Sample records for roof integrated solar

  1. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Colon; T. Merrigan

    2001-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt

  2. Composite synthetic roofing structure with integral solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, W.M.

    1981-06-16

    A form-molded synthetic foam roofing section or structure is described, having a solar-collecting insert or panel incorporated therein with a relatively broad undersurface and an exposed surface configured to resemble interlocked and overlapping roofing shingles which are united to support a surface such as wood, metal, etc. During the molding process. The roofing structure may be affixed by any conventional means, such as nails or adhesives, to roof boards, rafters or over old existing roof structures with adjacent roofing sections interconnected by appropriate inlets and outlets for the solar panel insert. Solar heat-collecting fluid may be circulated through the solar panel inserts in a conventional manner. Connecting tubes are provided for connecting the solar panel inserts in adjacent roofing sections and terminal connectors are compatible with all circulating systems.

  3. Composite synthetic roofing structure with integral solar collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    A form-molded synthetic foam roofing section or structure is described, having a solar-collecting insert or panel incorporated therein with a relatively broad undersurface and an exposed surface configured to resemble interlocked and overlapping roofing shingles which are united to support a surface such as wood, metal, etc. During the molding process. The roofing structure may be affixed by any conventional

  4. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, C. J. (Florida Solar Energy Center); Merrigan, T. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    2001-10-19

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

  5. Solar potential for the solar photovoltaic roof integration system in China explored by the geographic information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinping Zhou; Jiakuan Yang; Xudong Yuan; Bo Xiao; Guoxiang Hou

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential solar power for the solar photovoltaic Roof Integration System (RIS) using the Geographic Information System (GIS) method, taking into account the geographic distribution of solar irradiation and the estimate of costs for the RIS and identifies the distribution of potential solar energy radiating on the RIS and power. The total urban roof area is estimated

  6. Roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1982-03-16

    A roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities comprising a flat main portion having upper and lower surfaces, and curved segments integral with the upper and lower edges of said shingle. The roofing shingles are mounted in overlapping parallel array with the curved segments interconnected to define a fluid conduit enclosure. Mounting brackets for the shingles are secured on the roof rafters.

  7. Roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities comprising a flat main portion having upper and lower surfaces, and curved segments integral with the upper and lower edges of said shingle. The roofing shingles are mounted in overlapping parallel array with the curved segments interconnected to define a fluid conduit enclosure. Mounting brackets for the shingles are secured on the roof

  8. Solar heating shingle roof structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Straza

    1984-01-01

    A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. Shingles are assembled in a normal overlapping array to cover a roof

  9. Solar heating shingle roof structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Straza

    1981-01-01

    A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet socket at the upper end and a fluid outlet plug at the lower end with a

  10. Solar heating shingle roof structure

    SciTech Connect

    Straza, G.T.

    1984-01-31

    A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. Shingles are assembled in a normal overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive shingles to provide a fluid path through the complete array. An inlet manifold is contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the lowest row of shingles.

  11. Passive solar roof ice melter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deutz

    1981-01-01

    An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window

  12. Solar heater and roof attachment means

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Howe; S. G. Koutavas

    1984-01-01

    A solar heater includes an elongated solar collector having two fixedly connected solar panels of highly heat conductive material supported by a roof clamp on a shingled roof. The bottom edges of each of the solar panels include upturned gutter portions. One form of roof clamp for shingled roofs includes a J-shape shingle clamp member having a clamp bolt extending

  13. Solar heating shingle roof structure

    SciTech Connect

    Straza, G.T.

    1981-01-13

    A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet socket at the upper end and a fluid outlet plug at the lower end with a skirt at the lower end overlapping the plug. Shingles are assembled in an overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive longitudinally positioned shingles to provide fluid paths through the complete array. An inlet manifold is positioned at the upper end of the array or in the alternative contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the outlet of the lowest row of shingles.

  14. SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER THE SKY'S THE LIMIT: BERNADETTE MOKE SITS ON THE ROOF, ARE 160 SOLAR PANELS, SOME OF WHICH AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOW THE PATH OF THE SUN. 10 NJITMAGAZINE COVER STORY'S THE LIMIT: SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER "The solar panels even move a little at night," says

  15. Passive solar roof ice melter

    SciTech Connect

    Deutz, R.T.

    1981-09-29

    An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window situated at right angles with respect to the bottom wall, and a reflecting wall connecting the opposite side edges of the bottom wall and the first window. The reflecting wall has a surface facing the bottom wall and the window which is highly reflective to radiant solar energy. Radiant solar energy passes through the first window and either strikes the highly absorbent upper surface of the bottom wall or first strikes the reflecting wall to be reflected down to the upper surface of the bottom wall. The heat generated thereby melts through the ice below the bottom wall causing the ice dam to be removed between the bottom wall and the top of the roof and immediately adjacent to the ice melter along the roof. Water dammed up by the ice dam can then flow down through this break in the dam and drain out harmlessly onto the ground. This prevents dammed water from seeping back under the shingles and into the house to damage the interior of the house.

  16. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

  17. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

  18. Inner roof solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allegro

    1979-01-01

    An invention which adds liquid solar heating to conventional house construction without altering the plans is described. Sections of moulded polyester resin embedding pipes connect together to provide a continuous liquid pathway which is hidden from view, or conduits may be moulded in the polyester resin thereby eliminating the pipes. The sections are artistically styled, obviating the unsightly appearance of

  19. Flat roof integration of aSi triple junction modules laminated together with flexible polyolefin membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivano Pola; Domenico Chianese; Angelo Bernasconi

    2007-01-01

    In BIPV design (Building Integrated PV) with crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells, ventilation is important in order to keep cells as cool as possible. To allow good ventilation it is therefore generally preferable to mount the modules separated from the existing roof. In the case of sloped roofs, the modules are superimposed onto the existing roof and for flat roofs

  20. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine...equipment: (a) The distance between roof bolts shall not exceed 10 feet crosswise. (b) Roof bolts to be installed 9 feet or more apart...

  1. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine...equipment: (a) The distance between roof bolts shall not exceed 10 feet crosswise. (b) Roof bolts to be installed 9 feet or more apart...

  2. 30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...machines with integral roof bolters. When roof bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine...equipment: (a) The distance between roof bolts shall not exceed 10 feet crosswise. (b) Roof bolts to be installed 9 feet or more apart...

  3. Extruded metal solar collector roofing shingle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jr

    1978-01-01

    An extruded aluminum planar roofing shingle is described with a structural capability of spanning over six feet which incorporates an integral tube which projects from its lower surface, the shingles being mounted in edge over-lapping, parallel array fashion across laterally spaced, inclined roof rafters of a building structure and being interlocked at said edges, each shingle extending the full length

  4. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-print Network

    Patterson, G. V.

    1982-01-01

    : BLISTERS: o Bliste6s form when the roof temperatures reach 150 to 165. The gravel falls off the blister a~d this allows the ultra violet rays of the sun to dlrectly attack the asphalt. This causes the oils to dry out, cracking occurs, and roof problems... intermit the roof, then allowing it to eva8orate, we can tently, then allowing it to evaporate, we can pro cool the soof to within 10 0 to 12 of wet bulb. duce the same effect of cooling the interior of the With a 76 wet bulb, this means that we can...

  5. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  6. Building integrated photovoltaic roofing element for covered parking structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, P.; Vogeli, C.; Singh, A.; Guha, S. [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A roll-to-roll process is used to deposit multijunction amorphous silicon alloy solar cell onto thin stainless steel substrate. By series interconnecting and vacuum laminating 22 strips of large area amorphous Si on stainless steel solar cell material, the authors have designed and fabricated 18 feet long and 16 inches wide large area photovoltaic laminate modules. Building integrated roofing elements are realized by bonding these large area laminates to commercially available structural standing seam metal panels. The authors integrated these PV roofing elements into a covered parking structure.

  7. Solar heater and roof attachment means

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.L.; Koutavas, S.G.

    1984-02-21

    A solar heater includes an elongated solar collector having two fixedly connected solar panels of highly heat conductive material supported by a roof clamp on a shingled roof. The bottom edges of each of the solar panels include upturned gutter portions. One form of roof clamp for shingled roofs includes a J-shape shingle clamp member having a clamp bolt extending therethrough, and a solar collector clamp member assembled on the bolt and clamped to the bottom gutter portions of the solar panels. A bottom plate of the J-shape clamp member is slid under a shingle of a first shingle course and under a shingle of a second upper shingle course to carry the bolt into the top of the gap between adjacent shingle portions of the first course and to position a top plate of the shingle clamp member over parts of the shank portions of the first course and over a part of the one shingle of the second course. A clamp nut clamps the collector clamp member and the shingle clamp member firmly to the contacted shingles.

  8. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation

    E-print Network

    Patterson, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 spray nozzles. but it was found that the tiny (Sprayed Roof) m Savings of 100 tons ? 1 ton serrations in the spray head. which were per 1.000 sq. ft. necessary to put a...

  9. Modular structurally integrated solar panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stout

    1981-01-01

    An improved solar panel system is provided which is constructed for mounting of solar collector panel modules between conventionally spaced and sloped roof rafters. The solar panel modules include integral gutter portions and integral flashing portions. The solar panel system also includes a system of top and side flashings which complement the integral flashings of the solar panel modules so

  10. Field measurements of performance of roof solar collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Khedari; Weerapong Mansirisub; Sompong Chaima; Naris Pratinthong; Jongjit Hirunlabh

    2000-01-01

    To reduce the mechanical cooling energy cost of new housing built in a hot and humid region, the design should maximize the natural ventilation and minimize the fraction of sun energy absorbed by a dwelling. This objective is accomplished by using the roof structure to act as a solar collector. The roof solar collector design (RSC) used CPAC Monier concrete

  11. Solar energy collector and associated methods adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof of a building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for collecting solar energy adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof or side of a building comprising thin flexible metal plates interposed between the overlapped shingles in heat transfer relation therewith such that heat absorbed by the shingles is transferred to the metal plates. The plates extend through the roof via

  12. Radiative cooling and solar heating potential by using various roofing materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Pytlinski; H. L. Connell; G. R. Conrad

    1980-01-01

    The results of testing over twenty typical and potential roofing materials such as: corrugated galvanized steel, corrugated clear fiberglass, 90number black roll roofing, 90number green roll roofing, 90number red roll roofing, 90number brown roll roofing, 90number white roll roofing, 240number brown asphalt shingles, anodized aluminum, etc. under exposure to solar and nocturnal sky radiation are presented. Some cadmium sulfite solar

  13. Solar disinfection for household treatment of roof-harvested rainwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Meera; M. M. Ahammed

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of solar disinfection in treating roof-harvested rainwater contaminated with microorganisms was evaluated with a view to its use as a household technology. Coliform and heterotrophic bacteria inactivation kinetics were studied using bottles with different backing surfaces. The effects of various parameters such as turbidity, solar intensity, type of organisms (naturally occurring versus laboratory grown) and bottle volume on

  14. 75 FR 7029 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment for Solar Roof Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ...Environmental Assessment for Solar Roof Project AGENCY...Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended...Environmental Assessment for the Solar Roof Project and by this...Environmental Assessment for the Solar Roof Project should immediately...the scientific based management of national and...

  15. Solar energy collector and associated methods adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof of a building

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, R.L.

    1980-04-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for collecting solar energy adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof or side of a building comprising thin flexible metal plates interposed between the overlapped shingles in heat transfer relation therewith such that heat absorbed by the shingles is transferred to the metal plates. The plates extend through the roof via slots provided therein and are affixed in heat transfer relation with pipes containing a fluid.

  16. New configurations of a roof solar collector maximizing natural ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongjit Hirunlabh; Sopin Wachirapuwadon; Naris Pratinthong; Joseph Khedari

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the performance of a construction element: the Roof Solar Collector (RSC) with regard to maximizing the rate of induced natural ventilation, which contributes to the improvement of indoor thermal comfort of houses. The RSC configuration was made by using modern materials: CPAC monier concrete tiles on the outside and gypsum board on the inside. The comparison of

  17. Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

    2006-10-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

  18. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  19. Analysis of Wind Forces on Roof-Top Solar Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panta, Yogendra; Kudav, Ganesh

    2011-03-01

    Structural loads on solar panels include forces due to high wind, gravity, thermal expansion, and earthquakes. International Building Code (IBC) and the American Society of Civil Engineers are two commonly used approaches in solar industries to address wind loads. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-02) can be used to calculate wind uplift loads on roof-mounted solar panels. The present study is primarily focused on 2D and 3D modeling with steady, and turbulent flow over an inclined solar panel on the flat based roof to predict the wind forces for designing wind management system. For the numerical simulation, 3-D incompressible flow with the standard k- ? was adopted and commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT was used. Results were then validated with wind tunnel experiments with a good agreement. Solar panels with various aspect ratios for various high wind speeds and angle of attacks were modeled and simulated in order to predict the wind loads in various scenarios. The present study concluded to reduce the strong wind uplift by designing a guide plate or a deflector before the panel. Acknowledgments to Northern States Metal Inc., OH (GK & YP) and School of Graduate Studies of YSU for RP & URC 2009-2010 (YP).

  20. Solar heat collection with suspended metal roofing and whole house ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, T.

    1996-10-01

    A south pitched roof is employed for solar collection directly onto a roofing with chocolate brown color. The roofing is structural and is suspended over plywood decking so as to create an air space which receives input from the coolest and lowest basement air of the house interior. Air heated beneath the metal roofing is returned to a basement storage wall. Full length plenum cavities are formed into the ordinary rafter truss framing--at the knee wall and collar tie spaces. Preliminary testing of BTU gain at known air flows is acquired with a microprocessor system continuously collecting input and output temperatures at the roof collector into disk data files.

  1. Solar Radiation Estimation on Building Roofs and Web-Based Solar Cadastre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agugiaro, G.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; De Filippi, R.; Droghetti, S.; Furlanello, C.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of solar irradiance on building roofs in complex Alpine landscapes. Very high resolution geometric models of the building roofs are generated by means of advanced automated image matching methods. Models are combined with raster and vector data sources to estimate the incoming solar radiation hitting the roofs. The methodology takes into account for atmospheric effects, site latitude and elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain as well as the effects of shadows cast by surrounding buildings, chimneys, dormers, vegetation and terrain topography. An open source software solution has been developed and applied to a study area located in a mountainous site and containing some 1250 residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The method has been validated by data collected with a pyranometer and results made available through a prototype WebGIS platform.

  2. EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Nasipuri, Asis

    EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks Amitangshu Pal experiments on solar-powered sensor nodes. Due to constraints in cost and size, the solar panels of solar energy available at such solar-powered sensor nodes can be highly unpredictable and at times

  3. Expertmental study of a Roof Solar Collector towards the natural ventilation of new habitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Khedari; J. Hirunlabh; T. Bunnag

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of offering thermal comfort, without inducing mechanical energy cost, in new habitations, built in European style and situated in a hot and humid climate, by means of a construction element: the Roof Solar Collector (RSC), which is made by using concrete roofing tiles on the outer side and gypsum board on the inner one. With

  4. Barrel-shaped solar roofing element and method for its assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allegro

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a solar roofing system. It comprises a set of shingle comprising lower and upper flat plastic sheet members of extruded plastic spaced apart and sealed together to form fluid flow paths forming solar energy conversion means, the upper sheet of which is transparent to solar energy, interconnecting and overlapping structure for joining shingles together including structure for

  5. Experimental study of a roof solar collector towards the natural ventilation of new houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Khedari; Jongjit Hirunlabh; Tika Bunnag

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of offering thermal comfort in new housing built in European style and situated in a hot and humid climate, without inducing mechanical energy cost, by means of a constructive element: the Roof Solar Collector (RSC). With this RSC it is possible, on the one hand, to minimize the fraction of the solar flux absorbed by

  6. Barrel-shaped solar roofing element and method for its assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Allegro, J.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a solar roofing system. It comprises a set of shingle comprising lower and upper flat plastic sheet members of extruded plastic spaced apart and sealed together to form fluid flow paths forming solar energy conversion means, the upper sheet of which is transparent to solar energy, interconnecting and overlapping structure for joining shingles together including structure for nailing through overlapped shingles into a roof surface, and means for interconnecting the solar energy conversion means comprising a flow path between the lower and upper plastic sheets for circulation of a liquid that may store heat when subjected to solar energy from a plurality of the shingles into a network for collecting accumulated solar energy.

  7. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance—Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad Sleiman; George Ban-Weiss; Haley E. Gilbert; David François; Paul Berdahl; Thomas W. Kirchstetter; Hugo Destaillats; Ronnen Levinson

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly reflective “cool” roofing materials can decrease demand for air conditioning, mitigate the urban heat island effect, and potentially slow global warming. However, initially high roof solar reflectance can be degraded by natural soiling and weathering processes. We evaluated solar reflectance losses after three years of natural exposure reported in two separate databases: the Rated Products Directory

  8. Regional Climate Response to Surface Albedo Changes from Cool (reflective) Roofs and Desert Based Solar Electricity Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Millstein; S. Menon

    2010-01-01

    The adoption of cool (more reflective) roof\\/pavement technology and large-scale solar energy generation are being pursued as methods to combat climate change. Cool roofs and solar energy generation have strong and opposite effects on surface albedo. If employed on a large enough scale these albedo changes may lead to changes to radiative forcing and local and regional climate. Much of

  9. Roofing system for solar heat collection and method for fabrication thereof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A system for collecting solar heat energy includes a plurality of shingle members arranged in shingle fashion on the roof of a structure or building. Each shingle member is formed of a web of waterproof material which is folded and seamed to define a flat, water-containing cavity therein. Each shingle member includes a flange extending on at least two sides

  10. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  11. City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

    2012-08-31

    Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

  12. SolarTile: A rooftop integrated photovoltaic system. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-03-26

    AstroPower, Royal Group Technologies, and Solar Design Associates are jointly developing an integrated photovoltaic roofing system for residential and light commercial building applications. This family of products will rely heavily on the technological development of a roofing tile made from recycled plastic and innovative module fabrication and encapsulation processes in conjunction with an advanced Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell product. This solar power generating roofing product is presently being referred to as the SolarTile. A conceptual drawing of the solar roofing tile is shown. The SolarTile will be integrated with non-solar tiles in a single roof installation permitting ease of assembly and the ability to use conventional roofing techniques at ridges, valleys, and eaves. The Phase 1 effort included tasks aimed at the development of the proposed product concept; product manufacturing or fabrication, and installation cost estimates; business planning; and a market assessment of the proposed product, including target selling prices, target market sectors, size estimates for each market sector, and planned distribution mechanisms for market penetration. Technical goals as stated in the Phase 1 proposal and relevant progress are reported.

  13. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum) the extrapolation showed sufficient modeling performance to create the first solar atlas of the Eastern Pamirs. This solar atlas, adapted to optimal panel inclination using 5000 random points, was used to compute expected electricity amounts for two scenarios: one for decentralized small scale implementation and one for a larger scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant. Based on the month with the minimum incoming radiation and the expected energy demand for cooking, the cost for the required infrastructure was assessed. The results showed that an implementation of a PV power plant in Murghab would generate enough power for basic cooking within the estimated budget in winter. In summer the power plant would deliver at least as much energy as the planned hydropower plant if latter would continuously deliver its anticipated peak power. The decentralized scenario for a village with 210 households without existing energy grid resulted in higher investment costs of about 8,000 € per household to meet basic cooking demands in winter. Wind energy potential was assessed based on local wind measurements and an assumed installation of small scale wind turbines. Short time scale comparison of wind and solar resources showed that they mainly occur simultaneously and positive synergy effects are negligible. Furthermore, the financial analysis resulted in significantly higher cost for wind energy even in favorable locations making this resource less important for the region. Our results suggest that solar energy could make a substantial contribution to sustainable energy supply and to alleviate energy poverty and environmental degradation in the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan.

  14. An Integrative Analysis of an Extensive Green Roof System: A Case Study of the Schleman Green Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, F.; Bowling, L. C.

    2013-12-01

    In urban environments where populations continue to rise, the need for affective stormwater management and runoff control methods is ever prevalent. Increased population growth and city expansion means greater impervious surfaces and higher rates of stormwater runoff. In well-established cities, this proves particularly difficult due to a constraining built environment and limited pervious spaces, even in cities as small as 40,000 residents. Work to reduce runoff in combined sewer systems (CSS) and municipal separated storm sewer systems (MS4) by use of best-management practices is one route currently under investigation. The Purdue University campus is making efforts to reduce their impact on the West Lafayette CSS and MS4. Green roofs are one management practice being used for runoff mitigation. Specifically, Schleman Hall, an administrative student affairs building, has a small green roof located on the second floor installed in 2008. In cooperation with Purdue Physical Facilities, monitoring and analysis for the Schleman extensive green roof at Purdue University was performed from June 2012 to December 2012. The objective was to determine the stormwater retention, output water quality and net present value for the 165 m2 roof. The results from the water balance analysis revealed retention rates on average of 58% of precipitation per rain event, where retention included soil moisture, evaporation and detention/depression storage. The water quality metrics tested were Nitrate-Nitrite (NO2-NO3), Orthophosphate (PO4), Ammonia-Ammonium ion (NH3-NH4), Sulfate (SO4), total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. The pollutant concentration and load results varied, but the pH levels from precipitation increased in all samples after passing through the substrate. SO4 and PO4 results yielded higher concentrations and loads in the green roof output than the control output and precipitation, while NO2-NO3 and NH3-NH4 yielded concentrations and loads that were reduced by the green roof when compared to the control output and precipitation. The green roof caused a decrease in the energy load (KJ/hr) needed to maintain a near constant temperature in the conference room situated below the green roof. These results combined with potential carbon pricing, stormwater fees and an installment grant resulted in a net present value of $32,350 for the Schleman Hall roof. The analysis demonstrates potential benefits, but highlights the need for further research that involves a more detailed simulation and the valuing of ecosystem services offered by the green roof.

  15. Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

  16. Enhancement of natural ventilation rate and attic heat gain reduction of roof solar collector using radiant barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Puangsombut; J. Hirunlabh; J. Khedari; B. Zeghmati; M. M. Winb

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the experimental results on natural ventilation flow rate enhancement and attic heat gain reduction of a roof solar collector equipped with a radiant barrier (RB). Investigation was conducted using an open ended inclined rectangular channel with an RB. The RB was used on the lower plate while the upper plate was heated with constant heat

  17. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was renovated in 1998, but the existing roof had not been designed to carry a large load. Due to this fact, a complete roofing and structural analysis had to be performed to match the available roof loading to the existing and/or new solar PV technology, and BIPV was considered an excellent solution for this structure with the roof weight limitations. The solar BIPV system on the large roof area was estimated to provide about 25% of the total facility load with an average of 52,560 kWh per month. In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. SFPUC and consultants evaluated the structural capability of the facility roof, with recommendations for improvements necessary to accommodate the solar PV system and determine the suitable size of the system in kilowatts. The electrical room and switchgear were evaluated for any improvements necessary and to identify any constraints that might impede the installation of necessary inverters, transformers or meters. 2. Development of a design-build Request for Proposal (RFP) to identify the specifications for the solar PV system, and to include SFPUC technical specifications, equipment warranties and performance warranties. Due to potential labor issues in the local solar industry, SFPUC adjusted the terms of the RFP to more clearly define scope of work between electricians, roofers and laborers. 3. Design phase of project included electrical design drawings, calculations and other construction documents to support three submittals: 50% (preliminary design), 90% (detailed design) and 100% (Department of Building Inspection permit approved). 4. Installation of solar photovoltaic panels, completion of conduit and wiring work, connection of inverters, isolation switches, meters and Data Acquisition System by Contractor (Department of Public Works). 5. Commissioning of system, including all necessary tests to make the PV system fully functional and operational at its rated capacity of 100 kW (DC-STC). Following completion of these steps, the solar PV system was installed and fully integrated by la

  18. Regional Climate Response to Surface Albedo Changes from Cool (reflective) Roofs and Desert Based Solar Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millstein, D.; Menon, S.

    2010-12-01

    The adoption of cool (more reflective) roof/pavement technology and large-scale solar energy generation are being pursued as methods to combat climate change. Cool roofs and solar energy generation have strong and opposite effects on surface albedo. If employed on a large enough scale these albedo changes may lead to changes to radiative forcing and local and regional climate. Much of the past work investigating the effects of urban albedo change has either focused on detailed, single heat wave, singe urban areas, or has involved global models, too coarse to resolve individual cities, or unable to include full atmospheric feedback. Here a regional climate model is employed across the continental United States that can resolve individual cities, include complex surface and atmospheric interactions, and can be run for a 10 year time period. This model is used to investigate the changes to temperature, radiative forcing and precipitation due to albedo changes from cool roofs and solar energy generation. Increasing urban albedo (from reflective or cool roofs) lead to decreased surface temperatures of up to 1K at many but not all cities. Urban areas in Washington, Oregon and California showed the most straightforward response to increased urban albedo: decreased temperature, increased outgoing radiation, and little feedback in downwind areas. Cities along the gulf coast and the Atlantic coast of the southeastern United States showed little response to urban albedo changes. In addition, certain regions downwind of urban areas exhibited increased surface temperature, possibly due to changes in cloud formation as a result of decreased urban heating. Similar changes for decreased albedo from large-scale deployment of solar arrays are being investigated. This research suggests that optimal large-scale deployment of cool roofs and solar generation could benefit by accounting for the geographical dependence of temperature and radiative responses to surface albedo changes.

  19. Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

  20. Application of passive cooling systems in the hot and humid climate: The case study of solar chimney and wetted roof in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudaporn Chungloo; Bundit Limmeechokchai

    2006-01-01

    The thermal performance of two passive cooling systems under hot and humid climate condition is experimentally investigated. The experimental results were obtained from a test cell and a controlled cell with identical walls but different roof configurations. The passive cooling systems applied to the test cell are solar chimney and water spraying on roof. The experimental results obtained from the

  1. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tombari

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  2. COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES FOR IMPROVED SOLAR REFLECTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elastomeric cool-roof coatings can be applied to buildings to decrease heat gain, yielding energy savings and mitigating the ?urban heat island? effect. Most cool-roof formulations are based on titanium dioxide (TiO2). While TiO2 and several TiO2...

  3. Simulated Impact of Roof Solar Absorptance, Attic, and DuctInsulation, and Climate on Cooling and Heating Energy Use inSingle-Family Resi dential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S.

    1998-10-26

    This report summarizes a comparative analysis of the impact of roof surface solar absorptance, attic, and duct insulation on simulated residential annual cooling and heating energy use in sixteen sunbelt climates. These locations cover a wide range of climates where cool roofs are expected to save energy and money, and are areas with high growth rates in new residential construction. The residences are single-story, single-family of new construction with either a gas furnace or an electric heat pump, and with ducts in the attic OT conditioned zone. The objective is to demonstrate that a residence with a cool roof could utilize a lower level of attic insulation than one with a dark roof with a zero net change in the annual energy bill. Annual energy use is simulated with DOE-2. lE, which was adapted with a validated residential duct-attic function, for dark and cool roofs and eleven attic insulation R-values ranging from 1 through 60. Analysis of the simulated energy savings from the light-colored roofs show that the savings can be transformed into an equivalent reduction in the level of attic insulation. Reductions in R-value are observed in varying degrees for residences with both gas and electric heat, all duct configurations, and all climates. In some cooling dominated climates there are cases where a cool roof could be implemented without attic insulation.

  4. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-11-18

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  5. Roof bolt bond tester

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An intrinsically safe, electronic instrument has been developed that determines the holding quality of a fully grouted roof bolt by testing the integrity of the resin bond to both the bolt and to the surrounding rock.

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lew; R. Piwko; G. Jordan; N. Miller; K. Clark; L. Freeman; M. Milligan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. It was initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado,

  7. Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof 

    E-print Network

    Sonne, J.

    2006-01-01

    ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OF A FLORIDA GREEN ROOF Jeffrey K. Sonne Senior Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Previous green roof studies have found that planted roofs significantly reduce roof temperatures... and roof heat flux, and simulations indicate cooling load reductions of up to 25%. This monitored study evaluates summer and winter energy performance aspects of a green roof on a central Florida university building addition that was completed in 2005...

  8. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: Application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Amin; M. Y. Han

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the

  9. Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

    1992-01-01

    Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

  10. Solar electric and thermal conversion system in close proximity to the consumer. [solar panels on house roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeer, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Solar cells may be used to convert sunlight directly into electrical energy and into lowgrade heat to be used for large-scale terrestrial solar-energy conversion. Both forms of energy can be utilized if such cells are deployed in close proximity to the consumer (rooftop). Cadmium-sulfide/copper-sulfide (CdS/Cu2S) solar cells are an example of cells which may be produced inexpensively enough to become economically attractive. Cell parameters relevant for combined solar conversion are presented. Critical issues, such as production yield, life expectancy, and stability of performance, are discussed. Systems-design parameters related to operating temperatures are analyzed. First results obtained on Solar One, the experimental house of the University of Delaware, are given. Economic aspects are discussed. Different modes of operation are discussed in respect to the power utility and consumer incentives.

  11. Roofing panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brill-edwards

    1983-01-01

    A roofing panel of glass-reinforced plastic (G.R.P.) or sheet metal is stiffened by longitudinal beams on its underside to span one pitch of a pitched roof from eaves to ridge. It has an outer skin and an inner impervious liner spaced therefrom and supported on the stiffening beams so as to form a tunnel open at both ends and extending

  12. Methods of Creating Solar-Reflective Nonwhite Surfaces and theirApplication to Residential Roofing Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronnen Levinson; Paul Berdahl; Hashem Akbari; William Miller; Ingo Joedicke; Joseph Reilly; Yoshi Suzuki; Michelle Vondran

    2005-01-01

    We describe methods for creating solar-reflective nonwhitesurfaces and their application to a wide variety of residential roofingmaterials, including metal, clay tile, concrete tile, wood, and asphaltshingle. Reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum (0.7 2.5mu m) ismaximized by coloring a topcoatwith pigments that weakly absorb and(optionally) strongly backscatter NIR radiation, and adding anNIR-reflective basecoat (e.g., titanium dioxide white) if both thetopcoat

  13. Final Report: An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Andrew

    2013-12-30

    The DOE grant, “An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group,” to New Mexico State University created the Solar America Board for Codes and Standards (Solar ABCs). From 2007 – 2013 with funding from this grant, Solar ABCs identified current issues, established a dialogue among key stakeholders, and catalyzed appropriate activities to support the development of codes and standards that facilitated the installation of high quality, safe photovoltaic systems. Solar ABCs brought the following resources to the PV stakeholder community: 1. Formal coordination in the planning or revision of interrelated codes and standards removing “stove pipes” that have only roofing experts working on roofing codes, PV experts on PV codes, fire enforcement experts working on fire codes, etc. 2. A conduit through which all interested stakeholders were able to see the steps being taken in the development or modification of codes and standards and participate directly in the processes. 3. A central clearing house for new documents, standards, proposed standards, analytical studies, and recommendations of best practices available to the PV community. 4. A forum of experts that invites and welcomes all interested parties into the process of performing studies, evaluating results, and building consensus on standards and code-related topics that affect all aspects of the market. 5. A biennial gap analysis to formally survey the PV community to identify needs that are unmet and inhibiting the market and necessary technical developments.

  14. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

  15. Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Skordos, Panayotis S.

    1988-07-01

    High order multistep methods, run at constant stepsize, are very effective for integrating the Newtonian solar system for extended periods of time. I have studied the stability and error growth of these methods when ...

  16. Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Frye

    1997-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion\\/power systems were identified as key technologies by the Operational Effectiveness and Cost Comparison Study. These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions (Feuchter 1996). The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by Phillips Laboratory represents development of one

  17. Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

  18. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    E-print Network

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    the solar reflectance of the shingle roofs to 0.70 fromroof Cool fiberglass asphalt shingles were assigned a solarsolar reflectance required for a steep-sloped roof (0.15) excludes only the hottest of roofing materials, such as granule-surfaced fiberglass asphalt shingles

  19. Comparative Summer Attic Thermal Performance of Six Roof Constructions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Parker; J. R. Sherwin

    2002-01-01

    Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has measured summer attic thermal performance of six roofs at a heavily instrumented test site, the Flexible Roof Facility (FRF). The FRF is a 1,152 square foot (107 m2) building with six roof adjacent test cells which are heavily insulated from each other. Some 233 channels of data were obtained; this includes twenty temperature measurements

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Piwko, R.; Jordan, G.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. It was initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming (see study area map). WestConnect also includes utilities in California, but these were not included because California had already completed a renewable energy integration study for the state. This study was set up to answer questions that utilities, public utilities commissions, developers, and regional planning organizations had about renewable energy use in the west: (1) Does geographic diversity of renewable energy resource help mitigate variability; (2) How do local resources compare to out-of-state resources; (3) Can balancing area cooperation help mitigate variability; (4) What is the role and value of energy storage; (5) Should reserve requirements be modified; (6) What is the benefit of forecasting; and (7) How can hydropower help with integration of renewables? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and run by NREL with WestConnect as a partner organization. The study follows DOE's 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, which did not find any technical barriers to reaching 20% wind energy in the continental United States by 2030. This study and its partner study, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, performed a more in-depth operating impact analysis to see if 20% wind energy was feasible from an operational level. In DOE/NREL's analysis, the 20% wind energy target required 25% wind energy in the western interconnection; therefore, this study considered 20% and 30% wind energy to bracket the DOE analysis. Additionally, since solar is rapidly growing in the west, 5% solar was also considered in this study. The goal of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is to understand the costs and operating impacts due to the variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. This is mainly an operations study, (rather than a transmission study), although different scenarios model different transmission build-outs to deliver power. Using a detailed power system production simulation model, the study identifies operational impacts and challenges of wind energy penetration up to 30% of annual electricity consumption.

  1. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding technology, an encapsulation technique for terrestrial solar array was developed. The process produces full integral, hermetic bonds with no adhesives or pottants. Panels of six solar cells on a simple glass superstrate were produced. Electrostatic bonding for making the cell front contact was also developed. A metal mesh is trapped into contact with the cell front during the bonding process. Six cell panels using the bonded mesh as the only cell front contact were produced. The possibility of using lower cost glass, with a higher thermal expansion mismatch to silicon, by making lower temperature bonds is developed. However, this requires a planar surface cell.

  2. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

  3. Terrestrial solar arrays with integral glass construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, P. R.; Kreisman, W. S.; Landis, G. A.; Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Holtze, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    An excellent encapsulation system for a terrestrial solar array can be formed using two sheets of glass. Superior technical character, very low cost and simple assembly can result if the active components and the glass sheets are integrally bonded together such that the array is hermetically sealed without employing organic encapsulation materials. Such an approach is being developed using electrostatic bonding. Status of this development is described. Functioning integral glass test modules have been fabricated and subjected to environmental testing. Results have been excellent.

  4. Transparent antennas for solar cell integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Tursunjan

    Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

  5. Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated of windows. · Cost effective because less solar cells are required per surface area and because Power to a building as solar panels on a roof or facades are. Ref. TU Delft OCT-13-022 TU Delft / Valorisation Centre

  6. Which Roof Is Tops?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    When you walk or drive around your neighborhood, what do the roofs look like? What if you lived in an area with a different climate, how might that affect the style of roofs that you see? Through this introductory engineering activity, students explore the advantages of different roof shapes for different climates or situations. They observe and discuss what happens in a teacher demo when a "snow load" (sifted cups of flour) is placed on three model roof shapes.

  7. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  8. Solar collector assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  9. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  10. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  11. Screen printed processing of solar cells incorporating integral bypass diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Wenham; M. C. Pitt; R. B. Godfrey; M. A. Green; E. Gauja

    1982-01-01

    The output of solar modules utilizing conventional solar cells suffers considerably when a single cell in a string is shaded, cracked, broken or even poorly graded resulting in mismatch losses in the module. Under such conditions, integral bypass diode (I.B.D.) solar cells alleviate the worst electrical mismatch conditions. This allows the module to maintain a relatively high power output while

  12. Performance characteristics of integral type solar-assisted heat pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Huang; J. P. Chyng

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of an integral type solar-assisted heat pump water heater (ISAHP) is investigated in the present study. The ISAHP consists of a Rankine refrigeration cycle and a thermosyphon loop that are integrated together to form a package heater. Both solar and ambient air energies are absorbed at the collector\\/evaporator and pumped to the storage tank via a Rankine refrigeration

  13. New electricity construction materials for roofs and façades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Posnansky; T. Szacsvay; A. Eckmanns; J. Jürgens

    1998-01-01

    At present 1.7 MWp roofs and façades have been installed world wide using the Atlantis photovoltaic (PV) construction materials. These examples have contributed to the general acceptance of PV in the build environment particularly among architects.A new milestone for the generation of solar electricity was set with the novel SUNSLATES™ roofing and façade system, which was introduced into the market

  14. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

  15. Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Denton

    1974-01-01

    Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating. Seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled

  16. Installation system for integral mounting of thermal or photovoltaic panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Rost; G. Ameduri; L. Groves

    1981-01-01

    A unique installation system for mounting solar thermal or photovoltaic solar collector panels as an integral part of a structure is described. The most common example would have the collector array replacing the sheathing and shingles of a roof supported by trusses or rafters on 24 inch centers. The design achieves the goals of a good integral installation which is

  17. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A Miller; Nigel J Cherry; Richard Lowell Allen; Phillip W Childs; Jerald Allen Atchley; Levinson Ronnen; Hashem Akbari; Paul Berhahl

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn

  18. Evaluation of Green Roof Plants and Materials for Semi-Arid Climates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract While green roof systems have proven to be highly effective in the evaporative cooling of buildings, reduction of roof top temperatures, protection of roof membranes from solar radiation degradation, reducing stormwater runoff, as well as beautification of the urban roo...

  19. Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T. Kudija; Patrick E. Frye

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving

  20. The 'wind-wall' - An integrated wind\\/solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. McVeigh; G. W. W. Pontin

    1977-01-01

    Design of an integrated system combining a windmill system and solar panels is discussed. The system is intended for power supply to residential areas. A bank of fixed ducted windmills and batteries of solar collectors sharing a common overall site are considered in an arrangement providing hot water and space heating. A water reservoir heat storage system, basic electrical system,

  1. Integration of Antennas and Solar Cells for Autonomous Communication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Jose Roo Ons

    2010-01-01

    Solar energy is becoming an attractive alternative for powering autonomous communication systems. These devices often involve the use of separate photovoltaics and antennas, which demand a compromise in the utilization of the limited space available. This thesis deals with the design, analysis, fabrication and validation of different techniques for the integration of antennas and solar cells in a single multifunctional

  2. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study Solar Dataset (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory produced solar power production data for the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) including "real time" 5-minute interval data, "four hour ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data, and "day-ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data for the year 2006. This presentation provides a brief overview of the three solar power datasets.

  3. Cooler Tile-Roofed Buildings with Near-Infrared-ReflectiveNon-white Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronnen Levinson; Hashem Akbari; Joeseph C. Reilly

    2004-01-01

    Owners of homes with pitched roofs visible from ground leveloften prefer non-white roofing products for aesthetic considerations.Non-white, near-infrared-reflective architectural coatings can be appliedin-situ to pitched concrete or clay tile roofs to reduce tiletemperature, building heat gain, and cooling power demand, whilesimultaneously improving the roof s appearance. Scale model measurementsof building temperatures and heat-flux were combined with solar andcooling energy use

  4. Tailor Synthesis of Nanostructures for Direct Integration Into Solar Cells 

    E-print Network

    Van Laer, Maxime 1989-

    2012-05-09

    TAILOR SYNTHESIS OF INORGANIC NANOSTRUCTURES FOR DIRECT INTEGRATION INTO SOLAR CELLS Major: Chemical Engineering May 2012 Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by Maxime Van Laer TAILOR SYNTHESIS OF INORGANIC NANOSTRUCTURES FOR DIRECT INTEGRATION INTO SOLAR CELLS Approved by: Research Advisor: Sreeram Vaddiraju Associate...

  5. COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

  6. Modes of a laser resonator with a retroreflecting roof mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G; Casperson, L W

    1981-10-15

    The self-consistent integral equation for the field distribution of the resonant modes in a resonator with a tilted retroreflecting roof mirror is solved. The field distribution in the direction of the roof can be described in terms of Hermite-Gaussian functions. The beam matrix for a retroreflecting roof is found, and a new type of resonator which does not need precise alignment is proposed. PMID:20372214

  7. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  8. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved relative to DA forecasts, but still imperfect. Finally, we represent decisions within the operating hour by schedulers and transmission system operators as real-time (RT) balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. We consider only the generation units and load of the utility in this analysis; we do not consider opportunities to trade power with neighboring utilities. We also do not consider provision of reserves from renewables or from demand-side options. We estimate dynamic reserve requirements in order to meet reliability requirements in the RT operations, considering the uncertainty and variability in load, solar PV, and wind resources. Balancing reserve requirements are based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of 1-min deviations from the HA schedule in a previous year. We then simulate RT deployment of balancing reserves using a separate minute-by-minute simulation of deviations from the HA schedules in the operating year. In the simulations we assume that balancing reserves can be fully deployed in 10 min. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, wind, and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations and deployment of balancing reserves, we evaluate the impact of PV on system reliability through the calculation of the standard reliability metric called Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). Broadly speaking, the CPS2 score measures the percentage of 10-min periods in which a balancing area is able to balance supply and demand within a specific threshold. Compliance with the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards requires that the CPS2 score must exceed 90% (i.e., the balancing area must maintain adequate balance for 90% of the 10-min periods). The combination of representing DA forecast errors in the

  9. The Rehab Guide: Roofs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Anyone who has been on a roof on a hot day can attest to the difficulty of performing basic maintenance on that particular part of a building. Fortunately, this time-consuming process can be made simpler with this handy online guide to rehabbing a roof. Created by the PATH Group, this 99-page document covers major roofing systems, â??â?¦as well as protective strategies, energy and air filtration issues, roofing materials, and gutters and downspouts.â? Throughout the document, users can rely on drawings and photographs that illustrate various rehabbing techniques. Much is revealed here, including timely information on low-slope and metal roofing, along with suggestions on installing moisture barriers.

  10. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels 

    E-print Network

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14

    and integration of solar-biofuel-fossil cogeneration systems • Design of solar-assisted absorption refrigeration systems and integration with the processing facility • Development of thermally-coupled dual absorption refrigeration systems, and • Design of solar...

  11. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding has been used to join silicon solar cells to borosilicate glass without the aid of any organic binders or adhesives. The results of this investigation have been to demonstrate, without question, the feasibility of this process as an encapsulation technique. The potential of ESB for terrestrial solar arrays was clearly shown. The process is fast, reproducible, and produces a permanent bond between glass and silicon that is stronger than the silicon itself. Since this process is a glass sealing technique requiring no organics it makes moisture tight sealing of solar cells possible.

  12. Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

  13. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ropp; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Alan Schaffer; Stanley Katz; Jim Perkinson; Ward Isaac Bower; Mark Prestero; Leo Casey; Houtan Moaveni; David Click; Kristopher Davis; Robert Reedy; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in

  14. Seismic Response of Green Roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Carmody; M. Jasarevic; P. Omenzetter; G. C. Clifton; E. A. Fassman

    Green roofs consist of vegetation with a light-weight substrate planted over a drainage layer and waterproof membrane. The green roof retains rainwater in the plants and substrate and releases the water through evapotranspiration and some surface drainage. This research explored the green roof's ability to resist seismic forces and the potential for the green roof to be used as an

  15. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  16. Integration of LIDAR Data Into a Municipal GIS to Study Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Africani, P.; Bitelli, G.; Lambertini, A.; Minghetti, A.; Paselli, E.

    2013-04-01

    Identifying the right roofs to install solar panels inside a urban area is crucial for both private citizens and the whole local population. The aim is not easy because a lot of consideration must be made: insolation, orientation of the surface, size of the surface, shading due to topography, shading due to taller buildings next the surface, shading due to taller vegetation and other possible problems typical of urban areas like the presence of chimneys. Accuracy of data related to the analyzed surfaces is indeed fundamental, and also the detail of geometric models used to represent buildings and their roofs. The complexity that these roofs can reach is elevated. This work uses LiDAR data to obtain, with a semi-automatic technique, the full geometry of each roof part complementing the pre-existing building data in the municipal cartography. With this data is possible to evaluate the placement of solar panels on roofs of a whole city analyzing the solar potential of each building in detail. Other traditional techniques, like photogrammetry, need strong manual editing effort in order to identify slopes and insert vector on surfaces at the right height. Regarding LiDAR data, in order to perform accurate modelling, it is necessary to obtain an high density point cloud. The method proposed can also be used as a fast and linear workflow process for an area where LiDAR data are available and a municipal cartography already exist: LiDAR data can be furthermore successfully used to cross-check errors in pre-existent digital cartography that can remain otherwise hidden.

  17. Influence of solar heating on the performance of integrated solar cell microstrip patch antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Roo-Ons, M.J.; Shynu, S.V.; Ammann, M.J. [Antenna and High Frequency Research Centre, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Seredynski, M. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); McCormack, S.J. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2010-09-15

    The integration of microstrip patch antennas with photovoltaics has been proposed for applications in autonomous wireless communication systems located on building facades. Full integration was achieved using polycrystalline silicon solar cells as both antenna ground plane and direct current power generation in the same device. An overview of the proposed photovoltaic antenna designs is provided and the variation characterised of the electromagnetic properties of the device with temperature and solar radiation. Measurements for both copper and solar antennas are reported on three different commercial laminates with contrasting values for thermal coefficient of the dielectric constant. (author)

  18. Science Nation: Green Roofs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The rooftops of Manhattan are as varied as the city itself. But on some, something new is taking root--literally! A green roof is a continuous layer of living plants. Looking down several stories from the windows of neighboring buildings, the rooftop resembles a well-manicured, suburban lawn that is simply contained within the boundaries of a flat Manhattan rooftop. Researchers are investigating what benefits green roofs might have on harsh urban environments.

  19. The design, effectiveness and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wolf Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. It is indicated that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy.

  20. Solar heating of integrated greenhouse-animal shelter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, N.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical procedure to determine the effectiveness of greenhouses as solar collectors was presented. This procedure was used to predict the effect of several construction parameters on solar radiation input to greenhouses. The orientation of the greenhouse was found to be the most effective construction parameter controlling solar radiation input to greenhouses. The effective albedo of the plant canopy was also found to be a significant factor. A new solar greenhouse design, suitable for high latitude regions was developed. The results showed that an internal solar collector could be incorporated as an integral part of the greenhouse design. The concept developed could be used as a free-standing greenhouse or in a combination with livestock building. The efficiency of the solar input was investigated for the conventional and the shed greenhouses, both as a free-standing unit and a greenhouse-animal shelter system, using computer simulation analyses. The results indicated that the efficiency of solar input is highly dependent on location; the effect of location on the shed type design is more profound. A typical case of a greenhouse-hog barn production system was investigated using computer simulation analyses. The results showed that such a food production system achieves a significant reduction in conventional fuel consumption due to both animal waste heat recovery and solar energy utilization.

  1. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-01

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  2. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  3. Integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Huang; J. P. Chyng

    1999-01-01

    An integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater (ISAHP) is designed and tested in the present study. The storage tank and the Rankine cycle unit are integrated together to make a more compact size. A thermosyphon loop is used to transfer the heat from the condenser to the water storage tank. The highest COP obtained in the tests is 3.83.

  4. Radiation control coatings on rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility: Two summers of monitoring plus roof and whole building modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Petrie; P. W. Childs; J. E. Christian

    1998-01-01

    Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) allowed the authors to learn the effect of radiation control coatings on roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray coated with a white, latex-based product with ceramic beads. Samples of the coated roofs were brought periodically

  5. 5. MAIN BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, ROOF TRUSS, CLERESTORY MONITOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MAIN BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, ROOF TRUSS, CLERESTORY MONITOR, AND GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE (BOTTOM) - Oldman Boiler Works, Boilershop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  7. Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Built-up Roofing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for use in roofing apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains eight units on skills used in built-up roofing, a listing of instructional materials, a glossary, and the text of Labor Code Article 30, Construction Safety Orders, "Roofing Operations and Equipment." Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and…

  8. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels

    E-print Network

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  9. Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Yaguang Wei, Chen to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by integrating planar optical waveguide cells that can be expanded to organic- and inorganic-based solar cells. KEYWORDS Dye-sensitized solar

  10. Thermal testing of roof systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Larson; R. D. Corneliussen

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive program to investigate the thermal performance of insulated flat roofs has been developed at Drexel University in Philadelphia. A number of 1.22-m (4-ft)-square roof systems have been sealed into expanded polystyrene (EPS) modules and placed in a horizontal array on the roof of a Drexel building. The roof specimens are exposed to the outdoor urban environment and at

  11. Thermal testing of roof systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Larson; R. D. Corneliussen

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive program to investigate the thermal performance of insulated flat roofs has been developed at Drexel University in Philadelphia. A number of 1.22-m (4-ft)-square roof systems have been sealed into expanded polystyrene (EPS) modules and placed in a horizontal array on the roof of a Drexel building. The roof specimens are exposed to the outdoor urban environment and at

  12. Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen G Brehob; Andre Omer Desjarlais; Jerald Allen Atchley

    2011-01-01

    Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature

  13. Design and Spacecraft-Integration of RTGs for Solar Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1990-10-01

    Presented at the 41st Congress of the IAF, October 6-12, 1990 in Dresden, FRG. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators integrated with JPL's planned Solar Probe spacecraft. The principle purpose of the Solar probe mission is to explore the solar corona by performing in-situ measurements at distances as close as four solar radii or 0.02 AU from the sun. This proximity to the sun imposes some unusual design constraints on the RTG and on its integration with the spacecraft. The results demonstrated that the obstructions result in significant performance penalties for the case of the standard GPHS-RTG design. Finally, the paper describes a simple empirical method for predicting the combined effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the RTG's power output, and applies that method to predict the long-term power profile of the obstructed Solar Probe RTGs. The results indicate that the existing GPHS-RTG design, even without modifications can meet the JPL-prescribed EOM power requirement. There is also three copies in the file of an earlier version of this dated 8/3/1990 with the report number of FSC-ESD-217-90-470. The most current one is the IAF version (IAD-90-208) dated October 6-12, 1990.

  14. High-Tech Roof Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzie, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions. (GR)

  15. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  16. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A.; McCoy, R.M.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the {open_quotes}Preliminary Assessment{close_quote} procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable form that future inspections will have comparative information.

  17. Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

  18. Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island. PMID:16856752

  19. A Review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential RoofingMaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hashem Akbari; Ronnen Levinson; Paul Berdahl

    2003-01-01

    Shingles, tiles, and metal products comprise over 80% (by roof area) of the California roofing market (54-58% fiberglass shingle, 8-10% concrete tile, 8-10% clay tile, 7% metal, 3% wood shake, and 3% slate). In climates with significant demand for cooling energy, increasing roof solar reflectance reduces energy consumption in mechanically cooled buildings, and improves occupant comfort in non-conditioned buildings. This

  20. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  1. Performance and Modeling of Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics for Building-Integrated Applications (Preprint prepared for Solar 99)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kroposki; R. Hansen

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules offer several advantages for building-integrated applications. The material can be deposited on glass or flexible substrates, which allows for products like roofing shingles and integrated PV\\/building glass. The material also has a uniform surface, which is ideal for many architectural applications. Amorphous silicon modules perform well in warm weather and have a small temperature coefficient

  2. Mine roof bolt

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, H.D.

    1993-07-27

    A mine roof bolt is described comprising: (a) a length of multi-strand cable defining a bolt shank; (b) a tapered plug comprising a body portion having an internal bore and a frusto-conical outer surface essentially concentric with said internal bore, said tapered plug being mounted about an end of said cable at said internal bore; and (c) an internally tapered drive collar having a frusto-conical inner surface that engages said frusto-conical outer surface of said tapered plug, and having an outer surface defining a drive head that accepts a driving mechanism for rotating and linearly translating said bolt, wherein said tapered plug is mounted on an end of said cable, and said drive collar is pressed down upon said tapered plug, forcing said tapered plug against said cable, such that said drive collar, said tapered plug, and said cable, when fitted tightly together, define said mine roof bolt.

  3. A case study: Integrating triple-junction solar cells into flat-folding flexible solar array panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gibb; Scott Billets

    2010-01-01

    High efficiency triple-junction (3J) solar cells have been integrated and flown on numerous space solar arrays, but their most significant use to date has been on conventional, “rigid” substrates. The application of these solar cells to flat-folding “flexible” solar array panels yields significant specific power\\/weight and stowed volume benefits compared to rigid substrates, improving specific power\\/weight from 60-70 W\\/kg to

  4. Structural testing of corrugated asbestos-cement roof panels at the Hanford Facilities, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Moustafa, S.E.; Rodehaver, S.M. [Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Frier, W.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a roof testing program that was carried out at the 105KE/KW Spent Fuel Storage Basins and their surrounding facilities at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof panels were constructed in the mid 1950`s of corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C), which showed common signs of aging. Based on the construction specifications, the panels capacity to meet current design standards was questioned. Both laboratory and in-situ load testing of the corrugated A/C panels was conducted. The objective of the complete test program was to determine the structural integrity of the existing A/C roof panels installed in the 105KE and 105KW facilities. The data from these tests indicated that the roofs are capable of resisting the design loads and are considered safe. A second phase test to address the roof resistance to personnel and roof removal/roofing system installation equipment was recommended and is underway.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Roofing Systems on Residential Cooling Energy Demand in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Parker; Jeffrey Sonne; John Sherwin

    Roof and attic thermal performance exert a powerful influence on cooling energy use in Florida homes. The Florida Power and Light Company and the Florida Solar Energy Center instrumented six side-by-side Habitat homes in Ft. Myers, Florida with identical floor plans and orientation, R-19 ceiling insulation, but with different roofing systems designed to reduce attic heat gain. A seventh house

  6. Measured and Simulated Performance of Reflective Roofing Systems in Residential Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny S. Parker; Yu Joe Huang; Steven J. Konopacki; Lisa M. Gartland; John R. Sherwin; Lixing Gu

    A series of experiments in Florida residences have measured the impact on space cooling of increasing roof solar reflectance. In tests on 11 homes with the roof color changed mid summer, the average cooling energy use was reduced by 19%. Measurements and infrared thermography showed that a significant part of the savings were due to interactions when the duct system

  7. The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

    1998-01-01

    Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

  8. Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

    A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and…

  9. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastacio N. Baez; Greg L. Kimnach

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer

  10. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Keddy; J. Tom Sena; M. Merrigan; Gary Heidenreich; Steve Johnson

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene

  11. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

  12. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

  13. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

  14. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). 65.43 Section 65...65.43 Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements...by using a fixed roof and an internal floating roof shall comply with the design...

  15. Mine roof geology information system

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2005-05-01

    A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mission applications of an Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, F.G. III [Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Jacox, M.G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program at the US Air Force`s Phillips Laboratory is directing its efforts to solving endemic national spacelift architecture problems. Air Force Space Command has called spacelift both unaffordable and nonresponsive; today`s space launch systems are descendants of 1950`s era ICBM technologies and require prolonged on-pad processing. Advanced propulsion techniques, reusability, and modular architectures have not been generally incorporated into US systems. The ISUS system is an advanced, integrated upper stage concept that would permit payload realignment, allowing large payloads to be moved to smaller, less expensive boosters; such realignment both reduces cost and enhances responsiveness, as smaller boosters cost less to launch and require less vehicle and payload processing time. Three ISUS operational concepts are discussed, allowing the realignment of payloads currently launched aboard Titan IV/Centaur, Atlas IIAS, and Delta 2. A space demonstration of ISUS is examined. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage is a single piece of hardware that provides electric power and orbit transfer propulsion to a spacecraft. There are three major subsystems that comprise the ISUS; the receiver/absorber/converter or RAC, the concentrators, and the hydrogen tankage and feed subsystem.

  17. Energy Performance Impacts from Competing Low-slope Roofing Choices and Photovoltaic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagengast, Amy L.

    With such a vast quantity of space, commercial low-slope roofs offer significant potential for sustainable roofing technology deployment. Specifically, building energy performance can be improved by installing rooftop energy technologies such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, and/or including designs such as white or green roofs instead of traditional black. This research aims to inform and support roof decisions through quantified energy performance impacts across roof choices and photovoltaic technologies. The primary dataset for this research was measured over a 16 month period (May 24, 2011 to October 13, 2012) from a large field experiment in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on top of a commercial warehouse with white, black and green roof sections, each with portions covered by polycrystalline photovoltaic panels. Results from the Pittsburgh experiment were extended to three different cities (San Diego, CA; Huntsville, AL; and Phoenix, AZ) chosen to represent a wide range of irradiance and temperature values. First, this research evaluated the difference in electricity production from a green-moss roof and black roof underneath photovoltaic panels to determine if the green roof's cooler air increases the panel efficiency. Second, separate studies examine 1) average hourly heat flux by month for unobstructed and shaded roof membranes 2) heat flux peak time delay, and 3) air temperature across roof types. Results of this research show green roofs slightly increased (0.8-1.5%) PV panel efficiency in temperatures approximately at or above 25° C (77°F) compared to black roofs. However in cool climates, like Pittsburgh, the roof type under the PV panels had little overall impact on PV performance when considering year round temperatures. Instead, roof decisions should place a stronger emphasis on heat flux impacts. The green roof outperformed both black and white roofs at minimizing total conductive heat flux. These heat flow values were used to develop a new, straight-forward methodology to roughly estimate heat flux impacts of different roof types in other climates using ambient temperature and solar irradiance. While managing heat flow is important for building energy performance, roof choices need to include a systems level analysis encompassing a year for the specific region to best quantify the overall energy impacts.

  18. Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation 

    E-print Network

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which then can be available to analyze...

  19. Energy saving potential of various roof technologies

    E-print Network

    Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

    2010-01-01

    Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

  20. Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

  1. Combined solar tracking reflector and photovoltaic panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominguez

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a solar lighting reflector apparatus for illuminating the interior of a roofed building during daylight hours and adapted to track daily movements of the sun. The solar lighting reflector apparatus is further adapted to generate electrical power, the roofed building having a light transmissive opening in the roof therein. The apparatus comprises: (a) a lower frame member

  2. Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

    2004-07-01

    Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  4. Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronnen Levinson; Hashem Akbari

    2010-01-01

    Cool roofs—roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission—lessen the flow\\u000a of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may\\u000a also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load\\u000a is

  5. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    like a highly reflective "white" roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants

  6. Factory-built integrated solar homes - A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings, L.K.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past fifteen years, hundreds of people across the US have built for themselves highly advanced residences which integrated passive solar architecture; photovoltaic power systems; high-efficiency lights, appliances, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and cooling) equipment; high-level insulation and airtight construction; and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Such a home can be referred to as an {open_quotes}integrated solar home{close_quotes}. As the essential technologies have improved in performance, price, and availability, the performance of such homes has steadily advanced to the point where they could provide amenities at more-or-less normal US standards of luxury, yet require as little as 5% to 10% of the level of fossil fuel or biomass use that are required in an average US home. However, the resources required to build such a home, both in terms of the time and dedication needed for research, design, and construction of the homes, and in terms of the additional cost of the renewable energy/energy efficient features, have prevented such construction from moving beyond a tiny handful of highly motivated homeowners and into the mainstream of residential construction. This paper has design summaries of six different houses.

  7. Roof control system

    SciTech Connect

    Stankus, J.C.

    1993-08-03

    Roof control system for underground strata is described, comprising: (a) an elongated bolt adapted for insertion into a hole bored in underground strata; (b) anchor means for securely anchoring the bolt in the hole at a location where a significant length of the bolt remains between the opening of the borehole and the anchor means; (c) tension means for placing said significant length of said bolt in tension by rotating the bolt at a predetermined torque, the torque means including a plate mounted on the bolt and located adjacent to the outer surface of the strata, and a nut means on the end of the bolt for engaging the plate; (d) tension/torque adjustment means for selectively adjusting friction between adjacent surfaces which rub against each other when the bolt is rotated, whereby the tension/torque ratio of the bolt is selected to match the desired level for a particular type of underground strata, the tension/torque adjustment means including an array of friction reducing washers with different contact surface areas, for location between the nut means and plate. A method of mine control for underground strata is also described using this roof bolt.

  8. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  9. Effect of Photocatalytic Coatings on the Weathering of Elastomeric Roofing Membrane

    E-print Network

    Linkous, C. A.; Robertson, R. H.

    2006-01-01

    of nuisance microorganisms. Figure 1. New and Aged Samples of Installed Roofing Membrane. The Florida Solar Energy Center, in collaboration with Firestone Building Products Company, has been investigating the use of photocatalytic coatings...EFFECT OF PHOTOCATALYTIC COATINGS ON THE WEATHERING OF ELASTOMERIC ROOFING MEMBRANE Dr. Clovis A. Linkous Senior Research Scientist Florida Solar Energy Center University of Central Florida Cocoa, FL Ross H. Robertson Senior Engineer...

  10. Solar windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailly Jain; Rohan Jhaveri

    2011-01-01

    Till date, to harness energy from the sun we have used solar panels. These solar panels have to be installed on the roof-tops. Imagine windows that not only provide a clear view and illuminate rooms, but also use sunlight to efficiently help power the building they are part of. Solar panels used in today track the sun to generate high

  11. NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  12. a Research on the Hierarchy and Completeness of Roof Topology for Robust Building Reconstruction from Airborne Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Jiang, W. S.; Zhu, Q. S.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we concentrate on the hierarchy and completeness of roof topology, and the aim is to avoid or correct the errors in roof topology. The hierarchy of topology is expressed by the hierarchical roof topology graph (HRTG) in accord with the definition of CityGML LOD (level of details). We decompose the roof topology graph (RTG) with a progressive approach while maintain the integrality and consistency of the data set simultaneously. Common feathers like collinear ridges or boundaries are calculated integrally to maintain their completeness. The roof items will only detected locally to decrease the error caused by data spare or mutual interference. Finally, a topology completeness test is adopted to detect and correct errors in roof topology, which results in a complete and hierarchical building model. Experiments shows that our methods have obvious improvements to the RTG based reconstruction method, especially for sparse data or roof topology with ambiguous.

  13. Experimental investigations of the performance of a solar air collector with latent heat thermal storage integrated with the solar absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, P.; Pech, O.; Hejcik, J.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with experimental investigations of the performance of a solar air collector with latent heat thermal storage integrated with the solarabsorber. The main purpose of heat storage in solar thermal systems is to store heat when the supply of solar heat exceeds demand and release it when otherwise. A number of heat storage materials can be used for this purpose; the phase change materials among them. Short-term latent heat thermal storage integrated with the solar absorber can stabilize the air temperature at the outlet of the collector on cloudy days when solar radiation intensity incident on a solar collector fluctuates significantly. Two experimental front-and-back pass solar air collectors of the same dimensions have been built for the experimental investigations. One collector had a "conventional" solar absorber made of a metal sheet while the solar absorber of the other collector consisted of containers filled with organic phase change material. The experimental collectors were positioned side by side during the investigations to ensure the same operating conditions (incident solar radiation, outdoor temperature).

  14. Using Remote Sensing to Quantify Roof Albedo in Seven California Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Woods, J.; Millstein, D.; Levinson, R.

    2013-12-01

    Cool roofs reflect sunlight and therefore can reduce cooling energy use in buildings. Further, since roofs cover about 20-25% of cities, wide spread deployment of cool roofs could mitigate the urban heat island effect and partially counter urban temperature increases associated with global climate change. Accurately predicting the potential for increasing urban albedo using reflective roofs and its associated energy use and climate benefits requires detailed knowledge of the current stock of roofs at the city scale. Until now this knowledge has been limited due to a lack of availability of albedo data with sufficient spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral information. In this work we use a novel source of multiband aerial imagery to derive the albedos of individual roofs in seven California cities: Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego, Bakersfield, Sacramento, San Francisco, and San Jose. The radiometrically calibrated, remotely sensed imagery has high spatial resolution (1 m) and four narrow (less than 0.1 ?m wide) band reflectances: blue, green, red, and near-infrared. To derive the albedo of roofs in each city, we first locate roof pixels within GIS building outlines. Next we use laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectances of 190 roofing products to empirically relate solar reflectance (albedo) to reflectances in the four narrow bands; the root-mean-square of the residuals for the albedo prediction is 0.016. Albedos computed from remotely sensed reflectances are calibrated to ground measurements of roof albedo in each city. The error (both precision and accuracy) of albedo values is presented for each city. The area-weighted mean roof albedo (× standard deviation) for each city ranges from 0.17 × 0.08 (Los Angeles) to 0.29 × 0.15 (San Diego). In each city most roofs have low albedo in the range of 0.1 to 0.3. Roofs with albedo greater than 0.4 comprise less than 3% of total roofs and 7% of total roof area in each city. The California Building Energy Efficiency Standard (Title-24, Part 6) includes the use of high-albedo surfaces on low-sloped roofs on non-residential buildings. Analyzing a subset of large presumably commercial buildings, we find high albedo roofs represent 0.5% and 10% of total roofs and roof surface area, respectively. The potential for high albedo roofs to reduce urban temperatures was investigated for a California city (Bakersfield) with warm summers using a state-of-the-art meteorological model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF). Base case and cool roof scenarios were simulated with the only difference being that the surface albedo was increased under the cool roof scenario. Roof albedos derived from the aerial imagery were used as an input to the climate model in the base case scenario. Simulation results indicate that seasonal average afternoon (1500 h) temperatures could be reduced by up to 0.2 °C across Bakersfield during both the summer and winter. While temperature changes are similar during winter and summer, only summer shows statistically significant temperature changes downwind (southeast) from Bakersfield. This indicates that reduced summertime temperatures may be felt over a distance that is 2 or 3 times the length scale of the region with high albedo roofs.

  15. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  16. An integrated energy storage scheme for a dispatchable solar and wind powered energy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared B. Garrison; Michael E. Webber

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzed an integrated energy system that includes a novel configuration of wind and solar coupled with two storage methods to make both wind and solar sources dispatchable during peak demand, thereby enabling their broader use. Named DSWiSS for Dispatchable Solar and Wind Storage System, the proposed system utilizes compressed air energy storage (CAES) that is driven from wind

  17. The design, effectiveness and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. It is indicated that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. The feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure is demonstrated. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

  18. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Omer Desjarlais; Abdolreza Zaltash; Jerald Allen Atchley; Mike J Ennis

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a

  19. The geometric theory of roof reflector resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Evans II

    1976-01-01

    Laser resonators using roof reflectors with 90 deg - alpha roof angles ( alpha small and positive) are analyzed geometrically when the roof edges at opposite ends of the resonator are aligned either parallel or perpendicular (crossed). Stability conditions, involving reflector dimensions, are found which specify a maximum axis length for the existence of stable rays. In the parallel-roof case,

  20. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling

    E-print Network

    Bachman, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

  2. Energy performance of fabric roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitin, K.I.

    1982-06-01

    The energy efficiency of fabric roofs is dependent on the thermal and optical characteristics of the fabric envelope. Vinyl coated polyester is used in temporary inflated ''bubbles''. Teflon coated fiberglass has been used in permanent structures such as the Pontiac Silverdome. Daylighting through the fabric is ample, but heat loss can be high in cold climates. The roof performs better in warm than in cold climates. The energy performance of the roof then depends on balancing gains from daylighting against heat loss. New fabrics utilizing daylighting with higher insulation values are being developed. Pneumatically operated fabric lenses for the new Denver Federal Office Building open and close to control heat loss, for example.

  3. Lightweight, Flexible, Thin, Integrated Solar-Power Packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible, thin, one-piece, solar-power packs are undergoing development. Each power pack of this type is a complete, modular, integrated power-supply system comprising three power subsystems that, in conventional practice, have been constructed as separate units and connected to each other by wires. These power packs are amenable to a variety of uses: For example, they could be laminated to the tops of tents and other shelters to provide or augment power for portable electronic equipment in the field, and they could be used as power sources for such small portable electronic systems as radio transceivers (including data relays and cellular telephones), laptop computers, video camcorders, and Global Positioning System receivers.

  4. Trade studies on Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, J.D. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jacox, M.G.; Kennedy, F.G. [Air Force Phillips Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program at the USAF Phillips Laboratory is directed at demonstrating a solar bimodal power and propulsion system for military applications. Trades were performed to examine the potential performance of the ISUS stage combined with the proposed LLV-3 launch vehicle. Variation in ISUS thermal power directly affects the trip time from LEO to GEO. These variations can be altered by changing average propellant temperature raising or lowering the average specific impulse. If the ISUS system is sized for the spacecraft`s electrical power requirements, this can result in long trip times for high mass satellites with low electrical power requirements. The ISUS can be sized, however, for a suitable thermal power to allow more rapid trip times with minimum impact on delivered mass. Such a system can place significantly more payload in GEO than a solid chemical stage. The mass advantages of the ISUS increase as electrical power requirements increase, rising from 46% improvement at 0 kW(e) to 179% improvement at 3 kW(e).

  5. Integration of solar sail and thin film solar cell using spectrum splitting technology for deep space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yudong; Zuo, Huaping; Wang, Zhimin

    It is very important to lighten weight for deep space exploration. Thin film type spacecrafts like solar sails may be the good choice. Due to the favourable photoelectric effect in weak light and light weight, flexible thin film solar sell will also be considered as new generation energy. In order to integrate thin film solar cell into solar sail perfectly, the spectrum splitting technology using optical multilayer film is employed to divide the solar spectrum. The transmissivity of the designed optical film is calculated by a developed computer program. It shows that that the transmissivity is larger than 95% in the range 400-1000nm, and obviously decrease above 400 nm, and below 1000 nm. The result given in this work will provide a new way to realize a low area mass of the solar sail.

  6. 510 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 10, 2011 A Scalable Solar Antenna for Autonomous Integrated

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    that can be integrated underneath a solar panel is presented. The topology alleviates the effect of solar--3-D RF modules, autonomous modules, omni- directional antenna, solar antenna, solar panel, wireless consumption of every individual node [11]. Currently, solar panels harvest the largest reported amount

  7. Versatile roof bolt assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hipkins, E.C. Sr.; Locotos, F.M.

    1987-11-03

    In an anchor bolt assembly of the type used in mine roofs and the like in which the anchor bolt assembly is positioned in a bore hole of a rock formation, where the bolt assembly includes an elongated bolt shaft with an upper end and with a head on a lower end, wherein a quick-setting resin cartridge is positioned in the bore hole above the upper end of the bolt shaft, and wherein the anchor bolt assembly is secured to the rock formation by at least the quick-setting resin, the improvement is described comprising an entrant plug provided at the upper end of the bolt shaft and adapted to rupture the resin cartridge and an elongated helical coil external of and surrounding the bolt shaft. It has a direction of coil for mixing the quick-setting resin and urging the quick-setting resin upwardly toward the upper end while the bolt shaft is rotated in one continuous direction. The helical coil is disposed below the entrant plug and connected to the entrant plug or the bolt shaft and extending a substantial length along the bolt shaft to achieve the mixing.

  8. Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

  9. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-04-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More field tests have been performed. A trendline analysis method has been developed. This method would improve the accuracy in detecting the locations of fractures and in determining the rock strength.

  10. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-01-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed. It is found that the drilling power can be used as a supplementary method for detecting voids/fractures and rock interfaces.

  11. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-10-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed in this quarter. The development of the data interpretation methodology and other related tasks are still continuing.

  12. Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form

    E-print Network

    Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

  13. Conical diffused-sunlight solar panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clegg

    1986-01-01

    A conical diffused-sunlight solar panel is described comprising in general an annular lens mounted below roof windows in the peripheral area of a circular roof of a circular building, a circular conical beam concentrator mounted below the roof in the center of the building, a glass heat duct mounted inside the beam concentrator, and a metal heat duct mounted inside

  14. Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    Solar panels were mounted with different designs onto 1:800 scale building models while temperature and radiation were measured. While there have been other studies aimed at finding the optimal angles for solar panels [9], in this study both the angle and the mounting method were tested. The three PV mounting designs that were considered to provide the most insulation to a building's rooftop were flush, offset (control), and angled. The solar panel offset height became a key component for rooftop insulation as well as the performance of the actual solar panel. Experimental results were given to verify the thermal behavior of the heat loads from the different designs of the photovoltaic panel. From the results, the angled PV design needed 16Z more heat extraction than the offset and flush PV design needed 60% more heat extracted than the offset. In addition to the heat transfer analysis, thermal models were performed to incorporate main atmospheric conditions which were based on the effects of PV mounting structure.

  15. Fabrication of multijunction high voltage concentrator solar cells by integrated circuit technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Valco; V. J. Kapoor; J. C. Evans Jr.; A.-T. Chai

    1981-01-01

    Standard integrated circuit technology has been developed for the design and fabrication of planar multijunction (PMJ) solar cell chips. Each 1 cm x 1 cm solar chip consisted of six n(+)\\/p, back contacted, internally series interconnected unit cells. These high open circuit voltage solar cells were fabricated on 2 ohm-cm, p-type 75 microns thick, silicon substrates. A five photomask level

  16. 7 CFR 2902.11 - Roof coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...formulated for use in commercial roof deck systems to provide a single-coat...responsibility for drafting or reviewing specifications for items to be procured shall ensure that the relevant specifications require the use of biobased roof...

  17. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  18. Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

  19. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  20. The Integrative Application Study on Solar Energy Technology Used In a Student Dormitory 

    E-print Network

    Xue, Y.; Wang, C.

    2006-01-01

    . Shandong Jianzhu University has carried an integrative application study on solar energy technology used in student dorm and proof-tested the energy conservation efficiency after completing the study. This has provided new, significant data...

  1. Submodule Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications

    E-print Network

    Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

    This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use of submodule integrated maximum power point trackers (MPPT). We propose a system architecture that provides ...

  2. Modeling a solar energy collector with an integrated phase-change material

    E-print Network

    Guerra, Alexander Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, a finite-element computer model was created to simulate a solar air heater with an integrated-phase change material. The commercially available finite element package ADINA-Fluid was used to generate the ...

  3. The Integrative Application Study on Solar Energy Technology Used In a Student Dormitory

    E-print Network

    Xue, Y.; Wang, C.

    2006-01-01

    . Shandong Jianzhu University has carried an integrative application study on solar energy technology used in student dorm and proof-tested the energy conservation efficiency after completing the study. This has provided new, significant data...

  4. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt O. Westerman; Barry J. Miles

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical

  5. Solar thermal central receiver integrated commercialization analysis. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F.; Bos, P.B.; Weingart, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The report presents brief discussions on the following topics: (1) value analysis computer program; (2) levelized busbar energy cost computation; (3) electric utility avoided cost; and (4) commercial solar tax credits. Each topic is in reference to the integrated commercialization of solar thermal central receivers. (BCS)

  6. Solar energy integration in the treatment of industrial effluent by coagulation—electroflotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ksentini; M. L. Aouadi; H. Ben Bacha; L. Ben Mansour

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the solar energy integration in cardboard industry wastewater treatment generated in the process of machine washing. The treatment process used was coagulation—electroflotation. The effluent COD reduction rate was selected as the follow up parameter. A system of solar collector was also dimensioned in order to supply the insoluble electrodes of the electroflotation unit. In

  7. Solar Cell Powering with Integrated Global Positioning System for mm3 Size Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boletis; Walter Driesen; Jean-marc Breguet; A. Brunete

    2006-01-01

    A new concept of a solar cell powering with integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) for microrobots is proposed. The main idea is to use a projector to transfer energy and to provide global positioning information to the robots that are equipped with multi-segment solar cells on their top. First tests with a 3000 ANSI lumens beamer projecting a white image

  8. Building Integrated Facades in New York, using High Efficient Back Contact Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jurgens; V. Desai; P. Aschenbrenner; A. O. Pereira

    2006-01-01

    In BIPV applications, architects have always looked for new designs and colors of solar cells which can be integrated into building envelopes in an aesthetic manner. Consequently, various color and size variations in solar cells have been used to create unique BIPV installations all over the world. Still, these applications have always been imperfect, the visual appearance impaired by gridline

  9. Development of integral coating for solar cell modules. Final report, February 1985September 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A process was developed by which integral solar cell covers (ISCC's) can be applied directly to the front surface of solar cell modules. The covers are a codeposited mixture of silica and alumina. The tensile-stressed alumina serves to compensate for the compressive stress of the silica. The process by which these covers are applied is Plasma Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition

  10. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public awareness in the context of climate-neutral actions, and in a long run, contribute to significantly reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  11. Radiation control coatings on rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility: Two summers of monitoring plus roof and whole building modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) allowed the authors to learn the effect of radiation control coatings on roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray coated with a white, latex-based product with ceramic beads. Samples of the coated roofs were brought periodically to the laboratory to measure the solar reflectance as the coatings weathered. The authors monitored the power demand of the all-electric buildings that the roofs covered and temperatures and heat fluxes for two instrumented areas on each roof. Average decreases in the sunlit temperatures of the coated vs. the uncoated surfaces show weathering effects. They also show that the shading enhanced the effect of the coating on the significantly shaded roof because the coated instrumented area on it was preferentially shaded near noon of sunny days. Whole building models were constructed for DOE 2.1E and model predictions were compared to measurements of total electrical power for each all-electric building. The building with the significantly shaded roof had very high internal loads. The effect of the shading on annual energy use for cooling was twice that of the coating but the coating decreased annual cooling energy needs only by 0.5%. The building with the heavyweight concrete-decked roof had small internal loads. For it, the DOE 2.1E model predicted a 7.4% decrease in annual cooling energy use due to the coating and a comparatively small effect of the less extensive shading.

  12. Media depth influences Sedum green roof establishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L. Getter; D. Bradley Rowe

    2008-01-01

    Species selection and initial establishment of plants is critical for long term survival and health of green roofs. Plants\\u000a that can withstand harsh environmental conditions and provide rapid coverage on extensive green roofs can reduce erosion,\\u000a limit weed invasion, and provide a more aesthetically pleasing roof to satisfy customers. This study evaluated the effect\\u000a of green roof substrate depth on

  13. Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

  14. Design, effectiveness, and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles. Technical final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, L. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. Such a shingle will reduce summer cooling and winter heating costs and conserve electricity and natural gas or heating oil. Design calculations indicate that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. If the cost of the shingle is about one dollar per square foot it will be cost effective in these applications. Additional calculations demonstrate the feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Additionally, extruded plastic reflector assemblies of various kinds could be added to existing shingled roofs. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

  15. An integrated space physics instrument (ISPI) for Solar Probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Tsurutani; K. Leschly; S. Nikzad; E. R. Fossum; D. L. Chenette; I. Mann; G. Murphy; G. Musmann; F. Gliem; A. J. Tuzzolino; T. L. Killeen; B. C. Kennedy; S. L. Moses

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for the Solar Probe mission must be designed not only to address the unique scientific measurement requirements, but must be compatible with the modest resource dollars as well as tight constraints on mass and power. Another unique aspect of the Solar Probe mission is its constraint on telemetry and the fact that the prime science is conducted in a

  16. Integrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes

    E-print Network

    ). The observatory is situated on a small peninsula in Big Bear Lake, a mountain lake at an altitude of about 2100 m in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California. The lake effectively suppresses the boundary layer by the site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) as one of the best sites for solar

  17. Solar cell shingle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Forestieri; A. F. Ratajczak; L. G. Sidorak

    1977-01-01

    A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar

  18. Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-10-01

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting designs. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mechanisms of modern roof bolting systems including both the tension and fully grouted bolts. Parameters to be studied are: bolt length, bolt spacing, bolt size/strength, grout annulus, in-situ stress condition, overburden depth, and roof geology (massive strata, fractured, and laminated or thinly-bedded). Based on the analysis of the mechanisms of both bolting systems and failure modes of the bolted strata, roof bolting design criteria and programs for modern roof bolting systems were developed. These criterion and/or programs were combined with the MRGIS for use in conjunction with roof bolt installation.

  19. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies Higher operating frequencies enable greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of GaAs solar cell MIMs (Monolithically Integrated Module) with a single patch antenna on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the integration of MIMs and antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  20. OUT Success Stories: Solar Roofing Shingles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells are now doubling as rooftop shingles. PV shingles offer many advantages. The energy generated from a building's PV rooftop shingles can provide power both to the building and the utility's power grid.

  1. Roof bolt assembly having a sealing plug for preventing a deterioration of the mine roof

    SciTech Connect

    Unrug, K.F.; Thompson, E.D.; Nandy, S.K.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a roof bolt assembly for preserving the natural geological structure of a mine roof which consists of an elongated bolt rod with first and second distal ends, an expandable anchor threaded on the first end for operatively engaging the walls of a roof bolt hole bored in the mine roof at points inboard of the roof surface, a bolt head on the second end of the bolt rod, and a roof plate sandwiched between the roof surface and the bolt head. The entire assembly is pre-tensioned to tightly hold the roof plate against the roof surface. The hole bored in the roof is larger in diameter than the diameter of the roof bolt rod defining an annular space around the rod. The improvement comprises sealing means totally disposed within the annular space adjacent the second end of the bolt but spaced from the roof plate. The sealing means further being spaced from the roof surface such that a gap is formed between the roof surface and the sealing means. The sealing means preclude the entrance of air and moisture into the hole and the annular space around the rod is generally free from material in a region between the anchor and the sealing means such that the bolt is generally out of contact with the mine roof in this region.

  2. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Davidson

    2008-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of

  3. Hydrological Response of Sedum-Moss Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Eco-roofs are becoming popular for aesthetic reasons and also as units of stormwater systems. It is thought that such roofs with soil cover and vegetation reduces the total runoff, the peak flows and improves the quality of the roof water. Here are reported investigations of runoff from thin, 3-4 cm soil, extensive green roofs with sedum-moss in southern Sweden. The two-year study was performed on new roofs in the eco-city Augustenborg and also on nearby old vegetative roofs. The rain intensity and the roof runoff were measured with 5 min, or in some experiments with 1 min, resolution. The annual runoff from the eco-roofs was about half that from hard roofs and was close to that of small natural rivers. However, although most rainy days there was no or little runoff from the roofs, the highest observed daily runoff values were close to the daily rainfall. Runoff is initiated, when the soil is at field capacity. Thereafter the hourly runoff corresponds closely to the hourly rainfall. For short-term high intensity storms, the runoff peak is attenuated relative the rain intensity. The time of concentration for runoff was experimentally determined applying artificial rains on existing roofs and on experimental roof plots with varying slopes and using different drainage layers. The peak runoff from the roofs was found to correspond to the rain intensity over 20-30 minutes. The probability of high rain intensity is much higher than the probability of high runoff. When intensity-duration-frequency curves were constructed, runoff with 0.4 year return period corresponded to rain with 1.5 year return period. The influence of the slope of the roofs on the runoff peak was minor as was the effect of drainage layer. The vertical flow in the soil dominates the runoff process. The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff quality was also studied to ascertain whether vegetated roofs behave as sink or source of pollutants and whether the runoff quality changes with roof age. The results show that in general vegetated roofs behave as a source of contaminants. With the exception of a 15-year old roof, the studied vegetated roofs contributed phosphate-phosphorus to the runoff. Some metals appeared in concentrations that corresponds to moderately polluted water. However, nitrate-nitrogen is retained by the vegetation and the soil.

  4. Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2012-09-01

    Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

  5. Three-dimensional building roof boundary extraction using high-resolution aerial image and LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poz, A. P.; Fazan, Antonio J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a semiautomatic method for rectilinear building roof boundary extraction, based on the integration of high-resolution aerial image and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. The proposed method is formulated as an optimization problem, in which a snakes-based objective function is developed to represent the building roof boundaries in an object-space coordinate system. Three-dimensional polylines representing building roof boundaries are obtained by optimizing the objective function using the dynamic programming optimization technique. The results of our experiments showed that the proposed method satisfactorily performed the task of extracting different building roof boundaries from aerial image and LiDAR data.

  6. Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

  7. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  8. Use of Renewable Energy in Buildings: Experiences With Solar Thermal Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wang, R.; Zhai, X.

    2006-01-01

    ]. Another feasible integration of solar collectors into buildings is in the projects of building renovation. Karsten Voss[9] and Jan-Olof Dalenb?ck[10] reported that solar collectors may improve the building envelope, e.g. when a flat roof is rebuilt... and Buildings, 2000, 32(3):291-302. [10] Jan-Olof Dalenb?ck. Solar energy in building renovation[J]. Energy and Buildings, 1996, 24(1):39-50. [11] Fu Yang. Exploiting new energy-90% street lamps will use solar energy in 2008 Olympics game. http...

  9. Model calculations on a flat-plate solar heat collector with integrated solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trond Bergene; Ole Martin Løvvik

    1995-01-01

    A detailed physical model of a hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal system is proposed, and algorithms for making quantitative predictions regarding the performance of the system are presented. The motivation for the present work is that solar cells act as good heat collectors and are fairly good selective absorbers. Additionally, most solar cells increase their efficiency when heat is drawn from the cells.

  10. Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, A.

    1995-12-31

    Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

  11. Evaluating Convex Roof Entanglement Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Géza; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

    2015-04-01

    We show a powerful method to compute entanglement measures based on convex roof constructions. In particular, our method is applicable to measures that, for pure states, can be written as low order polynomials of operator expectation values. We show how to compute the linear entropy of entanglement, the linear entanglement of assistance, and a bound on the dimension of the entanglement for bipartite systems. We discuss how to obtain the convex roof of the three-tangle for three-qubit states. We also show how to calculate the linear entropy of entanglement and the quantum Fisher information based on partial information or device independent information. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method by concrete examples.

  12. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-10-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. The retrofitting works for a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been completed. The laboratory tests performed using this machine on simulated roof blocks have been conducted. The analysis performed on the testing data showed promising signs to detect the rock interface, fractures, as well as the rock types. The other tasks were progressing as planned.

  13. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-07-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, retrofitting work to build a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been started. A number of numerical methods have been developed to improve the quality of and to analyze the collected drilling parameters. Finite element modeling of roof bolting mechanism is continuing.

  14. Integration of Solar Photocatalysis and Membrane Bioreactor for Pesticides Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Casas López; A. Cabrera Reina; E. Ortega Gómez; M. M. Ballesteros Martín; S. Malato Rodríguez; J. A. Sánchez Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater containing recalcitrant contaminants as pesticides can be treated by a coupled system which consists of a solar photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a biological oxidation process. Membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is particularly suitable for advanced biological treatment of wastewater containing biorecalcitrant compounds and shows a variety of advantages that make it a good alternative to be coupled with photo-Fenton, especially

  15. Performance evaluation of a refrigerant-charged integrated solar water heater in northern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Enaburekhan; Usman Tanko Yakasai

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performance of the refrigerant-charged integrated solar water heater was analyzed to show its applicability in Nigeria, using data of several sunny and cloudy days. This unit, having three identical small-scale solar water heating systems using refrigerants R-134a, R12, and ethanol, was constructed and tested side by side under various environmental and load conditions in the Department of Mechanical

  16. On Integration of Mirror Collector and Stirling Engine for Solar Power System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. F. Yousif; Ammar Al-Shalabi; Dirk G. Rilling

    \\u000a In the current work, several types of solar collectors, i.e. parabolic, cylindrical, and mirrors, were designed and fabricated.\\u000a The aim of this study is to integrate the optimum collector with Stirling engine in Malacca city, Malaysia. Stirling engine\\u000a was designed using CATIA software. The solar collectors were tested for several sunny days and the temperature in the focus\\u000a point was

  17. Solar Reserve Methodology for Renewable Energy Integration Studies Based on Sub-Hourly Variability Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Hummon, M.; Lew, D.

    2012-08-01

    Increasing penetrations of wind a solar energy are raising concerns among electric system operators because of the variability and uncertainty associated with power sources. Previous work focused on the quantification of reserves for systems with wind power. This paper presents a new methodology that allows the determination of necessary reserves for high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) power and compares it to the wind-based methodology. The solar reserve methodology is applied to Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. A summary of the results is included.

  18. Solar cell shingle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Forestieri; A. F. Ratajczak; L. G. Sidorak

    1976-01-01

    A solar cell shingle may be made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in fluorinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected

  19. Solar-cell project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mortensen; J. Jensen

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available solar cells and battery systems were tested. The details of the experimental solar cell\\/battery array placed on the roof of the Jutland Telephone telestation near Aarhus, Denmark are described. A survey of module calculations and meteorological data in this region is given. The systems tested, their components, solar cell arrays and mechanical and electrical equipment are described and

  20. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  1. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

  2. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

  3. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

  4. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

  5. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection...RULE Storage Vessels § 65.45 External floating roof converted into an internal floating...

  6. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-07-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The selected site and the field testing plan enabled us to test all three aspects of roof geological features. The development of the data interpretation methodologies and the geology mapping computer program have also been preceding well.

  7. Collaborative Integral Design of Active Roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMCJ Quanjel; Wim Zeiler

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In the world of design and engineering, gaps of knowledge between these disciplines are recognized. The learning capacity of the building industry - as well as in other industries - is becoming a main issue, also within Architect-organizations. To link the parts of the knowledge-triangle practice, education and research forms the basis for possible solutions - within the context

  8. Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof Part 2

    E-print Network

    Sonne, J.; Parker, D.

    variety of primarily native Florida vegetation up to approximately 2 feet in height to create an extensive green roof. Analysis of 2005 summer data from the first year the green roof was installed indicates significantly lower peak roof surface...

  9. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140... § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140... § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal...

  11. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140... § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal...

  12. 30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...rib control system, including, if roof bolts are to be installed— (i) The length...torque or tension range for tensioned roof bolts. (10) When mechanically anchored tensioned roof bolts are used, the intervals at which test...

  13. 30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...rib control system, including, if roof bolts are to be installed— (i) The length...torque or tension range for tensioned roof bolts. (10) When mechanically anchored tensioned roof bolts are used, the intervals at which test...

  14. 30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...rib control system, including, if roof bolts are to be installed— (i) The length...torque or tension range for tensioned roof bolts. (10) When mechanically anchored tensioned roof bolts are used, the intervals at which test...

  15. 30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...rib control system, including, if roof bolts are to be installed— (i) The length...torque or tension range for tensioned roof bolts. (10) When mechanically anchored tensioned roof bolts are used, the intervals at which test...

  16. 30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (2) Prior to the removal of roof bolts, temporary support shall be installed as close as practicable to each roof bolt being removed. (d) Temporary supports...not be removed where— (1) Roof bolt torque or tension measurements or...

  17. 30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (2) Prior to the removal of roof bolts, temporary support shall be installed as close as practicable to each roof bolt being removed. (d) Temporary supports...not be removed where— (1) Roof bolt torque or tension measurements or...

  18. 30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (2) Prior to the removal of roof bolts, temporary support shall be installed as close as practicable to each roof bolt being removed. (d) Temporary supports...not be removed where— (1) Roof bolt torque or tension measurements or...

  19. 30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (2) Prior to the removal of roof bolts, temporary support shall be installed as close as practicable to each roof bolt being removed. (d) Temporary supports...not be removed where— (1) Roof bolt torque or tension measurements or...

  20. 30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...rib control system, including, if roof bolts are to be installed— (i) The length...torque or tension range for tensioned roof bolts. (10) When mechanically anchored tensioned roof bolts are used, the intervals at which test...

  1. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-02-21

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  2. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress report No. 13

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1980-03-01

    Progress on the development of electrostatic bonding as a method of integrally encapsulating silicon solar cells in glass is reported. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue to demonstrate process uniformity of encapsulation by electrostatic bonding. An additional goal for this program is to develop preformed contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure, resulting in a low-cost module assembly technique.

  3. Design and integration of a solar AMTEC power system with an advanced global positioning satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Johnson; M. E. Hunt; W. R. Determan; P. A. HoSang; J. Ivanenok; M. Schuller

    1997-01-01

    A 1,200-W solar AMTEC (alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion) power system concept was developed and integrated with an advanced global positioning system (GPS) satellite. The critical integration issues for the SAMTEC with the GPS subsystems included: (1) packaging within the Delta II launch vehicle envelope; (2) deployment and start-up operations for the SAMTEC; (3) SAMTEC operation during all mission phases; (4)

  4. Design and integration of a solar AMTEC power system with an advanced global positioning satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Johnson; M. E. Hunt; W. R. Determan; P. A. HoSang; J. Ivanenok; M. Schuller

    1996-01-01

    A 1,200 W solar AMTEC (alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion) power system concept was developed and integrated with an advanced global positioning system (GPS) satellite. The critical integration issues for the SAMTEC with the GPS subsystems included: (1) packaging within the Delta II launch vehicle envelope; (2) deployment and start-up operations for the SAMTEC; (3) SAMTEC operation during all mission phases;

  5. Design and integration of a solar AMTEC power system with an advanced global positioning satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Hunt, M.E.; Determan, W.R. [Rockwell Aerospace, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; HoSang, P.A. [Rockwell Aerospace/Space Systems, Downey, CA (United States); Ivanenok, J. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schuller, M. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States). Space and Missile Div.

    1996-12-31

    A 1,200-W solar AMTEC (alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion) power system concept was developed and integrated with an advanced global positioning system (GPS) satellite. The critical integration issues for the SAMTEC with the GPS subsystems included (1) packaging within the Delta 2 launch vehicle envelope, (2) deployment and start-up operations for the SAMTEC, (3) SAMTEC operation during all mission phases, (4) satellite field of view restrictions with satellite operations, and (5) effect of the SAMTEC requirements on other satellite subsystems. The SAMTEC power system was compared with a conventional planar solar array/battery power system to assess the differences in system weight, size, and operations. Features of the design include the use of an advanced multitube, vapor anode AMTEC cell design with 24% conversion efficiency, and a direct solar insolation receiver design with integral LiF salt canisters for energy storage to generate power during the maximum solar eclipse cycle. The modular generator design consists of an array of multitube AMTEC cells arranged into a parallel/series electrical network with built-in cell redundancy. The preliminary assessment indicates that the solar generator design is scalable over a 500 to 2,500-W range. No battery power is required during the operational phase of the GPS mission. SAMTEC specific power levels greater than 5 We/kg and 160 We/m{sup 2} are anticipated for a mission duration of 10 to 12 yr in orbits with high natural radiation backgrounds.

  6. Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, No 593 Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

  7. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  8. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  9. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  10. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ennis, Mike J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40% in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. It should be noted that these values are climate dependent. Vegetative roofs also reduced the temperature (heat exposure) and temperature fluctuations (thermal stress) experienced by the membrane. In the cooling season of East Tennessee, the average peak temperature of the 4-inch and tray systems was found to be approximately 94 F cooler than the control black roofing system. The average temperature fluctuations at the membrane for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 10 F compared to 125 F for black and 64 F for white systems. As expected, the 8-inch vegetative roof had the lowest fluctuations at approximately 2 F. Future work will include modeling of the energy performance of vegetative roof panels in the test climate of East Tennessee. The validated model then will be used to predict energy use in roofs with different insulation levels and in climates different from the test climate.

  11. Fabrication of multijunction high voltage concentrator solar cells by integrated circuit technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valco, G. J.; Kapoor, V. J.; Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A.-T.

    Standard integrated circuit technology has been developed for the design and fabrication of planar multijunction (PMJ) solar cell chips. Each 1 cm x 1 cm solar chip consisted of six n(+)/p, back contacted, internally series interconnected unit cells. These high open circuit voltage solar cells were fabricated on 2 ohm-cm, p-type 75 microns thick, silicon substrates. A five photomask level process employing contact photolithography was used to pattern for boron diffusions, phorphorus diffusions, and contact metallization. Fabricated devices demonstrated an open circuit voltage of 3.6 volts and a short circuit current of 90 mA at 80 AMl suns. An equivalent circuit model of the planar multi-junction solar cell was developed.

  12. Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay; Juan Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that

  13. Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 15th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period December 1979 to April 1980 is described. Project analysis and integration, technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheet and encapsulation, production process and equipment development, engineering, and operation are included.

  14. Design and economy of solar power plants with integrated thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Gilli; G. Beckmann

    1977-01-01

    Due to discrepancies of electric supply and demand patterns in solar steam power plants, energy storage - either integrated thermal energy storage (before generator), pumped hydro storage (after generator, before meter), or storage at the customer (after meter) - is required. Steam storage requires pressure vessels and is limited in temperature, but oil or fused salt are more expensive and

  15. Combined photovoltaic and solar thermal systems for facade integration and building insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Krauter; Rodrigo Guido Araújo; Sandra Schroer; Rolf Hanitsch; Mohammed J Salhi; Clemens Triebel; Reiner Lemoine

    1999-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) facades are built as curtain facades in front of thermally insulated buildings, with air ducts in between. This causes additional costs for support structure and installation, while heat dissipation from the solar cells is often not optimal. Measurements carried out are facing both concerns: integration of a thermal insulating layer (which meets the latest German heat-preserving regulation,

  16. The relationship between solar activity and the H and K line cores in integrated sunlight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Jebsen; W. E. Mitchell Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric measurements of the Ca II H and K lines in the spectrum of integrated sunlight, which are free of scattered light and referred to spectral intensities at well-defined nearby continuum wavelengths, are used to study the behavior of the H- and K-line cores in the sun. The data were either collected on 18 days during a solar rotation or

  17. Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hemmes

    2007-01-01

    The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of co- producing hydrogen and electricity from natural gas. Storage of hydrogen is not absolutely

  18. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-07-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  19. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  20. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-04-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More laboratory tests have been performed in this quarter. The analysis performed on the testing data showed: (1) abnormal rotational accelerations can be used as the indicator of the rock interfaces, and (2) the sharp drops of drilling thrust and torque agree well with the locations of fractures.

  1. Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)

    E-print Network

    Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

    2010-01-01

    is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go...

  2. Analysis of the green roof thermal properties and investigation of its energy performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Niachou; K Papakonstantinou; M Santamouris; A Tsangrassoulis; G Mihalakakou

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of the planned roofs are undoubtedly numerous from both the ecological and the social point of view. They act positively upon the climate of the city and its region, as well as upon the interior climate of the buildings beneath them. They give protection from the solar radiation, which is the main factor in passive cooling. By reducing

  3. Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky) 

    E-print Network

    Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

    2010-01-01

    is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go...

  4. Performance and reliability of a 1kW amorphous silicon photovoltaic roofing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Adelstein; B. Sekulic

    2005-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been monitoring the performance of a 1- kWAC United Solar Systems Corporation (USSC) roofing system over the 6-year period from October 1998 to September 2004. This paper investigates the performance and reliability of this system. The annual degradation and seasonal fluctuation of the system's power output are calculated using the PVUSA power rating

  5. Dependence of street canyon concentrations on above-roof wind speed - implications for numerical modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Ketzel; Ruwim Berkowicz; W. J. Muller; Achim Lohmeyer

    2002-01-01

    In micro-scale numerical modelling of street canyon pollution, an inverse proportionality of additional concentration (C) with wind speed (U_roof) is often assumed for cases without buoyancy, stability effects, solar radiation and traffic induced turbulence. Detailed data analyses of two comprehensive field datasets from Göttinger Straße in Hannover and Jagtvej, Copenhagen including concentration and wind field measurements in the street and

  6. Metal Roofing in a "Class" by Itself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimtz, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The structural standing seam roof has the advantages of ease of application, low maintenance, and low life-cycle costs. Explains and illustrates how the system's concealed clip attachments are designed so that the roof panels can expand and contract independently of the insulation. (MLF)

  7. Roofs--Their Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swentkofske, Carl J.

    Most roofs are meant to withstand the elements for a period of 20 years; to achieve this goal, however, school officials must believe in a dedicated maintenance program and sell it to their superiors and school boards. Establishment of a school district roof maintenance program is explained. Job qualifications and training methods for an inhouse…

  8. A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING

    E-print Network

    SUNGUARD: A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING Prepared For: California Energy Commission Energy (FAR) SUNGUARD: A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING EISG AWARDEE PowerLight Corporation 2954 San Pablo,000 for promising proof-of-concept energy research. PIER funding efforts are focused on the following six RD

  9. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Uras, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.

    1995-12-31

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne`s in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements.

  10. Supplementary Analysis of Io's Disk-Integrated Solar Phase Curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Domingue; G. W. Lockwood; Amanda E. Kubala

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the disk-integrated phase curves of Io's leading and trailing hemispheres, as derived from combined groundbased and Voyager spacecraft measurements, shows that Io's leading side is more porous than its trailing hemisphere (assuming a globally uniform particle grain size distribution) and that the material of the trailing side is more opaque at 0.47 and 0.55 ?m than the material

  11. Integration between solar and space science data for space weather forecast using web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.

    2007-08-01

    As the technology develops, the opportunity that the human beings behave in space, and it is still understood that the solar activities (especially the solar flare) influence the airlines communication, the ship communication and the power generator of the electric power company, etc. Forecasting the effects of the solar activities is becoming very important because there is such a background. Our goal is that constructs the detailed model from the Sun to the magnetosphere of the earth and simulates the solar activities and the effects. We try to integrate the existing observational data including the ground observational data and satellite observational data using by web service technology as a base to construct the model. We introduce our activity to combine the solar and space science data in Japan. Methods Generally, it is difficult to develop the virtual common database, but web service makes interconnection among different databases comparatively easy. We try to connect some databases in the portal site. Each different data objects is aggregated to a common data object. We can develop more complex services. We use RELAX NG in order to develop these applications easily. We begin the trial of the interconnection among the solar and space science data in Japan. In the case of solar observational data, we find the activity such as VO, for example, VSO and EGSO, but space science data seems to be very complex. In addition to this, there is time lag that solar activity has an effect on the magnetosphere of the Earth. We discuss these characteristic in the data analysis between the solar and space data. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research `The Basic Study of Space Weather Prediction' (17GS0208) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Technology, and Culture of Japan

  12. The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Shepard Jr.; L. E. Sanchez

    1978-01-01

    The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts\\/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by

  13. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

  14. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    PubMed

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event. PMID:15888889

  15. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-06-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  16. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  17. Building integrated PV for commercial industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eiffert, P.; Kiss, G.

    2000-02-14

    This sourcebook on building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is intended for architects and designers interested in learning more about today's sustainable solar buildings. The booklet includes 16 design briefs describing actual structures; they illustrate how electricity-generating BIPV products (such as special roofing systems, vertical-wall systems, skylights, and awnings, all of which contain PV cells, modules, and films) can be integrated successfully into many different kinds of buildings. It also contains basic information about BIPV technologies, an overview of US product development activities and development programs, descriptions of major software design tools, and a bibliography.

  18. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    SciTech Connect

    Steblay, B.J.

    1986-07-22

    A method is described of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts comprising the steps of: machining a flat portion on the head of the bolt before loading; drilling a reflector hole radially through the diameter of the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head before loading, the ratio of the diameter of the hole to the diameter of the bolt being less than 0.10 to prevent weakening of the loaded bolt; generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion after loading; measuring the time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole, which increases as the bolt is loaded; and correlating the time measurement of the strain in the bolt.

  19. ManualforEvaluatingtheThermalPerformanceofthe HamerschlagHallGreenRoof

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    combined sewer overflows. Reduced "urban heat island" effect ­ A green roof reduces the level of absorbed heat in dense concrete areas. Extended life of the roof ­ Protects the roof from weather, reducing maintenance costs. Reduced heating and cooling costs ­ Provides extra roof insulation. And reduction

  20. Design of roof bolt patterns for jointed rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the stability relationships of coal mine roof rocks that are cut by fractures of intersecting joints, with and without roof bolts, under various sets of conditions and to develop criteria for the design of roof bolt systems for such roofs. The problem was studied by mathematical finite element models and by laboratory

  1. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for ? = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of ? = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for ? = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle ?CB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  2. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  3. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  4. Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO3(-) retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input-output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation. PMID:24017999

  5. In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Desjarlais; J. E. Christian; R. S. Graves

    1993-01-01

    Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented current technology in 1989 and were blown with CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HCFC-141b. These foams were installed in roof systems comprised of loosely-laid insulation boards covered by either

  6. An integral solar power and propulsion system concept for commercial space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, P.T.S. [California International Power Associates, Los Altos Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An integral space power concept deriving both the electrical and propulsion power from a common high-temperature heat source module offers superior performance capabilities over conventional chemical upper-stage propulsion with separate solar photovoltaic power systems. This hybrid system concept is based on a high efficiency solar concentrator-heated propulsion and a high temperature thermionic technology derived from the proven Solar Energy Thermionics (SET) or the advanced Hydrogen Thermo-ElectroChemical Conversion (HYTEC) for electrical power generation. The thermal hydrogen propulsion technology is derived from the NERVA rocket program. The integral system is capable of long-life power operation at an efficiency of at least twice the conventional photovoltaic approach. Because of anticipated high conversion efficiency of the HYTEC, the electrical power output can be increased several folds using the similarly sized solar concentrator. The propulsion module is capable of high specific impulse during the orbital transfer thrusting. The same module is also usable for long-term orbit management applications. The resulting savings in propellant and power generator equipment enable the use of new generation of low-cost launchers for many commercial satellite applications.

  7. Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulavi, Tejas

    A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by the absorber tubes. For this reason, the PV/T hybrid is not recommended over other options in new installations. The hybrid solar window is evaluated for a horizontal skylight and south and east facing vertical windows in Minneapolis, MN. The predicted visible transmittance for the solar window is 0.66 to 0.73 for single glazed systems and 0.61 to 0.67 for double glazed systems. The solar heat gain coefficient and the U-factor for the window are comparable to existing glazing technology. Annual thermal efficiencies of up to 24% and 26% are predicted for the vertical window and the horizontal skylight respectively. Experimental measurements of the solar thermal component of the window confirm the trends of the model. In conclusion, the hybrid solar window combines the functionality of an energy efficient fenestration system with hybrid thermal energy generation to provide a compelling solution towards sustainable design of the built environment.

  8. The effect of roof strength on reducing occupant injury in rollovers.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Steve; Orton, Tia; Meyer, Steven E; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2005-01-01

    Roof crush occurs and potentially contributes to serious or fatal occupant injury in 26% of rollovers. It is likely that glazing retention is related to the degree of roof crush experienced in rollover accidents. Occupant ejection (including partial ejection) is the leading cause of death and injury in rollover accidents. In fatal passenger car accidents involving ejection, 34% were ejected through the side windows. Side window glass retention during a rollover is likely to significantly reduce occupant ejections. The inverted drop test methodology is a test procedure to evaluate the structural integrity of roofs under loadings similar to those seen in real world rollovers. Recent testing on many different vehicle types indicates that damage consistent with field rollover accidents can be achieved through inverted drop testing at very small drop heights. Drop test comparisons were performed on 16 pairs of vehicles representing a large spectrum of vehicle types. Each vehicle pair includes a production vehicle and a vehicle with a reinforced roof structure dropped under the same test conditions. This paper offers several examples of post-production reinforcements to roof structures that significantly increase the crush resistance of the roof as measured by inverted drop tests. These modifications were implemented with minimal impact on vehicle styling, interior space and visual clearances. The results of these modifications indicate that roof crush can be mitigated by nearly an order of magnitude, as roof crush was reduced by 44-91% with only a 1-2.3% increase in vehicle weight. Additionally, this paper analyzes the glazing breakage patterns in the moveable tempered side windows on the side adjacent to the vehicle impact point in the inverted drop tests. A comparison is made between the production vehicles and the reinforced vehicles in order to determine if the amount roof crush is related to glazing integrity in the side windows. Lastly, two drop test pairs, performed with Hybrid III test dummies, indicates that the reduction of roof crush resulted in a direct reduction in neck loading and therefore an increase in occupant protection. PMID:15850089

  9. Optimization of multijunction aSi:H solar cells using an integrated optical\\/electrical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Rocheleau; Matthias Vierthaler

    1994-01-01

    An phenomenological model for multijunction amorphous silicon solar cells which integrates a detailed optical model and an equivalent circuit model with a voltage-dependent photocurrent was developed. The model equations accurately describe the light J-V curves for a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H single junction cells using carrier transport properties comparable to values reported in the literature and which agree closely with values derived

  10. An investigation on the novel structure of dye-sensitized solar cell with integrated photoanode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Wang; Yong Liu; Hongmei Xu; Xian Dong; Hui Shen; Yuanhao Wang; Hongxing Yang

    2009-01-01

    A novel structure of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with integrated photoanode was first reported in this paper. Titanium threads and titanium sheet were first used in this novel structure in place of traditional glass substrate, thus reducing the series resistance of the substrates. An open-circuit voltage of 668mV, a short circuit current density of 12.0mA\\/cm2 and a light to electricity

  11. The relationship between solar activity and the H and K line cores in integrated sunlight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis E. Jebsen; Walter E. Mitchell

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyze new data on the cores of the H and K lines of ionized calcium in the spectrum of integrated sunlight. The intensities of the components H2v, H3, H2r, K2v, K3, and K2r in the line cores were measured in terms of the continuum intensity at 4000 Å during a solar rotation in September

  12. Monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cell submodules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shogo Ishizuka; Takashi Yoshiyama; Kazuyuki Mizukoshi; Akimasa Yamada; Shigeru Niki

    2010-01-01

    Monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell submodules with 15% efficiencies have been demonstrated on flexible ceramic and thin soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates. For ceramic substrates, alkali-doping control was performed using alkali–silicate glass thin layers deposited prior to the sputtering of the Mo back contact layer. An independently certified 15.9% submodule efficiency (17 cells, aperture area 75.7cm2) was demonstrated for a

  13. Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

  14. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (e)(1) The diameter of finishing bits shall be within a tolerance of plus or minus...anchor used. (2) When separate finishing bits are used, they shall be distinguishable from other bits. (f) Tensioned roof bolts....

  15. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (e)(1) The diameter of finishing bits shall be within a tolerance of plus or minus...anchor used. (2) When separate finishing bits are used, they shall be distinguishable from other bits. (f) Tensioned roof bolts....

  16. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (e)(1) The diameter of finishing bits shall be within a tolerance of plus or minus...anchor used. (2) When separate finishing bits are used, they shall be distinguishable from other bits. (f) Tensioned roof bolts....

  17. How To Choose the Right Roofing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, David

    2001-01-01

    Lists the factors that must be considered when specifying a roof for an existing or new facility. Factors discussed include cost, longevity, value of operations, warranties, building structure and design, and old vs. new system compatibility. (GR)

  18. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains

    E-print Network

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative...

  19. Internal absorber solar collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Herskovitz; F. S. Holt; C. J. Sletten; E. J. Sletten

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60° in

  20. Internal absorber solar collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlyle J. Sletten; Sheldon B. Herskovitz; F. S. Holt; E. J. Sletten

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in

  1. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains 

    E-print Network

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially...

  2. Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viorel Badescu

    2003-01-01

    Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two

  3. Modeling and analysis of solar photovoltaic-electrolyzer-fuel cell hybrid power system integrated with a floriculture greenhouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ganguly; D. Misra; S. Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and analysis of a greenhouse-integrated power system consisting of solar photovoltaic panels, electrolyzer bank and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. Electric power is generated in an array of solar photovoltaic modules. Excess energy after meeting the requirements of the greenhouse during peak sunshine hours, is supplied to an electrolyzer bank to generate hydrogen

  4. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL SYSTEM AND THERMAL STORAGE FOR A SOLAR HOUSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YuXiang Chen; A. K. Athienitis; B. Berneche; Y. Poissant; K. E. Galal

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a building integrated photovoltaic-thermal system with heat recovery and storage for a solar house. This solar house is to be built by Alouette Homes (AH), a prefabricated-home manufacturer, as its project for Canada's EQuilibrium Housing demonstration initiative. The design of the building integrated photovoltaic- thermal (BIPV\\/T) system and ventilated concrete slab thermal

  5. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

  6. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne`s in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements.

  7. Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.; Raman, M.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it`s nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.

  8. Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.; Raman, M.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it's nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.

  9. Green Roof Stormwater Retention: Effects of Roof Surface, Slope, and Media Depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholaus D. VanWoert; D. Bradley Rowe; Jeffrey A. Andresen; Clayton L. Rugh; R. Thomas Fernandez; Lan Xiao

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT,thussavingonenergyconsumption(Niachouetal.,2001; Wong et al., 2003); increase thelife span of a typical roof Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than byprotectingtheroofcomponentsfromdamagingultra- natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervi- ous surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfacesother impervious surfaces can exacerbate flooding, in- media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, crease

  10. Cool roof Q+A 011.doc 29 July 2009 Cool Roof Q & A (draft)

    E-print Network

    that of a comparable standard product. For example, the afternoon surface temperature of a specially designed "cool thermal radiation. An easy way to judge the coolness of a roof is to compare its surface temperature, and a surface temperature elevation (surface temperature ­ outside air temperature) T of 69°F [38 K]. A roof

  11. An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell material.11,15 Compared with other integrated solar power supplies,16,17 double-sided TiO2 NTs with large

  12. Dynamic stability of the Solar System: Statistically inconclusive results from ensemble integrations

    E-print Network

    Zeebe, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Due to the chaotic nature of the Solar System, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ~1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (eM). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (eM ~= 0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is on average significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentricthan Jacobi coordinates and stricter er...

  13. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control Systems Design for Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control systems architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  14. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control System Design for Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  15. Geologic structures in coal mine roof. Rept of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect

    Moebs, N.N.; Ellenberger, J.L.

    1982-02-01

    Studies by the Bureau of Mines have identified geologic structures in mine roof rock that contribute to many roof falls in Appalachian coal mines. These structures, including paleochannels, scours, pinchouts, slickensides, clay veins, crevasse splays, and joints, can often be identified during, and sometimes before, mine development. Mine projections can be revised to reduce the adverse effects of discontinuities in roof structure; large roof areas of laminated sandstone or incompetent strata generally can be delineated or inferred from exploratory drill hole data, and the need for supplementary support can be anticipated. Accurate descriptions of roof geology also provide some indication of optimum length and type of roof bolts that should be installed.

  16. Solar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

  17. Affordable solar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    An architectural and planning firm has been designing passive solar buildings at costs comparable to those for conventionally heated buildings. Bids for the construction of these buildings have ranged from $28-40\\/ft² and a motel was constructed for $28.10\\/ft² of heated space. Roofs are insulated to R-38 and walls to R-19. The buildings have triple glazing and\\/or insulating shutters and minimum

  18. Prevention of residential roof fires by use of a class "A" fire rated roof system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Britt, L D

    2004-01-01

    Because residential roof fires remain a life-threatening danger to residential homeowners in the United States, we describe in detail a national fire prevention program for reducing residential roof fires by use of an Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and National Fire Protection Association Class A fire rated roof system. This Class A system should comply with the test requirements for fire resistance of roof coverings, as outlined in UL 790 or in ASTM International (ASTM) E-108. Both the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association (ARMA) and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) have set up guidelines for selecting a new roof for the homeowner. Class A, fiber-glass-based asphalt roofing shingles represent an overwhelming share of the United States residential roofing market, and, as such, the Class A rated roofing system remains an excellent alternative to wood shingles and shakes. Fortunately, the Class A fire rating is available for certain wood shingle products that incorporate a factory-applied, fire resistant treatment. However, in this circumstance, wood products labeled as Class B shakes or shingles must be installed over spaced or solid sheathing that have been covered either with one layer of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) thick noncombustible roof board, or with one layer of minimum 72-lb. fiber-glass-based mineral surfaced cap sheet, or with another specialty roofing sheet to obtain the Class A fire rating. Clay, tile, slate, and metal have been assigned Class A fire ratings in the codes (but often without testing). These alternative roofing materials are often considerably more expensive. Proper application, ventilation, and insulation of roofing systems are required to prevent heat and moisture buildup in the attic, which can damage the roofing system, making it more susceptible to water leakage as well as ignition in the event of a fire. The NRCA has devised excellent recommendations for the homeowner to prequalify the contractor. In addition, a warranty for any new roofing material is important for the homeowner to ensure that the roofing can be repaired by the contractor or manufacturer during the specified warranty period, in case of contractor error or a manufacturing defect. In addition, the homeowner should ensure that the warranty is transferable to any future owner of the home to allow the buyer to have the same warranty benefits as the original owner. The State of California has mandated strict roofing requirements to prevent residential fires. In the absence of this legislation in other states, the homeowner must follow the guidelines outlined in this collective review to ensure that a roofing system with Class A fire protection is installed. Other fire safety precautions that should also be considered mandatory are to include smoke alarms, escape plans, and retrofit fire sprinklers. PMID:15099189

  19. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  20. Study on functional integration of the SKA and the solar thermal power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Dehua; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xuebin

    2012-09-01

    A separate building of solar power plants may take hundreds of millions of euros. The dish-stirling system is one of the concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) technologies. Considering the dish-stirling system is structurally similar to a radio telescope, with its diameter similar to the antenna that is used in the SKA, It is assumed that a radio telescope and the dish-stirling system could be functionally integrated in the design for time-based sharing, thus to reduce the SKA and the dish-stirling system in the repeated construction costs on the reflecting surface, the two-axis tracking mechanism, the civil engineering, and the roads, etc. Based on the above idea on the functional integration of devices, whilst taking account on the functional requirements of the SKA and the dish-stirling system, the Principle design of functional integration is conducted. In addition, the control system and multi-functional reflector regarding its processing and coating technology is covered.

  1. Comparative Summer Thermal Performance of Finished and Unfinished Metal Roofing Products with Composition Shingles

    E-print Network

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J.; Sonne, J.

    2004-01-01

    of five roofing systems against a control roof using dark shingles. The intent of the testing is to evaluate how roofing systems impact residential cooling energy use. Recent testing emphasizes evaluation of how increasingly popular metal roofing systems...

  2. THE IMPACT OF ABOVE-SHEATHING VENTILATION ON THE THERMAL AND MOISTURE PERFORMANCE OF STEEP-SLOPE RESIDENTIAL ROOFS AND ATTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Wilson; Achilles Karagiozis

    Field studies were conducted on several attic assemblies having stone-coated metal shake roofs with and without infrared blocking color pigments (IrBCPs) and with and without above-sheathing ventilation. The combination of increased solar reflectance and above-sheathing ventilation reduced the heat flow penetrating the attic floor by 70% as compared with the heat flow penetrating the attic floor of a roof with

  3. Operational compatibility of 30-centimeter-diameter ion thruster with integrally regulated solar array power source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1977-01-01

    System tests were performed in which Integrally Regulated Solar Arrays (IRSA's) were used to directly power the beam and accelerator loads of a 30-cm-diameter, electron bombardment, mercury ion thruster. The remaining thruster loads were supplied from conventional power-processing circuits. This combination of IRSA's and conventional circuits formed a hybrid power processor. Thruster performance was evaluated at 3/4- and 1-A beam currents with both the IRSA-hybrid and conventional power processors and was found to be identical for both systems. Power processing is significantly more efficient with the hybrid system. System dynamics and IRSA response to thruster arcs are also examined.

  4. In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.; Graves, R.S.

    1993-10-01

    Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented current technology in 1989 and were blown with CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HCFC-141b. These foams were installed in roof systems comprised of loosely-laid insulation boards covered by either a loosely-laid single ply white or black membrane. The in-situ testing was carried out on an outdoor test facility, the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). Additional specimens of these foams were aged in the laboratory and periodically evaluated using laboratory measurement equipment. This paper summarizes the in-situ data compiled to date, compares these data with the laboratory results, and examines whether the proposed laboratory procedure for accelerating the aging of foams by the slicing and scaling method accurately predicts the aging characteristics of these materials installed in roof systems. These experiments are part of a joint industry/government project established to evaluate the technical viability of alternative HCFC blowing agents for rigid closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam roof insulations. Members of the project are the US Department of Energy (DOE)/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Society of the Plastics Industry-Polyurethane Division (SPI), the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA), and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA).

  5. Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems. Semiannual progress report, 1 Jan30 Jun 1974. [Solar vs. conventional systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denton

    1974-01-01

    Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar-powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating; seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single-family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled to determine

  6. Iowa and solar energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  7. Solar heating and cooling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. Effect of Surface Mass on Roof Thermal Performance

    E-print Network

    Wilkes, K. E.; Shipp, P. H.; Sanders, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    EFFECT OF SURFACE MASS ON ROOF THERMAL PERFORMANCE KENNETH E. WILKES, PAUL H. SHIPP, AND JOHN P. SANDERS Staff Members Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT The roof of a building is exposed to the most severe...

  9. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling 

    E-print Network

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will examine in depth the development of roof spray cooling in this country and elsewhere, the theory and practice of roof cooling, and the limits of system application. While this relatively simple method of air conditioning has been...

  10. Eastern portal, looking W. Note hipped roof covered with wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Eastern portal, looking W. Note hipped roof covered with wood shingles, added in 1993. The hipped roof is unique in U.S. covered bridges. - Doe River Bridge, Spanning Doe River, Third Avenue, Elizabethton, Carter County, TN

  11. 13. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ON WEST SIDE, FACING SOUTH. SHOWS SMC ROOF UTILITY PAD. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    EVALUATION OF A DIRECT EVAPORATIVE ROOF-SPRAY COOLING SYSTEM Carrasco, A., Pittard, R., Kondepudi, S. N., and Somasundaram, S. Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station. ABSTRACT Roof-Spray cooling systems...

  13. 3. View from roof of eastern segment of Roundhouse looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from roof of eastern segment of Roundhouse looking at roof and clerestory of western segment. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling

    E-print Network

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will examine in depth the development of roof spray cooling in this country and elsewhere, the theory and practice of roof cooling, and the limits of system application. While this relatively simple method of air conditioning has been...

  15. Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof Part 2 

    E-print Network

    Sonne, J.; Parker, D.

    2008-01-01

    Green roof installation in the United States is growing at a significant rate. There are a number of reasons for this growth including rainwater runoff reduction and aesthetic benefits. Energy performance evaluations of green roofs, the subject...

  16. 46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH WEST WING ROOF - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 42. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING ROOF FROM SOUTH TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING ROOF FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Energy factors and temporary distribution in insulated built-up roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Keeton; R. L. Alumbaugh

    1981-01-01

    Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1\\/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7\\/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating)

  19. Creating the Dataset for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (U.S.A.)

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C. W.; Lew, D.; McCaa, J.; Cheng, S.; Eichelberger, S.; Grimit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the world's largest regional integration studies to date. This paper discusses the creation of the wind dataset that will be the basis for assessing the operating impacts and mitigation options due to the variability and uncertainty of wind power on the utility grids. The dataset is based on output from a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, covering over 4 million square kilometers with a spatial resolution of approximately two-kilometers over a period of three years with a temporal resolution of 10 minutes. The mesoscale model dataset includes all the meteorological variables necessary to calculate wind energy production. Individual time series were produced for over 30 thousand locations representing more than 900 GW of potential wind power generation.

  20. Creating the Dataset for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (U.S.A)

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C. W.; Lew, D.; McCaa, J.; Cheng, S.; Eichelberger, S.; Grimit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the world's largest regional integration studies to date. This paper discusses the creation of the wind dataset that will be the basis for assessing the operating impacts and mitigation options due to the variability and uncertainty of wind power on the utility grids. The dataset is based on output from a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, covering over 4 million square kilometers with a spatial resolution of approximately two-kilometers over a period of three years with a temporal resolution of 10 minutes. The mesoscale model dataset includes all the meteorological variables necessary to calculate wind energy production. Individual time series were produced for over 30 thousand locations representing more than 900 GW of potential wind energy generation.

  1. Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

  2. Mine roof drill bits that save money

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, L.M.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, has developed advanced technology roof bolt drill bits which have demonstrated longer life, higher penetration rates at lower thrust and torque, and lower specific energy than conventional roof bolt drill bits. This is achieved through use of advanced technology cutting materials and novel bit body designs. These bits have received extensive laboratory and mine testing. Their performance has been evaluated and estimates of their value in reducing coal production costs have been made. The work was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy.

  3. The wind resistance of asphalt roofing shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Craig Robert

    Asphalt shingle roofing is the leading cause of hurricane wind-related insured losses in residential buildings. Damage statistics generated from recent hurricanes indicate shingle roofs sustain damage in wind velocities below design-level with damage frequency increasing with shingle roof age. The objective of this dissertation is the identification of primary mechanisms triggering the failure of shingle roof systems in wind. The research goal is to reduce future shingle roof wind damage and improve our ability to predict asphalt shingle wind resistance. Five studies comprising this dissertation addressed the adhesive consistency and strength of aged asphalt shingles, system-level wind resistance, and the load model underpinning the ASTM D7158 wind test standard. The most significant and unexpected finding was partially unsealed shingles on field, hip, and ridge locations on Florida and Texas homes. Location on the shingle's sealant strip where unsealed and failure mode were consistent at each location. Total quantity of partially unsealed shingles in the field of the roof significantly increased with age, aligning with damage statistics. Full-scale wind tunnel tests demonstrate partially unsealed shingles are more vulnerable than fully sealed due to increased distributed force on sealant strip and concentrated force at the adhered and non-adhered interface. Uplift resistance was measured in artificially and naturally aged shingles. For artificially aged shingles, one of three products evaluated had statistically significant decreases in mean uplift resistance as exposure time increased. However, resistance was above design-level at all exposure test intervals. Naturally aged shingles also had resistance above design-level. Combined results demonstrate that reduced uplift capacity can occur, but high initial bond strength promotes long-term uplift resistance. Wind loads exerted on the shingles sealant strip load path were directly measured on fully sealed and partially unsealed three-tab and laminate shingles. Results indicate that ASTM D7158 and load model is conservative in force prediction for fully sealed shingles. ASTM D7158 is not conservative for partially unsealed shingles. Research concludes that partially unsealed shingles occur naturally and represent a large contributor to wind damage. Retrofit of existing shingle roofs and further work identifying specific cause will provide significant reduction of wind risk in shingle roofing.

  4. High efficiency photovoltaic roof tiles with static concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, S.; Wenham, S.R.; Dickinson, M.R.; Green, M.A. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

    1994-12-31

    The use of static concentrators provides a level of concentration sufficient for significant cost reductions, without any of the problems of high concentration systems. There is no need for expensive tracking, most of the diffuse light is collected and passive cooling can be used for the cells. Following the construction of prototypes that confirm computer ray tracing predictions a structure has been designed for the manufacture of a 1 kW roof top array in association with the state power authority. Two manufacturing techniques for the array and potential commercial production are described. The pilot line at the University of New South Wales has commenced production of bifacial buried contact solar cells for the project. These cells provide the necessary high efficiency and low cost. Measurements have been made on the amount of dust likely to be present on a typical module, the effect on total internal reflection and thus the concentrator performance.

  5. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

    2009-11-20

    The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

  6. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Mehos, M.

    2013-10-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

  7. You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight…

  8. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Sung

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge performances. Also, the active materials did not decompose at 80°C, and the battery was performing well under low temperature of -27°C. Lastly, the batteries were embedded inside a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate to characterize their performance under fatigue loading. Finally, an intense pulsed light (IPL) was used to sinter printed silver nanoink patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find grain size of printed silver nanoink patterns. From these analyses it was confirmed that IPL is able to adequately sinter silver nanoink patterns for printed electronics without degradation of the substrates in less than 30 ms.

  9. Thermal patterns in the snow: Structure of a roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1999-02-01

    A dramatic thermal pattern on the south-facing roof of our university's Fine Arts building is shown in analyzed. From the patterns in the snow on the roof, it is possible to draw a number of tentative conclusions about the makeup and structure of the roof.

  10. Wind performance evaluation of fully bonded roofing assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baskaran; S. Molleti; M. Sexton

    2008-01-01

    Wind performance investigation is critical in the design of durable roofing assemblies. In North America, mainly two types of low slope roofs, conventional and inverted, are in practice depending on the placement of the membrane in the system. The present study focuses on the wind uplift performance of fully bonded single ply roofing assembly. Past studies focused on the wind

  11. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...opening and the closure device. (4) The floating roof may be equipped with one or more emergency roof drains for removal of stormwater. Each emergency roof drain shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...opening and the closure device. (4) The floating roof may be equipped with one or more emergency roof drains for removal of stormwater. Each emergency roof drain shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...opening and the closure device. (4) The floating roof may be equipped with one or more emergency roof drains for removal of stormwater. Each emergency roof drain shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...opening and the closure device. (4) The floating roof may be equipped with one or more emergency roof drains for removal of stormwater. Each emergency roof drain shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...opening and the closure device. (4) The floating roof may be equipped with one or more emergency roof drains for removal of stormwater. Each emergency roof drain shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of...

  16. Wind-induced response of a large cantilevered roof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kawai; R. Yoshie; R. Wei; M. Shimura

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this study is to clarify aerodynamic properties of a large cantilevered roof. We conducted free vibration experiments in order to investigate effects of various parameters such as mass, pitch angle, and damping ratio to wind-induced vibration of the roof. In the experiments, we have found that the roof hardly vibrated at its natural frequency until a certain

  17. Vibration and scattering monitoring of Japanese roofing tile by accelerometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted on the vibration and scattering behavior of full-size models of tiles widely used as roofing materials on Japanese wooden dwellings. This study has investigated the nature and source of such movement with the aim of providing better insight into the mechanism. The roofing tiles were set up on a pitched roof in

  18. Multi-junction solar cells based on the integration of II\\/VI and III\\/V semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ding; S.-N. Wu; S. Wang; S. R. Johnson; S.-Q. Yu; X. Liu; J. K. Furdyna; Y.-H. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    High-efficiency multifunction solar cells are attracting a great deal of attention for both space and terrestrial applications. We proposed the monolithic integration of the II\\/VI (ZnCdMg)(SeTe) and the III\\/V (InAlGa)(AsSb) material systems for multijunction solar cells. These material systems have direct bandgap, zinc blende, quaternary alloys, lattice-matched to GaSb substrates that cover the entire optical spectrum from greater than 3.0

  19. An operational integrated short-term warning solution for solar radiation storms: introducing the Forecasting Solar Particle Events and Flares (FORSPEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Georgoulis, Manolis; Tziotziou, Kostas; Jiggens, Piers; Hilgers, Alain

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel integrated prediction system, of both solar flares and solar energetic particle (SEP) events, which is in place to provide short-term warnings for hazardous solar radiation storms. FORSPEF system provides forecasting of solar eruptive events, such as solar flares with a projection to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (occurrence and velocity) and the likelihood of occurrence of a SEP event. It also provides nowcasting of SEP events based on actual solar flare and CME near real-time alerts, as well as SEP characteristics (peak flux, fluence, rise time, duration) per parent solar event. The prediction of solar flares relies on a morphological method which is based on the sophisticated derivation of the effective connected magnetic field strength (Beff) of potentially flaring active-region (AR) magnetic configurations and it utilizes analysis of a large number of AR magnetograms. For the prediction of SEP events a new reductive statistical method has been implemented based on a newly constructed database of solar flares, CMEs and SEP events that covers a large time span from 1984-2013. The method is based on flare location (longitude), flare size (maximum soft X-ray intensity), and the occurrence (or not) of a CME. Warnings are issued for all > C1.0 soft X-ray flares. The warning time in the forecasting scheme extends to 24 hours with a refresh rate of 3 hours while the respective warning time for the nowcasting scheme depends on the availability of the near real-time data and falls between 15-20 minutes. We discuss the modules of the FORSPEF system, their interconnection and the operational set up. The dual approach in the development of FORPSEF (i.e. forecasting and nowcasting scheme) permits the refinement of predictions upon the availability of new data that characterize changes on the Sun and the interplanetary space, while the combined usage of solar flare and SEP forecasting methods upgrades FORSPEF to an integrated forecasting solution. This work has been funded through the "FORSPEF: FORecasting Solar Particle Events and Flares", ESA Contract No. 4000109641/13/NL/AK

  20. Roof Shield for Advance and Retreat Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Shield sections change their configuration to suit mining mode. Articulation cylinders raise rear shield to advance position, and locking cylinders hold it there. To change to retreat position articulation cylinders lower shield. Locking pins at edge of outermost shield plate latch shield to chock base. Shield accommodates roof heights ranging from 36 to 60 inches (0.9 to 1.52 meters).

  1. Roof Framing. Building Trades. Block V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for roof framing provides instructional materials for 11 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of six references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  2. Development of Clay Filled Roofing Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur M. Usmani; I. O. Salyer

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes bonding of clay with minor amounts of a phenolic emulsion to produce bricks, roofing tiles or synthetic aggregates, and requires only low temperature baking (100°C to 150°C). The manufacture of conventional bricks is energy intensive whereas our process has low energy requirement.

  3. Plug improves stability of shaly roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Unrug, K.F.; Nandy, S.; Thompson, E. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Although geologic conditions and over-stressing play major roles in roof falls, an especially common cause of falls of shaly roof is the gradual deterioration of the shale itself. The culprit in such deteriorations is the hydrophilic nature of the shale's clay mineral components, a trait causing some of the clay minerals to swell due to absorption of water from the atmosphere. Moisture enters the annular space between the bolt rod and the walls of the borehole, and then condenses on the cooler surfaces. It can then be absorbed by the shale through capillary attraction into micro cracks and bedding planes. When the condensation forms at the anchorage level, it can cause weakening of the rock, especially where the shale is under high stress with the anchor shell. To prevent migration of moisture into the roof through bolt holes, a patented plastic plug has been designed to seal the annular space between the rock and the bolt rod at the entrance of the hole. The plug consists of two halves that snap in and lock together. It can be assembled on a bolt rod in just three seconds by squeezing the two halves together just before the bolt is inserted into the bolt hole. The external and internal flanges of the plug create tight contact between the perimeter of the hole and the bolt rod, thereby sealing the annular space between the rock and the roof bolt at the entrance of the hole.

  4. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tadolini, Stephen C. (Lakewood, CO); Dolinar, Dennis R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  5. Development of design guidelines and roof-control standards for coal-mine roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unal

    1983-01-01

    Three of the most crucial problems still facing the mining-engineering profession today are that of finding better anchorage testing procedures, effective roof-stability monitoring systems and rationally based design guidelines. First the feasibility of new anchorage-testing procedures and roof-stability monitoring techniques has been investigated through a series of laboratory experiments, utilizing a special instrumented facility and an acoustic emission (AE) monitoring

  6. Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Todd

    2013-01-30

    In February 2011 the US Department of Energy announced their new Sunshot Initiative. The Sunshot goal is to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75 percent before the end of the decade. The DOE estimated that a total installed cost of $1 per watt for photovoltaic systems would be equivalent to 6���¢/kilowatt hour (kWh) for energy available from the grid. The DOE also estimated that to meet the $1 per watt goal, PV module costs would need to be reduced to $.50 per watt, balance of systems costs would need to be reduced to $.40 per watt, and power electronic costs would need to reach $.10 per watt. To address the BOS balance of systems cost component of the $1 per watt goal, the DOE announced a funding opportunity called (BOS-X) Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reductions. The DOE identified eight areas within the total BOS costs: 1) installation labor, 2) installation materials, 3) installation overhead and profit, 4) tracker, 5) permitting and commissioning, 6) site preparation, 7) land acquisition, 8) sales tax. The BOS-X funding announcement requested applications in four specific topics: Topic 1: Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Modules Topic 2: Roof and Ground Mount Innovations Topic 3: Transformational Photovoltaic System Designs Topic 4: Development of New Wind Load Codes for PV Systems The application submitted by ARaymond Tinnerman reflected the requirements listed in Topic #2, Roof and Ground Mount Innovations. The goal of topic #2 was to develop technologies that would result in the extreme reduction of material and labor costs associated with applications that require physical connections and attachments to roof and ground mount structures. The topics researched in this project included component cost reduction, labor reduction, weight reduction, wiring innovations, and alternative material utilization. The project objectives included: 1) The development of an innovative quick snap bracket assembly that would be bonded to frameless PV modules for commercial rooftop installations. 2) The development of a composite pultruded rail to replace traditional racking materials. 3) In partnership with a roofing company, pilot the certification of a commercial roof to be solar panel compliant, eliminating the need for structural analysis and government oversight resulting in significantly decreased permitting costs. 4) Reduce the sum of all cost impacts in topic #2 from a baseline total of $2.05/watt to $.34/watt.

  7. The current bases for roof fall prediction at WIPP and a preliminary prediction for SPDV Room 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the current bases for roof fall prediction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and a preliminary prediction of the date of a roof fall in SPDV Test Room 2. The ability to correctly assess the stability of the excavations at the WIPP is necessary to protect the safety of site workers, the environment, and the integrity of in situ experiments that use transuranic mixed waste. Roof fall is the extreme case of instability. Although roof falls have been allowed to occur unused, barricaded rooms so that the pre-collapse behavior of this room could be studied. This document presents a discussion of some deformation mechanisms that can be expected around excavations in bedded salt at the WIPP. The geomechanical instrument data and fracture maps from the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) room area have been analyzed to determine the deformation history of the rooms and to identify precursors to the SPDV Room 1 roof fall. The deformation history of the excavations as recorded by the instruments was then correlated with these proposed deformation mechanisms, providing a basis for prediction of roof falls in other locations. Finally, the means used at the WIPP to identify and monitor unstable ground are discussed. Throughout this document, ``Room 1 `` and ``Room 2`` refer to SPDV Rooms 1 and 2 unless otherwise stated.

  8. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  9. Trough integration into power plants—a study on the performance and economy of integrated solar combined cycle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Dersch; Michael Geyer; Ulf Herrmann; Scott A. Jones; Bruce Kelly; Rainer Kistner; Winfried Ortmanns; Robert Pitz-Paal; Henry Price

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic trough solar technology has been proven at nine commercial Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS) power plants that are operating in the California Mojave desert. These plants utilize steam Rankine cycle power plants, and as a result, most people associate parabolic trough solar technology with steam Rankine cycle power plant technology. Although these plants are clearly optimized for their particular

  10. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-print Network

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material thanfor the use of a secondary concentrator. Solar cells have touse more expensive semiconductor materials which would otherwise be cost prohibitive. Second, a solar cell's

  11. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Krupta

    1979-01-01

    A model residential photovoltaic system which utilizes a solar cell array roof shingle combination is discussed in relation to developing and generating the environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems. Material requirements, operating residuals, land requirements, water requirements, production processes, and production residuals for the systems operation are examined. Environmental, health, safety, and resource availability impacts are reported.

  12. Monitored passive-solar buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two story trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete and water trombe wall; two story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond.

  13. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within the attic and the whole building. Field measures and computer predictions showed that the d

  14. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, longevity of roofing membranes that result in fewer roofing materials in landfills, water quality of stormwater runoff, and noise pollution. Suggestions for future directions for research include plant selection, development of improved growing substrates, urban rooftop agriculture, water quality of runoff, supplemental irrigation, the use of grey water, air pollution, carbon sequestration, effects on human health, combining green roofs with complementary related technologies, and economics and policy issues. PMID:21074914

  15. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  16. Optimization of multijunction a-Si:H solar cells using an integrated optical/electrical model

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Vierthaler, M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A phenomenological model for multijunction amorphous silicon solar cells which integrates a detailed optical model and an equivalent circuit model with a voltage-dependent photocurrent was developed. The model equations accurately describe the light J-V curves for a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H single junction cells using carrier transport properties comparable to values reported in the literature and which agree closely with values derived from quantum efficiency measurements. Closed form expressions for collection efficiency are derived by approximating the carrier generation profile by an exponential distribution. This new model can be used to predict cell behavior with changes in i-layer thickness and bandgap, carrier mobility-lifetime, and illumination. The model has been combined with a powerful multi-variable optimization routine to analyze alternative cell designs. The model is described and representative results are presented.

  17. Space Solar Power Multi-body Dynamics and Controls, Concepts for the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.; McDonald, Emmett J.

    2000-01-01

    Orbiting space solar power systems are currently being investigated for possible flight in the time frame of 2015-2020 and later. Such space solar power (SSP) satellites are required to be extremely large in order to make practical the process of collection, conversion to microwave radiation, and reconversion to electrical power at earth stations or at remote locations in space. These large structures are expected to be very flexible presenting unique problems associated with their dynamics and control. The purpose of this project is to apply the expanded TREETOPS multi-body dynamics analysis computer simulation program (with expanded capabilities developed in the previous activity) to investigate the control problems associated with the integrated symmetrical concentrator (ISC) conceptual SSP system. SSP satellites are, as noted, large orbital systems having many bodies (perhaps hundreds) with flexible arrays operating in an orbiting environment where the non-uniform gravitational forces may be the major load producers on the structure so that a high fidelity gravity model is required. The current activity arises from our NRA8-23 SERT proposal. Funding, as a supplemental selection, has been provided by NASA with reduced scope from that originally proposed.

  18. An innovative system for heating and cooling a gymnasium using integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchiotti, A. [Terza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Herkel, S.; Laukamp, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Priolo, C. [Conphoebus, Piano d`Arci (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes a new solar energy based system to heat and cool a gymnasium and to generate electricity in the city of Palermo, Italy. The gymnasium will be built in 1996 as part of the structures that will host the Universiadi Games in 1997. Main objectives of the project are: (a) to grant better environmental conditions in the area occupied by the public, with limited use of fossil energy; (b) to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic elements, thus increasing their efficiency. The system consists of an array of 203 m{sup 2} integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar air collectors. In the winter mode of operation, the heated air is passed through the concrete benches where the public is seated. In the summer mode of operation outside air is evaporatively cooled, passed through the benches, then exhausted to the outside after passing through the collectors. The paper presents some of the results obtained by simulating the system at the design stage for winter conditions.

  19. Quantification of green roof carbon dioxide, heat, and water fluxes using the gradient flux technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lanoy, J. T.; Orton, P. M.; McGillis, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Green roofs address several important problems associated with urbanization, but there has been limited quantification of their benefits. On the small scales necessary on a rooftop, direct eddy covariance cannot be used to measure the carbon dioxide, sensible and latent heat, and water fluxes between the plant canopy and the atmosphere. Thus, the gradient flux technique was used to calculate these fluxes between a green roof and the atmosphere over 18 days in summer, 2008. Measurements of atmospheric CO2 and H2O concentration and meteorological variables were taken in the atmospheric surface boundary layer within 35 cm of the green roof plant canopy: CO2 and H2O concentrations were sampled with one sensor at five different heights for five minutes each over the course of thirty minute intervals to construct a vertical profile, as well as a being sampled continuously with another sensor at the median height to quantify time variability; temperature and relative humidity were sampled at the highest, lowest, and median heights; wind velocity was recorded at two heights to measure shear velocity, a parameter describing atmospheric mixing; canopy temperature and moisture, and solar radiation were also measured. Results show the plant canopy was a net sink of carbon dioxide during the day and a net source of carbon dioxide during the night, as expected. Average carbon dioxide flux was approximately 0.135 ? mol m-2 s-1 into the canopy over the experiment, or about 51.1 g C m-2 year-1 into the canopy if seasonality is neglected. Long-term studies coupling this method with detailed mass and heat budgets will allow more complete quantification of carbon dioxide, water and heat fluxes on green roofs. This will aid in improving quantification of both known benefits of green roofs, as well as more speculative benefits such as carbon sequestration.

  20. DYNAMIC STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: STATISTICALLY INCONCLUSIVE RESULTS FROM ENSEMBLE INTEGRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zeebe, Richard E., E-mail: zeebe@soest.hawaii.edu [School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1000 Pope Road, MSB 629, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Due to the chaotic nature of the solar system, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ?1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (e{sub M}). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (e{sub M}?0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is, on average, significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates and stricter error control. In contrast, starting at a possible future configuration (e{sub M}?0.53), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over the subsequent 500 Myr is, on average, significantly lower using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates. For example, the probability for e{sub M} to increase beyond 0.53 over 500 Myr is >90% (Jacobi) versus only 40%-55% (heliocentric). This poses a dilemma because the physical evolution of the real system—and its probabilistic behavior—cannot depend on the coordinate system or the numerical algorithm chosen to describe it. Some tests of the numerical algorithms suggest that symplectic integrators using heliocentric coordinates underestimate the odds for destabilization of Mercury's orbit at high initial e{sub M}.

  1. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR AN INTEGRATED SOLAR THERMAL-BIOGAS CO-GENERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The immediate goal is a system based on the integration of the suite of modules developed solar thermal, biogas, ORC, absorption-chiller) that can be assembled together to create systems tailored to the unique demands of individual communities and climates, optimized for effic...

  2. Sloshing impact pressure in roofed liquid tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, C.; Masuko, Y.; Sakurai, A. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.)

    1994-05-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in order to clarify the nonlinear sloshing phenomena in the reactor vessels of the pool-type LMFBRs, which may cause damages to the vessels or their inner structures. The test results for three types of models using a long-period large-amplitude shaking table provided the authors with the information on how the scales and the configuration of the models affect the sloshing wave crest impact pressures. Based on the test results and theoretical considerations, a formula was proposed to predict the impact pressures caused on the roofed liquid tanks due to sloshing. This formula is applicable to the same types of tanks, such as the oil storage tanks, as long as their sizes, liquid depths, and gaps between the roofs and the free surfaces are given.

  3. Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time

    E-print Network

    Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

    2013-01-01

    The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

  4. Thrust bolting: Roof-bolt-support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tadolini, S.C.; Dolinar, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for installing a roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation and more specifically to tensioning the unit without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads. The bolt is capable of being placed into tension along the length and the levels of active support can be controlled by varying the length of the grouted portion and the level of thrust applied to the bolt during installation.

  5. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Nazarova; V. I. Sizov

    1987-01-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% AlâOâ. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles

  6. ASTM standards for measuring solar reflectance and infrared emittance of construction materials and comparing their steady-state surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Levinson, R.; Berdahl, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-08-01

    Numerous experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that painting roofs white reduces air conditioning load up to 50%, depending on the thermal resistance or amount of insulation under the roof. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of a building and climate. In earlier work, the authors have estimated the national energy savings potential from reflective roofs and paved surfaces. Achieving this potential, however, is conditional on receiving the necessary Federal, states, and electric utilities support to develop materials with high solar reflectance and design effective implementation programs. An important step in initiating an effective program in this area is to work with the american Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the industry to create test procedures, rating, and labeling for building and paving materials. A subcommittee of ASTM E06, E06.42, on Cool Construction Materials, was formed as the vehicle to develop standard practices for measuring, rating, and labeling cool construction materials. The subcommittee has also undertaken the development of a standard practice for calculating a solar reflectance index (SRI) of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces. SRI is a measure of the relative steady-state temperature of a surface with respect to a standard white surface (SRI = 100) and a standard black surface (SRI = 0) under standard solar and ambient conditions. This paper discusses the technical issues relating to development of these two ASTM standards.

  7. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. PMID:24107414

  8. Integrated mitigation and solar radiation management scenarios under combined climate guardrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankoweit, Marius; Schmidt, Hauke; Roshan, Elnaz; Pieper, Patrick; Held, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the climate policy options 'mitigation' and 'adaptation' solar radiation management (SRM) has been put on the agenda. As SRM costs are comparably low compared to mitigation costs, including SRM risks in the analysis proves essential. In our contribution we focus on precipitation pattern changes as potential side-effects of SRM and perform an integrated mitigation-SRM-based analysis on the basis of economic welfare optimization, constrained by climate guardrails. We define a tolerable scale of precipitation changes by the anomalies that would have been tolerated under a temperature target. Given that metric and a temperature target, by utilizing the integrated assessment model MIND, we derive the cost reduction, induced by including the additional option of SRM. We show that the cost reduction is a strong function of the fraction of Giorgi regions, for which we require compliance with the newly defined SRM guardrail. Compliance with all Giorgi regions might eliminate most of the economic gain achievable through SRM. The effects of alternative parameterizations of the SRM-precipitation pattern change influence chain are discussed.

  9. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  10. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  11. The Proteasome Is an Integral Part of Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation-induced Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Ziaja, Isabella; Breusing, Nicolle; Jung, Tobias; Höhn, Annika; Alpertunga, Buket; Schroeder, Peter; Chondrogianni, Niki; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Petropoulos, Isabelle; Friguet, Bertrand; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Krutmann, Jean; Grune, Tilman

    2009-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) A radiation is a well known trigger of signaling responses in human skin fibroblasts. One important consequence of this stress response is the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), which causes extracellular protein degradation and thereby contributes to photoaging of human skin. In the present study we identify the proteasome as an integral part of the UVA-induced, intracellular signaling cascade in human dermal fibroblasts. UVA-induced singlet oxygen formation was accompanied by protein oxidation, the cross-linking of oxidized proteins, and an inhibition of the proteasomal system. This proteasomal inhibition subsequently led to an accumulation of c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun and activation of activator protein-1, i.e. transcription factors known to control MMP-1 expression. Increased transcription factor activation was also observed if the proteasome was inhibited by cross-linked proteins or lactacystin, indicating a general mechanism. Most importantly, inhibition of the proteasome was of functional relevance for UVA-induced MMP-1 expression, because overexpression of the proteasome or the protein repair enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase prevented the UVA-induced induction of MMP-1. These studies show that an environmentally relevant stimulus can trigger a signaling pathway, which links intracellular and extracellular protein degradation. They also identify the proteasome as an integral part of the UVA stress response. PMID:19690165

  12. Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomers at The Newark Museum's Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss Planetarium teamed up with the New Jersey Institute of Technology's (NJIT) Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and the Big Bear Solar Observatory in presenting Solar Fireworks. The exhibit opened on May 15, 2004 and features two exhibition kiosks with interactive touch screen displays, where students and other visitors can take "virtual tours" in the fields of solar physics, solar activity, Sun-Earth connection, and geo-sciences. Planetarium and museum visits are an integral part of the introductory physics and astronomy classes at NJIT and the exhibition has been integrated in the astronomy curriculum. For example, NJIT students of the Astronomy Club and regular astronomy courses were closely involved in the design and development of the exhibit. The exhibit is the latest addition to the long-running natural science exhibit "Dynamic Earth: Revealing Nature's Secrets" at the museum. More than 30,000 people per year attend various programs offered by the planetarium including public shows, more than a dozen programs for school groups, after school activities, portable planetarium outreach, outdoor sky watches, solar observing and other family events. More than 1,000 high school students visited the planetarium in 2004. The exhibit is accompanied by a yearly teacher workshop (the first one was held on October 18-20, 2004) to enhance the learning experience of classes visiting the Newark Museum. The planetarium and museum staff has been working with teachers of Newark high schools and has presented many workshops for educators on a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology. At the conclusion of the exhibit in December 2005, the exhibit will go "on the road" and will be made available to schools or other museums. Finally, the exhibit will find its permanent home at the new office complex of CSTR at NJIT. Acknowledgements: Solar Fireworks was organized by The Newark Museum and the New Jersey Institute of Technology's Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research and supported by a two-year grant from NASA's Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Program (NASA NAG5-12733 EPO-02-219). http://www.bbso.njit.edu

  13. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-print Network

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  14. Solar Powered Classroom

    ScienceCinema

    none

    2013-06-27

    A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

  15. Solar Powered Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    none

    2013-06-13

    A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

  16. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  17. Geologic factors in coal mines roof stability: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Moebs, N.N.; Stateham, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes 10 selected United States Bureau of Mines research contract reports produced from 1970 to 1980 that consist largely of geologic studies of coal-mine roof-support problems. The reports focus on the Appalachian and Illinois coal-mining regions. In the Appalachian region two geologic structures, roof rolls and slickensides, predominate as features that directly contribute to roof falls. Studies of these and other structures are reviewed, and improved methods of utilizing drill core and core logs to prepare hazard maps are presented. Among the reports described are several on the weakening effects of moisture on shale roof, as determined from both laboratory and underground measurements, and an assessment of air tempering as a humidity-control method. Also summarized are findings concerning the time lapse between roof exposure and permanent support installation as a factor in the effectiveness of roof bolting.

  18. Building integrated PV for commercial and institutional structures, a sourcebook for architects

    SciTech Connect

    Eiffert, P.; Kiss, G.

    2000-02-14

    This sourcebook on building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is intended for architects and designers interested in learning more about today's sustainable solar buildings. The booklet includes 16 design briefs describing actual structures; they illustrate how electricity-generating BIPV products (such as special roofing systems, vertical-wall systems, skylights, and awnings, all of which contain PV cells, modules, and films) can be integrated successfully into many different kinds of buildings. It also contains basic information about BIPV technologies, an overview of US product development activities and development programs, descriptions of major software design tools, and a bibliography.

  19. Mobilization and loss of elements from roofing tiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fazrul Razman Sulaiman; Peter Brimblecombe; Carlota M. Grossi

    2009-01-01

    Deposition, leaching and chemical transformation are processes that affect roofing tile and roof runoff water. Leaching experiments,\\u000a with artificial rainwater in the laboratory, showed the presence of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl?, NO3\\u000a ?, SO4\\u000a 2?, with a ratio of Ca2+ and SO4\\u000a 2? suggesting gypsum dissolution. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of the exposed roof tile showed depletion such as Mg,

  20. Low-sloped roofing research plan. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Cullen; W. J. Jr Rossiter; R. G. Mathey; J. R. Clifton

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a long-range plan for roofing research. The plan was developed in response to a need for roofing research addressing major materials problems and changes in low-sloped roofing materials technology. The intent of the plan is to establish the technical basis for developing standards and minimum levels of performance to assist in the selection of cost-effective and durable

  1. Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southwest - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  2. Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southeast - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  3. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  4. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  5. 44. ARTS AND INDUSTRIES BUILDING FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. ARTS AND INDUSTRIES BUILDING FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND BUILDING TRUSS STRUCTURE - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  7. 36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 40. CAMPANILE & SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CAMPANILE & SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 39. CLOSER VIEW OF CAMPANILE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. CLOSER VIEW OF CAMPANILE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 43. TOP OF SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. TOP OF SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 47. NORTHWEST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. NORTHWEST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH BY NORTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate-KIC) which aims to promote a change of paradigm for efficient planning and management of new urban developments and retrofitting of existing ones to maximize ecosystem services and increase resilience to climate change.

  14. Integration between solar and space science data for space weather forecast using web services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kato

    2007-01-01

    As the technology develops, the opportunity that the human beings behave in space, and it is still understood that the solar activities (especially the solar flare) influence the airlines communication, the ship communication and the power generator of the electric power company, etc. Forecasting the effects of the solar activities is becoming very important because there is such a background.

  15. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof...

  16. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof...

  17. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof...

  18. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof...

  19. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  20. Sensitivity of Low Sloped Roofs Designs to Initial Water and Air Leakage

    E-print Network

    Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

    2002-01-01

    Liquid water in low sloped roofs almost always causes problems. Roofs are designed only to control the migration of vapor, if at all. Small amounts of water leakage/penetration, may cause mold growth or catastrophic corrosion in current roofs...

  1. Rooftop Membrane Temperature Reductions with Green Roof Technology in South-Central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Dvorak, B.

    2010-01-01

    Early green roof cooling and energy reduction research in North America took place in Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, where green roofs reduced rooftop temperatures by 70% to 90%. Less is known about green roof technology...

  2. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30...

  3. THE EVERGREEN ROOF PROJECT: STANDARDS, METHODS AND SOFTWARE FOR EVALUATING LIVING ROOF SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Evergreen Roof Project set out four objectives for Phase I of our project and has made sufficient progress on all of those objectives to qualify this phase as a success. Through an extensive literature review and discussions with researchers, designers, inst...

  4. Solar-Heated Health Education Center -- North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in 55-page report uses 171 collectors, roof-mounted in two arrays. System is designed to supply about 45 percent of heat needs of building with minimal effects on existing structure, mechanical systems, and appearance.

  5. Earth storage of solar heat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garst, P.

    1982-04-19

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate that large quantities of heat could be collected and stored by modifing large buildings such as those commonly found on farms. The basic idea was to install a solar collection system on the south roof of such a building and store the heat collected in the earth under the building. To implement the project, a pole type sheet metal building was constructed. The size of the building was 20' x 40'. The peak of the roof ran down the 40' dimension and was offset from the center line so that the roof surface facing south was larger than that facing north. The collector was built on the south side by first constructing a roof of sheet metal with 2-1/2'' corrugations. The sheet metal was painted with flat black paint to absorb the solar heat. A space was created over the sheet metal roof by nailing 2 x 4's spaced 2' apart to it. Corrugated fiberglass sheets were nailed to these 2 x 4's to make the collector cover. At the top of the roof, a distribution pipe made of 3/4'' CVCP plastic pipe with 1/8'' holes to match the corrugations of the sheet metal was installed. A gutter was installed at the bottom to collect the heated water which flowed down the sheet metal. The collector roof and the gutter were insulated with 6'' fiberglass batts to complete the collector. Instrumentation, cost, and performance results are discussed.

  6. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarova, T.I.; Sizov, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles is being sent for testing in DSP-100 furnaces at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combine.

  7. Green roof soil system affected by soil structural changes: A project initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínková, Vladimíra; Dohnal, Michal; Šácha, Jan; Šebestová, Jana; Sn?hota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic soil systems and structures such as green roofs, permeable or grassed pavements comprise appreciable part of the urban watersheds and are considered to be beneficial regarding to numerous aspects (e.g. carbon dioxide cycle, microclimate, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). Expected performance of these systems is significantly affected by water and heat regimes that are primarily defined by technology and materials used for system construction, local climate condition, amount of precipitation, the orientation and type of the vegetation cover. The benefits and potencies of anthropogenic soil systems could be considerably threatened in case when exposed to structural changes of thin top soil layer in time. Extensive green roof together with experimental green roof segment was established and advanced automated monitoring system of micrometeorological variables was set-up at the experimental site of University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings as an interdisciplinary research facility of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The key objectives of the project are (i) to characterize hydraulic and thermal properties of soil substrate studied, (ii) to establish seasonal dynamics of water and heat in selected soil systems from continuous monitoring of relevant variables, (iii) to detect structural changes with the use of X-ray Computed Tomography, (iv) to identify with the help of numerical modeling and acquired datasets how water and heat dynamics in anthropogenic soil systems are affected by soil structural changes. Achievements of the objectives will advance understanding of the anthropogenic soil systems behavior in conurbations with the temperate climate.

  8. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Storm Water Retention and Runoff Reduction Performance Lucheng Chen

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Storm Water Retention and Runoff Reduction Performance ......................................................................................................................... 2 2. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof ............................................................................................................................ 6 3.2. Ultrasonic Sensors

  9. Integrated high-concentration PV near-term alternative for low-cost large-scale solar electric power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vahan Garboushian; Dave Roubideaux; Sewang Yoon

    1997-01-01

    Large-scale photovoltaic electric power generation deployment and utilization is no longer dictated by limitations in technology, but rather by the economics of PV systems vs. other renewable or traditional options. This paper describes a near-term alternative option for cost-effective solar electric power generation based on a novel sunlight concentrating technology: integrated high-concentration PV(IHCPV). The advantages of high-concentration systems have been

  10. Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arif Hepbasli

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

  11. Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. PMID:24362771

  12. June 2009 UWMREPORT 15 solar cells turn Bolton roof

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    to a four-member partnership involving Adel Nasiri, assistant professor of electrical engineering Professor Adel Nasiri (front) and graduate students Ali Esmaili and Emad Manla. AlanMagayne-Roshak hal

  13. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress Report No. 12, October 11, 1979-January 10, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Peter R.

    1980-02-01

    This is the twelfth quarterly report under a JPL/DOE program for the development of electrostatic bonding as a method of integral encapsulation of solar cells in glass. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue to demonstrate process uniformity of electrostatic bonding encapsulation. Additional goals of this program are to develop preformed (wire mesh) contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure resulting in a low cost module assembly technique, and to investigate low-temperature bonding to commercially available glass (pyrex) substrates. Progress is reported.

  14. SEPS mission and system integration/interface requirements for the space transportation system. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Barnett, P. M.; Shaffer, J., Jr.; Doran, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Earth escape mission requirements on Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), and the interface definition and planned integration between SEPS, user spacecraft, and other elements of the STS. Emphasis is placed on the Comet rendezvous mission, scheduled to be the first SEPS user. Interactive SEPS interface characteristics with spacecraft and mission, as well as the multiple organizations and inter-related development schedules required to integrate the SEPS with spacecraft and STS, require early attention to definition of interfaces in order to assure a successful path to the first SEPS launch in July 1985

  15. Characterization of the Turbulent Magnetic Integral Length in the Solar Wind: From 0.3 to 5 Astronomical Units

    E-print Network

    Ruiz, M E; Matthaeus, W H; Weygand, J M

    2014-01-01

    The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [{\\lambda}], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. In this work, we study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We use observations from Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguish between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections, ICMEs), and study also solar wind samples with low and high proton beta [\\beta_p ]. We find that in the last 3 regimes the PDF of {\\lambda} is a log-normal ...

  16. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-02-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  17. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: system integration laboratory test plan (RADL item 6-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A general demonstration test plan is provided for the activities to be accomplished at the Systems Integration Laboratory. The Master Control System, Subsystem Distributed Process Control, Representative Signal Conditioning Units, and Redline Units from the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem and other external interface operational functions will be integrated and functionally demonstrated. The Beckman Multivariable Control Unit will be tested for frequency response, static checks, configuration changes, switching transients, and input-output interfaces. Maximum System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of Pilot Plant controls and external interfaces that are available. Minimum System Integration Laboratory testing will be accomplished with reduced set of hardware, which will provide capability for continued development and demonstration of Operational Control System plant control application software. Beam Control System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of the Beam Control System equipment and software. (LEW)

  18. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Water Monitoring System

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    1 Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Water Monitoring System Plans and Specifications Created By Carothers Water Monitoring, Flume, and Curbing Specifications · The connection between the curbing of the green roof. #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 #12;8 Appendix A Water Flow Monitoring Equipment Specification

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    conditions and construction practices. This article summarizes the results of a study based solely version. The calculator's findings differ from the savings reported by other established cool roof studies to the roofing market in the form of asphaltic-based mastics and coatings, emulsion coatings, fibered and non

  20. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...immediately before any work is started in an area...b) Where the mining height permits and the visual...sound and vibration roof tests, or other equivalent...a roof support. This test shall begin under supported...before there is any other work or travel in the...

  1. 23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS GROUND LEVEL USE OF FLOOR SPACE FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CRATES. MOISTURE ON SURFACE IS FROM LEAKY HANGAR ROOF. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. What You Should Know about Single-Ply Roofing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szcygiel, Tony L.

    1998-01-01

    Explains why a single-ply roofing system is the best choice for educational facilities. It discusses how single-ply roofing systems offer flexibility with ease of application; cause less disruption during installation; and are clean, safe, and energy efficient. (GR)

  3. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc. Reflections led on this accident have pushed to consider the phenomenon of tank pressurization as a potential initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  4. Green roof hydrologic performance and modeling: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanling; Babcock, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs reduce runoff from impervious surfaces in urban development. This paper reviews the technical literature on green roof hydrology. Laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff volume by 30 to 86%, reduce peak flow rate by 22 to 93% and delay the peak flow by 0 to 30 min and thereby decrease pollution, flooding and erosion during precipitation events. However, the effectiveness can vary substantially due to design characteristics making performance predictions difficult. Evaluation of the most recently published study findings indicates that the major factors affecting green roof hydrology are precipitation volume, precipitation dynamics, antecedent conditions, growth medium, plant species, and roof slope. This paper also evaluates the computer models commonly used to simulate hydrologic processes for green roofs, including stormwater management model, soil water atmosphere and plant, SWMS-2D, HYDRUS, and other models that are shown to be effective for predicting precipitation response and economic benefits. The review findings indicate that green roofs are effective for reduction of runoff volume and peak flow, and delay of peak flow, however, no tool or model is available to predict expected performance for any given anticipated system based on design parameters that directly affect green roof hydrology. PMID:24569270

  5. Mitigating the Urban Heat Island with Green Roof Infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Bass; Scott Krayenhoff; Alberto Martilli; Roland Stull

    Green roof infrastructure is a technology that allows the use of vegetation to reduce rooftop temperatures. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which green roof infrastructure could reduce the urban heat island in the City of Toronto. The Mesoscale Community Compressible (MC2) model was run in conjunction with the ISBA SVAT scheme and an urban

  6. The influence of extensive vegetated roofs on runoff water quality.

    PubMed

    Berndtsson, Justyna Czemiel; Emilsson, Tobias; Bengtsson, Lars

    2006-02-15

    The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff water quality was studied for four full scale installations located in southern Sweden. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the vegetated roof behaves as a sink or a source of pollutants and whether the age of a vegetated roof influences runoff quality. The runoff quality from vegetated roofs was also compared with the runoff quality from non-vegetated roofs located in study areas. The following metals and nutrients were investigated: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, NO3-N, NH4-N, Tot-N, PO4-P, and Tot-P. The results show that, with the exception of nitrogen, vegetated roofs behave as source of contaminants. While in lower concentrations than normally found in urban runoff, some metals appear in concentrations that would correspond to moderately polluted natural water. Nitrate nitrogen is retained by the vegetation or soil or both. Apart from the oldest, the studied vegetated roofs contribute phosphate phosphorus to the runoff. The maintenance of the vegetation systems on the roofs has to be carefully designed in order to avoid storm-water contamination; for instance, the use of easily dissolvable fertilizers should be avoided. PMID:16442432

  7. 5. VIEW TO WEST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOF, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO WEST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOF, BUILDING 6, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION AND ROOF OF BUILDING 16. (Part 1 of a 2 view panorama; see also CA-174-6.) - Hughes Aircraft Company, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Solar electric power for a better tomorrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen M. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    The promise of solar electricity based on the photovoltaic (PV) effect is well known, but these systems are not common all over the world. Consumers in the USA are well-known for their attraction to new technology, but PV power systems are still not appearing on roof-tops in the US. The reason may be that grid-connected roof top systems are too

  9. Energy factors and temperature distribution in insulated built-up roofs. Technical note July 1977January 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Keeton; R. L. Alumbaugh

    1981-01-01

    Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1\\/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7\\/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating)

  10. Solar energy concentrating and collecting arrangement with sun-follower and solar energy sensing power control and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barr

    1977-01-01

    A solar energy concentrating and collecting arrangement and method in which a semi-cylindrical oblong concave reflector\\/concentrator forms the roof of a house, school or other building, particularly a heat utilization building. A collector is movably supported in spaced relation above and along the length of the oblong roof\\/reflector concentrator, for pivotal movement, by a solar reflection energy sensing and seeking

  11. Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David M.; Cash, Carl G.; Davies, Arthur G.

    2002-09-01

    The average service life of roofing membranes used in low-slope applications on U.S. Army buildings is estimated to be considerably shorter than the industry-presumed 20-year design life, even when installers carefully adhere to the latest guide specifications. This problem is due in large part to market-driven product development cycles, which do not include time for long-term field testing. To reduce delivery costs, contractors may provide untested, interior membranes in place of ones proven satisfactory in long-term service. Federal procurement regulations require that roofing systems and components be selected according to desired properties and generic type, not brand name. The problem is that a material certified to have satisfactory properties at installation time will not necessarily retain those properties in service. The overall objective of this research is to develop a testing program that can be executed in a matter of weeks to adequately predict a membrane's long-term performance in service. This report details accelerated aging tests of 12 popular membrane materials in the laboratory, and describes outdoor experiment stations set up for long-term exposure tests of those same membranes. The laboratory results will later be correlated with the outdoor test results to develop performance models and predictive service life tests.

  12. Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

    2012-01-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

  13. Roof Bolting: Bolts from the blue

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, K.

    1993-12-01

    Mechanization and subsequent automation of the roof support function are, as noted in studies of developments in underground excavation technology, critical steps in the development of more productive hard rock mining systems, whether these be based on drill-and-blast or continuous excavation systems. Overall, mechanized rock bolting is said to deliver consistency and reliability. The more specific advantages include: rapid, precise bolt installation; increased safety and less exposure to hazards for the roof bolting crew; areas that are high and difficult to access easily bolted by one man; precise control of bolt installation parameters; rapid execution of bolting operations, ensuring increased productivity and economy. However, achieving success with mechanized bolting is not simply a matter of placing an order for a machine. As the experiences of White Pine and Henderson testify, you need the right machine, the right type of bolt and anchoring system, the right size of bolt to get the right result in each specific set of mining conditions, and properly trained operators and maintenance people. This paper describes these procedures.

  14. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). PMID:25666437

  15. Trapping Light in Organic Plastic Solar Cells with integrated Diffraction Gratings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Niggemann; Benedikt Bläsi; Andreas Gombert; Andreas Hinsch; Harald Hoppe; Philippe Lalanne; Volker Wittwer

    ABSTRACT: In this paper we investigate,the potential of light trapping with diffraction gratings for organic solar cells. The architecture of the solar cell is based on conjugated,polymers,and a buckminsterfullerene derivative (PCBM), forming an interpenetrating donor-acceptor-network. The motivation for light trapping is the small absorptance of the photoactive,polymer in the range of the solar spectrum,and the limited thickness of the absorbing

  16. Thermal and electrical assessment of an integrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV\\/T) water collector equipped with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Hedayatizadeh; Yahya Ajabshirchi; Faramarz Sarhaddi; Ali Safavinejad; Said Farahat; Hossein Chaji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a thermal and electrical model for an integrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV\\/T) water collector equipped with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). For this purpose, initially a detailed energy balance is carried out to get a thermal model for the system and as the result analytical expressions are provided for finding solar cell

  17. An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells under day–night cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Ogbonna; Toshihiko Soejima; Charles U. Ugwu; Hideo Tanaka

    2001-01-01

    An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply was developed for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells. The energy source for the culture is automatically switched to solar light energy (when the weather is sunny), to artificial light energy (during the cloudy period of the day) or to organic carbon source (at night). Thus minimum amount

  18. NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

    2011-07-01

    With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

  19. Solarize Raleigh Program Attachment B -Pricing Proposal

    E-print Network

    Shingles -Slate Roofs Total Additional Cost NOTE: Pricing proposals must specify total installation costsSolarize Raleigh Program Attachment B - Pricing Proposal Please complete Attachment B or use proposed equipment for the typical solar PV installation. If more than one variety of equipment might

  20. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  1. Feasibility study of a CMOS-compatible integrated solar photovoltaic cell array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Plesz; L. Juhasz; J. Mizsei

    2010-01-01

    Due to the low power consumption of sensors resulted by recent developments solar energy seems to be an attractive power source for self-powered devices. A proposal of a chip-scale solar module was given by Perlaky et al, containing a possible structure and a model for the proposed structure. This paper gives a more sophisticated model of the structure proposed in

  2. Solar power converter with pool boiling receiver and integral heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Osborn; R. L. Pons

    1982-01-01

    A solar converter is disclosed which has particular applicability at the focal point of a parabolic concentrator. The converter absorbs solar thermal radiation in a cavity type receiver and transports the heat via a secondary fluid to a heat exchanger which contains a primary (I.E., working) fluid used for process heating or to power a heat engine employing either stirling,

  3. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Keddy; J. T. Sena; M. A. Merrigan; G. Heidenreich; S. Johnson

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy

  4. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the atmosphere provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local chemical composition, since many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provide solar-sourced and boundary- layer atmospheric infrared spectra of these and other relevant atmospheric components. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar-sourced absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. A record of solar-sourced atmospheric spectra of greater than two years duration is under analysis to characterize experimental error and thus the limit of precision in the concentration determinations. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar- sourced spectra may not yet meet the precision required for accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, this variability is also indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the local trace gas concentrations.

  5. Integration of solar energy into utility-system planning and strategies: 1980-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of the conference was to address the following questions that the utility industry must face as they make short and long-range plans to meet the nation's energy needs: (1) How do utilities develop plans for solar energy in demand forecasting, plant expansion, capital requirements, load management, and consumer relations. (2) Which solar technologies will emerge as dominant in the future. (3) What rate of growth in the utilization of solar energy can be expected by utility managers. (4) How can utilities use information on developments in solar technology in their operations, planning, and management. (5) What part can utilities expect to play in the financing and control of major solar energy technologies. The views and information presented at the conference are recorded in 17 speeches and presentations.

  6. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  7. Development of a shingle-type solar cell module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Shepard Jr.; L. E. Sanchez

    1978-01-01

    The development of a solar cell module, which is suitable for use in place of shingles on the sloping roofs of residental or commercial buildings, is reported. The design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. The shingle solar cell module consists of two basic functional parts: an exposed rigid portion

  8. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sinke, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  9. Solar test of an integrated sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver/reactor for thermochemical energy transport

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, R.B.; Fish, J.D.; Levitan, R.; Levy, M.; Rosin, H.; Richardson, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    In October 1987, a chemical reactor integrated into a sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver was tested in the solar furnace at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The reaction carried out was the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. This reaction is one of the leading candidates for thermochemical energy transport either within a distributed solar receiver system or over long distances. The Schaeffer Solar Furnace consists of a 96 square meter heliostat and a 7.3 meter diameter dish concentrator with a 65-degree rim angle and a 3.5 meter focal length. Measurements have shown a peak concentration ratio of over 10,000 and a total power of 15 kW at an insolation of 800 w/square meter. The receiver/reactor contains seven catalyst-filled tubes inside an evacuated metal box containing sodium. The front surface of this box serves as the solar absorber of the receiver. In operation, concentrated sunlight heats the 1/8-inch Inconel plate and vaporizes sodium from the wire-mesh wick attached to the back of it. The sodium vapor condenses on the reactor tubes, releases its latent heat, and returns by gravity to the wick. Test results and areas for future development are discussed.

  10. Creep Failure of Roof Stratum Above Mined-Out Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-A.; Li, D. Z.; Shang, X. C.

    2012-07-01

    By taking into account the rheological behavior of the rock mass, the creep failure of a roof stratum seated on pillars in mined-out area is analyzed through a newly developed visco-elastic model. The time-dependent deflection of the roof stratum is obtained by numerical inversion of Laplace transform. The study shows that when creep properties of both the pillars and roof stratum are considered, the expected deflection in the roof stratum increases with time. Consequently, the roof would fail when the critical tensile stress is reached as the result of the increased deflection. To demonstrate the present analytical procedure, the failure time of roof stratum of the Xingtai Gypsum Mine in China was estimated, and the results obtained agreed with the observation. The case study indicates that the analytic approach provides a new way to assess the potential impact of the time-dependence of the roof stratum deformation and is useful in predicting its stability above a mined-out area.

  11. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  12. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  13. Adventures on the roof of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, David

    2013-01-01

    To conduct field biology requires tenacity, grit, and flexibility; to endeavor to achieve conservation success requires patience, persistence, and passion. The essence of field biology and the hope for conservation success are both reflected admirably in George B. Schaller's most recent book, Tibet Wild: A Naturalist's Journeys on the Roof of the World. I can think of no living biologist who embodies these characteristics more than Schaller does. Nearly 80 years old, he still regularly treks in faraway lands, observing and recording the natural history of species that the vast majority of us will never see in the wild. Schaller is a vanguard, and Tibet Wild, like his other books, is a sentinel of urgent conservation need.

  14. Hydrological Modelling and Parameter Identification for Green Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, W.; Tung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Green roofs, a multilayered system covered by plants, can be used to replace traditional concrete roofs as one of various measures to mitigate the increasing stormwater runoff in the urban environment. Moreover, facing the high uncertainty of the climate change, the present engineering method as adaptation may be regarded as improper measurements; reversely, green roofs are unregretful and flexible, and thus are rather important and suitable. The related technology has been developed for several years and the researches evaluating the stormwater reduction performance of green roofs are ongoing prosperously. Many European counties, cities in the U.S., and other local governments incorporate green roof into the stormwater control policy. Therefore, in terms of stormwater management, it is necessary to develop a robust hydrologic model to quantify the efficacy of green roofs over different types of designs and environmental conditions. In this research, a physical based hydrologic model is proposed to simulate water flowing process in the green roof system. In particular, the model adopts the concept of water balance, bringing a relatively simple and intuitive idea. Also, the research compares the two methods in the surface water balance calculation. One is based on Green-Ampt equation, and the other is under the SCS curve number calculation. A green roof experiment is designed to collect weather data and water discharge. Then, the proposed model is verified with these observed data; furthermore, the parameters using in the model are calibrated to find appropriate values in the green roof hydrologic simulation. This research proposes a simple physical based hydrologic model and the measures to determine parameters for the model.

  15. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

  16. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  17. Laboratory measurements of the drying rates of low-slope roofing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Desjarlais; D. M. Kyle; P. W. Childs; J. E. Christian

    1994-01-01

    The service life of a roofing system typically ends when excessive amounts of water have entered the system. Roofing professionals determine whether the existing failed roofing system can be repaired or salvaged by recovering. A key element in this decision is whether the accumulated water will be able to leave the roofing system in a time frame that will prevent

  18. Quantifying the effect of slope on extensive green roof stormwater retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L. Getter; D. Bradley Rowe; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2007-01-01

    Impervious surfaces, such as rooftops, parking lots, and roads, increase runoff and the potential for flooding. Green roof technologies, which entail growing plants on rooftops, are increasingly being used to alleviate stormwater runoff problems. To quantify the effect that roof slope has on green roof stormwater retention, runoff was analyzed from 12 extensive green roof platforms constructed at four slopes

  19. Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs 

    E-print Network

    Abernethy, D.

    1986-01-01

    the ultra violet rays of the sun to directly attack the asphalt. This causes the oi Is to dry out, crack ing occurs, and roof problems begin. 2. Expansion and Contraction. During a 24-hour day, the temperature fluctuates from 160?F during the day to a... surface temperature without FAN-JET. T2 Roof surface temperature with FAN-JET (90?F) ? T3 = Design interior temperature of the building (78?F). Example of How to Use: A 103,000 square foot building with built up tar and gravel roof on a steel...

  20. Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs 

    E-print Network

    Abernethy, D.

    1985-01-01

    falls off the blister and this allows the ultra violet rays of the sun to directly attack the asphalt. This causee the oils to dry out, crack- ing occurs, and roof problems begin. 2. Expansion and Contraction. During a 24-hour day, the temperature... months due to the heat build-up in the roof that radiated through the ceiling creating discomfort for the tenants. Aa a result of spraying the roof, the internal temperatures dropped dramatically and the apartment stayed occupied on a year round...