate of copper was 0.009 mg m(-2)d(-1) and 0.053 mg m(-2)storm(-1) respectively. The re-dissolution of the zinc from the evaporated then re-filled samples of leaching tests with high initial zinc content was just 60% after 60 min. PMID:23579827

Horváth, A; Buzás, K

2013-01-01

371

A comparative performance rating for an integrated solar collector\\/storage vessel with inner sleeves to increase heat retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral Collector\\/Storage (ICS) solar water heating systems suffer substantial heat loss during periods of low insolation or at night. Methods to reduce aperture heat loss include moveable insulated lids\\/shutters, transparent insulating glazing materials and selective glazing\\/absorber coatings. All of these approaches involve trade-offs with reduction in performance and\\/or an increase in cost. A novel ICS vessel design to mitigate heat

M Smyth; P. C Eames; B Norton

1999-01-01

372

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

373

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: system integration laboratory test plan (RADL item 6-4)  

SciTech Connect

A general demonstration test plan is provided for the activities to be accomplished at the Systems Integration Laboratory. The Master Control System, Subsystem Distributed Process Control, Representative Signal Conditioning Units, and Redline Units from the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem and other external interface operational functions will be integrated and functionally demonstrated. The Beckman Multivariable Control Unit will be tested for frequency response, static checks, configuration changes, switching transients, and input-output interfaces. Maximum System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of Pilot Plant controls and external interfaces that are available. Minimum System Integration Laboratory testing will be accomplished with reduced set of hardware, which will provide capability for continued development and demonstration of Operational Control System plant control application software. Beam Control System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of the Beam Control System equipment and software. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-10-01

374

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

375

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

376

Green roof soil system affected by soil structural changes: A project initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic soil systems and structures such as green roofs, permeable or grassed pavements comprise appreciable part of the urban watersheds and are considered to be beneficial regarding to numerous aspects (e.g. carbon dioxide cycle, microclimate, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). Expected performance of these systems is significantly affected by water and heat regimes that are primarily defined by technology and materials used for system construction, local climate condition, amount of precipitation, the orientation and type of the vegetation cover. The benefits and potencies of anthropogenic soil systems could be considerably threatened in case when exposed to structural changes of thin top soil layer in time. Extensive green roof together with experimental green roof segment was established and advanced automated monitoring system of micrometeorological variables was set-up at the experimental site of University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings as an interdisciplinary research facility of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The key objectives of the project are (i) to characterize hydraulic and thermal properties of soil substrate studied, (ii) to establish seasonal dynamics of water and heat in selected soil systems from continuous monitoring of relevant variables, (iii) to detect structural changes with the use of X-ray Computed Tomography, (iv) to identify with the help of numerical modeling and acquired datasets how water and heat dynamics in anthropogenic soil systems are affected by soil structural changes. Achievements of the objectives will advance understanding of the anthropogenic soil systems behavior in conurbations with the temperate climate.

Jelínková, Vladimíra; Dohnal, Michal; Šácha, Jan; Šebestová, Jana; Sn?hota, Michal

2014-05-01

377

3. Contextual view west from hillside behind Inn, showing roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Contextual view west from hillside behind Inn, showing roof surface and portion of east elevation. Scale visible at lower center. Roof of 'Big Sur Inn' Building (HABS-CA-2611-A) visible at upper right. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

378

Maintenance and Repair of Sprayed Polyurethane Foam Roofing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended to assist Bureau of Reclamation field personnel in the maintenance of SPF (sprayed polyurethane foam) roofing systems. No roof system can be expected to provide good long-term performance without some attention to maintenance and r...

J. J. Swihart R. L. Alumbaugh

1994-01-01

379

Sloshing roof impact tests of a rectangular tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some tanks have been damaged at the roofs due to sloshing impact caused by strong earthquakes. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the impact force in the aseismic design code for tank roofs. However, there are few studies on the earthquake responses ...

C. Minowa N. Ogawa I. Harada D. C. Ma

1994-01-01

380

1. OVERVIEW OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING LOCAL SETTING. ROOF, NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING LOCAL SETTING. ROOF, NORTH END, AND WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 105 ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND UTILITY POLE. ROOF AND WEST END OF BUILDING 110 ARE VISIBLE AT PHOTO RIGHT BEHIND TREES. VIEW TO SOUTH FROM STREET ABOVE HOUSES. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

381

23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS GROUND LEVEL USE OF FLOOR SPACE FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CRATES. MOISTURE ON SURFACE IS FROM LEAKY HANGAR ROOF. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

382

What You Should Know about Single-Ply Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why a single-ply roofing system is the best choice for educational facilities. It discusses how single-ply roofing systems offer flexibility with ease of application; cause less disruption during installation; and are clean, safe, and energy efficient. (GR)

Szcygiel, Tony L.

1998-01-01

383

NEBRASKA MODIFIED ROOF POND: 1985 SUMMER PERFORMANCE RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of three of the tests performed on the Nebraska modified roof pond. During the summer of 1985,? with the test room decoupled from the roof pond itself, several series of tests were initiated. The first experiment (fig. 1) was to test the overall response of the system by forcing the temperature in storage to

Bing Chen; Raymond Guenther; John Maloney; John Kasher

384

Getting a Clear Focus on Roof Replacement and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a new generation of X-ray-like vision--the patented INFRARED2k--provides roof-condition reports that help extend roof life, conserve energy, and survey for mold-supporting environments, thereby improving indoor air quality. (EV)

Patterson, Valerie B.

2002-01-01

385

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

386

IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN ROOF SUSTAINABILITY IN ARID CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

We successfully designed and fabricated accurately scaled prototypes of a green roof and a conventional white roof and began testing in simulated conditions of 115-70°F with relative humidity of 13%. The design parameters were based on analytical models created through ver...

387

Mineral mining plough with worm adjustable roof cutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mineral mining plough has a plough body provided with a carrier supporting roof-level cutters. The carrier is movable vertically with respect to the plough body so as to adjust the cutting level of the roof-level cutters. A worm mounted on the plough body and a toothed rack attached to the carrier constitute means for adjusting the vertical position of

S. Bernd; O. Breuer; G. Merten

1981-01-01

388

Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University  

EPA Science Inventory

In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

389

Influence of firing temperature on mechanical properties on roofing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ceramic roofing tile manufacturing, absence of good mechanical properties, such as strength and hardness, leads to reject production of both green and fired tiles. We evaluated the effects of firing temperatures on bending strength and Vickers hardness in fired ceramic roofing tiles from kaolinite and illite-carbonate clay materials. The separately designed ceramics samples were shaped by dry pressing

Leposava Sidjanin; Jonjaua Ranogajec; Dragan Rajnovic; Elvira Molnar

2007-01-01

390

Actinometric measurement of solar ultraviolet and development of a weighted solar UV integral. [photochemical reaction rate determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An actinometer has been developed to measure outdoor irradiance in the range 295-400 nm. Actinometric measurements of radiation are based on determination of photochemical reaction rates for reactions of known quantum efficiency. Actinometers have the advantage of providing irradiance data over surfaces of difficult accessibility; in addition, actinometrically determined irradiance data are wavelength weighted and therefore provide a useful means of assessing the degradation rates of polymers employed in solar energy systems.

Gupta, A.; Coulbert, C.

1978-01-01

391

Trapping Light in Organic Plastic Solar Cells with integrated Diffraction Gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: In this paper we investigate,the potential of light trapping with diffraction gratings for organic solar cells. The architecture of the solar cell is based on conjugated,polymers,and a buckminsterfullerene derivative (PCBM), forming an interpenetrating donor-acceptor-network. The motivation for light trapping is the small absorptance of the photoactive,polymer in the range of the solar spectrum,and the limited thickness of the absorbing

Michael Niggemann; Benedikt Bläsi; Andreas Gombert; Andreas Hinsch; Harald Hoppe; Philippe Lalanne; Volker Wittwer

392

Numerical Simulations of a Roof-Top Wind Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady numerical simulations of a high efficiency roof-top wind turbine have been performed. The wind turbine cross section design was based on geometrical optimization study of Rahai and Hefazi for increasing contributions of the lift force to the torque, resulting in significant improvements in the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine. The wind turbine was 30 cm in diameter and 75 cm length, with 45 cm diameter end-plates, placed in the spanwise direction above a 26 degree slanted roof at 20 percent from the roof's highest elevation and one turbine diameter away from the roof surface. The approaching wind velocity was 30 m/sec and the wind turbine RPM was 233. Results indicate nearly 20 percent improvements in the power output, when compared with the corresponding results for a free standing wind turbine. However, the wind turbine operation imposes oscillatory stress on the roof, which could results in structural vibration and damage and noise generation.

Moayedian, Shahab; Rahai, Hamid

2010-11-01

393

Roof Reconstruction from Point Clouds using Importance Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel fully automatic technique for roof fitting in 3D point clouds based on sequential importance sampling (SIS). Our approach makes no assumption of the nature (sparse, dense) or origin (LIDAR, image matching) of the point clouds and further distinguishes, automatically, between different basic roof types based on model selection. The algorithm comprises an inherent data parallelism, the lack of which has been a major drawback of most Monte Carlo schemes. A further speedup is achieved by applying a coarse to fine search within all probable roof configurations in the sample space of roofs. The robustness and effectiveness of our roof reconstruction algorithm is illustrated for point clouds of varying nature.

Nguatem, W.; Drauschke, M.; Mayer, H.

2013-10-01

394

NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

2011-07-01

395

Method and apparatus for installing mine roof supports  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of installing mine roof support plates at locations in a mine. The method consists of drilling a first hole in a mine roof at a first location in the mine, moving a coil of rod material to the first location in the mine, feeding rod material from the coil of rod material while the coil is at the first location in the mine, straightening the rod material fed from the coil, connecting a first expandable anchor assembly to an end of the rod material, inserting the first anchor assembly into the first hole. The step of inserting the first anchor assembly into the first hole includes feeding rod material upwardly through a first fastener and a first mine roof support plate into the first hole, setting the first anchor assembly in the mine roof by pulling downwardly on the rod material with a first force to expand the first anchor assembly after having inserted the first anchor assembly into the first hole, thereafter, pulling downwardly on the rod material with a second force which is less than the first force, pressing the first mine roof support plate against the mine roof at the first location, connecting the first fastener with the rod material while pressing the first mine roof support plate against the mine roof and while pulling downwardly on the rod material with the second force to enable a fastener to cooperate with the rod material to press the first mine roof support plate against the roof of the mine at the first location with a force having a magnitude which is a function of the magnitude of the second force.

Totten, A.B. III

1986-05-20

396

3.2: New Directions in Green Roof Research GREEN ROOF RESEARCH IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002 a stakeholder workshop held in Vancouver identified the major barriers to the market penetration of green roofs in BC as the lack of climate-specific performance data, the absence of third party testing and verification of green roof systems, and a lack of demonstrated feasibility. To address these issues the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT), supported by a

Maureen Connelly; Karen Liu

397

Conceptual Design of the Truscott Brine Lake Solar Pond System. Volume II. Utility-Integrated Scenario.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual designs were developed for salt-gradient solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. Energy is extracted from six, 10.5-ha (26-acre) solar ponds for conversion to electricity using three organic Rank...

E. K. May C. M. Leboeuf D. Waddington

1982-01-01

398

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

399

Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines the use of green roofs and explores their history. The article evaluates how green roofs provide ecosystem services such as storm water management and reducing urban heat island effects.Green roofs (roofs with a vegetated surface and substrate) provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including improved storm-water management, better regulation of building temperatures, reduced urban heat-island effects, and increased urban wildlife habitat. This article reviews the evidence for these benefits and examines the biotic and abiotic components that contribute to overall ecosystem services. We emphasize the potential for improving green-roof function by understanding the interactions between its ecosystem elements, especially the relationships among growing media, soil biota, and vegetation, and the interactions between community structure and ecosystem functioning. Further research into green-roof technology should assess the efficacy of green roofs compared to other technologies with similar ends, and ultimately focus on estimates of aggregate benefits at landscape scales and on more holistic cost-benefit analyses.

ERICA OBERNDORFER, JEREMY LUNDHOLM, BRAD BASS, REID R. COFFMAN, HITESH DOSHI, NIGEL DUNNETT, STUART GAFFIN, MANFRED KÃÂHLER, KAREN K. Y. LIU, and BRADLEY ROWE (;)

2007-11-01

400

Hydrological Modelling and Parameter Identification for Green Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green roofs, a multilayered system covered by plants, can be used to replace traditional concrete roofs as one of various measures to mitigate the increasing stormwater runoff in the urban environment. Moreover, facing the high uncertainty of the climate change, the present engineering method as adaptation may be regarded as improper measurements; reversely, green roofs are unregretful and flexible, and thus are rather important and suitable. The related technology has been developed for several years and the researches evaluating the stormwater reduction performance of green roofs are ongoing prosperously. Many European counties, cities in the U.S., and other local governments incorporate green roof into the stormwater control policy. Therefore, in terms of stormwater management, it is necessary to develop a robust hydrologic model to quantify the efficacy of green roofs over different types of designs and environmental conditions. In this research, a physical based hydrologic model is proposed to simulate water flowing process in the green roof system. In particular, the model adopts the concept of water balance, bringing a relatively simple and intuitive idea. Also, the research compares the two methods in the surface water balance calculation. One is based on Green-Ampt equation, and the other is under the SCS curve number calculation. A green roof experiment is designed to collect weather data and water discharge. Then, the proposed model is verified with these observed data; furthermore, the parameters using in the model are calibrated to find appropriate values in the green roof hydrologic simulation. This research proposes a simple physical based hydrologic model and the measures to determine parameters for the model.

Lo, W.; Tung, C.

2012-12-01

401

Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

2004-01-01

402

High-performance broadband optical coatings on InGaN/GaN solar cells for multijunction device integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a bulk (0001) substrate with high-performance broadband optical coatings to improve light absorption. A front-side anti-reflective coating and a back-side dichroic mirror were designed to minimize front surface reflections across a broad spectral range and maximize rear surface reflections only in the spectral range absorbed by the InGaN, making the cells suitable for multijunction solar cell integration. Application of optical coatings increased the peak external quantum efficiency by 56% (relative) and conversion efficiency by 37.5% (relative) under 1 sun AM0 equivalent illumination.

Young, N. G.; Perl, E. E.; Farrell, R. M.; Iza, M.; Keller, S.; Bowers, J. E.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

2014-04-01

403

See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135 nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295 W/m2 and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

Yang, Yang; O'Brien, Paul G.; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Kherani, Nazir P.

2013-11-01

404

See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

Yang, Yang [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)] [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); O’Brien, Paul G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Ozin, Geoffrey A., E-mail: gozin@chem.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Kherani, Nazir P., E-mail: gozin@chem.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2013-11-25

405

INTEGRATED ORBIT, ATTITUDE, AND STRUCTURAL CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN FO RS PACE SOLAR POWER SATELLITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study is to develop an in- tegrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW \\

Bong Wie; Carlos Roithmayr

406

Economic assessment of the integration of a solar tower to the Aruban water/electric facility  

SciTech Connect

The costs for the conversion of an oil burning plant to a hybrid system through the addition of a solar power tower are presented and compared with the cost savings made through reduced fuel consumption. The plant, located on the Island of Aruba, currently produces the island's water through desalination and its electricity through conventional generation. Because of the Aruban climate, it seems reasonable to attempt to use solar energy to reduce the level of oil usage. While the solar hybrid is capital and land intensive, analysis indicates that fuel consumption can be reduced by 5% at an annual savings of $1.8 million (1982 prices). With low interest loans available from the European Community, the capital investment can be paid back in 12 years; estimated life of the solar tower is 30 years.

Savilonis, B.; Buckley, R.; Every, R.

1983-11-01

407

[Application of GIS and integrated mathematic models on estimating forest land wood productiveness and solar energy use efficiency].  

PubMed

Based on the meteorological elements observation and mountain soil survey in Fujian Province, this paper approached the application of geographic information system (GIS) and integrated mathematic models on estimating the grid wood productiveness and solar energy use efficiency (SEUE) of regional forest land. The results showed that there was a significant quadratic correlation of annual mean temperature, precipitation and total solar radiation energy(TSRE) with longitude, latitude and altitude, and their multiple correlation coefficients ranged from 0.692 to 0.981. The regional annual mean TSRE, temperature and precipitation could be well estimated by GIS and integrated models of quadratic tendency curve, and linear, quadratic and quartic inverse distance weighted interpolation. These annual means estimated by the models did not differ greatly from observed data, and the t test values were 1.29, 0.12 and 0.06, respectively. The grid wood productiveness and SEUE of regional forest land in Fujian could also be well estimated with the aid of GIS and integrated models, which ranged from 2.32 m3 x hm(-2) yr(-1) to 18.61 m3 x hm(-2) yr(-1) and from 0.11% to 0.91%, respectively. PMID:16422494

Xing, Shihe; Lin, Dexi; Shen, Jinquan; Cao, Rongbin

2005-10-01

408

Integration of evacuated tubular solar collectors with lithium bromide absorption cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

By surrounding the absorber-heat exchanger component of a solar collector with a glass-enclosed evacuated space and by providing the absorber with a selective surface, solar collectors can operate at efficiencies exceeding 50 per cent under conditions of Delta T\\/H sub T = 5 deg C sq m\\/kW (Delta T = collector fluid inlet temperature minus ambient temperature, H sub T

D. S. Ward; W. S. Duff; J. C. Ward; G. O. G. Lof

1979-01-01

409

Measured energy savings of light colored roofs: Results from three California demonstration sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured data and computer simulations have demonstrated the impact of roof albedo in reducing cooling energy use in buildings. Savings are a function of both climate and the amount of roof insulation. The cooling energy savings for reflective roofs are highest in hot climates. A reflective roof may also lead to higher heating energy use. Reflective coatings are also used

H. Akbari; L. Gartland; S. Konopacki

1998-01-01

410

Comparative studies on different type of roof ponds for cooling purposes: litera- ture review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioclimatic approach gives attention to the design of roof since it is commonly the building element which is most exposed. Some of the most favorable roof cool- ing techniques are roof ponds which appear to influence the thermal behavior of roof through different processes including evaporation, radiation and conduction. Large air-conditioning energy savings were estimated, reach- ing 100% in a

A. Spanaki

411

Green roofs for a wide brown land: Opportunities and barriers for rooftop greening in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing public, industry and government interest in establishing green roofs in Australian cities due to their demonstrated environmental benefits. While a small number of green roofs have been constructed in Australia, most are roof gardens or intensive green roofs. Despite their potential as a climate change adaptation and mitigation tool and their widespread use in the northern hemisphere,

Nicholas S. G. Williams; John P. Rayner; Kirsten J. Raynor

2010-01-01

412

Feasibility of using laser-based vibration measurements to detect roof fall hazards in underground mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary methods for analyzing roof stability in underground mines is the age-old method of 'roof sounding' where a miner taps on the roof and listens for the hollow sound of loose blocks of rock. This paper looks at the feasibility of using noncontact laser-based vibration measurements to detect roof fall hazards with the ultimate vision of improving,

Peter Swanson

2002-01-01

413

Directional self-supporting pyramid shaped hot water solar absorber  

SciTech Connect

A solar absorber to be mounted on the roofs of buildings, the absorber having the form of a pyramid with the heat absorbing elements mounted across the upward extending faces of the pyramid and the base formed to conform to the contour of the roof so that the solar absorber may be fixedly mounted on the roof of a building. In a modified form of my invention each face of the pyramid is independently equipped with a heat sensor which is electrically connected to a water valve and water circulator so that water circulates only through the faces exposed to sunlight.

Tornquist, A.

1980-01-22

414

10 MWe Solar Pilot Plant. Collector Subsystem Integrated Acceptance Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Collector Subsystem Integrated Acceptance Test Plan presents the Peoperational testing, the interfaces of the Collector Subsystem integrated with the Plant Control System, and technical support requirements to conduct the startup and Acceptance Testi...

G. R. Rose

1981-01-01

415

Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities are reported on the following areas: project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; and engineering and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts. Visual materials presented at the project Integration Meeting are included.

Mcdonald, R. R.

1980-01-01

416

View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof and Wall Juncture and Crane Trolley - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

417

44. VIEW, LOOKING FROM STATION BUILDING, OF COMMERCIAL BUILDING ROOFS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. VIEW, LOOKING FROM STATION BUILDING, OF COMMERCIAL BUILDING ROOFS. NOTE HOFFMAN HOUSE BRIDGE AT LOWER RIGHT - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

418

4. PARTIAL VIEW. LOOKING FROM SHED ROOF, OF REAR (EAST) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PARTIAL VIEW. LOOKING FROM SHED ROOF, OF REAR (EAST) ELEVATION, SHOWING SECOND AND THIRD STORIES OF ORIGINAL SECTION - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

419

9. INSTALLATION OF SUSPENDED CEILING, WEST WING, THIRD FLOOR (ROOF), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. INSTALLATION OF SUSPENDED CEILING, WEST WING, THIRD FLOOR (ROOF), DURING REHABITITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

420

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING IN ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING IN ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTH. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

421

13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING AND DORMER OPENING IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING AND DORMER OPENING IN ATTIC, LOOKING EAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

422

7. SANDSORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXCAVATED SAND PIT - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

423

INTERIOR OF ROOF STRUCTURE LOOKING FROM TOP OF PROJECTION BOOTH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF ROOF STRUCTURE LOOKING FROM TOP OF PROJECTION BOOTH, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Theater, Yorktown Avenue between Wasp & Saipan Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

424

Steel Roofing Systems Have School Districts Looking Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the leading benefits of choosing steel roofing for educational facilities. Benefits examined are durability, energy efficiency, aesthetics and design flexibility, and construction efficiency and low life cycle cost. (GR)

Werner, Michael F.

2001-01-01

425

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

426

9. Oblique view from liftbed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Oblique view from lift-bed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof and chimney, bicycle lockers placed against southeast wall; view to north, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

427

3. Oblique view from liftbed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Oblique view from lift-bed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof, general appearance of passenger platform area and setting; view to south, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

428

Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view facing south - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

429

South side elevation, note clerestory above the lowpitch main roof, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South side elevation, note clerestory above the low-pitch main roof, view facing north - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

430

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

431

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

432

6. VIEW OF LOWER NOTTINGHAM ACROSS ROOF OF BUILDING 'D'. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF LOWER NOTTINGHAM ACROSS ROOF OF BUILDING 'D'. TAILINGS PILES AND BUILDINGS 'B' AND 'C' VISIBLE IN CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Lower Nottingham Mine, Western slope of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

433

5. HOUSE No. 16 AND SURGE TANK. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. HOUSE No. 16 AND SURGE TANK. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

434

26. BARGE LOADING PIER, VIEW LOOKING DOWN FROM ROOF OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. BARGE LOADING PIER, VIEW LOOKING DOWN FROM ROOF OF LOADING CRANE #2, LOOKING WEST - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

435

10. Locomotive smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof with gable ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Locomotive smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof with gable end of Machine Shop in background. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

436

9. Smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof. Central of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

437

Design Methodology for Standing Secondary Roof Support in Longwall Tailgates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses a design methodology for standing secondary tailgate supports. The methodology uses the performance characteristics generated in the NIOSH Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) to match the stiffness and load characteristics of various supports t...

D. R. Dolinar T. M. Barczak T. P. Mucho

2008-01-01

438

14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION OF BUILDING 4. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

439

Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and stored materials. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

440

51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region 2, New York, October 29, 1976. Scale 1/31=1. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

441

Stress Analysis and Stability of Oil Storage Tank Floating Roofs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report shows how the complex behavior of the more common type of floating roof may be resolved into discrete problem areas. The analysis assumes static loading, and, on this basis, examines the probability of various collapse mechanisms. Restorative b...

G. C. Mitchell

1972-01-01

442

Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses  

SciTech Connect

Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span structures requiring no internal-support columns. This feature allows the associated use of a floating deck that is as vapor tight as is possible to construct. Further, geodesic domes can practically eliminate rainwater contamination, eliminate wind-generated vapor losses, and greatly reduce filling losses associated with conventional external floating roofs.

Barrett, A.E. (Colonial Pipeline Co., Atlanta, GA (US))

1989-07-10

443

Interior, middle wing, medical records storage. Notice roof trusses. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, middle wing, medical records storage. Notice roof trusses. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Mess & Kitchen, Nurses' Recreation, West McAfee Avenue, North of Building 507, Aurora, Adams County, CO

444

27. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ROOFS OF DENNIS HOTEL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ROOFS OF DENNIS HOTEL AND BLENHEIM HOTEL. MARLBOROUGH HOTEL IS PARTLY VISIBLE TO THE RIGHT - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

445

16. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ON NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. DETAIL OF EMPENNAGE DOOR DESIGNED FOR ENTRY OF AIRCRAFT TAIL ASSEMBLY. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

446

21. FRAMING DETAIL OF UPPER LEVEL, EAST BUILDING AT ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. FRAMING DETAIL OF UPPER LEVEL, EAST BUILDING AT ROOF RAFTER CONNECTION TO SILL BEAM. NOTE TRUNNEL FASTENERS AT MORTISE AND TENON JOINTS. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

447

INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southwest through Room 205 at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southwest through Room 205 at the doorway that leads to Room 206P, a shower and clean area in the penthouse - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

448

Installation, Care, and Maintenance of Wood Shake and Shingle Roofs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets ...

A. Nebelsick B. Stuart C. G. Hunt J. Dwyer R. S. Williams T. Bonura

2011-01-01

449

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

450

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

451

21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

452

8. Photocopy of 1996 drawing of roof, attic, and foundation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of 1996 drawing of roof, attic, and foundation plan. Original located at Department of the Navy, Engineering Field Activity - Abbey Mausoleum, Carpenter Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

453

1. View southeast of Climatic Chambers Building from roof of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View southeast of Climatic Chambers Building from roof of Research Building. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

454

Thermal resistance of prototypical cellular plastic roof insulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cooperative industry/government project was initiated in 1989 to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents in polyisocyanurate (PIR) boardstock for roofing applications. Five sets of PIR boardstock were pro...

D. L. McElroy R. S. Graves F. J. Weaver

1991-01-01

455

Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control tower on right. Camera facing south - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Warehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

456

Exterior view of the south side from the roof of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of the south side from the roof of facility 1670. View facing north-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

457

Interior view of the roof structure at the east end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the roof structure at the east end of the attic space. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

458

Interior view of the roof structure at the west end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the roof structure at the west end of the attic space. View facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

459

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

460

10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS AT LEFT AND RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

461

13. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHWESTERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHWESTERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

462

9. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHEAST EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHEAST EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-4, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

463

12. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHEASTERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHEASTERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

464

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, GUARD RAIL AT CENTER, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, GUARD RAIL AT CENTER, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

465

10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEAST EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEAST EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-4, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

466

12. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE NORTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE NORTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

467

13. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE NORTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE NORTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

468

4. PHOTO OF STATIC TEST TOWER FROM OBSERVATION ROOF OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTO OF STATIC TEST TOWER FROM OBSERVATION ROOF OF BLOCK HOUSE. NOTE PARAPET WALL OF BLOCK HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Block House, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

469

12. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE, SHOWING COLUMNS AND ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE, SHOWING COLUMNS AND ROOF STRUCTURE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

470

12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing exposed rafter tails, skip sheathing and gutter - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

471

6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM INSIDE BLOCKHOUSE, PAD A IN BACKGROUND; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28401, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

472

20. Detail of lantern roof structure, with revolving lens beneath. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail of lantern roof structure, with revolving lens beneath. (Blurred due to apparatus motion.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

473

33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106357. FLUOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106357. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

474

Detail view of the terracotta antefixes that decorate the roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the terra-cotta antefixes that decorate the roof of the Justice Department Building - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

475

Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As Found - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

476

View of west end of loading dock roof and top ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of west end of loading dock roof and top of Express Building, looking to the west - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

477

Oblique view of the southwest side showing multiple roof planes. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of the southwest side showing multiple roof planes. View facing northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Foundry, Seventh Street near Avenue F intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

478

Roof detail, section of northfacing light panel showing wireglass exposed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof detail, section of north-facing light panel showing wireglass exposed - U.S. Department of the Treasury, South Court, Fifteenth Street & Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

479

3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. 1860, from A History of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society 1816-1916, page 64. - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 306 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

480

1. VIEW OF THE ROOFS OF FAMILY HOUSES BUILDINGS 600608 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE ROOFS OF FAMILY HOUSES BUILDINGS 600-608 WITH DOMES IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Military Family Housing, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

481

LOOKING N AT POINT WHERE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION CHANGED. ROOF APPEARS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING N AT POINT WHERE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION CHANGED. ROOF APPEARS ONE STORY SHORTER THAN ON SOUTHERNMOST END. COLUMNS 66 & 67 ON THIRD FLOOR. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

482

DETAIL, NORTHEAST POST SUPPORTING SHED PORCH ROOF ON NORTH FACADE; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL, NORTHEAST POST SUPPORTING SHED PORCH ROOF ON NORTH FACADE; VIEW TO EAST - Fort Bragg, Noncommissioned Officers' Service Club, Guest House Building, South of Butner Road, Fayetteville, Cumberland County, NC

483

Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

484

49. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF CENTER POST OF TRANSITION OF KING POST TRUSS TO QUEEN POST TRUSS WHERE BUILDING TURNS OR DOGLEGS. NOTE ELEVATOR MACHINERY AT REAR. - Continental Gin Company, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

485

VIEW OF THE ROOF TRUSSES NEAR THE ENTRY TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE ROOF TRUSSES NEAR THE ENTRY TO THE GYMNASIUM. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gymnasium Building, North Waterfront & Pierce Street near Berth S-13, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

486

6. General view from roof of Building 12 of interior ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. General view from roof of Building 12 of interior of complex. Building 13/14 stretches from left. View looking SE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

487

INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF BARREL ROOF STRUCTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

488