Note: This page contains sample records for the topic roof integrated solar from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Composite synthetic roofing structure with integral solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A form-molded synthetic foam roofing section or structure is described, having a solar-collecting insert or panel incorporated therein with a relatively broad undersurface and an exposed surface configured to resemble interlocked and overlapping roofing shingles which are united to support a surface such as wood, metal, etc. During the molding process. The roofing structure may be affixed by any conventional means, such as nails or adhesives, to roof boards, rafters or over old existing roof structures with adjacent roofing sections interconnected by appropriate inlets and outlets for the solar panel insert. Solar heat-collecting fluid may be circulated through the solar panel inserts in a conventional manner. Connecting tubes are provided for connecting the solar panel inserts in adjacent roofing sections and terminal connectors are compatible with all circulating systems.

Gould, W.M.

1981-06-16

2

Thermal performance analysis and economic evaluation of roof-integrated solar concrete collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the thermal performance of a roof-integrated solar concrete collector for reducing heat gain to a house and providing domestic hot water. The solar concrete collector is made of PVC pipes embedded in deck slab or concrete roof. No glazing on the top of the solar concrete collector or insulation at the back has been used as in

Rangsit Sarachitti; Chaicharn Chotetanorm; Charoenporn Lertsatitthanakorn; Montana Rungsiyopas

2011-01-01

3

Thermal performance of PCM thermal storage unit for a roof integrated solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analysed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of a roof integrated solar heating system being developed for space heating of a home. The unit consists of several layers of phase change material (PCM) slabs with a melting temperature of 29°C. Warm air delivered by a roof integrated

W. Saman; F. Bruno; E. Halawa

2005-01-01

4

Experimental and modelling performances of a roof-integrated solar drying system for drying herbs and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental performance of solar drying of rosella flower and chili using roof-integrated solar dryer and also presents modelling of the roof-integrated solar dryer for drying of chili. Field-level tests for deep bed drying of rosella flower and chili demonstrated that drying in the roof-integrated solar dryer results in significant reduction in drying time compared to the traditional

S. Janjai; N. Srisittipokakun; B. K. Bala

2008-01-01

5

Performance of a solar dryer using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors for drying herbs and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar dryer for drying herbs and spices using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors was developed. The dryer is a bin type with a rectangular perforated floor. The bin has a dimension of 1.0m×2.0m×0.7m. Hot air is supplied to the dryer from fiberglass-covered solar collectors, which also function as the roof of a farmhouse. The total area of the

S. Janjai; P. Tung

2005-01-01

6

Solar collector roof  

SciTech Connect

A solar roof is disclosed for providing air heated by solar energy to the interior of a prefabricated building of the type having a relatively low pitched roof structure formed by a plurality of interlocking ribbed roof panels. A solar radiation transmissive glazing is attached between the roof panel ribs or other support members to form air passageways. A duct-like inlet plenum communicates with the inlet of each passageway for selectively directing air from inside or outside of the building passageways. A duct-like exhaust plenum communicates with the outlet of each passageway for directing heated air to the building interior. The roof surface may be provided with a darkened coating to increase the absorptivity of the surface and increase the collecting efficiency. The glazing material may be thin flexible solar radiation transmissive sheets or relatively rigid panels of solar radiation transmissive material. The solar roof may be retrofitted to an existing roof structure to provide supplemental solar heating capability.

Marossy, G.; Mueller, W.E.

1983-07-19

7

Roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities  

SciTech Connect

A roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities comprising a flat main portion having upper and lower surfaces, and curved segments integral with the upper and lower edges of said shingle. The roofing shingles are mounted in overlapping parallel array with the curved segments interconnected to define a fluid conduit enclosure. Mounting brackets for the shingles are secured on the roof rafters.

Murphy, J.A.

1982-03-16

8

Daeklag, isolering og undertag til tagsolfangere. (The covering layer, insulation and supporting roof section of a roof-integrated solar collector).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With regard to a roof integrated solar collector covering, the reliability and load, deformation tendencies, and to what extent it is water and wind proof and vibrates under windy conditions are investigated. The insulation type used with regard to the so...

K. Tursoe-Finnich S. Svendsen

1993-01-01

9

Solar heating shingle roof structure  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. Shingles are assembled in a normal overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive shingles to provide a fluid path through the complete array. An inlet manifold is contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the lowest row of shingles.

Straza, G.T.

1984-01-31

10

Solar heating shingle roof structure  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet socket at the upper end and a fluid outlet plug at the lower end with a skirt at the lower end overlapping the plug. Shingles are assembled in an overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive longitudinally positioned shingles to provide fluid paths through the complete array. An inlet manifold is positioned at the upper end of the array or in the alternative contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the outlet of the lowest row of shingles.

Straza, G.T.

1981-01-13

11

Passive solar roof ice melter  

SciTech Connect

An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window situated at right angles with respect to the bottom wall, and a reflecting wall connecting the opposite side edges of the bottom wall and the first window. The reflecting wall has a surface facing the bottom wall and the window which is highly reflective to radiant solar energy. Radiant solar energy passes through the first window and either strikes the highly absorbent upper surface of the bottom wall or first strikes the reflecting wall to be reflected down to the upper surface of the bottom wall. The heat generated thereby melts through the ice below the bottom wall causing the ice dam to be removed between the bottom wall and the top of the roof and immediately adjacent to the ice melter along the roof. Water dammed up by the ice dam can then flow down through this break in the dam and drain out harmlessly onto the ground. This prevents dammed water from seeping back under the shingles and into the house to damage the interior of the house.

Deutz, R.T.

1981-09-29

12

A hierarchical methodology for the mesoscale assessment of building integrated roof solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings and other engineered structures that form cities are responsible for a significant portion of the global and local impacts of climate change. Consequently, the installation of building integrated renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic or solar thermal systems on building rooftops is being widely investigated. Although the advantages for individual buildings have been studied, as yet there is little

J. H. Jo; T. P. Otanicar

2011-01-01

13

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2013-07-01

14

Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.

Herig, C.

1999-05-09

15

Solar heater and roof attachment means  

SciTech Connect

A solar heater includes an elongated solar collector having two fixedly connected solar panels of highly heat conductive material supported by a roof clamp on a shingled roof. The bottom edges of each of the solar panels include upturned gutter portions. One form of roof clamp for shingled roofs includes a J-shape shingle clamp member having a clamp bolt extending therethrough, and a solar collector clamp member assembled on the bolt and clamped to the bottom gutter portions of the solar panels. A bottom plate of the J-shape clamp member is slid under a shingle of a first shingle course and under a shingle of a second upper shingle course to carry the bolt into the top of the gap between adjacent shingle portions of the first course and to position a top plate of the shingle clamp member over parts of the shank portions of the first course and over a part of the one shingle of the second course. A clamp nut clamps the collector clamp member and the shingle clamp member firmly to the contacted shingles.

Howe, G.L.; Koutavas, S.G.

1984-02-21

16

Radiative cooling and solar heating potential by using various roofing materials  

SciTech Connect

The results of testing over twenty typical and potential roofing materials such as: corrugated galvanized steel, corrugated clear fiberglass, 90number black roll roofing, 90number green roll roofing, 90number red roll roofing, 90number brown roll roofing, 90number white roll roofing, 240number brown asphalt shingles, anodized aluminum, etc. under exposure to solar and nocturnal sky radiation are presented. Some cadmium sulfite solar cells and silicon solar cells are being tested as potential future roofing panels. Graphs showing the temperature variation of each material versus testing time are given for a heating and a cooling cycle. The environmental conditions of testing such as: solar insolation, apparent sky temperature, ambient air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are also given. On the basis of preliminary results obtained during the testing of roofing materials, several mini-modules of an integrated collector/radiator/ roof element with the dimensions 0.6 m x 0.6 m (2 ft x 2 ft) were constructed and tested. The thermal response of the mini-modules under solar and nocturnal sky radiation is shown and the testing results are discussed. The spectral transmittance curves for nine transparent cover materials are also presented. The preliminary results indicate that solar radiation and nocturnal sky radiation could be used effectively by employing an integrated collector/radiator structure.

Pytlinski, J.T.; Connell, H.L.; Conrad, G.R.

1980-12-01

17

Equilibrium thermal characteristics of a building integrated photovoltaic tiled roof  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) modules attain high temperatures when exposed to a combination of high radiation levels and elevated ambient temperatures. The temperature rise can be particularly problematic for fully building integrated PV (BIPV) roof tile systems if back ventilation is restricted. PV laminates could suffer yield degradation and accelerated aging in these conditions. This paper presents a laboratory based experimental investigation undertaken to determine the potential for high temperature operation in such a BIPV installation. This is achieved by ascertaining the dependence of the PV roof tile temperature on incident radiation and ambient temperature. A theory based correction was developed to account for the unrealistic sky temperature of the solar simulator used in the experiments. The particular PV roof tiles used are warranted up to an operational temperature of 85 C, anything above this temperature will void the warranty because of potential damage to the integrity of the encapsulation. As a guide for installers, a map of southern Europe has been generated indicating locations where excessive module temperatures might be expected and thus where installation is inadvisable. (author)

Mei, L.; Gottschalg, R.; Loveday, D.L. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Davies, D.; Berry, M. [Solarcentury, 91-94 Lower Marsh Waterloo, London, SE1 7AB (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

18

Analysis of Wind Forces on RoofTop Solar Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural loads on solar panels include forces due to high wind, gravity, thermal expansion, and earthquakes. International Building Code (IBC) and the American Society of Civil Engineers are two commonly used approaches in solar industries to address wind loads. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-02) can be used to calculate wind uplift loads on roof-mounted solar

Yogendra Panta; Ganesh Kudav

2011-01-01

19

Thermal and electrical performance of a solar multifunctional roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a collaborative project between the Lombardy Region and Politecnico di Milano, a solar roof has been installed during the functional and technical refurbishment of the main building of the Centre of Professional Training (CFPA) of Casargo, Lecco. The refurbishment program of the CFP is focused on the technical systems for thermal energy supply for various building applications, e.g. sanitary

N. Aste; R. S. Adhikari; G. Chiesa; L. C. Tagliabue

2007-01-01

20

Solar energy collector and associated methods adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof of a building  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are disclosed for collecting solar energy adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof or side of a building comprising thin flexible metal plates interposed between the overlapped shingles in heat transfer relation therewith such that heat absorbed by the shingles is transferred to the metal plates. The plates extend through the roof via slots provided therein and are affixed in heat transfer relation with pipes containing a fluid.

Nevins, R.L.

1980-04-15

21

Solar radiation intensity influences extensive green roof plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted on a third-story rooftop to quantify the effect of solar radiation (full sun versus full shade) on several US native and non-native species for potential use on extensive green roofs. In the first study, plugs of six native and three non-native species were planted in May 2005 on substrates of two different depths (8.0 and 12.0cm)

Kristin L. Getter; D. Bradley Rowe; Bert M. Cregg

2009-01-01

22

Performance evaluation of a building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal system for roof and facade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, analytical expressions have been derived for room air temperature of building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (BISPVT) and building integrated opaque photovoltaic thermal (BIOPVT) systems each integrated to the roof of a room with and without air duct. Comparative studies have also been carried out between BISPVT and BIOPVT system each integrated to the façade and roof of

Kanchan Vats; G. N. Tiwari

23

Thermal Comparison of Reflective and Non-Reflective Roofs with Thin-Film Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper illustrates an experimental and comparative thermal analysis of reflective (white) and non-reflective (black) roofing membranes paired with thin-film solar photovoltaic panels. Tests were carried out on two different membranes, thermoplastic olefin (TPO), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM). Solar irradiance along with temperature readings on the surface, between the panel and membrane, and below the membrane were

Grant Irvine; Serdar Celik

2012-01-01

24

Barrel-shaped solar roofing element and method for its assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar roofing system. It comprises a set of shingle comprising lower and upper flat plastic sheet members of extruded plastic spaced apart and sealed together to form fluid flow paths forming solar energy conversion means, the upper sheet of which is transparent to solar energy, interconnecting and overlapping structure for joining shingles together including structure for nailing through overlapped shingles into a roof surface, and means for interconnecting the solar energy conversion means comprising a flow path between the lower and upper plastic sheets for circulation of a liquid that may store heat when subjected to solar energy from a plurality of the shingles into a network for collecting accumulated solar energy.

Allegro, J.

1991-06-11

25

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for California: A Solar Panel Installer Dies When He Falls Off a Roof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar panel installer died when he fell off a three-story apartment building roof. The victim was checking the alignment of solar panel brackets and was walking backwards when he stepped off the edge of the roof. He fell 45 feet to the concrete sidewalk...

2010-01-01

26

Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been e...

A. Dominguez J. Klessl J. C. Luvall M. Samady

2010-01-01

27

Design wind loads for structural frames of flat long-span roofs: Gust loading factor for a structurally integrated type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study is to present simple formulae for estimating the design wind loads for the structural frames of flat long-span roofs taking account on their dynamic response of turbulent wind forces. This paper discusses the design wind loads for a structurally integrated type of roof, such as a space truss. The roof structure is supposed to

Yasushi Uematsu; Motohiko Yamada; Akinori Karasu

1997-01-01

28

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable

K. Baumanns; M.-O. Löwner

2009-01-01

29

Solar/hydro integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives were: (1) determine the technical and economic viability of integrating solar central receiver with the Federal hydroelectric system in the Lower Colorado Region of the Service; and (2) recommend a prime site and an implementation plan for a feasibility study. Two candidate solar receiver systems are considered. Both are of the Advanced Central Receiver design, each utilizing a central power tower surrounded by a field of two-axis tracking mirrors (heliostats). The principal difference between the two systems is that one uses a molten salt as its heat transfer fluid whereas the other system uses liquid sodium. A description of the Federal hydroelectric power system is given, and a projection of the energy needs for the Lower Colorado service area is presented. Details of the site selection, solar plant evaluation, solar/weather data analysis, energy analysis, integration analysis, economic analysis, environmental analysis, and implementation plan are reported.

1980-07-01

30

Architectural integration of solar systems for domestic water heating  

SciTech Connect

Architectural designs are suggested for solar domestic water heating units (collectors and water storage tanks) in multifamily houses up to four stories. The designs are based on different combinations of standard units assembled to fit the different architectural types as designed by the Israeli Ministry of Housing. In addition, an approach is presented that suggests a unique design of the upper floor apartment with inclined roofs so the solar system becomes an integral part of the structure. Several solutions are suggested and compared.

Ishai, E.

1987-01-01

31

Performance of a building integrated photovoltaic\\/thermal (BIPVT) solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of combining photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors (PVT collectors) to provide electrical and heat energy is an area that has, until recently, received only limited attention. Although PVTs are not as prevalent as solar thermal systems, the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors into the walls or roofing structure of a building could provide greater opportunity for

T. N. Anderson; M. Duke; G. L. Morrison; J. K. Carson

2009-01-01

32

City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

2012-08-31

33

SolarTile: A rooftop integrated photovoltaic system. Phase 1, final report  

SciTech Connect

AstroPower, Royal Group Technologies, and Solar Design Associates are jointly developing an integrated photovoltaic roofing system for residential and light commercial building applications. This family of products will rely heavily on the technological development of a roofing tile made from recycled plastic and innovative module fabrication and encapsulation processes in conjunction with an advanced Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell product. This solar power generating roofing product is presently being referred to as the SolarTile. A conceptual drawing of the solar roofing tile is shown. The SolarTile will be integrated with non-solar tiles in a single roof installation permitting ease of assembly and the ability to use conventional roofing techniques at ridges, valleys, and eaves. The Phase 1 effort included tasks aimed at the development of the proposed product concept; product manufacturing or fabrication, and installation cost estimates; business planning; and a market assessment of the proposed product, including target selling prices, target market sectors, size estimates for each market sector, and planned distribution mechanisms for market penetration. Technical goals as stated in the Phase 1 proposal and relevant progress are reported.

NONE

1998-03-26

34

Integrated solar cell array  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated array of solar cells, each cell having a positive and a negative electrode, is disclosed. A first grid comprising a plurality of non-intersecting electrically conductive members is affixed to an insulating substrate. Each single individual member of this grid forms the negative electrode of an individual cell of the array. Overlying and affixed to the negative electrodes and

W. J. Biter; F. A. Shirland

1980-01-01

35

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar Radiation Atlas. After identifying the shadow free area of the roof we recognize manufacturer dependent device sizes as well as lifetime of the building. While more and more CityGML data will be available in future or approach is a valuable contribution for decision makers and private households to estimate the return on invest of solar energy plants.

Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

2009-04-01

36

Successfully Demonstrating an Integrated Roofing and BIPV Solution for an Historic Building Renovation at the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States Air Force Academy, Vandenberg Hall, Integrated Roofing and Building-Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV) Solution for an Historic Building Renovation. Vandenberg Hall is Six Stories High + Basement, Quarter of a Mile Long, and the Window Wa...

C. Simpson F. Wellers J. G. Luna V. Rossi

2011-01-01

37

Modeling impacts of roof reflectivity, integrated photovoltaic panels and green roof systems on sensible heat flux into the urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents results of a modeling effort to explore the role that sustainable roofing technologies play in impacting the rooftop energy balance, and the resultant net sensible heat flux into the urban atmosphere with a focus on the summertime urban heat island. The model has been validated using data from a field experiment conducted in Portland Oregon. Roofing technologies

Adam Scherba; David J. Sailor; Todd N. Rosenstiel; Carl C. Wamser

38

Effects of Soiling and Cleaning on the Reflectance and Solar HeatGain of a Light-Colored Roofing Membrane  

SciTech Connect

A roof with high solar reflectance and high thermalemittance (e.g., a white roof) stays coolin the sun, reducing coolingpower demand in a conditioned building and increasing comfort in anunconditioned building. The high initial solar reflectance of a whitemembrane roof (circa 0.8) can be degraded by deposition of soot, dust,and/or algae to about 0.6 (range 0.3 to 0.8, depending on exposure) Weinvestigate the effects of soiling and cleaning on the solar spectralreflectance and solar absorptance of 15 initially white or light-graymembrane samples taken from roofs across the United States. Soot andorganic carbon were the two identifiable strongly absorbing contaminantson the membranes. Wiping was effective at removing soot, and less so atremoving organic carbon. Rinsing and/or washing removed nearly all of theremaining soil layer, with the exceptions of (a) thin layers of organiccarbon and (b) isolated dark spots of algae. Bleach was required toremove the last two features. The ratio of solar reflectance to unsoiledsolar reflectance (a measure of cleanliness) ranged from 0.41 to 0.89 forthe soiled samples; 0.53to 0.95 for the wiped samples; 0.74 to 0.98 forthe rinsed samples; 0.79 to 1.00 for the washed samples; and 0.94 to 1.02for the bleached samples. However, the influence of membrane soiling andcleaning on roof heat gain is better gauged by variations in solarabsorptance. Relative solar absorptances (indicating solar heat gainrelative to that of the unsoiled membrane) ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 for thesoiled samples; 1.1 to 3.1 for the wiped samples; 1.0 to 2.0 for therinsed samples; 1.0 to 1.9 for the washed samples; and 0.9 to 1.3 for thebleached samples.

Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Akbari,Hashem

2005-04-12

39

Modelling of flow rate in a photovoltaic-driven roof slate-based solar ventilation air preheating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modelling of flow rate in a photovoltaic (PV) driven, roof slate based solar system for preheating ventilation air in cold climates. The system consists of a photovoltaic driven, attic mounted fan, which draws air through the spaces between the warm slates and delivers it through a metallic flexible duct into a house. A model for predicting

N. Odeh; T. Grassie; D. Henderson; T. Muneer

2006-01-01

40

Regional Climate Response to Surface Albedo Changes from Cool (reflective) Roofs and Desert Based Solar Electricity Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adoption of cool (more reflective) roof/pavement technology and large-scale solar energy generation are being pursued as methods to combat climate change. Cool roofs and solar energy generation have strong and opposite effects on surface albedo. If employed on a large enough scale these albedo changes may lead to changes to radiative forcing and local and regional climate. Much of the past work investigating the effects of urban albedo change has either focused on detailed, single heat wave, singe urban areas, or has involved global models, too coarse to resolve individual cities, or unable to include full atmospheric feedback. Here a regional climate model is employed across the continental United States that can resolve individual cities, include complex surface and atmospheric interactions, and can be run for a 10 year time period. This model is used to investigate the changes to temperature, radiative forcing and precipitation due to albedo changes from cool roofs and solar energy generation. Increasing urban albedo (from reflective or cool roofs) lead to decreased surface temperatures of up to 1K at many but not all cities. Urban areas in Washington, Oregon and California showed the most straightforward response to increased urban albedo: decreased temperature, increased outgoing radiation, and little feedback in downwind areas. Cities along the gulf coast and the Atlantic coast of the southeastern United States showed little response to urban albedo changes. In addition, certain regions downwind of urban areas exhibited increased surface temperature, possibly due to changes in cloud formation as a result of decreased urban heating. Similar changes for decreased albedo from large-scale deployment of solar arrays are being investigated. This research suggests that optimal large-scale deployment of cool roofs and solar generation could benefit by accounting for the geographical dependence of temperature and radiative responses to surface albedo changes.

Millstein, D.; Menon, S.

2010-12-01

41

Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

Tombari, C.

2005-09-01

42

Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

2011-01-01

43

Integrated solar collector  

DOEpatents

A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

Tchernev, Dimiter I. (9 Woodman Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167)

1985-01-01

44

Performance evaluation of green roof and shading for thermal protection of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a mathematical model for evaluating cooling potential of green roof and solar thermal shading in buildings. A control volume approach based on finite difference methods is used to analyze the components of green roof, viz. green canopy, soil and support layer. Further, these individual decoupled models are integrated using Newton's iterative algorithm until the convergence for

Rakesh Kumar; S. C. Kaushik

2005-01-01

45

Final Report on the Development of a Thermal Store and a Solar Blind for Use in Conservatories and Glazed Roof Spaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program to evaluate the performance of glazed roof spaces of varying pitches fitted with a solar blind and phase change storage materials has been completed. The performance was measured over the heating period October 1982 to April 1983 and operated ...

D. Stewart P. J. C. Kent K. I. Guthrie

1985-01-01

46

Optimum insulation thickness of residential roof with respect to solar-air degree-hours in hot summer and cold winter zone of china  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection of building envelope is one of the most effective ways for building energy conservation. In this study, the determination of optimum insulation thickness for residential roof with different surface colors is studied based on life cycle cost analysis and solar-air degree-hours in four typical cities of hot summer and cold winter zone of China. Four insulation materials including

Jinghua Yu; Liwei Tian; Changzhi Yang; Xinhua Xu; Jinbo Wang

2011-01-01

47

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m³\\/d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal

R. M. Szostak; D. Agarwal; J. T. Callahan; J. V. Mohn

1981-01-01

48

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

SciTech Connect

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m/sup 3//d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal wind/solar ratio is very dependent upon site conditions. 7 refs.

Szostak, R.M.; Agarwal, D.; Callahan, J.T.; Mohn, J.V. III

1981-01-01

49

Modular solar insolation panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular system of solar insolation panels having sun tracking capability and adapted to be installed directly upon a roof structure and integrated with the surrounding roofing, is comprised of prismatic lenses embodied in a multiplicity of transparent tubes disposed in normal relation to the traverse plane of the sun, and arranged upon an insulation panel and with corner fittings

Meckler

1981-01-01

50

Integrated solar power systems [space power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are developing lightweight devices that are capable of solar energy conversion and storage. These integrated power supplies (IPS) incorporate photovoltaic power generation with thin-film lithium ion energy storage. Lithium ion devices with large energy densities and long cycling lifetimes are ideal for this application. The techniques used to fabricate the solar cell and battery component films are compatible

R. P. Raffaelle; J. Underwood; D. Scheiman; J. Cowen; P. Jenkins; A. F. Hepp; J. Harris; D. M. Wilt

2000-01-01

51

Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).  

PubMed

The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the treatment of stored rainwater for potable purposes. PMID:19783275

Amin, M T; Han, M Y

2009-09-03

52

Passive integral solar heat collector system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an improved apparatus for collecting, absorbing, transferring, and storing solar heat energy, economically and passively, without pumps or electric power. The apparatus comprises a solar collector with a flat finned heat pipe absorber and an attached integral insulated storage tank with a double wall heat exchanger. The absorber, made of one or more slightly tilted gravity assisted heat pipes with flat absorber fins, absorbs and transfers solar heat by evaporation, vapor transport, and condensation to the slightly elevated heat storage tank. The one or more heat pipes turn on when the sun is shining and turn off automatically when the sun is not shining.

Feldman Jr., K. T.

1985-04-30

53

Optimal nonimaging integrated evacuated solar collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non imaging integrated evacuated solar collector for solar thermal energy collection is discussed which has the lower portion of the tubular glass vacuum enveloped shaped and inside surface mirrored to optimally concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube in the vacuum. This design uses vacuum to eliminate heat loss from the absorber surface by conduction and convection of air, soda lime glass for the vacuum envelope material to lower cost, optimal non imaging concentration integrated with the glass vacuum envelope to lower cost and improve solar energy collection, and a selective absorber for the absorbing surface which has high absorptance and low emittance to lower heat loss by radiation and improve energy collection efficiency. This leads to a very low heat loss collector with high optical collection efficiency, which can operate at temperatures up to the order of 250 degree(s)C with good efficiency while being lower in cost than current evacuated solar collectors. Cost estimates are presented which indicate a cost for this solar collector system which can be competitive with the cost of fossil fuel heat energy sources when the collector system is produced in sufficient volume. Non imaging concentration, which reduces cost while improving performance, and which allows efficient solar energy collection without tracking the sun, is a key element in this solar collector design.

Garrison, John D.; Duff, W. S.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland

1993-11-01

54

Design and Spacecraft-Integration of RTGs for Solar Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Integrated with JPL's planned Solar Probe spacecraft. The principal purpose of the Solar probe mission is to explore the solar corona by performing in-situ measurements ...

A. Schock

1990-01-01

55

Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

2006-01-01

56

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for California: An Electrical Worker Dies When He Falls Through a Skylight While Installing Solar Panels on the Roof of a Warehouse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 46-year-old electrical worker died when he fell through a skylight on a roof while installing solar panels. The victim was carrying solar panels and walking backwards because of the limited space around the skylight. As the victim was walking backwards,...

2009-01-01

57

Integral screen printed solar cells panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes our activities in the field of process technologies for the fabrication of photovoltaic devices. The study is strongly focused on the integral screen printing technique for the fabrication of single crystal solar cells, using standard equipments available in our laboratory. The challenging aim of this survey is to attain encouraging results with very modest means. Knowing that

Y. Boukennous; B. Benyahia; M. R. Charif; A. Elamrani; M. F. Moussa

58

TESPI: Thermal Electric Solar Panel Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic panel with a heat extraction system is studied. The solution we suggest consists in superimposing a water layer on the PV panel: the water layer absorbs the infrared radiation leaving the visible part almost unaffected. This allows a good PV efficiency and heat production. This particular setup is called Thermal Electric Solar Panel Integration (TESPI) and it is

M. Rosa-Clot; P. Rosa-Clot; G. M. Tina

2011-01-01

59

Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar disinfection (SODIS) and limitations.  

PubMed

Efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS) was evaluated for the potability of rainwater in view of the increasing water and energy crises especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples were collected from an underground storage tank in 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and SODIS efficiency was evaluated at different weather conditions. For optimizing SODIS, PET bottles with different backing surfaces to enhance the optical and thermal effects of SODIS were used and different physicochemical parameters were selected and evaluated along with microbial re-growth observations and calculating microbial decay constants. Total and fecal coliforms were used along with Escherichia Coli and Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality. For irradiance less than 600 W/m(2), reflective type PET bottles were best types while for radiations greater than 700 W/m(2), absorptive type PET bottles offered best solution due to the synergistic effects of both thermal and UV radiations. Microbial inactivation did not improve significantly by changing the initial pH and turbidity values but optimum SODIS efficiency is achieved for rainwater with acidic pH and low initial turbidity values by keeping air-spaced PET bottles in undisturbed conditions. Microbial re-growth occurred after one day only at higher turbidity values and with basic pH values. First-order reaction rate constant was in accordance with recent findings for TC but contradicted with previous researches for E. coli. No microbial parameter met drinking water guidelines even under strong experimental weather conditions rendering SODIS ineffective for complete disinfection and hence needed more exposure time or stronger sunlight radiations. With maximum possible storage of rainwater, however, and by using some means for accelerating SODIS process, rainwater can be disinfected and used for potable purposes. PMID:19633384

Amin, Muhammad Tahir; Han, Mooyoung

2009-01-01

60

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AIR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN ROOF-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designs and configurations of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPV\\/T) air systems are based on the type of PV modules, the location, and the geometry of the surface on which the modules are to be mounted. Modeling of BIPV\\/T systems requires knowledge of the local and average heat transfer coefficients for the prediction of temperature distribution and, the evaluation of the energy

Diarra D. C; Candanedo L; Harrison S. J; Athienitis A

61

Solar-Terrestrial Data Integration using Ontologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data-integration across a number of disciplines is a key requirement to be facilitated by virtual observatories and in particular the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory(VSTO). Our experience to date indicates that semantic interoperability is a viable and robust approach. We have encodings for the VSTO ontology in OWL - the Web Ontology Language - using both open-source and commercial tools and have implemented a number of use-cases. We aim to demonstrate data-integration between solar atmospheric data (e.g. coronal mass ejections), and the resulting impacts on the terrestrial ionosphere (e.g.aurora). In this presentation, we outline the methodologies, the developed use-cases, ontologies and their current implementation.

Cinquini, L.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Benedict, J.; Darnell, T.; Middleton, D.; Garcia, J.; West, P.

2006-05-01

62

Integral passive solar water heater performance  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar water heaters can be divided into two classes: systems in which the functions of heat collection and storage are separate (the thermosiphon flat plate systems), and systems with combined collection and storage - the integral passive solar water heater (IPSWH). IPSWH systems are much less widely known despite some inherent advantages, including simplicity, low cost, and resistance to freezing. The first solar water heaters widely used in the U.S were IPSWHs. They gradually fell out of favor because of night cooldown and tank corrosion. New materials and designs minimize these problems and promise to bring the IPSWH back into the forefront of solar activity. Described are recent IPSWH experiments evaluating new materials and designs. These are then correlated with work by other investigators to suggest the tremendous potential for IPSWH use around the world. The characteristics of IPSWHs make traditional solar system test procedures inadequate and a new test procedure for IPSWH system is proposed. The low cost of IPSWHs more than offsets their slightly lower performance and will make them the most cost-effective heater for many climates and uses.

Bainbridge, D.A.

1981-01-01

63

Long-term hygrothermal performance of white and black roofs in North American climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

When solar radiation hits a roof surface, a part of solar energy is reflected and part is absorbed. The absorbed part of solar energy results in an increase of the surface temperature of the roof. Cool reflective (white) roofs use bright surfaces to reflect a significant portion of the incident short-wave solar radiation, which lowers the surface temperature compared to

Hamed H. Saber; Michael C. Swinton; Peter Kalinger; Ralph M. Paroli

64

Analysis of integrated photovoltaic-thermal systems using solar concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated photovoltaic-thermal system using solar concentrators utilizes the solar radiation spectrum in the production of electrical and thermal energy. The electrical conversion efficiency of this system decreases with increasing solar cell temperature. Since a high operating temperature is desirable to maximize the quality of thermal output of the planned integrated system, a proper choice of the operating temperature for

Yusoff

1983-01-01

65

Understanding Roofing Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the various types of multi- and single-ply roofing commonly used today in educational facilities. Roofing types described involve built-up systems, modified bitumen systems; ethylene propylene diene terpolymer roofs; and roofs of thermoplastic, metal, and foam. A description of the Roofing Industry Educational Institute is included. (GR)|

Michelsen, Ted

2001-01-01

66

Low concentration solar louvres for building integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building integration of CPV modules offers several advantages over the integration of flat panel systems, but the decreasing price trend of standard modules observed in the last years has hampered the market expansion of CPV systems, which still don't rely on a low-cost mass production supply chain. To overcome this contingent issue and to foster the diffusion of innovative PV systems we developed a low concentration BIPV module with added functionalities, such as sunlight shading and building illumination. The electrical performances, retrieved under outdoor conditions, and the lighting performances of the Solar F-Light are shown. The latter indicate that it is suitable for ambient lighting, with a very limited power draw.

Vincenzi, D.; Aldegheri, F.; Baricordi, S.; Bernardoni, P.; Calabrese, G.; Guidi, V.; Pozzetti, L.

2013-09-01

67

Solar stills integrated with a mini solar pond — analytical simulation and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison between theoretical and experimental analysis of a mini solar pond assisted solar still is presented in this paper. In a mini solar pond, experiments were conducted for different salinity. It was found that the optimum value of salinity in the mini solar pond is 80 g\\/kg of water. Effect of sponge cubes in the still, effect of integrating mini

V. Velmurugan; K. Srithar

2007-01-01

68

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

Not Available

2012-09-01

69

How Do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date, examining the operational impact of up to 35% wind, photovoltaics, and concentrating solar power on the WestConnect grid in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming. This paper reviews the scope of the study, the development of wind and solar datasets, and the results to date on three scenarios.

Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R.

2009-01-01

70

77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof...Westinghouse Solar, Inc. and Andalay Solar, Inc., both of Campbell, California...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof...

2012-07-05

71

Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

Jane Davidson

2008-09-30

72

Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: aSi Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the monolithic integration of deep- submicrometer complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values above 7%. The yield of photovoltaic cells on planarized CMOS chips is 92%. This integration allows integrated energy harvesting using established process

Jiwu Lu; Alexey Y. Kovalgin; Karine H. M. van der Werf; Ruud E. I. Schropp; Jurriaan Schmitz

2011-01-01

73

Weather effect on thermal and energy performance of an extensive tropical green roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the weather effect on thermal performance of a retrofitted extensive green roof on a railway station in humid-subtropical Hong Kong. Absolute and relative (reduction magnitude) ambient and surface temperatures recorded for two years were compared amongst antecedent bare roof, green roof, and control bare roof. The impacts of solar radiation, relative humidity, soil moisture and wind speed

C. Y. Jim; Lilliana L. H. Peng

74

76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components...

2011-11-08

75

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

76

An integrated empirical and modeling methodology for analyzing solar reflective roof technologies on commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings impact the environment in many ways as a result of both their energy use and material consumption. In urban areas, the emission of greenhouse gases and the creation of microclimates are among their most prominent impacts so the adoption of building design strategies and materials that address both these issues will lead to significant reductions in a building's overall

J. H. Jo; J. D. Carlson; J. S. Golden; H. Bryan

2010-01-01

77

Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating. Seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled

J. C. Denton

1974-01-01

78

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA  

SciTech Connect

Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL

2011-01-01

79

Solar collector assembly  

SciTech Connect

A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

Murphy, J.A.

1980-09-09

80

An Intelligent Interface with Composite Dominant Directed Graph Based Petri Nets Controller for Rotatable Solar Panel in Integrated PHEV System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes an intelligent dominant directed graph (DDG) based Petri nets (PN) controller to increase the efficiency\\u000a of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by using rotatable solar panel. Conventionally, the PHEV with solar panel has\\u000a a critical problem of putting on the roof of a PHEV. Since the limited space on the roof of the vehicle is not

Jian-Long Kuo; Kun Shian Su; Jing-Hsiung Yang; Wen-Pao Chen

2010-01-01

81

Experience on integration of solar thermal technologies with green buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green buildings of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science include an office building for the demonstration of public building and two residential buildings, which are for the demonstration of flat and villa, respectively. Here, a solar-powered integrated energy system including heating, air-conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supply was designed and constructed for the office building. However, only solar

X. Q. Zhai; R. Z. Wang; Y. J. Dai; J. Y. Wu; Q. Ma

2008-01-01

82

Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

Schreitmueller, K. R.

1982-11-01

83

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is to investigate the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect gr...

2010-01-01

84

Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptan...

W. G. Witte W. S. Slemp J. E. Perry

1991-01-01

85

LIGHTWEIGHT GREEN ROOF SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Applying a Lightweight Green Roof System to a building can achieve in managing storm water runoff, decreasing heat gain, yielding energy savings, and mitigating the heat island effect. Currently, Most green roof systems are considerably heavy and require structural reinforceme...

86

Roof System EPDM Shrinkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer rubber roof membranes and the potential problems associated with this material's shrinkage. Discusses how long such a roof should perform and issues affecting repair or replacement. Recommends that a building's function be considered in any roofing decision. (RJM)

Betker, Edward

1998-01-01

87

Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

None

2012-02-09

88

Solar heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heater for heating room air or home hot water includes a transparent plastics material arched panel set over an opening in a roof with air inlet passages between the roof and panel around the periphery of the panel, a sheet metal pan under the roof opening having an inlet and outlet for water and filled with lava rock

Bloxsom

1981-01-01

89

Influence of solar heating on the performance of integrated solar cell microstrip patch antennas  

SciTech Connect

The integration of microstrip patch antennas with photovoltaics has been proposed for applications in autonomous wireless communication systems located on building facades. Full integration was achieved using polycrystalline silicon solar cells as both antenna ground plane and direct current power generation in the same device. An overview of the proposed photovoltaic antenna designs is provided and the variation characterised of the electromagnetic properties of the device with temperature and solar radiation. Measurements for both copper and solar antennas are reported on three different commercial laminates with contrasting values for thermal coefficient of the dielectric constant. (author)

Roo-Ons, M.J.; Shynu, S.V.; Ammann, M.J. [Antenna and High Frequency Research Centre, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Seredynski, M. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); McCormack, S.J. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

2010-09-15

90

Integration of Microstrip Patch Antenna With Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell as a microwave groundplane in a low-profile, reduced-footprint microstrip patch antenna design for autonomous communication applications is reported. The effects on the antenna\\/solar performances due to the integration, different electrical conductivities in the silicon layer and variation in incident light intensity are investigated. The antenna sensitivity to the orientation of the anisotropic

S. V. Shynu; Maria Jose Roo Ons; Patrick McEvoy; Max J. Ammann; Sarah J. McCormack; Brian Norton

2009-01-01

91

Integration of Microstrip Patch Antennas with Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell as a microwave groundplane in a low-profile, reduced-footprint microstrip patch antenna design for autonomous communication applications is reported. The effects on the antenna\\/solar performances due to the integration, different electrical conductivities in the silicon layer and variation in incident light intensity are investigated. The antenna sensitivity to the orientation of the anisotropic

S. V. Shynu; M. Roo Ons; Max Ammann; Sarah McCormack; Brian Norton

2009-01-01

92

Spectrophotometer-integrating-sphere system for computing solar absorptance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

1991-04-01

93

Temperature regime of planted roofs compared with conventional roofing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the temperature regime of an existing green roof and a sod roof, compared with a modified bituminous membrane roof and a steel sheet roof. The measurement period was from June 2004 to December 2007 at three different measurement locations. Results are given both seasonally and daily; indexes to characterize the effects of the temperature of planted roofs

Alar Teemusk; Ülo Mander

2010-01-01

94

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 287 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-12-01

95

Integration of Solar Ponds with Agricultural Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar ponds have promise for use in many parts of the agricultural system. The pond design can be adapted for these applications in many different climates. Specific examples are given for grain drying in both temperate and humid tropical conditions, gree...

J. R. Hull

1987-01-01

96

Performance of trombe walls and roof pond systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analysis of the periodic heat transfer through thermal storage walls and roof pond systems subjected to periodic solar radiation and atmospheric air on one side and in contact with room air at constant temperature (corresponding to air-conditioned rooms) on the other. A one-dimensional heat conduction equation for temperature distribution in the walls and roof has been

M. S. Sodha; S. C. Kaushik; J. K. Nayak

1981-01-01

97

Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Air Flow over Domed Roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using domed roofs to reduce building solar load in hot arid area is one of Iranian mechanical engineering masterworks. The first application of these roofs was to cover large buildings such as mosques, shrines, etc. However their thermal performance made them to be employed in other buildings like bazaars. The aim of this study was to determine the air pressure

A. K. Faghih; M. N. Bahadori

2007-01-01

98

Green roofs; building energy savings and the potential for retrofit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs are a passive cooling technique that stop incoming solar radiation from reaching the building structure below. Many studies have been conducted over the past 10 years to consider the potential building energy benefits of green roofs and shown that they can offer benefits in winter heating reduction as well as summer cooling.This paper reviews the current literature and

H. F. Castleton; V. Stovin; S. B. M. Beck; J. B. Davison

2010-01-01

99

IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

100

Extensive Green Roofs in London  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of extensive green roofs in London and considers their potential to benefit the conservation of biodiversity. Categories of green roofs described include grass roofs of the early 1990s; mass-produced Sedum roofs, first installed in the late 1990s; and recently installed roofs made from crushed concrete and brick designed to provide habitat for the rare black

Gary Grant

101

Solvaegshus med integreret varmeanlaeg. Maalinger og beregninger. (Solar-walled house with integrated heating system. Measurements and calculations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test house with a ground area of 25 m(sup 2) was built in order to test whether the principles of its design could be used for building houses with an extensive use of solar energy. The south facade and roof were designed as solar collectors supplying h...

K. Lynggaard Isaksen

1994-01-01

102

Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Air Flow over Domed Roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using domed roofs to reduce building solar load in hot arid area is one of Iranian mechanical engineering masterworks. The first application of these roofs was to cover large buildings such as mosques, shrines, etc. However their thermal performance made them to be employed in other buildings like bazaars. The aim of this study was to determine the air pressure and velocity distribution over domed roofs, by employing numerical methods. The results of this study will be used as the first step for thermal performance evaluation of domed roofs.

Faghih, A. K.; Bahadori, M. N.

2007-09-01

103

Integrated thin-film solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for small and lightweight modular power systems is growing rapidly as the space science community continues to move toward smaller and less costly spacecraft (e.g., nanosatellites). Thus the use of lightweight thin-film photovoltaic solar cell arrays for power generation is an attractive possibility. Thin-film lithium ion energy storage with its large power densities and long cycling lifetimes should

R. P. Raffaelle; J. D. Harris; D. Hehemann; D. Scheiman; G. Rybicki; A. F. Hepp

2000-01-01

104

Coupling heat flux dynamics with meteorological conditions in the green roof ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs can notably modify the thermal properties of the building envelope and adjacent air to bring environmental benefits. This study investigates the heat flux dynamics of the tropical green roof ecosystem to provide a scientific basis for design and management. Green roof experimental plots were established to monitor the total solar radiation, net radiation, and micrometeorological parameters. The data

C. Y. Jim; Hongming He

2010-01-01

105

Integrated Access to Solar Observations With EGSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

{\\\\b Co-Authors}: J.Aboudarham (2), E.Antonucci (3), R.D.Bentely (4), L.Ciminiera (5), A.Finkelstein (4), J.B.Gurman(6), F.Hill (7), D.Pike (8), I.Scholl (9), V.Zharkova and the EGSO development team {\\\\b Institutions}: (2) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France); (3) INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); (4) University College London (U.K.); (5) Politecnico di Torino (Italy), (6) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA); (7) National Solar

A. Csillaghy

2003-01-01

106

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

107

System integration issues of residential solar photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic effects of residential solar PV systems on the utility's revenue, capacity, and energy requirements from the electric utility's perspective are evaluated. The price that it might pay for surplus energy and what it would charge for deficits are compared. The power and energy generated by the solar PV systems reduce the capital and operating costs that would otherwise be incurred by the utility. These avoided costs suggest what the utility might pay for surplus solar PV energy. The avoided costs are evaluated under three integration hypotheses, namely: (1) the utility has no system storage; (2) the utility has system storage; and (3) the solar PV systems are supported by dedicated storage devices, the purpose of which is to minimize sales to and purchases from the utility.

Yamayee, Z. A.; Peschon, J.

1980-03-01

108

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Interim report No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers Phase II of a program to develop integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. The program objective has been to continue the development of electrostatic bonding (ESB) as an encapsulation technique for terrestrial cells. Electrostatic bonding is a process with general applicability to joining metals, semiconductors, and insulators to glass without the aid of adhesives. Elevated temperature is

Young

1979-01-01

109

An automatable integrated thin film solar cell array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented of a new integrated array of thin film solar cells which can be produced by means of continuous automatic fabrication techniques and which offers major advantages in cost and operational reliability. In the first step of the fabrication procedure negative electrodes are formed on an insulating substrate. The negative electrodes define the individual cells. In the

W. J. Biter; F. A. Shirland

1976-01-01

110

Next Generation Roofs and Attics for Homes  

SciTech Connect

Prototype residential roof and attic assemblies were constructed and field tested in a mixed-humid U.S. climate. Summer field data showed that at peak day irradiance the heat transfer penetrating the roof deck dropped almost 90% compared with heat transfer for a conventional roof and attic assembly. The prototype assemblies use a combination of strategies: infrared reflective cool roofs, radiant barriers, above-sheathing ventilation, low-emittance surfaces, insulation, and thermal mass to reduce the attic air temperature and thus the heat transfer into the home. The prototype assemblies exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor air temperature. Field results were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for the densely populated, hot and dry southeastern and central-basin regions of California. New construction in the central basin could realize a 12% drop in ceiling and air-conditioning annual load compared with a code-compliant roof and attic having solar reflectance of 0.25 and thermal emittance of 0.75. In the hot, dry southeastern region of California, the combined ceiling and duct annual load drops by 23% of that computed for a code-compliant roof and attic assembly. Eliminating air leakage from ducts placed in unconditioned attics yielded savings comparable to the best simulated roof and attic systems. Retrofitting an infrared reflective clay tile roof with 1 -in (0.032-m) of EPS foam above the sheathing and improving existing ductwork by reducing air leakage and wrapping ducts with insulation can yield annual savings of about $200 compared with energy costs for pre-1980 construction.

Miller, William A [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL

2008-01-01

111

Solar thermal power cycle with integration of methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have proposed a new solar thermal power cycle which integrates methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy, and investigated its features based on the principle of the cascade utilization of chemical exergy. Also, the methanol decomposition with a catalyst was experimentally studied at temperatures of 150–300°C and under atmospheric pressure. The chemical energy released by methanol

Hui Hong; Hongguang Jin; Jun Ji; Zhifeng Wang; Ruixian Cai

2005-01-01

112

Roof drilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roof-drilling system for use in subterranean mining applications and the like in which the drill head of a roof drilling machine is arranged such that the receiving cavity of its chuck is configured having a lost motion association with the drive-in portion of starter and driver drill steel rods. The lower surface of a retainer fixed to the drill

McSweeney

1980-01-01

113

Elastomeric Roofing: A Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years the use of elastomeric roofing systems in the United States has been increasing. A survey was conducted to ascertain the current state-of-the art of these roofing systems. The information obtained in the survey was gathered from a literatu...

W. J. Rossiter R. G. Mathey

1978-01-01

114

Stability control of water-enriched roofs of coal drifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excavation-and-support induced disturbances are likely to make water-enriched roofs to become weathered and fractured. The development and connection of cracks provide new water channels which may result in water loss, seriously affecting the integrity and stability of roofs, leading to incidents of roof fall. Control of water-enriched rocks surrounding coal drifts is quite difficult in China. Based on the practical

Xue-hua LI; Qiang-ling YAO; Xiao-lei DING; Yi-pin WANG; Lei ZHANG

2009-01-01

115

Assessment of vehicle roof crush test protocols using FE models: inverted drop tests versus updated FMVSS No. 216  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverted drop test is a dynamic roof crush test which is simple, realistic, reliable and easily implemented. It can produce repeatable roof impacts that can be used to compare one test run with another and has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity. However, practical full-scale vehicle roof crush tests are always very costly,

M. Mao; E. C. Chirwa; W. Wang

2006-01-01

116

Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

Roodvoets, David L.

2003-01-01

117

Improved roof stabilization technologies  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users` Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

118

Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

2012-12-01

119

Roof bolting equipment & technology  

SciTech Connect

Technology provides an evaluator path to improvement for roof bolting machines. Bucyrus offers three different roof bolts models for various mining conditions. The LRB-15 AR is a single-arm boiler recommended for ranges of 32 inches and above; the dual-arm RB2-52A for ranges of 42 inches and above; and the dual-arm RB2-88A for ranges of 54 inches and above. Design features are discussed in the article. Developments in roof bolting technology by Joy Mining Machinery are reported. 4 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-04-15

120

SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

Randy C. Gee

2004-11-15

121

Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01

122

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

123

Green Roof Valuation: A Probabilistic Economic Analysis of Environmental Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technology that has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist at the local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the

Corrie Clark; Peter Adriaens; F. Brian Talbot

2008-01-01

124

A green roof model for building energy simulation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physically based model of the energy balance of a vegetated rooftop has been developed and integrated into the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. This green roof module allows the energy modeler to explore green roof design options including growing media thermal properties and depth, and vegetation characteristics such as plant type, height and leaf area index. The model has

D. J. Sailor

2008-01-01

125

Lightweight Hydraulic Roof Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A 22-ton capacity temporary mine roof support light enough to be easily lifted and transported manually from one place to another was developed. The lightweight hydr...

1983-01-01

126

Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers have improved roofing designs and materials in order to protect the contents of buildings. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect, and learn about nanotechnology. Then, they work in teams to design a roof structure both in terms of shape and materials to protect a box and its contents from a simulated rainstorm. Teams build, test, and evaluate their designs and those of other teams.

Ieee

2013-07-08

127

Science Nation: Green Roofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rooftops of Manhattan are as varied as the city itself. But on some, something new is taking root--literally! A green roof is a continuous layer of living plants. Looking down several stories from the windows of neighboring buildings, the rooftop resembles a well-manicured, suburban lawn that is simply contained within the boundaries of a flat Manhattan rooftop. Researchers are investigating what benefits green roofs might have on harsh urban environments.

128

The thermal performance of a Roof-Pond integrated to a building for heating during Cold-Winter Desert climate conditions in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports an experiment to investigate the feasibility of a passive heating roof-pond system on an existing room in the cold winter conditions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Statistical analyses of data recorded during the winter season of 1996–97, are carried out to evaluate the thermal peformance of the proposed system. Total effective heating and the heating power of the

N. Al-Hemiddi

1999-01-01

129

Roof selection for rainwater harvesting: Quantity and quality assessments in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roofs are the first candidates for rainwater harvesting in urban areas. This research integrates quantitative and qualitative data of rooftop stormwater runoff in an urban Mediterranean-weather environment. The objective of this paper is to provide criteria for the roof selection in order to maximise the availability and quality of rainwater. Four roofs have been selected and monitored over a period

Ramon Farreny; Tito Morales-Pinzón; Albert Guisasola; Carlota Tayà; Joan Rieradevall; Xavier Gabarrell

2011-01-01

130

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technology of electrostatic bonding as an encapsulation technique for terrestrial solar arrays has been developed. The process produces full integral, hermetic bonds with no adhesives or pottants. Demonstration panels of six solar cells on a single glass superstrate were produced. Electrostatic bonding was also developed as a means of making the cell front contact. A metal mesh is trapped into contact with the cell front during the bonding process. Demonstration six-cell panels using the bonded mesh as the only cell front contact were produced. Exploratory development was done on the possibility of using lower cost glass, with a higher thermal expansion mismatch to silicon, by making lower temperature (250 to 300/sup 0/C) bonds. This was shown to require a planar surface cell (no front contacts). Demonstration panels of twelve 3'' round wafers on a 12 x 18'' glass sheet were made.

Landis, G.A.; Younger, P.R.

1981-07-01

131

Up on the Roof: A Systematic Approach to Roof Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A systematic roof maintenance program is characterized by carefully prepared long- and short-range plans. An essential feature of a systematic approach to roof maintenance is the stress on preventive measures rather than the patching of leaks. (Author)|

Burd, William

1979-01-01

132

8. Detail of interior roof showing truss bracing and roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of interior roof showing truss bracing and roof plank decking; view to east from approximately the center of the shelter. - Warm River Shelter, Warm River Campground, Ashton, Fremont County, ID

133

5. MAIN BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, ROOF TRUSS, CLERESTORY MONITOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. MAIN BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, ROOF TRUSS, CLERESTORY MONITOR, AND GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE (BOTTOM) - Oldman Boiler Works, Boilershop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

134

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

135

Up on the Roof: A Systematic Approach to Roof Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic roof maintenance program is characterized by carefully prepared long- and short-range plans. An essential feature of a systematic approach to roof maintenance is the stress on preventive measures rather than the patching of leaks. (Author)

Burd, William

1979-01-01

136

Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

137

Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control  

EPA Science Inventory

¿This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

138

Performance and Modeling of Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics for Building-Integrated Applications (Preprint prepared for Solar 99)  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules offer several advantages for building-integrated applications. The material can be deposited on glass or flexible substrates, which allows for products like roofing shingles and integrated PV/building glass. The material also has a uniform surface, which is ideal for many architectural applications. Amorphous silicon modules perform well in warm weather and have a small temperature coefficient for power. Depending on the building load, this may be beneficial when compared to crystalline systems. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we are monitoring the performance of a triple-junction a-Si system. The system consists of 72 roofing shingles mounted directly to simulated roofing structures. This paper examines the performance of the building-integrated amorphous silicon PV system and applicability for covering residential loads. A simple model of system performance is also developed and is presented.

Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.

1998-06-07

139

Retractable Roof Greenhouses and Shadehouses  

Treesearch

Description: Open-roof greenhouses provide a natural environment for plant growth when the outdoor weather is suitable and an artificial environment ... Opening the roof over the plants increases light intensity, which can help to control the ...

140

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

Acker, T.; Pete, C.

2012-03-01

141

High-Tech Roof Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions. (GR)|

Benzie, Tim

1997-01-01

142

NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

2012-07-01

143

Roofs for Warm Climates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is an attempt to deal with the problem, as it concerns the roof, which is perhaps the most important component of all, influencing to a considerable extent the design and construction of the rest of the building. The requirements of flat ...

R. Sperling

1979-01-01

144

Toward safer roof bolting  

SciTech Connect

An automatic roof bolter is being developed by Ingersoll-Rand under a contract with the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A microprocessor in an explosion-proof enclosure commands the numerous operations for drilling a hole and inserting a bolt. The unit can install either resin or mechanical bolts in 4-, 5-, or 6-foot lengths.

Not Available

1983-10-01

145

Effects of large scale integration of wind and solar energy in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of different energy scenarios exist for the development of renewable energy technologies in a variety of countries. Each of these scenarios produces different composition mixes depending on the assumptions on which they are based and the motivation of the authors. These studies are often based on annual data, which make general assumptions about the maximum and minimum output of a range of renewable technologies that are not considered to produce electricity at a predictable rate. These include solar power (which generally varies with the intensity of sunlight) and wind power (depending on the strength of the wind). To take into account the variability in the production of these technologies, many authors assume that the energy production sector cannot whole rely on these technologies, and that enough conventional production capacity (thermo, nuclear or hydro) must exist to cover the essential part of the electricity production. In the present work, the authors used the historical records of wind and solar radiation to estimate the minimum amount of electricity that could be produced by a given composition of renewable energies in the year 2100. The methodology used starts by inputting the geographical location and power rating of each of the power plants in the system. It assumes that PV installations will be located in roof-tops in cities (hence each of the major cities would act as a solar power plant) and that the location of wind farms closely resembles those of today. Wind farms, however, are assumed to use much greater units than those presently used, with each one having a rated power of 20MW. The method then used the historical meteorological data obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency to compute the power production at each location sequentially for each of the 8760 hours in the year. The results show how although on adverse climate days in certain parts of the country the electricity generation from renewables is greatly reduced, when the results for the country as a whole are considered it is still substantial. The results are greatly dependant on the mix between the proposed renewables (solar and wind), and by comparing different distributions and mixes, the optimum composition for the target country can be established. The methodology proposed is able to obtain the optimum mix of solar and wind power for a given system, provided that adequate storage capacity exists to allow for excess capacity to be used at times of low electricity production (at the comparatively rare times when there is neither enough sun nor wind throughout the country). This highlights the challenges of large-scale integration of renewable technologies into the electricity grid, and the necessity to combine such a system with other renewables such as hydro or ocean energy to further even out the peaks and lows in the demand.

Esteban, Miguel; Zhang, Qi; Utama, Agya; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Keiichi

2010-05-01

146

Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

147

Transient analysis of integrated solar\\/diesel hybrid power system using MATLAB Simulink  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Matlab simulation the dynamic behavior of small autonomous power system with solar and diesel power sources. The solar power system and the diesel generator operate in parallel. It is more cost effective than a diesel generator acting alone. For the effective integration of the solar power into the power system, a method for controlling the Inverter's operation

Takyin Taky Chan

148

Experimental Research of Sleeping Bed Integrated with PCM Heat Storage and Solar Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts forward a new way of using solar energy and Phase Change Material (PCM): the integration of PCM, sleeping bed and solar energy. The cavity of sleeping bed is filled with PCM. The sleeping bed is a heat storage device charged by solar energy, and it is a heating terminal too. The performance of heat charging and discharging

Guoqing Yu; Ji Qiang; Huizhong Zhao; Zonghu Lv

2009-01-01

149

Integration of a desiccant unit in crops solar drying installation: optimization by numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adsorption unit of silica gel is designed and integrated in a crops solar drying installation. The installation consists of a direct flat plate forced convective solar dryer connected with a similar solar collector. The daily sorption cycle of the desiccant unit is first investigated and a suitable coupling of the collector, the dryer and the adsorption unit has been

Riyad Hodali; Jacques Bougard

2001-01-01

150

Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes  

SciTech Connect

Aging and weathering can reduce the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. This paper summarizes laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectance of unweathered, weathered, and cleaned samples collected from single-ply roofing membranes at various sites across the United States. Fifteen samples were examined in each of the following six conditions: unweathered; weathered; weathered and brushed; weathered, brushed and then rinsed with water; weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, and then washed with soap and water; and weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, washed with soap and water, and then washed with an algaecide. Another 25 samples from 25 roofs across the United States and Canada were measured in their unweathered state, weathered, and weathered and wiped. We document reduction in reflectivity resulted from various soiling mechanisms and provide data on the effectiveness of various cleaning approaches. Results indicate that although the majority of samples after being washed with detergent could be brought to within 90% of their unweathered reflectivity, in some instances an algaecide was required to restore this level of reflectivity.

Akbari, Hashem; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Levinson, Ronnen; Graveline,Stanley; Foley, Kevin; Delgado, Ana H.; Paroli, Ralph M.

2005-08-23

151

Mine roof bolt  

SciTech Connect

A mine roof bolt is described comprising: (a) a length of multi-strand cable defining a bolt shank; (b) a tapered plug comprising a body portion having an internal bore and a frusto-conical outer surface essentially concentric with said internal bore, said tapered plug being mounted about an end of said cable at said internal bore; and (c) an internally tapered drive collar having a frusto-conical inner surface that engages said frusto-conical outer surface of said tapered plug, and having an outer surface defining a drive head that accepts a driving mechanism for rotating and linearly translating said bolt, wherein said tapered plug is mounted on an end of said cable, and said drive collar is pressed down upon said tapered plug, forcing said tapered plug against said cable, such that said drive collar, said tapered plug, and said cable, when fitted tightly together, define said mine roof bolt.

Gillespie, H.D.

1993-07-27

152

Mine roof supporting system  

SciTech Connect

A stabilizing arrangement for mine roof support systems of the type in which a series of support units, each including a transverse beam supported at opposite ends by extensible props, are interconnected by extensible struts in a manner to be selfadvancing by alternate retraction of support units from a roof supporting condition and extension of the struts to advance such retracted units relative to others of such units which are in an extended roof engaging condition. The connection of each prop to the beam in a given unit is pivotal to allow deflection of the beam and props of a supporting unit from a normal perpendicular relationship under load. The stabilizing means restores the props and beam to a normal perpendicular relationship for advancing movement of each support unit. The supporting units are further stabilized relative to the struts by prop supporting brackets permitting canting movement of the props from a perpendicular relationship with respect to the struts but maintaining the props in a generally upright position for unit advance.

Curry, P.F.

1981-06-23

153

Monte Carlo Simulations of Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Front-Facing Photovoltaic Cells for Building Integrated Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles and concentrate the captured light on to small photo active areas. This enables LSCs to be integrated more extensively into buildings as windows and wall claddings on top of roof installations. LSCs with front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. It also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells when designing panels to balance reabsorption losses, power output and the level of concentration desired. A Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels and aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters. Interactions of photons with the LSC panel are determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. Simulation results reveal optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts to achieve maximum power output.

Woei Leow, Shin; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue

2013-03-01

154

Roof–envelope ratio impact on green roof energy performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the impact of roof-to-envelope ratio on overall energy savings of a green roof design over conventional\\u000a roof designs. Simulations were performed using a modified version of the Environmental System Performance program simulator,\\u000a developed at the University of Strathclyde. The modified design employed a model developed by Columbia University and the\\u000a Goddard Institute of Space Science which models

Ryan Martens; Brad Bass; Susana Saiz Alcazar

2008-01-01

155

The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

1998-01-01

156

Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Roofing Systems on Residential Cooling Energy Demand in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof and attic thermal performance exert a powerful influence on cooling energy use in Florida homes. The Florida Power and Light Company and the Florida Solar Energy Center instrumented six side-by-side Habitat homes in Ft. Myers, Florida with identical floor plans and orientation, R-19 ceiling insulation, but with different roofing systems designed to reduce attic heat gain. A seventh house

Danny Parker; Jeffrey Sonne; John Sherwin

157

Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and…

Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

158

Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and…

Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

159

Multistep methods for integrating the solar system. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

High-order multistep methods, run at constant step size, are one of the most-effective schemes for integrating the Newtonian solar system, for extended periods of time. The stability and error growth of these methods is studied when applied to harmonic oscillators and two-body systems like the Sun-Jupiter pair. The truncation error of multistep methods on two-body systems grows in time like t-sq, and the roundoff like t to the 1.5th power, and a theory is given that accounts for this. A better design is attempted for multistep integrators than the traditional Stormer and Cowell methods, and a few interesting ones are found. A second result of this search for new methods is that no predictor were found that is stable on the Sun-Jupiter system, for stepsizes smaller than 108 steps per cycle whose order of accuracy is greater than 12. For example, Stormer-13 becomes unstable at 108 steps per cycle. This limitation between stability and accuracy seems to be a general property of multistep methods.

Skordos, P.A.

1988-07-01

160

Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops  

SciTech Connect

The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2012-01-01

161

Monolithically integrated thin film III-V\\/Si solar panel on wafer for active power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated a monolithically integrated solar panel on Si that allows scaling of cell output voltage on the wafer level. Our design also incorporates integrated bypass diodes and the possible incorporation of CMOS for active power management at the materials integration level. In addition, we have demonstrated the first GaAsP\\/SiGe dual junction solar cell on Si that provides the

Arthur J. Pitera; John Hennessy; Andrew C. Malonis; E. A Fitzgerald; S. A. Ringel

2011-01-01

162

Solar windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Till date, to harness energy from the sun we have used solar panels. These solar panels have to be installed on the roof-tops. Imagine windows that not only provide a clear view and illuminate rooms, but also use sunlight to efficiently help power the building they are part of. Solar panels used in today track the sun to generate high

Shailly Jain; Rohan Jhaveri

2011-01-01

163

Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

164

Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

165

12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

166

13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

167

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-07-01

168

Roof control system  

SciTech Connect

Roof control system for underground strata is described, comprising: (a) an elongated bolt adapted for insertion into a hole bored in underground strata; (b) anchor means for securely anchoring the bolt in the hole at a location where a significant length of the bolt remains between the opening of the borehole and the anchor means; (c) tension means for placing said significant length of said bolt in tension by rotating the bolt at a predetermined torque, the torque means including a plate mounted on the bolt and located adjacent to the outer surface of the strata, and a nut means on the end of the bolt for engaging the plate; (d) tension/torque adjustment means for selectively adjusting friction between adjacent surfaces which rub against each other when the bolt is rotated, whereby the tension/torque ratio of the bolt is selected to match the desired level for a particular type of underground strata, the tension/torque adjustment means including an array of friction reducing washers with different contact surface areas, for location between the nut means and plate. A method of mine control for underground strata is also described using this roof bolt.

Stankus, J.C.

1993-08-03

169

Roof drilling system  

SciTech Connect

A roof-drilling system for use in subterranean mining applications and the like in which the drill head of a roof drilling machine is arranged such that the receiving cavity of its chuck is configured having a lost motion association with the drive-in portion of starter and driver drill steel rods. The lower surface of a retainer fixed to the drill head and having a non-circular aperture formed therein serves to define one bearing surface for utilizing the drill head itself to pull the assemblage of drill steel from a completed bore. To remove the drill steel driver component from the drill head chuck, the miner grasps the lowermost portion and rotates it a relatively small amount, for example about 1/8 turn. To provide for interlocking of the various components of the drill steel, I.E. Driver component, extension components finishing rods and the like, the tip of the male ends of each component are formed having a shallow groove and each corresponding female socket is provided with a corresponding transversely oriented bore. Conventional wire or its' equivalent is inserted within the bore by the miner in the course of assembling the drill steel during a drilling operation.

McSweeney, L.H.

1980-10-07

170

Mathematical Modeling of Roof Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been a long hiatus since the first assemblage of roof modelers in November 1981. The Proceedings of that workshop have stood as the only dedicated testament of the attempts to formalize roofing performance into mathematical precepts and formulas. N...

1988-01-01

171

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF GREEN ROOFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although roof gardens are not new, as evidenced by the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (approx. 600 BC), their usage was not widely propagated in our modern buildings. While the aesthetics and beauty of a properly manicured roof garden can be easily appreciated, the environmental and ecological benefits are somewhat less well known. However, the Green Movement in the 60's has

Michael Wong

172

Earth covered vs. conventional roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant reduction in construction costs of underground houses is possible by using steel joists for the roof system. By reducing the earth covering to 6-8 inches the structural support members required are smaller and less expensive. The roof described has an R factor of 79.2. (JMT)

Woodrum

1982-01-01

173

How Cool Is Your Roof?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a concept called cool roof that is used to reduce electricity costs for air conditioning, and also reduce the price of air conditioning units. Discusses the light reflecting capabilities of metal roofing as well as coatings that can stop leaks. (GR)|

Fickes, Michael

2001-01-01

174

Wind Loads on Canopy Roofs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind pressure distributions on 30 m x 30 m canopy roofs over a range of roof pitch angles were determined in the wind tunnel, in a simulated, terrain category 3 (AS-1170) atmospheric boundary layer flow at a length scale of 1 / 100. Contour plots of local...

J. D. Ginger C. W. Letchford

1991-01-01

175

How Cool Is Your Roof?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a concept called cool roof that is used to reduce electricity costs for air conditioning, and also reduce the price of air conditioning units. Discusses the light reflecting capabilities of metal roofing as well as coatings that can stop leaks. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

2001-01-01

176

Thermal behaviour of vented roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an experimental study aimed at analysing the effect of the roof tile air permeability on the thermal performances of ventilation ducts in the roof. The main reason underlying this study is the fact that the theoretical reference assumed for the manufacture and sizing of ventilation ducts (the

M. DOrazio; C. Di Perna; F. Stazi

2009-01-01

177

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool roofs—roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission—lessen the flow\\u000a of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may\\u000a also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load\\u000a is

Ronnen Levinson; Hashem Akbari

2010-01-01

178

Comparative study of transparent insulation materials cover systems for integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of transparently insulated integrated-collector-storage solar water heaters is investigated theoretically as well as experimentally for a comparative study of cover systems having transparent insulation materials devices placed between the top glazing and the absorber. The data on solar transmittance, heat loss reduction characteristics and solar collector-storage efficiencies of various configurations is generated for the system performance comparisons.

K. S. Reddy; N. D. Kaushika

1999-01-01

179

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOEpatents

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

180

Integrating solar energy into wet cooling tower to prevent plume formation - a novel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, solar system integration into wet cooling tower has been investigated to reduce visible plume formation. To achieve this aim, a novel approach has been introduced. The presented approach allows simultaneous consideration of tower performance and water-cooled solar system factor. In this approach, different scenarios have been explored to achieve the optimum system parameter, packing type, liquid to

M. H. Panjeshahi; M. Gharaie; L. Ahmadi

2008-01-01

181

Proof-of-concept study of an integrated solar desalination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the performance of a directly heated solar desalination system. The design concept is based on using a direct solar energy collection unit, integrated with flash evaporation and low temperature multi-effect distillation (LT-MED) equipment. Key parameters affecting desalination rate include flashing evaporation pressure, first effect distillation pressure and seawater temperature. The experimental results indicate that at flash evaporation

Juyuan Jiang; He Tian; Mingxian Cui; Lijian Liu

2009-01-01

182

Solar Cell Powering with Integrated Global Positioning System for mm3 Size Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of a solar cell powering with integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) for microrobots is proposed. The main idea is to use a projector to transfer energy and to provide global positioning information to the robots that are equipped with multi-segment solar cells on their top. First tests with a 3000 ANSI lumens beamer projecting a white image

A. Boletis; Walter Driesen; Jean-marc Breguet; A. Brunete

2006-01-01

183

Performance analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle using Direct Steam Generation in parabolic trough collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of solar thermal power to improve the performance of gas-fired combined cycles in very hot and dry environmental conditions is analyzed in this work, in order to assess the potential of this technique, and to feature Direct Steam Generation (DSG) as a well suited candidate for achieving very good results in this quest. The particular Integrated Solar Combined

M. J. Montes; A. Rovira; M. Muñoz; J. M. Martínez-Val

2011-01-01

184

Solar/Hydro Integration Study. Technical Progress Report, February-July 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water and Power Resources Service in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the technical and economic feasibility of integrating solar central receiver powerplants with the Federal hydroelectric power system in the southwest...

1980-01-01

185

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Energy Center Team.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have f...

A. Akhil C. David D. Hammell L. S. Henderson M. Holveck P. Heavener S. Gonzalez W. Bower

2012-01-01

186

Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

187

Modal Analysis of Solar Panels Using Boundary Integral Equations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acoustic effects of the surrounding air on a harmonically vibrating solar panel in a testroom are investigated. The dynamics of the solar panel are modeled by a differential equation for a harmonically vibrating plate. The force acting on the plate is...

H. T. Koelink H. Schippers J. J. Heijstek J. J. Derksen

1992-01-01

188

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

189

A technical and policy analysis of building-integrated photovoltaic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the environmental impacts of energy use have focused increasing attention on the potential for solar and other renewable energy systems to provide economically priced energy services with reduced environmental impacts when compared to conventional energy sources such as fossil fuels. This research focuses on the use of photovoltaic power production for the commercial buildings sector via roof-integrated PV

Bert Neal Davis

2002-01-01

190

Prototype development of a full-bridge isolated boost converter for solar photovoltaic systems integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical aspect of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems integration is the power electronics interface technologies for DC power conversion. Successful integration of PV systems at all levels requires reliable, low-cost, and efficient interface capabilities. The research work for this paper presents a novel PV architecture and the development of a low voltage full bridge isolated boost converter prototype DC converter

Gregory F. Reed; Luke A. Solomon; Brandon M. Grainger

2010-01-01

191

Life-cycle cost–benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop—commonly called a green roof—as an alternative to traditional roofing

Timothy Carter; Andrew Keeler

2008-01-01

192

Integrated Photovoltaic-Thermal Solar Energy Conversion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's Solar Energy Systems Computer Analysis Code (SOLSYS) is being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of combined photovoltaic systems relative to various utilization scenarios. Combined systems using concentrators and high efficien...

G. A. Samara

1975-01-01

193

Hydraulic roof-support frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roof-engaging assembly of a support frame for a mine roof comprises a main beam having a cantilever extension pivoted to the main beam by pins. In order to pivot the cantilever extension through an angle of about 180-200° between a stowed position and an operative position, a link is pivoted at one point to the main beam and is

Maykemper

1981-01-01

194

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cover or gasketed lid. (iii) Each penetration of the internal floating roof shall...vent shall be gasketed. (v) Each penetration of the internal floating roof that allows...gasketed sliding cover. (vi) Each penetration of the internal floating roof...

2013-07-01

195

Multifunctional integration of thin-film silicon solar cells on carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites  

SciTech Connect

Multifunction integration of solar cells in load-bearing structures can enhance overall system performance by reducing parasitic components and material redundancy. The article describes a manufacturing strategy, named the co-curing scheme, to integrate thin-film silicon solar cells on carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites and eliminate parasitic packaging layers. In this scheme, an assembly of a solar cell and a prepreg is cured to form a multifunctional composite in one processing step. The photovoltaic performance of the manufactured structures is then characterized under controlled cyclic mechanical loading. The study finds that the solar cell performance does not degrade under 0.3%-strain cyclic tension loading up to 100 cycles. Significant degradation, however, is observed when the magnitude of cyclic loading is increased to 1% strain. The present study provides an initial set of data to guide and motivate further studies of multifunctional energy harvesting structures. (author)

Jason Maung, K.; Hahn, H. Thomas; Ju, Y.S. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

2010-03-15

196

The integral method of treatment of experimental data from radiochemical solar neutrino detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical errors in solar neutrino detection are analyzed for gallium-germanium and chlorine-argon detectors for different times of exposure and counter backgrounds. It is shown that short exposures (0.5-1 half-life) produce a minimal (under 10 percent) one-year error. The possibility of detecting the solar neutrino flux variation due to annual changes of the earth-sun distance is examined. An integral approach to

V. N. Gavrin; A. V. Kopylov; A. V. Streltsov

1985-01-01

197

Very Long-term Numerical Integrations of Solar System Planetary Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of long-term numerical integrations of solar system planetary motions are presented. The numerical data show that planetary motion, at least in our solar system, seems to be stable over a 109-yr timespan. A closer look at the low-frequency oscillations shows a potentially diffusive character of terrestrial planetary motion, especially that of Mercury. We have also performed a couple

T. Ito; K. Tanikawa

2002-01-01

198

Solar panel installation configurations for optimum system performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main object of this paper is to identify solar panel installation configurations to achieve optimum system performance irrespective of installation surface configurations. It is important to mention that the panel installation requirements are strictly dependent on the roof configurations, Northern and Southern hemispherical locations, and the latitudes of the installation locations. Panel installation schemes for flat roof, inclined roof, inverted V-shape roof and other roof configurations are briefly discussed. Potential tracking concepts, tracking algorithms, and controllers are identified.

Jha, A. R.

2010-08-01

199

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling  

SciTech Connect

This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-08-10

200

Integration of Solar Photocatalysis and Membrane Bioreactor for Pesticides Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater containing recalcitrant contaminants as pesticides can be treated by a coupled system which consists of a solar photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a biological oxidation process. Membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is particularly suitable for advanced biological treatment of wastewater containing biorecalcitrant compounds and shows a variety of advantages that make it a good alternative to be coupled with photo-Fenton, especially

J. L. Casas López; A. Cabrera Reina; E. Ortega Gómez; M. M. Ballesteros Martín; S. Malato Rodríguez; J. A. Sánchez Pérez

2010-01-01

201

Research on integrated system for solar simulator performance calibration according to IEC 60904-9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar simulators are widely used for indoor measurement of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics as well as irradiance exposure tests of terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) devices. The influence of solar simulator's performance, commonly including spectral mismatch and irradiance uniformity/temporal stability, can never be ignored, especially in the case of I-V characteristics measurement. Herein, we present an integrated system for solar simulator's performance calibration according to IEC 60904-9, which proposed requirements and defined classifications for solar simulators, with items of spectral mismatch compared with AM 1.5 reference solar spectral irradiance (AM 1.5 G), non-uniformity and temporal instability of irradiance. This integrated system is composed of two major departments, i) a calibrated optic fiber spectrometer for spectral mismatch characteristic, ii) data acquisition equipments for detecting irradiance uniformity/temporal stability and calibrating Isc/Voc measurements. It is applicable to various kinds of solar simulators and portable to satisfy the requirements of on-site calibration for solar simulator users.

Meng, Hai-Feng; Xiong, Li-Min; He, Ying-Wei; Liu, Ding-Pu

2011-11-01

202

Roof selection for rainwater harvesting: quantity and quality assessments in Spain.  

PubMed

Roofs are the first candidates for rainwater harvesting in urban areas. This research integrates quantitative and qualitative data of rooftop stormwater runoff in an urban Mediterranean-weather environment. The objective of this paper is to provide criteria for the roof selection in order to maximise the availability and quality of rainwater. Four roofs have been selected and monitored over a period of 2 years (2008-2010): three sloping roofs - clay tiles, metal sheet and polycarbonate plastic - and one flat gravel roof. The authors offer a model for the estimation of the runoff volume and the initial abstraction of each roof, and assess the physicochemical contamination of roof runoff. Great differences in the runoff coefficient (RC) are observed, depending mostly on the slope and the roughness of the roof. Thus, sloping smooth roofs (RC>0.90) may harvest up to about 50% more rainwater than flat rough roofs (RC=0.62). Physicochemical runoff quality appears to be generally better than the average quality found in the literature review (conductivity: 85.0 ± 10.0 ?S/cm, total suspended solids: 5.98 ± 0.95 mg/L, total organic carbon: 11.6 ± 1.7 mg/L, pH: 7.59 ± 0.07 upH). However, statistically significant differences are found between sloping and flat rough roofs for some parameters (conductivity, total organic carbon, total carbonates system and ammonium), with the former presenting better quality in all parameters (except for ammonium). The results have an important significance for local governments and urban planners in the (re)design of buildings and cities from the perspective of sustainable rainwater management. The inclusion of criteria related to the roof's slope and roughness in city planning may be useful to promote rainwater as an alternative water supply while preventing flooding and water scarcity. PMID:21492898

Farreny, Ramon; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Guisasola, Albert; Tayà, Carlota; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

2011-03-29

203

Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of these areas. In our own solar system, astrobiology encompasses much more than just the search for life on Mars or Europa. Our goal is to understand the nature of planetary habitability--which planets have evolved to have environments that are habitable by microorganisms, and which have not. By understanding the processes that control the architecture of our solar system, we can extrapolate how these same processes might have played out in other planetary systems and what the distribution of habitability might be beyond our own system. In this context, Mars and Europa appear as potentially habitable worlds either today or in the past, Ganymede and Callisto might have deep subsurface oceans and be habitable, Venus might have been habitable early on but does not appear to be today, and Titan probably has had intermittent liquid water as well as ongoing chemical evolution involving organic molecules. Looking more broadly, the origin and the evolution of the gas-giant planets and their dynamical effects have had a major influence on the terrestrial planets; the characteristics of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud influence our understanding of early chemical and volatile processes that affect habitability; and asteroids have had a tremendous impact on the terrestrial planets throughout their history. In order to understand planetary habitability in general, and the implications of a discovery of the presence or absence of life on any given object, we need to understand the detailed origin and evolution of our solar system as a whole and of the individual bodies within it. A broad program of planetary exploration is the best way to investigate the astrobiology of our solar system.

Jakosky, B. M.

2003-12-01

204

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More field tests have been performed. A trendline analysis method has been developed. This method would improve the accuracy in detecting the locations of fractures and in determining the rock strength.

Syd S. Peng

2003-04-15

205

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed. It is found that the drilling power can be used as a supplementary method for detecting voids/fractures and rock interfaces.

Syd S. Peng

2003-01-15

206

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed in this quarter. The development of the data interpretation methodology and other related tasks are still continuing.

Syd S. Peng

2002-10-15

207

Can One Million PV Roof Tops be Realistically Achieved in Thailand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major problems are the expensive cost and low effectiveness of the solar cells (only 14.5 %). In the past it seems impossible to create a high standard of living in a house relying only on electricity from solar cells on the roof. The equipment that can adequately supply the domestic demand costs around 20 millions Baht. It is not

Soontorn Boonyatikarn

2004-01-01

208

The experimentally measured performance of a linear roof aperture daylighting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illumination and solar radiation measurements have been made on a scale-model building containing sloped, south-facing, double-pane roof glazing. To control glare and properly disperse the beam sunlight over the work plane, a good diffusing glazing is used for the inside pane of the roof aperture. Measurements have been made in order to investigate the performance of this daylighting system under

F. Bauman; B. Andersson; T. C. Howard; J. Thornton

1986-01-01

209

Rehab guide: Roofs. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

Nine volumes will eventually make up The Rehab Guide in its entirety, and they are listed on the back cover of this volume. Each one is devoted to distinct elements of the house, and within each volume is a range of issues that are common to that element of home rehabilitation work. This volume, Roofs, for example, covers the major roofing systems including framing and sheathing; protective strategies such as underlayments and flashing; energy and air infiltration issues; roofing materials; and gutters and down-spouts. Each volume addresses a wide range techniques, materials, and tools, and recommendations based on regional differences around the country. Throughout The Rehab Guide, special attention is given to issues related to energy efficiency, sustainability, and accessibility.

NONE

1999-03-01

210

OUT Success Stories: Solar Roofing Shingles  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells are now doubling as rooftop shingles. PV shingles offer many advantages. The energy generated from a building's PV rooftop shingles can provide power both to the building and the utility's power grid.

Johnson, N.

2000-08-31

211

High Performance Roofing Systems (Conference, 1 March 1984).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Flat roofing; Improved traditional roofing - polymer modified bitumens with and without polymeric fibre reinforcement; Rubber and plastic membrane systems; Liquid applied roofing systems; Coated fabric roofs; The structural use of coated fabrics...

1984-01-01

212

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

213

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

214

Development of a Roof Savings Calculator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This to...

A. Desjarlais E. Erdem J. New W. Miller Y. J. Huang

2013-01-01

215

Identifying Roof Fall Predictors Using Fuzzy Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

2010-02-01

216

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress report No. 13  

SciTech Connect

Progress on the development of electrostatic bonding as a method of integrally encapsulating silicon solar cells in glass is reported. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue to demonstrate process uniformity of encapsulation by electrostatic bonding. An additional goal for this program is to develop preformed contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure, resulting in a low-cost module assembly technique.

Landis, G.A.

1980-03-01

217

Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology  

SciTech Connect

Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, No 593 Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

2010-09-15

218

Radiation control coatings on rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility: Two summers of monitoring plus roof and whole building modeling  

SciTech Connect

Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) allowed the authors to learn the effect of radiation control coatings on roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray coated with a white, latex-based product with ceramic beads. Samples of the coated roofs were brought periodically to the laboratory to measure the solar reflectance as the coatings weathered. The authors monitored the power demand of the all-electric buildings that the roofs covered and temperatures and heat fluxes for two instrumented areas on each roof. Average decreases in the sunlit temperatures of the coated vs. the uncoated surfaces show weathering effects. They also show that the shading enhanced the effect of the coating on the significantly shaded roof because the coated instrumented area on it was preferentially shaded near noon of sunny days. Whole building models were constructed for DOE 2.1E and model predictions were compared to measurements of total electrical power for each all-electric building. The building with the significantly shaded roof had very high internal loads. The effect of the shading on annual energy use for cooling was twice that of the coating but the coating decreased annual cooling energy needs only by 0.5%. The building with the heavyweight concrete-decked roof had small internal loads. For it, the DOE 2.1E model predicted a 7.4% decrease in annual cooling energy use due to the coating and a comparatively small effect of the less extensive shading.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

219

Micro-financing solar power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posing for the camera, Mr. Gunapala Seneviratne and family stand on their porch under a solar lamp. The light is powered by a solar photovoltaic panel that has just been installed on their roof. For five hours technicians from SELCO Solar Lanka, a local solar company, have been busy installing this 40 W, five light, one electric outlet, solar home

Judith Lipp

2001-01-01

220

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

2007-08-28

221

An efficient way to use medium-or-low temperature solar heat for power generation – integration into conventional power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the medium-or-low temperature solar heat can be used to generate power efficiently by integrating into conventional coal-fired power plants. In so-called solar aided power generation (SAPG) technology, medium-or-low temperature solar heat is used to replace parts of bled-off steams in regenerative Rankine cycle to pre-heat feedwater. Thermal oil can be used as solar heat carrier and

Yongping Yang; Qin Yan; Rongrong Zhai; Abbas Kouzani; Eric Hu

2011-01-01

222

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2003-01-01

223

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-01

224

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-01

225

Increasing roof bolter operator awareness to risks of falling roof material during the bolting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of injuries due to falls of roof material is a longtime concern of the mining industry. Bolter operators are continually exposed to rib and roof falls as they perform their normal work tasks. Massive roof falls rather than the typical small falls have been the traditional focus of mine safety practitioners. However, falls of smaller amounts of roof

M. J. Klishis; R. C. Althouse; G. M. Lies; L. A. Layne

1993-01-01

226

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2001-01-01

227

Cold-Applied Roofing Systems and Waterproofing and Dampproofing. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook for students in California roofing apprenticeship programs provides information for classroom work in the area of cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing. Eight topics are covered: introduction to cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing, tools and equipment used in cold-applied roofing,…

Brown, Arthur

228

Media depth influences Sedum green roof establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species selection and initial establishment of plants is critical for long term survival and health of green roofs. Plants\\u000a that can withstand harsh environmental conditions and provide rapid coverage on extensive green roofs can reduce erosion,\\u000a limit weed invasion, and provide a more aesthetically pleasing roof to satisfy customers. This study evaluated the effect\\u000a of green roof substrate depth on

Kristin L. Getter; D. Bradley Rowe

2008-01-01

229

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste: recycling roofing waste to new roofing  

SciTech Connect

A prior DOE study on ten candidate methods for recovering the energy resource represented in asphalt roofing waste showed that incorporating fresh factory waste in new roofing was a potentially viable means for recovering some of the annual 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu in this waste resource. The project reported here involved measuring the effect of adding factory waste to the asphalt coating compound (called filled coating asphalt). The influence of waste type, size, and quantity on coating asphalt properties such as viscosity, impact resistance, pliability, and service life was measured. In addition, experiments were made to determine if there was a possibility of using field waste (worn-out asphalt roofing) in a similar manner.

Shepherd, P.B.; Powers, T.J.

1987-07-01

230

Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptiverequirements  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability toreflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiateheat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittanceroofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool rooffor a non-cool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, coolingpower demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightlyincreasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywideambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasinghuman comfort.DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of acool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential (NR)building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energysavings of approximately 3.2 kW h/m2 (300 kW h/1000 ft2), average annualnatural gas deficits of 5.6 MJ/m2 (4.9 therm/1000 ft2), average annualsource energy savings of 30 MJ/m2 (2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2), and average peakpower demand savings of 2.1 W/m2 (0.19 kW/1000 ft2). The 15-year netpresent value (NPV) of energy savings averages $4.90/m2 ($450/1000 ft2)with time-dependent valuation (TDV), and $4.00/m2 ($370/1000 ft2) withoutTDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included,the average total savings (15-year NPV+equipment savings) rises to$5.90/m2 ($550/1000 ft2) with TDV, and to $5.00/m2 ($470/1000 ft2)without TDV.Total savings range from 1.90 to 8.30 $/m2 (0.18 0.77 $/ft2)with TDV, and from 1.70 to 7.10 $/m2 (0.16 0.66 $/ft2) without TDV,across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a coolroof is 0.00 2.20 $/m2 (0.00 0.20 $/ft2). Cool roofs with premiums up to$2.20/m2 ($0.20/ft2) are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 216; those with premiums not exceeding $1.90/m2 ($0.18/ft2) are expectedto be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommendsthat the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24,Part 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for NR buildings withlow-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in allCalifornia climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meetprescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an"overall-envelope" approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performanceapproach (all roof types).

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

2003-07-01

231

Light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated diffraction grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optics of microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells with integrated light trapping structures was investigated. Periodic grating couplers were integrated in microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells and the influence of the grating dimensions on the short circuit current and the quantum efficiency was investigated by the numerical simulation of Maxwell's equations utilizing the finite difference time domain algorithm. The grating structure leads to scattering and higher order diffraction resulting in an increased absorption of the incident light in the silicon thin-film solar cell. The influence of the grating period and the grating height on the short circuit current and the quantum efficiency was investigated. Enhanced quantum efficiencies are observed for the red and infrared parts of the optical spectrum. Optimal dimensions of the grating coupler were obtained.

Dewan, Rahul; Knipp, Dietmar

2009-10-01

232

Simulation of solar-powered ammonia-water integrated hybrid cooling system  

SciTech Connect

a number of solar-operated air-conditioning systems based on the H{sub 2}O-LiBr absorption chiller were built, installed, and monitored. A systematic study at the University of Colorado has been published. This paper presents a simple cost-benefit analysis of the conventional vapor compression system (VCS), the vapor absorption system (VAS), and the integrated hybrid system (IHS). The cost of energy input to the VAS and the IHS were compared with the energy cost of the VCS that these solar-powered systems replace. It was found that cost savings can be realized with solar-powered systems, only after a critical overall solar fraction is exceeded. Typically, this value was about 0.7 for a VAS and about 0.12 for a IHS. These cost-benefit results provided the motivation for a more detailed study of the IHS. There has also been other efforts in this direction.

Chinnappa, J.C.V. (James Cook Univ., Townsville 4811 (AU)); Wijeysundera, N.E. (Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (SG))

1992-05-01

233

Design, effectiveness, and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles. Technical final report  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. Such a shingle will reduce summer cooling and winter heating costs and conserve electricity and natural gas or heating oil. Design calculations indicate that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. If the cost of the shingle is about one dollar per square foot it will be cost effective in these applications. Additional calculations demonstrate the feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Additionally, extruded plastic reflector assemblies of various kinds could be added to existing shingled roofs. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

Wolf, L. Jr.

1982-09-01

234

Estimating Integrated Cloud Liquid Water from Extended Time Observations of Solar Irradiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated liquid water content (LWC) from the measured solar irradiance is described. The cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the sam...

C. W. Fairall R. E. Rabadi J. B. Snider

1990-01-01

235

Combined photovoltaic and solar thermal systems for facade integration and building insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most photovoltaic (PV) facades are built as curtain facades in front of thermally insulated buildings, with air ducts in between. This causes additional costs for support structure and installation, while heat dissipation from the solar cells is often not optimal. Measurements carried out are facing both concerns: integration of a thermal insulating layer (which meets the latest German heat-preserving regulation,

Stefan Krauter; Rodrigo Guido Araújo; Sandra Schroer; Rolf Hanitsch; Mohammed J Salhi; Clemens Triebel; Reiner Lemoine

1999-01-01

236

DEVELOPMENT OF A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC\\/THERMAL SOLAR ENERGY COGENERATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using renewable energy sources for onsite cogenerat ion from structural building elements is a relatively new concept and is gaining considerable interest. In this study the design, development, manufacturing and testing of a novel b uilding integrated photovoltaic\\/thermal (BIPVT) solar energy cogeneration system is discuss ed. Adhesives (ADH), resistance seam welding (RSW) and autoclaving (ATC) were identified as the most

Timothy Anderson; Sunil Bura; Mike Duke; James Carson; Mark Lay

237

See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.  

PubMed

See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. PMID:23966106

Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

2013-08-21

238

Integrated approach on solar drying, pilot convective drying and microstructural changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar drying of foods is an old technique, still used nowadays. Nevertheless, the mathematical approach of the complex phenomena involved is not completely integrated. Drawbacks appear in modelling heat transport, specially related to the huge variability of meteorological factors. The great dependence of the heat and mass transfer model parameters on water content is also frequently forgotten. Macroscopic changes (e.g.

Inês N. Ramos; Teresa R. S. Brandão; Cristina L. M. Silva

2005-01-01

239

Solar test of an integrated sodium reflux heat pipe receiver\\/reactor for thermochemical energy transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical reactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane was integrated into a sodium reflux heat pipe receiver and tested in the solar furnace of the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The receiver\\/reactor was a heat pipe with seven tubes inside an evacuated metal box containing sodium. The catalyst, 0.5 wt% Rh on alumina, filled two of the tubes

R. B. Diver; J. D. Fish; R. Levitan; M. Levy; E. Meirovitch; H. Rosin; S. A. Paripatyadar; J. T. Richardson

1992-01-01

240

Roof bolting without injury. [Glossary included  

Microsoft Academic Search

The art of roof bolting is an important segment of the mining cycle in underground coal mining. Too many accidents occur that can be attributed to the roof bolting process. Too often the Roof Bolter Operator is not cognizant of the art, or drilling techniques, nor the safety procedures to perform the duties effectively and safely. This manual offers those

1992-01-01

241

Guidelines for Inspecting Your Roof Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides guidelines for inspecting the roof of a facility. Suggests that periodic roof inspections should be performed on a quarterly or semi-annual basis and after severe storms. Proactively identifying potential problem areas is the best defense against roof leaks. (SLD)|

Watkins, Daniel L.

2003-01-01

242

Handbook for Repairing Nonconventional Roofing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As built-up roofs (BURs) on Army facilities wear out, many are being replaced with nonconventional roofing systems. Problems can arise when a roof mechanic uses a repair procedure appropriate for a BUR to repair a defect in one of the newer nonconventiona...

C. Doyle W. Dillner M. J. Rosenfield

1988-01-01

243

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...taken. (3) The installed torque or tension ranges for roof bolts as specified in...roof bolting cycle, the actual torque or tension of the first tensioned roof bolt installed...shall be measured for actual torque or tension. If the torque or tension of any...

2013-07-01

244

Seismic qualification of building roof structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for qualifying the existing roof structure of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof is a safety class 1 structure and subject to the design-basis earthquake (DBE). The roof consists of 26 prestressed concrete T-beams 82 feet long spaced 6 feet on

M. A. Islam; R. B. Pan

1991-01-01

245

Performance of antisolar insulated roof system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooms with concrete slab roofs directly exposed to the sun become unbearably hot during summer and very cold during winter. Huge amounts of energy are required to keep them comfortable. Application of thermal insulation on roofs significantly reduces energy required for heating and cooling. The effectiveness of roof insulations may be further enhanced if a layer of antisolar coating is

Irshad Ahmad

2010-01-01

246

Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.  

PubMed

The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended. PMID:17368704

Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

2007-03-21

247

Mine roof geology information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been

S. S. Peng; T. Sasaoka; D. X. Tang; Y. Wilson; G. Wilson

2005-01-01

248

Roof for the Lions' House.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fans of the National Football League s Detroit Lions don't worry about game day weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,0...

1978-01-01

249

TryEngineering: Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan on surface engineering, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students learn about nanotechnology and its application in developing hydrophobic surfaces. (Hydrophobicity is a physical property, and is defined as the tendency of a molecule to repel water.) Students work in teams to to design a roof from simple materials that will keep the contents of a box dry during a water test. The driving question of the lesson: How do civil engineers apply principles of nanotechnology to develop waterproof roofs? This resource includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Editor's Note: Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar, whereas H2O is a polar molecule. Examples of hydophobic molecules include oils and fats. But as the size of objects is reduced to the nanoscale, the effects of surface properties become even more pronounced. To extend this lesson, see Related Materials for an article by the Nanoterra Group that provides information on newer applications of nanotechnology in surface design.

250

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting designs. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mechanisms of modern roof bolting systems including both the tension and fully grouted bolts. Parameters to be studied are: bolt length, bolt spacing, bolt size/strength, grout annulus, in-situ stress condition, overburden depth, and roof geology (massive strata, fractured, and laminated or thinly-bedded). Based on the analysis of the mechanisms of both bolting systems and failure modes of the bolted strata, roof bolting design criteria and programs for modern roof bolting systems were developed. These criterion and/or programs were combined with the MRGIS for use in conjunction with roof bolt installation.

Syd S. Peng

2005-10-01

251

Condensation Risk of Mechanically Attached Roof Systems in Cold Climate Zones  

SciTech Connect

A white roof, cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with mechanically attached membrane, have shown to have a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparisons with similar construction with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in Northern U.S. climate zones. A white roof surface reflects more of the incident solar radiation in comparisons with a dark surface, which makes a distinguished difference on the surface temperature of the roof. However, flat roofs with either a light or dark surface and if facing a clear sky, are constantly losing energy to the sky due to the exchange of infrared radiation. This phenomenon exists both during the night and the day. During the day, if the sun shines on the roof surface, the exchange of infrared radiation typically becomes insignificant. During nights and in cold climates, the temperature difference between the roof surface and the sky can deviate up to 20 C (Hagentoft, 2001) which could result in a very cold surface temperature compared to the ambient temperature. Further, a colder surface temperature of the roof increases the energy loss and the risk of condensation in the building materials below the membrane. In conclusion, both light and dark coated roof membranes are cooled by the infrared radiation exchange during the night, though a darker membrane is more heated by the solar radiation during the day, thus decreasing the risk of condensation. The phenomenon of night time cooling from the sky and the lack of solar gains during the day is not likely the exclusive problem concerning the risk of condensation in cool roofs with mechanically attached membranes. Roof systems with thermoplastic membranes are prone to be more effected by interior air intrusion into the roof construction; both due to the wind induced pressure differences and due to the flexibility and elasticity of the membrane (Molleti, Baskaran, Kalinger, & Beaulieu, 2011). Depending on the air permeability of the material underneath the membrane, wind forces increase the risk of fluttering (also referred as billowing) of the thermoplastic membrane. Expectably, the wind induced pressure differences creates a convective air flow into the construction i.e. Page 2 air intrusion. If the conditions are right, moisture from the exchanging air may condensate on surfaces with a temperature below dew-point. The definite path of convective airflows through the building envelope is usually very difficult to determine and therefore simplified models (K nzel, Zirkelbach, & Scfafaczek, 2011) help to estimate an additional moisture loads as a result of the air intrusion. The wind uplifting pressure in combination with wind gusts are important factors for a fluttering roof. Unfortunately, the effect from a fluctuating wind is difficult to estimate as this is a highly dynamic phenomenon and existing standards (ASTM, 2011a) only take into account a steady state approach i.e. there is no guidance or regulations on how to estimate the air intrusion rate. Obviously, a more detailed knowledge on the hygrothermal performance of mechanically attached cool roof system is requested; in consideration to varying surface colors, roof air tightness, climate zones and indoor moisture supply.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2013-01-01

252

Energy factors and temporary distribution in insulated built-up roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating) required, radiative cooling, and insulation efficiency. Results indicate that for a black surface, solar heat response is significantly higher in the roof portion with the higher R-value. Solar heat response is directly affected by color of surfacing; lowest to highest values were found with white, white gravel, gray gravel, aluminum-gray, and black. Recommendations are given for reducing surface temperatures of insulated built-up roofs.

Keeton, J. R.; Alumbaugh, R. L.

1981-02-01

253

Integration between solar and space science data for space weather forecast using web services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the technology develops, the opportunity that the human beings behave in space, and it is still understood that the solar activities (especially the solar flare) influence the airlines communication, the ship communication and the power generator of the electric power company, etc. Forecasting the effects of the solar activities is becoming very important because there is such a background. Our goal is that constructs the detailed model from the Sun to the magnetosphere of the earth and simulates the solar activities and the effects. We try to integrate the existing observational data including the ground observational data and satellite observational data using by web service technology as a base to construct the model. We introduce our activity to combine the solar and space science data in Japan. Methods Generally, it is difficult to develop the virtual common database, but web service makes interconnection among different databases comparatively easy. We try to connect some databases in the portal site. Each different data objects is aggregated to a common data object. We can develop more complex services. We use RELAX NG in order to develop these applications easily. We begin the trial of the interconnection among the solar and space science data in Japan. In the case of solar observational data, we find the activity such as VO, for example, VSO and EGSO, but space science data seems to be very complex. In addition to this, there is time lag that solar activity has an effect on the magnetosphere of the Earth. We discuss these characteristic in the data analysis between the solar and space data. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research `The Basic Study of Space Weather Prediction' (17GS0208) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Technology, and Culture of Japan

Kato, S.

2007-08-01

254

A Roof for ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 10 March, an official ceremony took place on the 2,900m high site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility, from where the ALMA antennas will be remotely controlled. The ceremony marked the completion of the structural works, while the building itself will be finished by the end of the year. This will become the operational centre of one of the most important ground-based astronomical facilities on Earth. ESO PR Photo 13a/07 ESO PR Photo 13a/07 Cutting the Red Ribbon The ceremony, known as 'Tijerales' in Chile, is the equivalent to the 'roof-topping ceremony' that takes place worldwide, in one form or another, to celebrate reaching the highest level of a construction. It this case, the construction is the unique ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located near the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "The end of this first stage represents an historic moment for ALMA," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Once completed in December 2007, this monumental building of 7,000 square metres will be one of the largest and most important astronomical operation centres in the world." ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. The OSF buildings are designed to suit the requirements of this exceptional observatory in a remote, desert location. The facility, which will host about 100 people during operations, consists of three main buildings: the technical building, hosting the control centre of the observatory, the antenna assembly building, including four antenna foundations for testing and maintenance purposes, and the warehouse building, including mechanical workshops. Further secondary buildings are the transporter shelters and the vehicle maintenance facilities as well as the ALMA gate house. The construction started in August 2006 and will be completed in December 2007. ESO PR Photo 13b/07 ESO PR Photo 13b/07 The Ceremony The ceremony took place in the presence of representatives of the regional authorities, members of the Chilean Parliament, and representatives of the local community, including the mayor of San Pedro, Ms. Sandra Berna, who joined more than 40 representatives of ESO, NRAO and NAOJ - the organisations that are, together, building ALMA. "This is certainly a big step in the realisation of the ALMA Project. The completion of this facility will be essential for assembly, testing and adjustment as well as operation and maintenance of all ALMA antennas from Europe, North America and from Japan," said Ryusuke Ogasawara, the representative of NAOJ in Chile. "This is a tremendous achievement and represents a major milestone for the ALMA project," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. ESO PR Photo 13c/07 ESO PR Photo 13c/07 The OSF (Artist's View) The first ALMA antennas, the prototypes of which successfully achieved their first combined astronomical observation last week, are expected to arrive at the ALMA site in a few months. These huge antennas will travel in pieces from Europe, USA and Japan and will be assembled next to the OSF building. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership among Europe, Japan and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of Japan by the National As

2007-03-01

255

The solar cube: A building-integrated photovoltaic incubator  

SciTech Connect

A huge tipped glass tube provides instruction to visitors to the Discovery Science Center in Los Angeles, and an educational diversion to commuters on Interstate 5. The project revealed that photovoltaic industry has a lot to learn from those in the construction industry about building-integrated photovoltaics. The industry must develop products pleasing to the architect and the architect's client, and easily adaptable to the rest of the building. This market requires PV manufacturers to look at photovoltaics as a building material that just so happens to produce electricity, too. Hence, price per square rules in this application over cost per watt. Most importantly, of course, demonstrating as pioneers the potential of building-integrated photovoltaics has delighted the client, The Science Discovery Center.

Perlin, J.

2000-06-01

256

The integral method of treatment of experimental data from radiochemical solar neutrino detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical errors in solar neutrino detection are analyzed for gallium-germanium and chlorine-argon detectors for different times of exposure and counter backgrounds. It is shown that short exposures (0.5-1 half-life) produce a minimal (under 10 percent) one-year error. The possibility of detecting the solar neutrino flux variation due to annual changes of the earth-sun distance is examined. An integral approach to experimental data analysis is proposed, and results of a statistical treatment of computer-simulated data are presented.

Gavrin, V. N.; Kopylov, A. V.; Streltsov, A. V.

1985-01-01

257

Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings.  

PubMed

We describe an ultrathin solar cell architecture that combines the benefits of both plasmonic photovoltaics and traditional antireflection coatings. Spatially resolved electron generation rates are used to determine the total integrated current improvement under AM1.5G solar illumination, which can reach a factor of 1.8. The frequency-dependent absorption is found to strongly correlate with the occupation of optical modes within the structure, and the improved absorption is mainly attributed to improved coupling to guided modes rather than localized resonant modes. PMID:20945845

Munday, Jeremy N; Atwater, Harry A

2010-10-14

258

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

1997-01-01

259

Low cost photovoltaic roof tile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static concentrator designs that achieve concentration ratios approaching the theoretical limit have been developed and demonstrated. Concentration ratios in excess of 4:1 have been predicted although this reduces to 3.6:1 for the practical design used for photovoltaic roof tile applications. A new encapsulant based on “solid white oil” has been evaluated for use in the optical cavity, exhibiting excellent optical

S. R. Wenham; S. Bowden; M. Dickinson; R. Largent; N. Shaw; C. B. Honsberg; M. A. Green; P. Smith

1997-01-01

260

Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!  

SciTech Connect

Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

Desjarlais, A.

1995-12-31

261

Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs  

SciTech Connect

Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

1998-06-01

262

A High Resolution Integral Field Spectrograph for the European Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the proposal of a high resolution, integral field spectrograph that is currently being designed for the 4-meter aperture European Solar Telescope that will be located in the Canary Islands. This instrument is optimized to study the solar chromosphere and photosphere to allow the investigation of several phenomena concentrated within these two layers. It will be able to observe simultaneously a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec2 that is reorganized, using an integral field unit, into 8 long slits of 200 arcsec length by 0.05 arcsec width. It will have the capability to observe different layers of the Sun at the same time due to its multi-wavelength capability that allows the observation of 5 visible and 3 near-infrared wavelength intervals from 3900 to 23,000 Å, with a spectral resolution of about 300,000. The designed instrument is telecentric and presents an optical quality limited by diffraction.

Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.

263

Directional response error in integrating-sphere transmittance measurements at solar wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

To correctly measure the solar transmittance of a material that scatters light, a detector with uniform directional response must be used, and the integrating sphere is often used in combination with an optical detector for this purpose. However, no real optical detector system has a completely uniform directional response; thus a directional response error will always exist. This note analyzes the directional response error in directional-hemispherical transmittance measurements at solar wavelengths and determines this error for transmittance measurements on materials that scatter light in different ways, made with a state-of-the-art integrating-sphere-spectrophotometer system. It is shown that for certain types of materials, the directional response error is the dominant error in the measurement of directional-hemispherical transmittance. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Milburn, D.I.; Hollands, K.G.T. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

1995-08-01

264

System for collecting and storing solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for collecting and storing solar energy which includes solar panels which are installed between the joists of the roof so that the collector surface of each panel acts as part of the roof of each panel and also includes a heat storage system connected to the back side of each panel. Each heat storage system has

Hepp

1976-01-01

265

(Passive solar heating system). Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reason for developing the Biancopanel was to determine the increase in air temperatures while passing over brass finned tubes enclosed in a solar collector. The author wanted to demonstrate that air will circulate by means of natural convection, thus, no fan being required. Passive solar panels were built into the roof between 22-in. center roof rafters. One negative result

Bianco

1985-01-01

266

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

2008-07-01

267

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, retrofitting work to build a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been started. A number of numerical methods have been developed to improve the quality of and to analyze the collected drilling parameters. Finite element modeling of roof bolting mechanism is continuing.

Syd S. Peng

2001-07-15

268

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. The retrofitting works for a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been completed. The laboratory tests performed using this machine on simulated roof blocks have been conducted. The analysis performed on the testing data showed promising signs to detect the rock interface, fractures, as well as the rock types. The other tasks were progressing as planned.

Syd S. Peng

2001-10-15

269

Optimization and modeling of a photovoltaic solar integrated system by neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic solar integrated system is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN’s). Data relevant to the system performance was collected on April, 4th 1993 and every 15min during the day. This input–output data is used to train the ANN. The ANN approximates the data well and therefore can be relied on in predicting the system performance, namely, system efficiencies. The

Moh’d Sami S. Ashhab

2008-01-01

270

Light absorption enhancement in heterostructure organic solar cells through the integration of 1-D plasmonic gratings.  

PubMed

The integration of a plasmonic lamellar grating in a heterostructure organic solar cell as a light trapping mechanism is investigated with numerical Finite Elements simulations. A global optimization of all the geometric parameters has been performed. The obtained wide-band enhancement in optical absorption is correlated with both the propagating and the localized plasmonic modes of the structure, which have been identified and characterized in detail. PMID:22828616

Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Sammito, Davide; Zacco, Gabriele; Mazzeo, Marco; Gigli, Giuseppe; Romanato, Filippo

2012-07-01

271

Monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cell submodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell submodules with 15% efficiencies have been demonstrated on flexible ceramic and thin soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates. For ceramic substrates, alkali-doping control was performed using alkali–silicate glass thin layers deposited prior to the sputtering of the Mo back contact layer. An independently certified 15.9% submodule efficiency (17 cells, aperture area 75.7cm2) was demonstrated for a

Shogo Ishizuka; Takashi Yoshiyama; Kazuyuki Mizukoshi; Akimasa Yamada; Shigeru Niki

2010-01-01

272

A solar cooker using vacuum-tube collectors with integrated heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar cooking system is described which consists of a vacuum-tube collector with integrated long heat pipes directly leading to the oven plate. The cooker was tested during several clear days in Marburg (latitude 51°). The heat-up times were measured under cold- and hot-start conditions. Detailed temperature distributions and their time dependences were measured. The maximum temperature obtained in a

A. Balzar; P. Stumpf; S. Eckhoff; H. Ackermann; M. Grupp

1996-01-01

273

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce…

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

274

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress report No. 14  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth quarterly report under a JPL/DOE program to develop electrostatic bonding as a method of integral encapsulation of solar cells in glass. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue demonstrations of process uniformity of electrostatic bonding encapsulation by production of 24-cell minimodules by ESB. Additional goals of this program are to develop preformed (wire-mesh) contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure, resulting in a low-cost module assembly technique, and to investigate low-temperature bonding to commercially available glass (Pyrex) superstrates. Progress is reported.

Not Available

1980-08-01

275

NREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from these renewable resources could be integrated reliably into the grid. To inform the discussion about the potential of such variable sources, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched two key regional studies, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically possible for U.S. power systems to integrate 20%-35% renewable electricity if infrastructure and operational improvements can be made.

Not Available

2011-10-01

276

Roof mounting site analysis for micro-wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building-integrated micro-wind turbines are promising low-cost renewable energy devices. However, the take-up of micro-wind turbines in high density suburban environments is still very limited due to issues such as: a) low wind speeds; b) high turbulence intensity; and c) the perception of potentially high levels of aerodynamic noise generated by the turbines. The wind flow field above the roof of

L. Ledo; P. B. Kosasih; P. Cooper

2011-01-01

277

Solar panel installation configurations for optimum system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main object of this paper is to identify solar panel installation configurations to achieve optimum system performance irrespective of installation surface configurations. It is important to mention that the panel installation requirements are strictly dependent on the roof configurations, Northern and Southern hemispherical locations, and the latitudes of the installation locations. Panel installation schemes for flat roof, inclined roof,

A. R. Jha

2010-01-01

278

Solar test of an integrated sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver\\/reactor for thermochemical energy transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1987, a chemical reactor integrated into a sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver was tested in the solar furnace at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The reaction carried out was the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. This reaction is one of the leading candidates for thermochemical energy transport either within a distributed solar receiver system or over long

R. B. Diver; J. D. Fish; R. Levitan; M. Levy; H. Rosin; J. T. Richardson

1988-01-01

279

Roofing and siding rehabs get an energy fix  

SciTech Connect

Replacement of worn siding and roof coverings brings an opportunity to upgrade energy efficiency of both. This article discusses several options for incorporating energy retrofits into roof and wood siding rehabs. Topics include the following: roofing: shallow rafter pitch, cathedral and sloped ceilings, roof venting, white roofs for cool homes; siding: adding rigid foam, added insulation pay off. 3 tabs., 2 figs.

Fisette, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-11-01

280

Green roof vegetation for North American ecoregions: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green roof is a vegetated roof or deck designed to provide urban greening for buildings, people, or the environment. Made popular across Europe over the past few decades, green roofs are now becoming more familiar to North Americans as some cities have built green roof pilot projects and adopted incentives for using green roofs or even require their use.

Bruce Dvorak; Astrid Volder

2010-01-01

281

Study on the Relations between Roof Shallow Strata Type and Roof Caving Hidden Danger Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore relationship between the different types of shallow roof, different structure combination of roof strata and the level of roof caving hidden danger. Based on roof stability partition method, using RFPA software, respectively on set a model about Soft-toughening type rock, Soft-brittle type rock, Medium-toughening type rock, Medium strength-Medium stiffness type rock, Hard-toughening type rock and Hard-brittle

Liu Hongtao; Tao Han; Chen Tao; Ren Qinhua; Zhu Zhentao

2012-01-01

282

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

1983-06-01

283

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

284

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The selected site and the field testing plan enabled us to test all three aspects of roof geological features. The development of the data interpretation methodologies and the geology mapping computer program have also been preceding well.

Syd S. Peng

2003-07-15

285

The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2011-01-01

286

Superstrate and substrate type cadmium telluride solar cells and monolithic integration of photovoltaic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the fabrication of polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells and monolithic integration of photovoltaic devices into modules using laser scribing. We have improved the efficiency of sputtered superstrate type CdTe solar cells, including devices with unconventionally thin absorber, built world-record efficiency substrate type CdTe solar cells, observed effects related to interfacial layers, and investigated the use of 7 different types of lasers for scribing of materials used for CdTe and CuInGaSe2 solar cells. We have fabricated CdTe/CdS solar cells using magnetron sputtering with conversion efficiencies of 12.5%. As the thickness of CdTe is reduced to less than 1 mum, devices still maintain efficiencies near 10%. Thinning of the CdTe layer would make manufacturing of solar modules more economical. We have built inverted (substrate) configuration CdTe solar cells with state-of-the-art efficiencies of 7.8%. We find that tellurium and sulfur interdiffusion is strongly inhibited in substrate type cells due to the fact that the CdS is grown on fully formed CdTe grains. We have optimized a sputtering process for aluminum-doped ZnO, achieved a resistivity of 5 x 10-4 O-cm, and fabricated 5.8% efficient substrate type CdTe solar cells with the ZnO:Al top contact. We have researched the effect of a high resistivity (HR) layer between the CdS and a transparent conducting oxide. Cells with the HR layer maintain higher efficiencies as the thickness of the CdS is reduced to 60 nm and less. We have investigated the use of 7 different types of lasers for scribing of the polycrystalline materials used for CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells. The lasers included four different Nd:YAG (532 and 1064 nm), a Cu vapor (511 and 578 nm) and two excimers (308 and 248 nm). Pulse durations ranged from 0.1 to 250 ns. We find that most wavelength and pulse duration combinations work well for the thin-film materials. ZnO should be scribed with an ultraviolet wavelength laser. We have achieved best results for CIGS on Mo with longer pulse durations (250 ns). Ridges along the edges of scribe lines can be eliminated by adjustment of focus conditions.

Matulionis, Ilvydas

287

Energy Analysis of Ventilated Roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The thermal performance of the building envelope is an important requirement for guaranteeing both a comfortable indoor climate\\u000a and building’s energy efficiency.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Ventilated facades and ventilated roofs could be considered as a passive cooling system that contribute to realize low energy\\u000a building.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The energy advantages provided by the ventilation of structures, during the summer, is the reduction of the cooling

F. Patania; A. Gagliano; F. Nocera; A. Ferlito; A. Galesi

288

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool

Hashem Akbari; Ronnen Levinson; Arthur Rosenfeld; Matthew Elliot

2009-01-01

289

Dependence of street canyon concentrations on above-roof wind speed - implications for numerical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In micro-scale numerical modelling of street canyon pollution, an inverse proportionality of additional concentration (C) with wind speed (U_roof) is often assumed for cases without buoyancy, stability effects, solar radiation and traffic induced turbulence. Detailed data analyses of two comprehensive field datasets from Göttinger Straße in Hannover and Jagtvej, Copenhagen including concentration and wind field measurements in the street and

Matthias Ketzel; Ruwim Berkowicz; W. J. Muller; Achim Lohmeyer

2002-01-01

290

Theoretical and experimental analysis of the energy balance of extensive green roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the energy balance of extensive green roofs and presented a simple but practical energy balance model. Field experiment justified the validation and accuracy of this model. Experimental results demonstrated that within 24h of a typical summer day, when soil was rich in water content, solar radiation accounted for 99.1% of the total heat gain of a Sedum

Chi Feng; Qinglin Meng; Yufeng Zhang

2010-01-01

291

Analysis of the green roof thermal properties and investigation of its energy performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of the planned roofs are undoubtedly numerous from both the ecological and the social point of view. They act positively upon the climate of the city and its region, as well as upon the interior climate of the buildings beneath them. They give protection from the solar radiation, which is the main factor in passive cooling. By reducing

A. Niachou; K Papakonstantinou; M Santamouris; A Tsangrassoulis; G Mihalakakou

2001-01-01

292

Integral radial cosmic ray gradients in the solar system from 1972 to 1982  

SciTech Connect

The cosmic-ray telescope data on IMP 8, Voyagers 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 have been used to determine the integral radial cosmic-ray intensity gradients for energies greater than 60 MeV per nucleon. When the 26 day average counting rates are time-shifted for the effects of the outward propagation speed of the solar modulation, the average integral radial gradients (G/sub r/) are 3.0 +- 0.3/sup 5/ (%/AU) from 1975 to 1982. G/sub r/ is independent to the first order of the cosmic-ray intensity and radial heliocentric distance out to about 30 AU. After the large transient variations in the cosmic-ray intensity inn mid-1982, the integral gradients returned to their original values.

Lockwood, J.A.; Webber, W.R.

1984-04-01

293

40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140... § 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined from nominal...

2013-07-01

294

An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.  

PubMed

This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day). PMID:23596946

Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

2013-02-01

295

Cooler Tile-Roofed Buildings with Near-Infrared-ReflectiveNon-white Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Owners of homes with pitched roofs visible from ground leveloften prefer non-white roofing products for aesthetic considerations.Non-white, near-infrared-reflective architectural coatings can be appliedin-situ to pitched concrete or clay tile roofs to reduce tiletemperature, building heat gain, and cooling power demand, whilesimultaneously improving the roof s appearance. Scale model measurementsof building temperatures and heat-flux were combined with solar andcooling energy use data to estimate the effects of such cool roofcoatings in various California data. Under typical conditions e.g., 1 kWm-2 summer afternoon insolation, R-11 attic insulation, no radiantbarrier, and a 0.3 reduction in solar absorptance absolute reductions inroof surface temperature, attic air temperature, and ceiling heat fluxare about 12 K, 6.2 K, and 3.7 W m-2, respectively. For a typical 1,500ft2 (139 m2) house with R-11 attic insulation and no radiant barrier,reducing roof absorptance by 0.3 yields whole-house peak power savings of230, 210, and 210 W in Fresno, San Bernardino, and San Diego,respectively. The corresponding absolute and fractional cooling energysavings are 92 kWh yr-1 (5 percent), 67 kWh yr-1 (6 percent), and 8 kWhyr-1 (1 percent), respectively. These savings are about half thosepreviously reported for houses with non-tile roofs. With theseassumptions, the statewide peak cooling power and annual cooling energyreductions would be 240 MW and 63 GWh yr-1, respectively. These energysavings would reduce annual emissions from California power plants by 35kilotonnes CO2, 11 tonnes NOx,and 0.86 tonnes SOx. The economic value ofcooling energy savings is well below the cost of coating a tile roof, butthe simple payback times for using cool pigments in a rooftile coatingare modest (5-7 years) in the hot climates of Fresno and SanBernardino.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Reilly, Joeseph C.

2004-06-25

296

Efficient use of gas by the employment of assembly-type radiant roofs in industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Compared with conventional flame burner heating systems, special burners such as radiant burners allow a more efficient utilization of gas in industrial furnaces in many cases of application. Practice has shown that the integration of radiant burners into assembly-type roof elements and the additional application of radiation-active ceramic protective layers permit an efficient design and employment of radiant roofs. Self-supporting superstructure elements made of heat-resistant reinforced concrete and recently also of fibrous materials are used as assembly-type roof elements which carry the radiant burners alone. Model investigations have shown that an increase in emissivity of burner bricks and adjacent roof and wall areas makes it possible to intensify the radiant heat transfer in the furnace chambers.

Borrmann, F.; Hafner, K.

1988-01-01

297

Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22m wide×3.66m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof types×two aspects×four

Mingteh Chang; Matthew W. McBroom; R. Scott Beasley

2004-01-01

298

Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

Fleeman, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

299

New technology improves roof control safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Bureau of Mines has designed roof bolters, supports, and roof-control systems that will increase mining productivity and efficiency while saving miner's lives. The author presents the results of ten of the Bureau's research projects that are related to ground control safety.

1985-01-01

300

Evaluation of Roof Trusses, Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to evaluate a number of roof support systems that have some physical similarity to the truss introduced by the Birmingham Bolt Co. in 1966. The report is in two parts: Part I is a state-of-the-art study of roof truss tech...

C. P. Mangelsdorf

1979-01-01

301

SOUND TRANSMISSION LOSS OF GREEN ROOFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs have the potential to provide excellent external\\/internal sound isolation due to their high mass, low stiffness and damping effect, and through surface absorption, reduce noise pollution in the community from aircraft, elevated transit systems, industrial sites and noise build-up in urban areas. This paper reviews the acoustical characteristics and the potential contributions of green roofs to the acoustical

Maureen Connelly; Murray Hodgson

302

Seismic qualification of building roof structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a method for qualifying the existing roof structure of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof is a safety class 1 structure and subject to the...

M. A. Islam R. B. Pan

1991-01-01

303

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in an area of a coal mine with similar strata, opening dimensions and roof stresses...of the affected mine which has similar strata, opening dimensions and roof stresses...support by creating a beam of laminated strata shall be at least 30 inches long....

2010-07-01

304

Roofs--Their Problems and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most roofs are meant to withstand the elements for a period of 20 years; to achieve this goal, however, school officials must believe in a dedicated maintenance program and sell it to their superiors and school boards. Establishment of a school district roof maintenance program is explained. Job qualifications and training methods for an inhouse…

Swentkofske, Carl J.

305

An Experimental Evaluation of Roof Reduction Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major portion of the radiation dose received within a structure is due to the fallout deposited on the roof. The report describes experiments conducted to measure the attenuation introduced by the roof to this radiation as a function of the mass thickne...

C. McDonnell J. Velletri

1966-01-01

306

Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs' beams. Calculations were done to determine the stress...

S. Sakla

1995-01-01

307

Roofing Workbook and Tests. Plans and Specifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combination workbook and set of tests on plans and specifications is one in a series of nine individually bound units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The five topics covered are (1) regulations governing the roofing and waterproofing industry, (2) an overview of blueprints, (3) an overview of specifications, (4)…

Mongerson, M. Duane, Comp.

308

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More laboratory tests have been performed in this quarter. The analysis performed on the testing data showed: (1) abnormal rotational accelerations can be used as the indicator of the rock interfaces, and (2) the sharp drops of drilling thrust and torque agree well with the locations of fractures.

Syd S. Peng

2002-04-15

309

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. A new mechanical approach to estimate rock strengths using the acquired drilling parameters has been proposed. This approach takes a number of important factors, that have never been studied in the previous researches, into the considerations. Good results have been shown using the new approach on the testing data.

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-15

310

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

Bower, Ward

2011-09-01

311

Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

2012-06-01

312

Detection of Solar Differential Rotation in Disk-Integrated Ca II K Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of solar differential rotation (SDR) from disk-integrated chromospheric measurements has important implications for the study of differential rotation and dynamo processes in other stars. Chromospheric lines, such as Ca II K, are very sensitive to the presence of activity on the disk and are an ideal choice for investigating SDR in Sun-as-a star obervations. Here we use daily observations from the SOLIS Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS) to study the temporal variations of the Ca II K line profiles from 2006 to 2012. We discuss the signature of SDR in the power spectra computed from time series of parameters derived from these profiles, and the implications for detecting differential rotation in other Main-Sequence stars.

Bertello, Luca; Pietarila, A.; Pevtsov, A. A.

2012-05-01

313

Energy factors and temperature distribution in insulated built-up roofs. Technical note July 1977-January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating) required, radiative cooling, and insulation efficiency. Results indicate that for a black surface, solar heat response is significantly higher in the roof portion with the higher R-value. Solar heat response is directly affected by color of surfacing; lowest to highest values were found with white, white gravel, gray gravel, aluminum-gray, and black. Recommendations are given for reducing surface temperatures of insulated built-up roofs.

Keeton, J.R.; Alumbaugh, R.L.

1981-02-01

314

Passive solar underground home  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2700 ft² passive solar, underground house is described. Dirt from a near-by swamp was used to berm the structure; 2 to 3 feet of dirt are piled on the roof. Glazing on the south side (200 ft²) provides passive solar heat as well as daylighting. The open design is described and illustrated. (MJJ)

Pauls

1978-01-01

315

Passive Solar Heating Residences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Passive solar heating systems can supply a major portion of a house's heating load if properly designed. The four basic concepts used are direct gain, thermal storage in wall or roof, solar greenhouse and convective loop. In most applications some of thes...

W. E. Olson

1979-01-01

316

Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems. Semiannual progress report, 1 Jan30 Jun 1974. [Solar vs. conventional systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar-powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating; seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single-family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled to determine

Denton

1974-01-01

317

76 FR 81920 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...installation requires a roof integrated solar collector to meet local historic preservation...installation requires a roof integrated solar collector to meet local historic preservation...installation requires a roof integrated solar collector to meet local historic...

2011-12-29

318

Solar home on the range  

SciTech Connect

Solar technologies and indigenous materials are used in this remote Texas ranch house. Passive solar, thermal mass of adobe walls, photovoltaics, wood stoves, native stone, a ventilated roof, reflective barrier, and porch overhangs surrounding the house combine to keep the house comfortable all summer. The PV system used a passive solar tracking system that increased the electrical output by an overall 29 percent.

Wainwright, K.

1999-10-01

319

An integral field spectrograph for the 4-m European Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the proposal of a high resolution, integral field spectrograph that is currently being designed for the 4-meter aperture European Solar Telescope. This instrument is optimized for the study of the solar chromosphere and photosphere to allow the investigation of magnetic phenomena concentrated within these two layers. It will observe a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec2 that is reorganized, using an integral field unit, into eight long slits of 200 arcsec length by 0.05 arcsec width. A new concept of image slicer has been specifically designed for this instrument. It is a telecentric system and, because of the symmetry of its layout, it presents several advantages, which are presented in this paper. The spectrograph will have capabilities to observe different layers of the Sun at the same time due to its multi-wavelength capability that allows the observation of 5 visible and 3 near-infrared wavelength intervals from 3900 to 23000 Å{}, with a spectral resolution of about 300,000. In addition, it is designed to offer two modes of operation: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric. The optical quality of the instrument is diffraction limited.

Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; López, R. L.

320

Automatic extraction of building roofs using LIDAR data and multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic 3D extraction of building roofs from remotely sensed data is important for many applications including city modelling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic 3D roof extraction through an effective integration of LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data and multispectral orthoimagery. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first group contains the ground points that are exploited to constitute a 'ground mask'. The second group contains the non-ground points which are segmented using an innovative image line guided segmentation technique to extract the roof planes. The image lines are extracted from the grey-scale version of the orthoimage and then classified into several classes such as 'ground', 'tree', 'roof edge' and 'roof ridge' using the ground mask and colour and texture information from the orthoimagery. During segmentation of the non-ground LIDAR points, the lines from the latter two classes are used as baselines to locate the nearby LIDAR points of the neighbouring planes. For each plane a robust seed region is thereby defined using the nearby non-ground LIDAR points of a baseline and this region is iteratively grown to extract the complete roof plane. Finally, a newly proposed rule-based procedure is applied to remove planes constructed on trees. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully remove vegetation and so offers high extraction rates.

Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Zhang, Chunsun; Fraser, Clive S.

2013-09-01

321

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

322

24 CFR 3280.402 - Test procedure for roof trusses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Test procedure for roof trusses. 3280.402 Section 3280.402 ...3280.402 Test procedure for roof trusses. (a) Roof load tests. The following...provisions of § 3280.401, for roof trusses that are supported at the ends and...

2009-04-01

323

24 CFR 3280.402 - Test procedure for roof trusses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Test procedure for roof trusses. 3280.402 Section 3280.402 ...3280.402 Test procedure for roof trusses. (a) Roof load tests. The following...provisions of § 3280.401, for roof trusses that are supported at the ends and...

2010-04-01

324

Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution,

D. Bradley Rowe

2011-01-01

325

GREEN COOLING: COMBINING VEGETATED ROOFS WITH NIGHT VENTILATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effects of green roofs and night ventilation on internal temperature of buildings using test cells with different configurations. Three cells are used in these tests, all of them cooled with night ventilation, one with an insulated green roof, another with an uninsulated green roof and another with a conventional code compliant insulated roof. Several series are

Pablo La Roche

326

The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major goals of NASA’s Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. During the height of solar activity, which occurs roughly once every 11 years, processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. These high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a much deeper understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

Scherrer, J.; McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Livi, S. A.; McNutt, R. L.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roelof, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Schwadron, N. A.; Stone, E. C.; Velli, M. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

2010-12-01

327

Solar panel  

SciTech Connect

A highly efficient solar panel ideally suited for use in heating swimming pools, hot tubs and the like, comprising a plurality of elongated, flexible fluid carrying conduits fixedly secured together in a side by side relationship. The conduits are interconnected at their extremities with header members embodying integral compression fittings of unique design. The panel is shipped in a rolled up, preassembled configuration and is installed by simply unrolling the panel onto any suitable supporting surface. To accommodate the size and shape of the available supporting surface, such as a roof, the novel design of the panel permits it to be periodically rolled back upon itself with the oppositely extending portions thereof resting on the supporting surface in a substantially coplanar, side by side relationship with the next adjacent portions. When the panel is completely rolled out, the adjacent portions thereof are interlocked together by novel interlocking means to provide a highly stable assembly which is substantially impervious to damage by wind, vibration, moisture and mildew.

Wojcik, W.

1983-05-03

328

Effects of roof and rainwater characteristics on copper concentrations in roof runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper sheeting is a common roofing material used in many parts of the world. However, copper dissolved from roof sheeting\\u000a represents a source of copper ions to watersheds. Researchers have studied and recently developed a simple and efficient model\\u000a to predict copper runoff rates. Important input parameters include precipitation amount, rain pH, and roof angle. We hypothesized\\u000a that the length

Gretchen K. Bielmyer; W. Ray Arnold; Joseph R. Tomasso; Jeff J. Isely; Stephen J. Klaine

329

Guide for Airborne Infrared Roof Moisture Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents guidance for the conduct of aerial roof moisture surveys using thermal infrared (IR) scanner systems. Specific information is presented concerning assembly of relevant data prior to the thermal IR imagery acquisition, planning the ima...

L. E. Link

1978-01-01

330

The effect of roof strength on reducing occupant injury in rollovers.  

PubMed

Roof crush occurs and potentially contributes to serious or fatal occupant injury in 26% of rollovers. It is likely that glazing retention is related to the degree of roof crush experienced in rollover accidents. Occupant ejection (including partial ejection) is the leading cause of death and injury in rollover accidents. In fatal passenger car accidents involving ejection, 34% were ejected through the side windows. Side window glass retention during a rollover is likely to significantly reduce occupant ejections. The inverted drop test methodology is a test procedure to evaluate the structural integrity of roofs under loadings similar to those seen in real world rollovers. Recent testing on many different vehicle types indicates that damage consistent with field rollover accidents can be achieved through inverted drop testing at very small drop heights. Drop test comparisons were performed on 16 pairs of vehicles representing a large spectrum of vehicle types. Each vehicle pair includes a production vehicle and a vehicle with a reinforced roof structure dropped under the same test conditions. This paper offers several examples of post-production reinforcements to roof structures that significantly increase the crush resistance of the roof as measured by inverted drop tests. These modifications were implemented with minimal impact on vehicle styling, interior space and visual clearances. The results of these modifications indicate that roof crush can be mitigated by nearly an order of magnitude, as roof crush was reduced by 44-91% with only a 1-2.3% increase in vehicle weight. Additionally, this paper analyzes the glazing breakage patterns in the moveable tempered side windows on the side adjacent to the vehicle impact point in the inverted drop tests. A comparison is made between the production vehicles and the reinforced vehicles in order to determine if the amount roof crush is related to glazing integrity in the side windows. Lastly, two drop test pairs, performed with Hybrid III test dummies, indicates that the reduction of roof crush resulted in a direct reduction in neck loading and therefore an increase in occupant protection. PMID:15850089

Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Steve; Orton, Tia; Meyer, Steven E; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2005-01-01

331

Development of a Roof Savings Calculator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the

Joshua Ryan New; William A Miller; Joe Huang; Ender Erdem

2011-01-01

332

Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it`s nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.

Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.; Raman, M.

1995-03-01

333

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

334

You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

335

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR AN INTEGRATED SOLAR THERMAL-BIOGAS CO-GENERATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The immediate goal is a system based on the integration of the suite of modules developed solar thermal, biogas, ORC, absorption-chiller) that can be assembled together to create systems tailored to the unique demands of individual communities and climates, optimized for effic...

336

Self-assembly as a design tool for the integration of photonic structures into excitonic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to successfully enhance light harvesting of excitonic solar cells is the integration of optical elements that increase the photon path length in the light absorbing layer. Device architectures which incorporate structural order in form of one- or three-dimensional refractive index lattices can lead to the localization of light in specific parts of the spectrum, while retaining the cell's

S. Guldin; P. Docampo; S. Hüttner; P. Kohn; M. Stefik; H. J. Snaith; U. Wiesner; U. Steiner

2011-01-01

337

Experimental investigation on a combined sensible and latent heat storage system integrated with constant\\/varying (solar) heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work is to investigate experimentally the thermal behavior of a packed bed of combined sensible and latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) unit. A TES unit is designed, constructed and integrated with constant temperature bath\\/solar collector to study the performance of the storage unit. The TES unit contains paraffin as phase change material (PCM) filled

N. Nallusamy; S. Sampath; R. Velraj

2007-01-01

338

Experimental study of temperature stratification in an integrated collector–storage solar water heater with two horizontal tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tank-interconnection geometry on temperature stratification in an integrated collector–storage solar water (ICSSW) heater with two horizontal cylindrical tanks has been studied. The tanks were parallel to each other, and separated horizontally and vertically, with the lower tank fitted directly below a glass cover, and half of the upper tank insulated. In addition, a truncated parabolic concentrator was

A. Madhlopa; R. Mgawi; J. Taulo

2006-01-01

339

Solar Test of an Integrated Sodium Reflux Heat-Pipe Receiver/Reactor for Thermochemical Energy Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October 1987, a chemical reactor integrated into a sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver was tested in the solar furnace at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The reaction carried out was the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. This reacti...

R. B. Diver J. D. Fish R. Levitan M. Levy H. Rosin

1988-01-01

340

Roof apertures in office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been made of potential lighting electricity reductions and associated thermal impacts of replacing electric light with sunlight admitted through rooftop glazing on a single-story, prototypical office building. Experimental scale models have been used to determine the fraction of the solar radiation entering the aperture which reaches the work plane as useful illumination. This information is used in

M. Fontoynont; C. Conner; R. C. Kammerud; B. Anderson; F. Bauman; W. Carroll; T. C. Howard; A. Mertol; T. Webster

1983-01-01

341

TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

2013-11-01

342

TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.  

PubMed

Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. PMID:24107414

Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

2013-10-09

343

The Proteasome Is an Integral Part of Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation-induced Gene Expression*  

PubMed Central

Solar ultraviolet (UV) A radiation is a well known trigger of signaling responses in human skin fibroblasts. One important consequence of this stress response is the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), which causes extracellular protein degradation and thereby contributes to photoaging of human skin. In the present study we identify the proteasome as an integral part of the UVA-induced, intracellular signaling cascade in human dermal fibroblasts. UVA-induced singlet oxygen formation was accompanied by protein oxidation, the cross-linking of oxidized proteins, and an inhibition of the proteasomal system. This proteasomal inhibition subsequently led to an accumulation of c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun and activation of activator protein-1, i.e. transcription factors known to control MMP-1 expression. Increased transcription factor activation was also observed if the proteasome was inhibited by cross-linked proteins or lactacystin, indicating a general mechanism. Most importantly, inhibition of the proteasome was of functional relevance for UVA-induced MMP-1 expression, because overexpression of the proteasome or the protein repair enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase prevented the UVA-induced induction of MMP-1. These studies show that an environmentally relevant stimulus can trigger a signaling pathway, which links intracellular and extracellular protein degradation. They also identify the proteasome as an integral part of the UVA stress response.

Catalgol, Betul; Ziaja, Isabella; Breusing, Nicolle; Jung, Tobias; Hohn, Annika; Alpertunga, Buket; Schroeder, Peter; Chondrogianni, Niki; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Petropoulos, Isabelle; Friguet, Bertrand; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Krutmann, Jean; Grune, Tilman

2009-01-01

344

Monitoring the energy-use effects of cool roofs on Californiacommercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such 'cool' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a four-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas. Results showed that installing a cool roof reduced the daily peak roof surface temperature of each building by 33-42 K. In the retail store building in Sacramento, for the monitored period of 8 August-30 September 2002, the estimated savings in average air conditioning energy use was about 72 Wh/m{sup 2}/day (52%). On hot days when the afternoon temperature exceeded 38 C, the measured savings in average peak demand for peak hours (noon-5 p.m.) was about 10 W/m{sup 2} of conditioned area. In the school building in San Marcos, for the monitored period of 8 July-20 August 2002, the estimated savings in average air conditioning energy use was about 42-48 Wh/m{sup 2}/day (17-18%). On hot days, when the afternoon temperature exceeded 32 C, the measured savings in average peak demand for hours 10 a.m.-4 p.m. was about 5 W/m{sup 2} of conditioned area. In the cold storage facility in Reedley, for the monitored period of 11 July-14 September 2002, and 11 July-18 August 2003, the estimated savings in average chiller energy use was about 57-81 Wh/m{sup 2}/day (3-4%). On hot days when the afternoon temperature exceeded 38 C, the measured savings in average peak-period demand (average cooling-power demand during peak demand hours, typically noon-6 p.m.) was about 5-6 W/m{sup 2} of conditioned area. Using the measured data and calibrated simulations, we estimated savings for similar buildings installing cool roofs in retrofit applications for all 16 California climate zones. For similar retail stores in climate zones 2 and 4-16, installing a cool roof can save about 6-15 kWh/m{sup 2}/year of conditioned area. In climate zones 2-16, estimates of average peak demand savings for hours noon-5 p.m. range from 2.9 to 5.8 W/m{sup 2}. For similar school buildings in climate zones 2-16, installing a cool roof can save from 3 to 6 kWh/m{sup 2}/year of conditioned roof area. For all 16 climate zones estimates of average peak demand savings for hours noon-5 p.m. range from 2.6 to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. In similar cold storage buildings in all 16 climate zones, installing a cool roof can save about 4.5-7.4 kWh/m{sup 2}/year of conditioned roof area. In all 16 climate zones, estimates of average peak demand savings for hours noon-5 p.m. range from 3.9 to 6.6 W/m{sup 2}.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rainer, Leo

2004-07-14

345

Prevention of residential roof fires by use of a class "A" fire rated roof system.  

PubMed

Because residential roof fires remain a life-threatening danger to residential homeowners in the United States, we describe in detail a national fire prevention program for reducing residential roof fires by use of an Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and National Fire Protection Association Class A fire rated roof system. This Class A system should comply with the test requirements for fire resistance of roof coverings, as outlined in UL 790 or in ASTM International (ASTM) E-108. Both the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association (ARMA) and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) have set up guidelines for selecting a new roof for the homeowner. Class A, fiber-glass-based asphalt roofing shingles represent an overwhelming share of the United States residential roofing market, and, as such, the Class A rated roofing system remains an excellent alternative to wood shingles and shakes. Fortunately, the Class A fire rating is available for certain wood shingle products that incorporate a factory-applied, fire resistant treatment. However, in this circumstance, wood products labeled as Class B shakes or shingles must be installed over spaced or solid sheathing that have been covered either with one layer of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) thick noncombustible roof board, or with one layer of minimum 72-lb. fiber-glass-based mineral surfaced cap sheet, or with another specialty roofing sheet to obtain the Class A fire rating. Clay, tile, slate, and metal have been assigned Class A fire ratings in the codes (but often without testing). These alternative roofing materials are often considerably more expensive. Proper application, ventilation, and insulation of roofing systems are required to prevent heat and moisture buildup in the attic, which can damage the roofing system, making it more susceptible to water leakage as well as ignition in the event of a fire. The NRCA has devised excellent recommendations for the homeowner to prequalify the contractor. In addition, a warranty for any new roofing material is important for the homeowner to ensure that the roofing can be repaired by the contractor or manufacturer during the specified warranty period, in case of contractor error or a manufacturing defect. In addition, the homeowner should ensure that the warranty is transferable to any future owner of the home to allow the buyer to have the same warranty benefits as the original owner. The State of California has mandated strict roofing requirements to prevent residential fires. In the absence of this legislation in other states, the homeowner must follow the guidelines outlined in this collective review to ensure that a roofing system with Class A fire protection is installed. Other fire safety precautions that should also be considered mandatory are to include smoke alarms, escape plans, and retrofit fire sprinklers. PMID:15099189

Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Britt, L D

2004-01-01

346

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

2009-11-20

347

Effects of the integrated galactic IMF on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial mass function determines the fraction of stars of different initial mass born per stellar generation. In this paper, we test the effects of the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood. The IGIMF (Weidner & Kroupa 2005) is computed from the combination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), i.e. the mass function of single star clusters, and the embedded cluster mass function, i.e. a power law with index ?. By taking into account also the fact that the maximum achievable stellar mass is a function of the total mass of the cluster, the IGIMF becomes a time-varying IMF which depends on the star formation rate. We applied this formalism to a chemical evolution model for the solar neighbourhood and compared the results obtained by assuming three possible values for ? with the results obtained by means of a standard, well-tested, constant IMF. In general, a lower absolute value of ? implies a flatter IGIMF, hence a larger number of massive stars and larger metal ejection rates. This translates into higher type Ia and II supernova rates, higher mass ejection rates from massive stars and a larger amount of gas available for star formation, coupled with lower present-day stellar mass densities. Lower values of ? correspond also to higher metallicities and higher [?/Fe] values at a given metallicity. We consider a large set of chemical evolution observables and test which value of ? provides the best match to all of these constraints. We also discuss the importance of the present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) in providing a way to disentangle among various assumptions for ?. Our results indicate that the model adopting the IGIMF computed with ? ~= 2 should be considered the best since it allows us to reproduce the observed PDMF and to account for most of the chemical evolution constraints considered in this work.

Calura, F.; Recchi, S.; Matteucci, F.; Kroupa, P.

2010-08-01

348

Effects of roof and rainwater characteristics on copper concentrations in roof runoff.  

PubMed

Copper sheeting is a common roofing material used in many parts of the world. However, copper dissolved from roof sheeting represents a source of copper ions to watersheds. Researchers have studied and recently developed a simple and efficient model to predict copper runoff rates. Important input parameters include precipitation amount, rain pH, and roof angle. We hypothesized that the length of a roof also positively correlates with copper concentration (thus, runoff rates) on the basis that runoff concentrations should positively correlate with contact time between acidic rain and the copper sheet. In this study, a novel system was designed to test and model the effects of roof length (length of roof from crown to the drip edge) on runoff copper concentrations relative to rain pH and roof angle. The system consisted of a flat-bottom copper trough mounted on an apparatus that allowed run length and slope to be varied. Water of known chemistry was trickled down the trough at a constant rate and sampled at the bottom. Consistent with other studies, as pH of the synthetic rainwater decreased, runoff copper concentrations increased. At all pH values tested, these results indicated that run length was more important in explaining variability in copper concentrations than was the roof slope. The regression equation with log-transformed data (R(2)?=?0.873) accounted for slightly more variability than the equation with untransformed data (R(2)?=?0.834). In log-transformed data, roof angle was not significant in predicting copper concentrations. PMID:21713491

Bielmyer, Gretchen K; Arnold, W Ray; Tomasso, Joseph R; Isely, Jeff J; Klaine, Stephen J

2011-06-29

349

46. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF KING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF KING POST TRUSS ALONG LENGTH OF THE BUILDING. RAILS ON FLOOR FOR MOVEMENT OF GOODS STORED IN ROOF SPACE. - Continental Gin Company, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

350

30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, permanent support shall not be removed whereâ (1) Roof bolt torque or tension measurements or the condition of conventional support indicate excessive loading; (2) Roof fractures are present;...

2013-07-01

351

BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND 90 FT. SPAN ROOF TRUSSES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Blacksmith Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

352

30 CFR 75.221 - Roof control plan information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Roof control plan information. 75.221 Section... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL... Roof control plan information. (a) The...

2013-07-01

353

Health Hazard Evaluation/Toxicity Determination Report 75-194-324, Western Roofing Company, Sellers and Marquis Roofing Company, A. J. Shirk Roofing Company, Quality Roofing Company, Kansas City, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a medical-environmental evaluation indicates that employees were exposed to toxic concentrations of particulate polycyclic organic matter during roofing operations involving the tear-off of a 7 acre roof. The particulate polycyclic organic ...

R. L. Hervin E. A. Emmett

1976-01-01

354

Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)|

Williams, Jennifer Lynn

2002-01-01

355

5. ROOF DETAIL, LOOKING EAST TOWARD SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. ROOF DETAIL, LOOKING EAST TOWARD SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE FROM ROOF OF ASSEMBLY AREA. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

356

13. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ON WEST SIDE, FACING SOUTH. SHOWS SMC ROOF UTILITY PAD. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

357

Detail view of roof construction where cornice has fallen away, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of roof construction where cornice has fallen away, exposing column, beam, and concrete plank roof juncture, looking north - Trenton Jewish Community Center, Day Camp Pavilions, 999 Lower Ferry Road, Ewing, Mercer County, NJ

358

Battery Energy Storage for Enabling Integration of Distributed Solar Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As solar photovoltaic power generation becomes more commonplace, the inherent intermittency of the solar resource poses one of the great challenges to those who would design and implement the next generation smart grid. Specifically, grid-tied solar power generation is a distributed resource whose output can change extremely rapidly, resulting in many issues for the distribution system operator with a large

Cody A. Hill; Matthew Clayton Such; Dongmei Chen; W. Mack Grady

2012-01-01

359

Built-in solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is a solar panel assembly and method for fabrication of same including cutting away a portion of the rafters and roof sheeting to provide an orifice of suitable dimension within which a solar panel frame is to be disposed, providing a step portion on an upper inner periphery thereof, disposing a frame lower portion upon the step, installing

M. J. Aloi; K. J. II Hancock

1983-01-01

360

Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly  

DOEpatents

A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2001-10-02

361

Measured performance and modeling of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage solar water heater  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage water heater was conducted in an indoor solar simulator. Useful collected energy, radiation-induced stratification and draw-induced mixing are characterized in eight trials in which test duration, initial tank water temperature, flow rate during withdrawal of heated water from the collector, withdrawal pattern and reflectance of the backplane were varied. All tests were performed at nominal irradiance of 900 W/m{sup 2}, normal incidence, and collector slope of 45 degrees. The capability of the TRNSYS integral collector storage model to predict performance for operating conditions for which data are assumed to be unavailable was assessed. Using data from one experimental trial, optical efficiency ({tau}{alpha}) of the collector was determined by matching predicted useful energy gain to measured gain. Effectiveness of the calibrated model was based on a comparison of predicted gains to measured values obtained in the remaining seven trials. For five of seven trials, predicted performance is within 9% of measured performance and less than experimental error. For the other two trials, predicted performance is within 15% of measured performance. The higher discrepancies may be partially due to experimental conditions not modeled such as heating of the piping connecting the collector to the test facility and inadequate characterization of back-plane reflectivity. The model does not predict radiation-induced stratification. Although the effect of mixing during draws can be approximated by specifying the number of fully mixed volume segments in the tanks, selection of number of nodes requires knowledge of the behavior of the system. The number of nodes selected has minimal impact on total energy gain, but does affect the temperature of water delivered to the load.

Mason, A.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.; Davidson, J.H. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01

362

Roof Blisters, Physical Fitness Building, Fort Lee, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blisters on this 2-year old roof were first noticed one year after construction. Findings show that all blisters were built into the roof and that they will continue to develop in size and number. Currently, this roof is watertight, but leaks will occ...

C. Korhonen J. Bayer

1986-01-01

363

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

1984-02-02

364

GREEN ROOFS: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION OR A PASSING FAD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs were first introduced to the world in the late 1960's during the original sustainable development boom. There has been a renewed interest of late in the sustainable prospects of green roofing. Existing research has proven that green roofs set in urban locations have a hand in reducing rainfall runoff, improving overall air and water quality, and combating the

Tanesha McFarlane

365

Modelling unsaturated flow patterns in green roof substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to examine the unsaturated flow within the green roof substrates realized with high conductivity and coarse grained porous media. In order to base our research on experimental evidences, a monitoring program was carried out at University of Genova (Italy). The green roof experimental site was obtained by retrofitting an existing single-layer vegetated roof built

Anna Palla; Ilaria Gnecco; Luca G. Lanza

2010-01-01

366

Application of Green Roof Techniques in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, green roof techniques have been widely used in Beijing, China, to better utilize rainwater, improve air quality and reduce city heat island effects. By the end of 2008, a few hundred buildings had been constructed with green roofs, with a total green roof area of more than 1 million m2. Currently, more than 100,000 m2

Zhang Yajun; Xu Ping; Wang Huizhen; Feng Cuimin; Yang Haiyan

2010-01-01

367

Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of green roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the life cycle environmental cost characteristics of intensive and extensive green roofs versus conventional roofs. A life cycle inventory and environmental impact assessment is used to document and analyze the similarities and differences in the environmental impacts of the fabrication, transportation, installation, operation, maintenance, and disposal of all three roof systems. This is important because there are

Lisa Kosareo; Robert Ries

2007-01-01

368

Analysis of the green roofs cooling potential in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mathematical model yielding a sensible, albeit simplified representation of the dynamic thermal behaviour of actual green roofs. Several parametric sensitivity analyses have been carried out to assess the cooling potential of green roofs in summer. The main conclusion of these analyses is that green roofs do not act as cooling devices but as insulation ones, reducing

Elena Palomo Del Barrio

1998-01-01

369

Comparison Between the Conventional and the Inverted Additional Insulation of the Flat Roofs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A considerable percentage of all roofs in Denmark are flat roofs covered with roofing felt and as all other types of roof these flat roofs require periodic maintenance. In the conventional method of applying external additional insulation to flat roofs th...

G. Christensen K. Prebensen M. Vesterloekke

1984-01-01

370

AN ANALYSIS OF STORMWATER RETENTION AND DETENTION OF MODULAR GREEN ROOF BLOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs, also known as vegetated roofs or roof gardens, use soil and vegetation to retain and detain precipitation on impervious roof tops. While runoff reduction is an accepted benefit of traditional green roofs, not all roofs are amenable to this design. Newly developed modular designs are more versatile, but their stormwater remediation ability requires assessment. This study quantifies water

ERIC SCHOMMER PROWELL

371

Possibility of estimating the velocity field in the solar atmosphere by measuring the integral characteristics of the solar radiation spectrum  

SciTech Connect

A method of estimating the velocity field in the solar atmosphere by measuring the center of gravity and the asymmetry of spectral lines is proposed. The results of measurements of variations in the center of gravity during scanning over the sun's surface and of its variations with time on a section of the sun are presented.

Gorskii, S.M.; Kozhevatov, I.E.; Lebedev, V.P.

1979-05-01

372

A Novel Photo-Thermoelectric Generator Integrating Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Thermoelectric Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we adopt two different morphologies of self-made nano-TiO2 powder to prepare a double-layer photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Further, DSSC module and thermoelectric generator (TEG) coated with nano-Cu thin film were integrated with a novel photo-thermoelectric generator. For the fabrication of photoelectric conversion modules, TiO2 nanoparticles (H200) fabricated by the hydrothermal method and the powder of TiO2 nanofluid prepared by the submerged arc nanofluid synthesis system (SANSS) were utilized to prepare a double-layer thin film using a surgical blade as the photoelectrode of DSSCs. And then, commercial nano-Cu powder was coated on two sides of TEG to fabricate thermoelectric conversion module by surgical blade. Nano-Cu thin film, as the medium of thermal conductivity, can effectively transfer heat produced by sunlight on the surface of DSSC to the two sides of TEG. Finally, the two modules were combined into the optical thermoelectric generator. The overall experiment utilizes the intensity of 100 mW/cm2 illumination of simulated sunlight, which can produce 4.97 mW/cm2, an increase of 2.87% output compared with merely employing the DSSCs.

Ho Chang,; Mu-Jung Kao,; Kouhsiu David Huang,; Sih-Li Chen,; Zhi-Rong Yu,

2010-06-01

373

Full Scale Model Roof Bolt Test System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full-scale system for testing roof bolts has been furnished to the Bureau of Mines. The system uses a full-size model of a mine entry made from sand and portland cement concrete. A servosystem with hydraulic actuators and load pads provide lateral, vert...

C. W. Maus

1980-01-01

374

Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)|

Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

1981-01-01

375

Roof bolt load and differential sag measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today roof bolts are the major method of support in coal mines. Nevertheless, it is rare when instrumentation exists to evaluate the bolt load upon installation or anytime thereafter. The torque wrench at best gives only a crude approximation and can be in great error. Yet, unless the effectiveness of bolting can be evaluated, it is impossible to improve anchorage

R. de la Cruz; R. Stefanko

1965-01-01

376

Performance evaluation of a cocooned office building in a cold climate integrating passive solar techniques with modern technology  

SciTech Connect

The performance evaluation of the RPI passive solar Visitors Information Center (VIC) has an actual yearly total energy use of 172 MBtu/yr, or on a per unit floor area basis, 33.28 kBtu/ft/sup 2/-yr. This represents a 70% reduction in total energy consumption compared to a similar non-solar building designed under the same energy conservation building code. The actual performance of the VIC is within 2% of the simulated performance used during the design phase. The design of the VIC utilizes timeless passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting techniques, but integrated within a high technology building context. Passive systems are integrated with a complex set of energy flow controls and HVAC back-up systems. Occupants are provided with multiple-comfort-options including personalized comfort systems. The findings associated with this project suggest a new use of passive solar techniques through the use of ''Comfort Optimization Membranes''. These membranes, spaces in themselves, utilize renewable forms of energy, contain numerous energy flow controls and sensing devices to reduce the impact of microclimate liabilities and maximize the use of renewable energies.

Kroner, W.M.

1983-01-01

377

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste burning of asphalt roofing waste  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report was designed to determine the general feasibility and specific requirements for burning asphalt roofing waste and recovering the energy resource as steam. The study combined technical market research with test burning in a three-task program to identify how to use burning as a means for reocvering the 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu in roofing waste landfilled annually.

Zolnick, E.L.; Markus, A.R.; Seigfried, J.N.; Powers, T.J.; Shepherd, P.B.; Graziano, G.J.; Battles, R.L.

1986-09-15

378

Integrated high-concentration PV near-term alternative for low-cost large-scale solar electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale photovoltaic electric power generation deployment and utilization is no longer dictated by limitations in technology, but rather by the economics of PV systems vs. other renewable or traditional options. This paper describes a near-term alternative option for cost-effective solar electric power generation based on a novel sunlight concentrating technology: integrated high-concentration PV(IHCPV). The advantages of high-concentration systems have been

Vahan Garboushian; Dave Roubideaux; Sewang Yoon

1997-01-01

379

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

380

A Laser Welding and Scribing (LWS) Method for a High-Yield Integrated-Type aSi Solar Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fabrication method for integrated-type amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar cell submodules, called the laser welding and scribing (LWS) method, was investigated. The conditions for laser scribing and laser welding were calculated from a three-dimensional thermal analysis of a multilayer structure. Calculated results were confirmed by experiment, and the optimum laser power density range for scribing was found to be much

Yasuo Kishi; Kenji Murata; Hiroshi Inoue; Seiichi Kiyama; Michitoshi Ohnishi; Shoichi Nakano; Yukinori Kuwano

1991-01-01

381

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress Report No. 12, October 11, 1979-January 10, 1980  

SciTech Connect

This is the twelfth quarterly report under a JPL/DOE program for the development of electrostatic bonding as a method of integral encapsulation of solar cells in glass. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue to demonstrate process uniformity of electrostatic bonding encapsulation. Additional goals of this program are to develop preformed (wire mesh) contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure resulting in a low cost module assembly technique, and to investigate low-temperature bonding to commercially available glass (pyrex) substrates. Progress is reported.

Young, P.R.

1980-02-01

382

Solar water heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar absorber assembly primarily for domestic hot water systems having an extruded base member adapted to be located on a sun exposed roof surface, the base member supporting a reflector member and having upwardly extending side portions for supporting a ducting member above the reflector member and a glazing member above the ducting member.

Bloor, T. J.; Walton, L. J.

1985-05-21

383

Static solar heat collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A load-bearing building panel capable of forming an external wall cladding or roof component has a solar heat collecting capacity in the form of channels for heat exchange fluid incorporated in the fabric of the panel. The panel is made of a structural plastics material, such as GRP. Laminate, successive layers being moulded to simulate tiles. On the back or

Brill-Edwards

1981-01-01

384

Building integrated PV for commercial and institutional structures, a sourcebook for architects  

SciTech Connect

This sourcebook on building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is intended for architects and designers interested in learning more about today's sustainable solar buildings. The booklet includes 16 design briefs describing actual structures; they illustrate how electricity-generating BIPV products (such as special roofing systems, vertical-wall systems, skylights, and awnings, all of which contain PV cells, modules, and films) can be integrated successfully into many different kinds of buildings. It also contains basic information about BIPV technologies, an overview of US product development activities and development programs, descriptions of major software design tools, and a bibliography.

Eiffert, P.; Kiss, G.

2000-02-14

385

An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells under day–night cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply was developed for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells. The energy source for the culture is automatically switched to solar light energy (when the weather is sunny), to artificial light energy (during the cloudy period of the day) or to organic carbon source (at night). Thus minimum amount

James C. Ogbonna; Toshihiko Soejima; Charles U. Ugwu; Hideo Tanaka

2001-01-01

386

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2007-06-01

387

Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

Hundemann, A. S.

1980-08-01

388

10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot plant: solar facilities design integration. System Integration Laboratory test plan (RADL Item 6-4). Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A general demonstration test plan for the activities to be accomplished at the Systems Integration Laboratory is presented. The master control system, subsystem distributed process control, representative signal conditioning units and redline units from the receiver subsystem and thermal storage subsystem and other external interface operational functions are integrated and functionally demonstrated.

Not Available

1980-10-01

389

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: system integration laboratory test plan (RADL item 6-4)  

SciTech Connect

A general demonstration test plan is provided for the activities to be accomplished at the Systems Integration Laboratory. The Master Control System, Subsystem Distributed Process Control, Representative Signal Conditioning Units, and Redline Units from the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem and other external interface operational functions will be integrated and functionally demonstrated. The Beckman Multivariable Control Unit will be tested for frequency response, static checks, configuration changes, switching transients, and input-output interfaces. Maximum System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of Pilot Plant controls and external interfaces that are available. Minimum System Integration Laboratory testing will be accomplished with reduced set of hardware, which will provide capability for continued development and demonstration of Operational Control System plant control application software. Beam Control System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of the Beam Control System equipment and software. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-10-01

390

NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

2011-07-01

391

ASTM standards for measuring solar reflectance and infrared emittance of construction materials and comparing their steady-state surface temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Numerous experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that painting roofs white reduces air conditioning load up to 50%, depending on the thermal resistance or amount of insulation under the roof. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of a building and climate. In earlier work, the authors have estimated the national energy savings potential from reflective roofs and paved surfaces. Achieving this potential, however, is conditional on receiving the necessary Federal, states, and electric utilities support to develop materials with high solar reflectance and design effective implementation programs. An important step in initiating an effective program in this area is to work with the american Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the industry to create test procedures, rating, and labeling for building and paving materials. A subcommittee of ASTM E06, E06.42, on Cool Construction Materials, was formed as the vehicle to develop standard practices for measuring, rating, and labeling cool construction materials. The subcommittee has also undertaken the development of a standard practice for calculating a solar reflectance index (SRI) of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces. SRI is a measure of the relative steady-state temperature of a surface with respect to a standard white surface (SRI = 100) and a standard black surface (SRI = 0) under standard solar and ambient conditions. This paper discusses the technical issues relating to development of these two ASTM standards.

Akbari, H.; Levinson, R.; Berdahl, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01

392

Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.  

PubMed

Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated roofing industry and experienced installers for future green roof construction. PMID:18389306

Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

2008-04-04

393

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition  

SciTech Connect

This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

Not Available

1985-01-01

394

Solar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersion relation for a plasma oscillating in a static magnetic field is derived by the Laplace transform method. The plasma oscillations are found to be unstable in frequency bands around multiples of the gyrofrequency. A numerical application to spot magnetic fields at coronal distances indicates sufficient amplification to make plausible the theory of the origin of solar \\

Hari K. Sen

1952-01-01

395

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste: incorporation of roofing waste in asphalt paving. Volume 2. Laboratory investigation  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory test results obtained in this preliminary study indicate the following: Acceptable paving mixtures can be produced which contain 20 vol % roofing waste. With a proper selection of binder type, binder quantities, and aggregate gradations, mixtures containing roofing waste quantities to and perhaps beyond, 30% can probably be prepared with acceptable properties. The type of binder selected for use in a mixture containing roofing waste should be based on the stiffness (penetration and viscosity) of the asphalt cement in the roofing waste. Improved asphalt cement extraction and recovery processes need to be developed for roofing wastes in order to effectively determine the properties of the asphalt cement in the roofing waste. Gradations of conventional aggregates and roofing wastes should be considered when designing paving mixtures.

Paulsen, G.; Stroup-Gardiner, M.; Epps, J.A.

1986-09-15

396

Shading as an active component for solar control: an integrated approach at the early design stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to control solar gains is often in conflict with the need to satisfy daylighting requirements. Utilization of daylight could reduce electricity consumption for lighting and increase occupants' productivity. On the other hand, admission of excessive solar gains could result in increased cooling energy demand. Therefore shading provision should be considered as an essential part of fenestration system design

Athanassios Tzempelikos; Andreas K. Athienitis

397

Adapted multilayer feedforward ANN based power management control of solar photovoltaic and wind integrated power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a DC linked hybrid solar photovoltaic\\/wind energy system for stand-alone applications. Solar and wind energy are utilized as primary energy sources and battery unit is considered as storage to meet the primary load demand. Loads are considered according to their priority such as primary, deferrable and dump loads. Among these loads primary load is having highest priority.

S. Kumaravel; S. Ashok

2011-01-01

398

High-temperature integrated thermal-energy-storage system for solar-thermal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented of a novel, very high temperature solar thermal energy storage system which uses molten slag as the storage medium. Slat bead aggregate is melted in a solar central receiver and stored in liquid form at 16500K in an insulated refractory storage vessel. Sensible heat is extracted from the molten slag in a direct-contact droplet heat exchanger,

A. P. Bruckner; A. Hertzberg

1982-01-01

399

Retainer device for auger, roof and the like type bits  

SciTech Connect

A retainer device of the type for securing by brazing or the like a carbide cutter element to a drill bit body of the auger and roof type. The retainer device includes a unitary, one-piece body made from a consumable, non-ferrous brazing material defined by a base portion and an integral upstanding wing portion adapted to be disposed within a correspondingly shaped recess portion formed in the head of the tool bit. The retaining device is adapted to mount a carbide cutter element such that the cutter element is secured by brazing within the recess portion with the cutter element being exposed for a majority of its area for cutting operations.

Shaw, R.H.

1984-11-06

400

Conceptual design of the Truscott Brine Lake solar pond system. Volume 2: Utility-integrated scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual designs were developed for salt gradient solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. Energy is extracted from six, 10.5 ha (26 acre) solar ponds for conversion to electricity using three organic Rankine cycle turbines. The solar pond system is located in a brine impoundment lake at Truscott, Texas. Low salinity brine flowing into this lake is concentrated by natural evaporation to form the solar pond, and is also used for solar pond maintenance. Two operating scenarios were investigated. A continuous base load system could deliver 9.8 GWh/yr at an output of 1120 kW to the utility electric grid for an estimated capital expenditure of $12.8 million. A system operating only from June through September would cost $21.2 million for an annual energy delivery of 7.7 GWh at a net output during the operating period of 2640 kW.

May, E. K.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1982-12-01

401

Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sinke, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

2010-08-15

402

Time focused measurements of roof runoff quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff properties and their changes during runoff of a 14 year old zinc roof were investigated. Zinc, lead, cadmium, pH value, rain intensity and electric conductivity have been measured for a period of one year. A runoff rate of 3.73g\\/m2a and a volume weighted mean zinc concentration of 4.9mg\\/L were determined. First flush behaviour was observed in 93% of runoff

A. Schriewer; H. Horn; B. Helmreich

2008-01-01

403

Can wet roof insulation be dried out  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive techniques are being widely used to locate wet insulation in compact roofing systems. Now that wet insulation can be found, breather vents and so called ''breathable'' membranes are being promoted to dry out wet insulation, thereby recovering its thermal effectiveness. Exposure tests in New Hampshire indicate that the above venting methods are all rather ineffective in drying sealed specimens of perlite and fibrous glass roof insulation. It would take many decades to dry specimens at the rates measured over the past two years. Cross-ventilation within the insulation increased the rate of drying. For perlite insulation, the faster rate would still result in a drying time measured in decades. For fibrous glass insulation, the drying time was reduced to 13 years. The authors have succeeded in drying fibrous glass insulation in a roof by removing the water with a vacuum cleaner. In a series of tests with a total duration of 134 h, about 0.42 m/sup 3/ (110 gal) of water was removed from a 17-m/sup 2/ (180-ft/sup 2/) area of 38-mm (1.5-in.)-thick insulation. Before the water was removed the insulation had only 21 percent of its dry insulating ability; afterward it had 83 percent.

Tobiasson, W.; Coutermarsh, B.; Greatorex, A.; Korhonen, C.

1981-12-01

404

Can wet roof insulation be dried out  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive techniques are being widely used to locate wet insulation in compact roofing systems. Now that wet insulation can be found, breather vents and so-called breathable membranes are being promoted to dry out wet insulation, thereby recovering its thermal effectiveness. Exposure tests in New Hampshire indicate that the above venting methods are all rather ineffective in drying sealed specimens of perlite and fibrous glass roof insulation. It would take many decades to dry our specimens at the rates measured over the past two years. Cross-ventilation within the insulation increased the rate of drying. For perlite insulation, the faster rate would still result in a drying time measured in decades. For fibrous glass insulation, the drying time was reduced to 13 years. Fibrous glass insulation in a roof was dried by removing the water with a vacuum cleaner. In a series of tests with a total duration of 134 h, about 0.4 2 m/sup 3/ (110 gal) of water was removed from a 17-m/sup 2/ (180-ft/sup 2/) area of 38-mm (1.5-in.)-thick insulation. Before the water was removed the insulation had only 21% of its dry insulating ability; afterward it had 83%.

Tobiasson, W.; Korhonen, C.; Coutermarsh, B.; Greatorex, A.

1983-01-01

405

Solar hot air system  

SciTech Connect

This solar hot air system is designed to trap and hold heat radiation from the sun, so as to heat one's home and reduce fuel consumption. It consists primarily of a glass, a screen, a collector, and air chambers, the combination of which utilizes two sheets of aluminum to trap and hold heat waves, until removed from the unit. It further includes a powerful small fan, to extract maximum heat from the collector while the sun is shining, and the unit is such, that it may be installed upon a vertical exterior wall, on a sloping roof, or upon a flat roof.

Moore, D.E.; Wiggins, J.W.

1983-04-12

406

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (4) about 98% of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed, (5) A real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, has already been verified to perform very well in underground production condition.

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-15

407

A low-cost bio-inspired integrated carbon counter electrode for high conversion efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A novel bio-inspired Pt- and FTO-free integrated pure carbon counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been designed and fabricated using a porous carbon sheet as a conducting substrate and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) as the catalytic layer. A rigid, crustose lichen-like, integrated carbon-carbon composite architecture with a catalytic layer rooted in a porous conducting substrate was formed by a process of polymer precursor spin coating, infiltration and pyrolysis. The integrated pure carbon CE shows very low series resistance (R(s)), owing to the high conductivity of the carbon sheet (sheet resistance of 488 m? ?(-1)) and low charge-transfer resistance (R(ct)), due to the large specific surface area of the OMC layer that is accessible to the redox couple. The values of R(s) and R(ct) are much lower than those of a platinized fluorine-doped thin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) electrode. Cells with this CE show high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (8.11%), comparable to that of Pt/FTO based devices (8.16%). PMID:23881167

Wang, Chunlei; Meng, Fanning; Wu, Mingxing; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Tonghua; Qiu, Jieshan; Ma, Tingli

2013-07-24

408

Integrating physics-based coronal heating and solar wind acceleration in a global MHD model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are being actively investigated, it is largely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process. 3D MHD models of the corona and of the solar wind usually employ some phenomenological artifice to accelerate the wind and heat the corona. Within the framework of a 3D full MHD numerical code, we apply the results of Rappazzo et al. [1] on turbulent cascade to heat the closed-field region, and those of Verdini and Velli [2], Verdini et al. [3] on Alfvén turbulence dissipation to accelerate the solar wind. We also compare the properties of the solar wind at 1 A.U. using a formulation based on Verdini and Velli [2], Verdini et al. [3] and one based on Chandran et al. [4].

Lionello, Roberto; Velli, Marco; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran

2013-06-01

409

Evaluation of design criteria for storage tanks with frangible roof joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

API 650 (API, 1993) provides design criteria for fluid storage tanks with frangible roof joints. The rules are intended for fluid storage tanks used to store flammable liquids which could be subjected to sudden over-pressurization. Sudden over-pressurization can lead to the catastrophic loss of tank integrity. One undesirable mode of failure is the loss of the shell-to-bottom joint, which results

D. Swenson; D. Fenton; Z. Lu; A. Ghori; J. Baalman

1996-01-01

410

Dual Mechatronic MPPT Controllers With PN and OPSO Control Algorithms for the Rotatable Solar Panel in PHEV System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at increasing the efficiency of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by using rotatable solar panel. Conventionally, the PHEV with solar panel has a critical problem of putting on the roof of a PHEV. Since the limited space on the roof of the vehicle is not large enough, rotatable structure is considered to track the sunlight by

Jian-Long Kuo; Kai-Lun Chao; Li-Shiang Lee

2010-01-01

411

Optimal design and integration of solar systems and fossil fuels for sustainable and stable power outlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread industrial utilization of solar energy is an important goal that requires overcoming several technical challenges.\\u000a One of the key hurdles is the need to address the temporal fluctuations in incident solar power (e.g., on an hourly basis\\u000a or seasonally) which lead to variations in the outlet power. This work is aimed at the development of a systematic design\\u000a procedure

Eman A. Tora; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

2009-01-01

412

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

413

Analysis of disabling injuries related to roof bolting in underground bituminous coal mines-1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolter operators are exposed to two principal occupational hazards. One involves the risk of being injured by the roof bolting machine itself and the other involves the risk of being injured by a roof fall during the bolting operation. This report analyzes the various factors related to both the machinery and the roof fall hazards of roof bolting. For

W. K. Miller; R. R. McLellan

1975-01-01

414

Mobilization and loss of elements from roofing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition, leaching and chemical transformation are processes that affect roofing tile and roof runoff water. Leaching experiments,\\u000a with artificial rainwater in the laboratory, showed the presence of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl?, NO3\\u000a ?, SO4\\u000a 2?, with a ratio of Ca2+ and SO4\\u000a 2? suggesting gypsum dissolution. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of the exposed roof tile showed depletion such as Mg,

Fazrul Razman Sulaiman; Peter Brimblecombe; Carlota M. Grossi

2009-01-01

415

The Effect of Roof Inclination on the Condensation Behaviour of Plastic Films used as Greenhouse Covering Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different antifog greenhouse films were investigated concerning their condensation behaviour at different roof inclinations in comparison to a standard copolymer LDPE film. The disadvantage of plastic films used as greenhouse covering in comparison to glass is their hydrophobic behaviour. Drop-like condensation leads to light reflection and to droplets falling onto the plants. Therefore special additives are integrated into the film

K. Gbiorczyk; P. J. Sonneveld; G. P. A. Bot; Elsner Von B

2004-01-01

416

Impact of cutter roof failure on small mine operators  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines has conducted research to gain a basis for recommending methods to predict and prevent the occurrence of cutter roof failure, a common ground control problem in the Appalachian Coalfields. Cutter roof failure can be difficult to predict and control, and be especially devastating to small miner operators with limited resources and small profit margins. Bureau research has found four distinct factors to be initiators of cutter roof failure: (1) high horizontal roof stress, (2) surface topographic variations, (3) roof rock characteristics and (4) geologic anomalies. Effective control of cutter roof is possible through improved bolting techniques, entry and mine reorientation, and entry and pillar size modifications, all of which may not be economically feasible for small mine operators. The result is that small mine operators are forced to continue mining where less than ideal roof conditions are present. Ultimately, cutter roof failure could result in the closure of some small mine operations. Extensive Bureau cutter roof research can increase small mine operator's awareness of this ground failure, provide insight for predicting its cause, and suggest appropriate methods of controlling its occurrence.

Bauer, E.R. (Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-01-01

417

71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND BUILDING TRUSS STRUCTURE - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

418

roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

419

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07

420

5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ROOF. ROOF MONITOR WINDOWS HAVE BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. THE VENTILATION HOUSES ARE PART OF THE ORIGINAL CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND CONTAINED AIR WASHERS, FANS AND OTHER HUMIDFYING EQUIPMENT FROM PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS. LOCATING THIS EQUIPMENT ON THE ROOF MADE IT UNNECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT A FULL BASEMENT, AND THEREFORE LOWERED CONSTRUCTION COSTS. THIS ARRANGEMENT ALSO PUT THE AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT CLOSEST TO THE TOP FLOOR SPINNING ROOM, WHICH HAD THE GREATEST COOLING REQUIREMENTS. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

421

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southwest - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

422

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southeast - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

423

10 MWe solar pilot plant. Collector subsystem integrated acceptance test plan  

SciTech Connect

This Collector Subsystem Integrated Acceptance Test Plan presents the Peoperational testing, the interfaces of the Collector Subsystem integrated with the Plant Control System, and technical support requirements to conduct the startup and Acceptance Testing.

Rose, G.R.

1981-04-01

424

Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting  

SciTech Connect

Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

Not Available

1980-01-01

425

The new PV solar homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An affordable integrated solar home - one that integrates passive solar architecture, solar hot water, energy efficiency and photovoltaics - may be more accessible in the future. Driven by utility participation, better and cheaper solar technologies and highly integrated products and services, advanced solar homes are coming within reach of more and more homebuyers with limited resources. Photovoltaic (PV) systems

L. Rawlings; M. Kapner

2009-01-01

426

Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

2012-09-01

427

Integrated Research and Education in Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Energetic Charged Particles at the University of Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss how a NSF Early-Career Award led to a new emphasis in solar physics at the University of Arizona (UA) that has enabled new opportunities for scientific research in this area, but has also led to new education and public-outreach initiatives. I will discuss the approach used to integrate education with research, emphasizing the importance of the prestige of the CAREER award itself. A particular highlight from this project was a summer school in solar physics that was held for four consecutive years from 2006-2009 aimed at beginning graduate students, but also had a number of advanced undergraduates as well. The award was also used to support workshops for local-area middle-school teachers on topics germane to solar physics that could be instituted in their respective school's curricula. The award also subsidized a number of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers at the UA promoting their career development. While the focus of this presentation will be on the educational and public-outreach aspects of this project, it is important emphasize that this project had a strong research component. The UA is a major research university and the award was instrumental in the development of the principal investigator's career, both in terms of obtaining tenure and promotion to full professor, and also to put him in a good position to secure extramural funding. Therefore, I will also discuss some key research highlights from this project as well.

Giacalone, J.

2011-12-01

428

Earth storage of solar heat. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate that large quantities of heat could be collected and stored by modifing large buildings such as those commonly found on farms. The basic idea was to install a solar collection system on the south roof of such a building and store the heat collected in the earth under the building. To implement the project, a pole type sheet metal building was constructed. The size of the building was 20' x 40'. The peak of the roof ran down the 40' dimension and was offset from the center line so that the roof surface facing south was larger than that facing north. The collector was built on the south side by first constructing a roof of sheet metal with 2-1/2'' corrugations. The sheet metal was painted with flat black paint to absorb the solar heat. A space was created over the sheet metal roof by nailing 2 x 4's spaced 2' apart to it. Corrugated fiberglass sheets were nailed to these 2 x 4's to make the collector cover. At the top of the roof, a distribution pipe made of 3/4'' CVCP plastic pipe with 1/8'' holes to match the corrugations of the sheet metal was installed. A gutter was installed at the bottom to collect the heated water which flowed down the sheet metal. The collector roof and the gutter were insulated with 6'' fiberglass batts to complete the collector. Instrumentation, cost, and performance results are discussed.

Garst, P.

1982-04-19

429

Effects of roof tile permeability on the thermal performance of ventilated roofs: Analysis of annual performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the results of the second part of an experimental study aimed at analysing the effects of roof tile permeability on the thermal performances of ventilation ducts. Ventilation ducts under the layer of tiles are typically used in south European countries to limit the energy load during the summer period. The results of the first part of the

M. D’Orazio; C. Di Perna; P. Principi; A. Stazi

2008-01-01

430

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...well. Each sample well shall have a slit fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent...supporting the fixed roof shall have a flexible fabric sleeve seal or a gasketed sliding cover...seal, the secondary seal, or the seal fabric, or defects in the internal...

2011-07-01

431

Construct and Test Roofs for Different Climates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We design and create objects to make our lives easier and more comfortable. The houses in which we live are excellent examples of this. Depending on your local climate, the features of your house have been designed to satisfy your particular environmental needs: protection from hot, cold, windy and/or rainy weather. In this activity, students design and build model houses, then test them against various climate elements, and then re-design and improve them. Using books, websites and photos, students learn about the different types of roofs found on various houses in different environments throughout the world.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

432

Computer simulation of a solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating and cooling system designed for use at the El Camino Real School in Irvine, California is presented. The solar energy is collected by banks of evacuated glass tube collectors mounted on tilted platforms on the roof of the school and provide an effective collector area of 5000 sq ft. Along with the government-sponsored design and construction of

J. M. Key

1979-01-01

433

Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of a receiver-absorber-converter system in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage Unit  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program is directing its efforts at solving endemic national spacecraft architecture problems. The ISUS is an advanced, integrated upper stage concept that would permit payload realignment, allowing large payloads to be moved by smaller and less expensive boosters. A receiver-absorber-converter (RAC) system in the ISUS unit is designed to convert solar energy to kinetic energy in the propulsion phase or electrical energy in the power generation phase for spacecraft control and operation. In this study a three-dimensional, transient, turbulent hydrogen gas flow through the RAC system was simulated using a finite element thermal-hydraulic model. With this model, transient temperature, pressure, and flow fields in the RAC system were obtained. Numerical results of the mass flow rate distribution through hydrogen heating channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen inlet or exit. It takes about 18.5 min for the hydrogen exhaust temperature to drop below 2,000 K. The results obtained from this work have been applied for validating and optimizing the present RAC design, as well as for performing the thermal stress analysis.

Tong, W.

1999-12-01

434

Solar electric power for a better tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of solar electricity based on the photovoltaic (PV) effect is well known, but these systems are not common all over the world. Consumers in the USA are well-known for their attraction to new technology, but PV power systems are still not appearing on roof-tops in the US. The reason may be that grid-connected roof top systems are too

Allen M. Barnett

1996-01-01

435

40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30...

2010-07-01

436

40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30...

2009-01-01

437

40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30...

2013-07-01

438

Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

Tabares Velasco, P. C.

2011-04-01

439

Save With Solar, Fall 1998, Vol. 1, No. 3  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Save with Solar highlights awards for federal renewable energy projects in FY 1998, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative, a special exhibition in New York City featuring solar technologies, PV systems working in Volcanoes National Park, and PV Super ESPC contracts.

Eiffert, P.

1998-12-30

440

Integrated use of solar panels and a waste heat scavenger. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project were to: (1) install energy measurement devices on commercially available solar collectors and a heat scavenger attached to the dairy refrigeration system; and (2) make the results of the demonstration available to other dairy farmers. The objectives have been accomplished. Measurement devices have been installed and are currently establishing a data base on system performance.

J. H. Jarrell; B. R. Miller; W. M. Jr. Smathers

1980-01-01

441

Reserve requirement impacts of large-scale integration of wind, solar, and ocean wave power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sources of renewable energy, including solar, wind, and ocean wave, offer significant advantages such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, in most cases these renewable power sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is already able to accommodate the variability of the load and some additional variability introduced by sources such as wind. However,

D. A. Halamay; T. K. A. Brekken; A. Simmons; S. McArthur

2010-01-01

442

Integration of high temperature thermal energy storage into a solar thermal Brayton cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods have been developed to support the design and analysis of thermal energy storage (TES) systems for solar thermal power plants employing high temperature Brayton, closed cycle thermal engines with helium or air as the heat transport fluid. System level studies have been undertaken to assess the impact of storage on plant performance, to establish storage system design and

W. D. Beverly; W. W. Engle; F. O. Mahony

1977-01-01

443

Reinforced structural panel with integral solar energy collecting array and method of producing and assembling same  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite reinforced structural panel includes upper and lower skin members with a flexible arched member arranged therebetween and secured in place by means of an adhesive, insulating material such as structural grade polyurethane foam, the ends of the flexible arched member being fixed to the lower skin member. Preferably, a solar energy collecting array is disposed upon each structural

Vandament

1977-01-01

444

Solar Panel Integration as an Alternate Power Source on Centaur 2 (SPIAPS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dream of exploration has inspired thousands throughout time. Space exploration, in particular, has taken the past century by storm and caused a great advance in technology. In this project, a retractable solar panel array will be developed for use on ...

A. M. Knochel C. A. Gebara D. F. Magruder N. A. Schuetze

2011-01-01

445

Sound power level study of a roof bolter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has initiated a study of a roof bolter to reduce noise exposure to mine roof-bolter operators. An important segment of this research entails determining the affect of various drilling configurations on the performance (penetration rate) and sound power emissions when drilling into granite. Test conditions included using various combina- tions of

J. S. Peterson; P. G. Kovalchik; R. J. Matetic

446

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

447

9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north addition of Clubhouse (roof of Chinook Pass Room). TV Center is partially visible on far left. Camera pointed N. (July 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

448

Mitigating the Urban Heat Island with Green Roof Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roof infrastructure is a technology that allows the use of vegetation to reduce rooftop temperatures. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which green roof infrastructure could reduce the urban heat island in the City of Toronto. The Mesoscale Community Compressible (MC2) model was run in conjunction with the ISBA SVAT scheme and an urban

Brad Bass; Scott Krayenhoff; Alberto Martilli; Roland Stull

449

Economic analysis of roof drill bits and continuous miner picks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of substituting long life cutters for the tungsten carbide cutters presently used on roof bolt drill bits and continuous miner picks in underground coal mines has been analyzed. The analysis considers two room and pillar mines using continuous miners and twin boom roof bolters and one mine that employs an advanced miner-bolter extraction system. For each of

L. L. Felts; D. P. Gabello; F. P. Hayoz

1980-01-01

450

Developing Geological Structural Criteria for Predicting Unstable Mine Roof Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to investigate roof falls in room-and-pillar drift coal mines and to determine geologic methods for predicting unstable roof conditions. The study area was located in Harlan County, Ky., and the Bailey Creek (Harlan coal bed) and H...

D. K. Hylbert

1977-01-01

451

Green roof retrofit potential in the central business district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential for green roof retrofit to commercial buildings in a city centre to property managers and other property professionals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper addresses the research question: what is the potential of existing buildings in the CBD to accommodate a retrofitted green roof? Furthermore, it questions how many buildings

Sara J. Wilkinson; Richard Reed

2009-01-01

452

16. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM, FACING EAST, THIRD BAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM, FACING EAST, THIRD BAY Showing bottom chords and diagonal braces of roof trusses, hoist I-beam and pulley. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

453

Atmospheric deposition and roof-catchment cistern water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water quality in 40 roof-catchment cistern systems in rural Clarion and Indiana Counties, Pa. was studied to determine the impact of atmospheric deposition. Roof-catchment cisterns are open to atmospheric contaminants such as the toxic metal Pb and Cd, and corrosive acid components present in acid precipitation. Bulk precipitation samples failed to meet the drinking water standard for Pb on

E. S. Jr. Young; W. E. Sharpe

2009-01-01

454

Heavy metals in leachate from simulated green roof systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of green roofs to urban water quality, either as sinks or sources of pollutants, is an open question. This study examined leaching of Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn from simulated green roof systems that had been deployed under field conditions and naturally leached for 22 months. The objectives were to determine if Arkalyte (an expanded clay), when

Sarah E. Alsup; Stephen D. Ebbs; Loretta L. Battaglia; William A. Retzlaff

2011-01-01

455

Influence of firing temperature on mechanical properties on roofing tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ceramic roofing tile manufacturing, absence of good mechanical properties, such as strength and hardness, leads to reject production of both green and fired tiles. We evaluated the effects of firing temperatures on bending strength and Vickers hardness in fired ceramic roofing tiles from kaolinite and illite-carbonate clay materials. The separately designed ceramics samples were shaped by dry pressing

Leposava Sidjanin; Jonjaua Ranogajec; Dragan Rajnovic; Elvira Molnar

2007-01-01

456

Pillar and Roof Span Design Guidelines for Underground Stone Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of pillar and roof span performance in stone mines that are located in the Eastern and Midwestern United States showed that various stability issues can be addressed by appropriate pillar and roof span design. Pillars can be impacted by rock joint...

D. R. Dolinar G. S. Esterhuizen J. L. Ellenberger L. J. Prosser

2011-01-01

457

Getting a Clear Focus on Roof Replacement and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how a new generation of X-ray-like vision--the patented INFRARED2k--provides roof-condition reports that help extend roof life, conserve energy, and survey for mold-supporting environments, thereby improving indoor air quality. (EV)|

Patterson, Valerie B.

2002-01-01

458

23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS GROUND LEVEL USE OF FLOOR SPACE FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CRATES. MOISTURE ON SURFACE IS FROM LEAKY HANGAR ROOF. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

459

Large Scale Field Test of Pumpable Roof Bolts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1970, the Bureau of Mines began a program of developing and testing a new type of roof bolt now known as the pumpable bolt. The concept embodies the basic principles of the conventional expansion shield type roof bolt and in support mechanism parallels...

L. G. Olavson R. M. Sweet

1976-01-01

460

14. DETAIL OF ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS BRACED AGAINST HEXAGONAL WOODEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL OF ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS BRACED AGAINST HEXAGONAL WOODEN COMPRESSION RING AT TOP OF CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, NY

461

Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University  

EPA Science Inventory

In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

462

1. OVERVIEW OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING LOCAL SETTING. ROOF, NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING LOCAL SETTING. ROOF, NORTH END, AND WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 105 ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND UTILITY POLE. ROOF AND WEST END OF BUILDING 110 ARE VISIBLE AT PHOTO RIGHT BEHIND TREES. VIEW TO SOUTH FROM STREET ABOVE HOUSES. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

463

Plastic pipe pressures in siphonic roof drainage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siphonic roof drainage is a highly efficient type of drainage system that is particularly suitable for large buildings and other structures over approximately 4 m in height. Although siphonic roof drainage systems are enjoying ever-increasing popularity with architects, there is still some uncertainty regarding the minimum pipe pressure class required for siphonic pipework, especially in tall buildings. This is particularly

Terry Lucke; Scott Arthur

2011-01-01

464

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives, cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and ...

J. Mellott J. New J. Sanyal

2013-01-01

465

Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs (roofs with a vegetated surface and substrate) provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including improved storm-water management, better regulation of building emperatures, reduced urban heat-island effects, and increased urban wildlife habitat. This article reviews the evidence for these benefits and examines the biotic and abiotic components that contribute to overall ecosystem services. We emphasize the potential for improving

Erica Oberndorfer; Jeremy Lundholm; Brad Bass; REID R. COFFMAN; Hitesh Doshi; Nigel Dunnett; Stuart Gaffin; Manfred Köhler; KAREN K. Y. LIU; Bradley Rowe

2007-01-01

466

Experimental measurements and numerical modelling of a green roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roof utilisation has been known since ancient times both in hot and cold climates. Nowadays, it has been reconsidered at issue of energy saving and pollution reduction. In this paper, some measurement sessions on a green roof installed by the Vicenza Hospital are described. A data logging system with temperature, humidity, rainfall, radiation, etc. sensors surveyed both the parameters

Renato M. Lazzarin; Francesco Castellotti; Filippo Busato

2005-01-01

467

Numerical evaluation of sound propagating over green roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound propagation over intensive and extensive green roofs was numerically studied by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The Zwikker and Kosten model was used to simulate sound propagation in the substrate layer itself. The presence of a green roof is mainly interesting in a street canyon configuration, and fits well in the concept of quiet sides. Positive effects of green

T. Van Renterghem; D. Botteldooren

2008-01-01

468

Simulation of thermodynamic transmission in green roof ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs entail the creation of vegetated space on the top of artificial structures. They can modify the thermal properties of buildings to bring cooling energy conservation and improve human comfort. This study evaluates the thermodynamic transmission in the green roof ecosystem under different vegetation treatments. Our model simulation is based on the traditional Bowen ratio energy balance model (BREBM)

Hongming He; C. Y. Jim

2010-01-01

469

Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain  

SciTech Connect

Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-09-15

470

Solar energy collector and system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar collectors whose absorbers are made of a conventional building material form the outer surface of the roof and wall of a building. Air flows behind the absorbers and heat is transferred to the air by expanded metal conductors which extend from adjacent the outside surfaces of the absorbers into the flow passages. Heat from the collectors is stored in

Mcelwain

1982-01-01

471

Method and apparatus for installing mine roof supports  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of installing mine roof support plates at locations in a mine. The method consists of drilling a first hole in a mine roof at a first location in the mine, moving a coil of rod material to the first location in the mine, feeding rod material from the coil of rod material while the coil is at the first location in the mine, straightening the rod material fed from the coil, connecting a first expandable anchor assembly to an end of the rod material, inserting the first anchor assembly into the first hole. The step of inserting the first anchor assembly into the first hole includes feeding rod material upwardly through a first fastener and a first mine roof support plate into the first hole, setting the first anchor assembly in the mine roof by pulling downwardly on the rod material with a first force to expand the first anchor assembly after having inserted the first anchor assembly into the first hole, thereafter, pulling downwardly on the rod material with a second force which is less than the first force, pressing the first mine roof support plate against the mine roof at the first location, connecting the first fastener with the rod material while pressing the first mine roof support plate against the mine roof and while pulling downwardly on the rod material with the second force to enable a fastener to cooperate with the rod material to press the first mine roof support plate against the roof of the mine at the first location with a force having a magnitude which is a function of the magnitude of the second force.

Totten, A.B. III

1986-05-20

472

Design wind loads for structural frames of flat long-span roofs: Gust loading factor for the beams supporting roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study is to provide simple formulas for estimating the design wind loads for the structural frames of flat long-span roofs considering their dynamic response to turbulent wind forces. This paper presents a discussion of the gust loading factor for beams supporting flat roofs. The first modal force acting on the beam was measured in two

Yasushi Uematsu; Motohiko Yamada; Akinori Karasu

1997-01-01

473

Air Quality Improvements of Increased Integration of Renewables: Solar Photovoltaics Penetration Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar photovoltaics (PV) are an attractive technology because they can be locally deployed and tend to yield high production during periods of peak electric demand. These characteristics can reduce the need for conventional large-scale electricity generation, thereby reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and improving ambient air quality with regard to such pollutants as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and fine particulates. Such effects depend on the local climate, time-of-day emissions, available solar resources, the structure of the electric grid, and existing electricity production among other factors. This study examines the air quality impacts of distributed PV across the United States Eastern Interconnection. In order to accurately model the air quality impact of distributed PV in space and time, we used the National Renewable Energy Lab's (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to form three unique PV penetration scenarios in which new PV construction is distributed spatially based upon economic drivers and natural solar resources. Those scenarios are 2006 Eastern Interconnection business as usual, 10% PV penetration, and 20% PV penetration. With the GridView (ABB, Inc) dispatch model, we used historical load data from 2006 to model electricity production and distribution for each of the three scenarios. Solar PV electric output was estimated using historical weather data from 2006. To bridge the gap between dispatch and air quality modeling, we will create emission profiles for electricity generating units (EGUs) in the Eastern Interconnection from historical Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) data. Via those emissions profiles, we will create hourly emission data for EGUs in the Eastern Interconnect for each scenario during 2006. Those data will be incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model. Initial results indicate that PV penetration significantly reduces conventional peak electricity production and that, due to reduced emissions during periods of extremely active photochemistry, air quality could see benefits.

Duran, P.; Holloway, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Littlefield, C. M.

2011-12-01

474

A glass frit-sealed dye solar cell module with integrated series connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the dye solar cell (DSC) technology progresses from laboratory-scale to large-area applications, long-term stability is one major obstacle. Especially for large-area DSC modules, stability is often a matter of hermetic sealing both between cells and for the whole module. Here we suggest glass frit as sealing material. Glass frit is thermally, mechanically and chemically very stable and can be

R. Sastrawan; J. Beier; U. Belledin; S. Hemming; A. Hinsch; R. Kern; C. Vetter; F. M. Petrat; A. Prodi-Schwab; P. Lechner; W. Hoffmann

2006-01-01

475

Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

2013-07-01

476

Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Conversion of roofing waste to No. 6 fuel oil. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A novel concept for recovering the energy in the asphalt contained in the roofing waste involved dissolving the asphalt in roofing waste in No. 2 fuel oil, separating the solids from the liquid, and concentrating the liquid to No. 6 fuel oil. Experiments showed that this concept would be applicable to both factory and field asphalt roofing waste. Filtration was unsuitable for making the liquid/solid separation. Limited experiments using centrifuging as the liquid/solid separation process indicated that this is feasibile. The centrifuging process would be a means for recovery of much of the 7.3 x 10/sup 13/ Btu represented in the nation's annual roofing waste and would also have a major impact on reducing the six million cubic yards of roofing waste now hauled to landfills each year.

Hunt, J.; Shepherd, P.

1985-11-19

477

HORIZONTAL HYBRID SOLAR LIGHT PIPE: AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF DAYLIGHT AND ELECTRIC LIGHT  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will test the feasibility of an advanced energy efficient perimeter lighting system that integrates daylighting, electric lighting, and lighting controls to reduce electricity consumption. The system is designed to provide adequate illuminance levels in deep-floor...

478

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

479

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the research effort is to develop the drill control unit (DCU) that acquire, store drilling parameters and control the drilling operation. The relevant publications have been reviewed and the methodology developed by previous researchers has been evaluated using the collected data in our laboratory and field tests conducted prior to the start of this project. Numerical modeling for exploring roof bolting mechanism has been started.

Syd S. Peng

2001-04-15

480

Quality of roof-harvested rainwater--comparison of different roofing materials.  

PubMed

The objective of the study reported in this paper was to assess the quality of harvested rainwater on the basis of the roofing materials used and the presence of lichens/mosses on the roofing surface. Four pilot structures with different roofing materials (i.e., wooden shingle tiles, concrete tiles, clay tiles [Gi-Wa] and galvanized steel) were installed in a field. The galvanized steel was found to be the most suitable for rainwater harvesting applications, with their resulting physical and chemical water quality parameters meeting the Korean guidelines for drinking water quality (e.g., pH (5.8-8.5), TSS <500 mg/L, NO(3)(-) < 10 mg/L, SO(4)(2-) < 200 mg/L, Al < 0.2 mg/L, Cu < 1 mg/L, Fe < 0.3 mg/L, Pb < 0.05 mg/L, Zn < 1 mg/L, and E. coli (No detection)). In the galvanized steel case, the relatively high water quality was probably due to ultraviolet light and the high temperature effectively disinfecting the harvested rainwater. It was also found that the presence of lichens and mosses may adversely affect the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of rainwater. PMID:22243894

Lee, Ju Young; Bak, Gippeum; Han, Mooyoung

2011-12-29

481

Solar-central-receiver system integrated with a cogeneration facility for copper smelting, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cavity central receiver hybrid solar cogeneration retrofit for a smelting facility producing copper and sulfuric acid is described. Existing facilities and the southwest New Mexico site and the process for selection of the system configuration and subsystem criteria are described. The process involves: performance analyses, cost estimates, economic tradeoffs, and vendor quotations and consultation. An air based central receiver was selected, and sensible heat storage in rock is considered. A discounted cash flow analysis based upon the results of the conceptual design performance and cost estimates is performed.

1981-08-01

482

Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles, concentrating the captured light onto small photo active areas. This enables greater incorporation of LSCs into building designs as windows, skylights and wall claddings in addition to rooftop installations of current solar panels. Using relatively cheap luminescent dyes and acrylic waveguides to effect light concentration onto lesser photovoltaic (PV) cells, there is potential for this technology to approach grid price parity. We employ a panel design in which the front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. This also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells during the design process to balance reabsorption losses against the power output and level of light concentration desired. To aid in design optimization, a Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters with interactions of photons in the panel determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. LSC panels with multiple dyes or layers can also be simulated. Analysis of the results reveals optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts for maximum power output for a given dye concentration, absorbtion/emission spectrum and quantum efficiency.

Leow, Shin Woei; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue A.

2013-09-01

483

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-01

484

Comparative studies on different type of roof ponds for cooling purposes: litera- ture review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioclimatic approach gives attention to the design of roof since it is commonly the building element which is most exposed. Some of the most favorable roof cool- ing techniques are roof ponds which appear to influence the thermal behavior of roof through different processes including evaporation, radiation and conduction. Large air-conditioning energy savings were estimated, reach- ing 100% in a

A. Spanaki

485

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Interpretive Rule Governing Roof Removal Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or resinous binders (such as coal tars or pitches) are...a rotating blade (RB) roof cutter or equipment that similarly...interpretive rule, âRB roof cutterâ means an engine-powered roof cutting...included in the term âRB roof cutterâ.) Therefore, it is...

2009-07-01

486

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Interpretive Rule Governing Roof Removal Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or resinous binders (such as coal tars or pitches) are...a rotating blade (RB) roof cutter or equipment that similarly...interpretive rule, âRB roof cutterâ means an engine-powered roof cutting...included in the term âRB roof cutterâ.) Therefore, it is...

2010-07-01

487

Cutter roof failure: an overview of the causes and methods for control. Information Circular\\/1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines is conducting research on the causes and methods for control of cutter roof failure in underground coal mines. The hazardous ground-control problem exposes miners to the danger of falling roof rock and frequently results in massive roof failure. The report outlines the probable causes of cutter roof failure, which are based on field investigations, numerical model

Hill

1986-01-01

488

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Interpretive Rule Governing Roof Removal Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or resinous binders (such as coal tars or pitches) are...a rotating blade (RB) roof cutter or equipment that similarly...interpretive rule, âRB roof cutterâ means an engine-powered roof cutting...included in the term âRB roof cutterâ.) Therefore, it is...

2013-07-01

489