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1

Building integrated solar power generation on roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new technology of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). It uses a solar cell panel array to form a whole building roof to replace traditional southern slope roof. The advantage of the proposed approach over more common adopted rooftop systems is the lower cost, better blend and more aesthetically appealing. This technology has been successfully applied in the

Guoguang Yu; Huiqing Xu; Jicai Ding; Hongshan Xu; Xianbi Xiang; Xianbo Liao

2010-01-01

2

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15

3

Solar power roof shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon solar cell module provides both all-weather protection and electrical power. Module consists of array of circular silicon solar cells bonded to fiberglass substrate roof shingle with fluorinated ethylene propylene encapsulant.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G.

1975-01-01

4

Building roof with solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roof or wall structure comprises a support framework including battens or the like and a plurality of tile-like solar heat collectors mounted thereon. The solar heat collectors have respective cavities therein within which respective heater coils or the like are disposed. The heater coils have inlets and outlets which are in fluid-flow connection with channels in the battens.

Vinz

1980-01-01

5

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2013-07-01

6

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2014-07-01

7

30 CFR 75.205 - Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. 75.205...Installation of roof support using mining machines with integral roof bolters. When...bolts are installed by a continuous mining machine with intregal roof bolting...

2012-07-01

8

A hierarchical methodology for the mesoscale assessment of building integrated roof solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings and other engineered structures that form cities are responsible for a significant portion of the global and local impacts of climate change. Consequently, the installation of building integrated renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic or solar thermal systems on building rooftops is being widely investigated. Although the advantages for individual buildings have been studied, as yet there is little

J. H. Jo; T. P. Otanicar

2011-01-01

9

SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER  

E-print Network

, ARE 160 SOLAR PANELS, SOME OF WHICH AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOW THE PATH OF THE SUN. 10 NJITMAGAZINE COVER STORY'S THE LIMIT: SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER "The solar panels even move a little at night," says would make Leon Baptiste happy. In the summer of 2004, Baptiste installed the solar panel array

Bieber, Michael

10

Integrated roof wind energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

2012-10-01

11

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-print Network

the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 spray nozzles. but it was found that the tiny (Sprayed Roof) m Savings of 100 tons ? 1 ton serrations in the spray head. which were per 1.000 sq. ft. necessary to put a... the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 spray nozzles. but it was found that the tiny (Sprayed Roof) m Savings of 100 tons ? 1 ton serrations in the spray head. which were per 1.000 sq. ft. necessary to put a...

Patterson, G. V.

1980-01-01

12

Ventilated-solar roof air flow and heat transfer investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The governing parameters for flows generated by heat transfer from solar cell modules to air gaps are discussed. Experimental results are presented from measurements in mock-ups of ventilated facades and roofs. The heat transmitted from the solar cells to the air have been mimicked by the use of heating foils. The inclination angle of the roof, position of solar cell

Mats Sandberg; Bahram Moshfegh

1998-01-01

13

June 2009 UWMREPORT 15 solar cells turn Bolton roof  

E-print Network

's late- afternoon demand can be met by the energy from the solar panels. Lab members also will experimentJune 2009 · UWMREPORT · 15 solar cells turn Bolton roof into an energy lab By Laura L. Hunt hanks are behind the acquisition of 74 solar panels that were recently installed on the second-floor roof of Bolton

Saldin, Dilano

14

Field measurements of performance of roof solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce the mechanical cooling energy cost of new housing built in a hot and humid region, the design should maximize the natural ventilation and minimize the fraction of sun energy absorbed by a dwelling. This objective is accomplished by using the roof structure to act as a solar collector. The roof solar collector design (RSC) used CPAC Monier concrete

Joseph Khedari; Weerapong Mansirisub; Sompong Chaima; Naris Pratinthong; Jongjit Hirunlabh

2000-01-01

15

Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same  

DOEpatents

A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

1999-11-16

16

Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than under the tilted PV array. The maximum downward heat flux was 18.7 Watts per square meters for the exposed roof and 7.0 Watts per square meters under the tilted PV array, a 63% reduction due to the PV array. This study is unique as the impact of tilted and flush PV arrays could be compared against a typical exposed roof at the same roof for a commercial uninhabited building with exposed ceiling and consisting only of the building envelope. Our results indicate a more comfortable indoor environment in PV covered buildings without HVAC both in hotter and cooler seasons.

Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

2010-01-01

17

Spray-roof cooling system-analysis: cooling concept integration, Phase I. Passive and hybrid solar manufactured building project. Project status report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The development of a roof spray system for passive/hybrid building cooling is described. Progress to date in defining and evaluating the issues and constraints relevant to spray roof cooling is described in the context of Butler's passive/hybrid manufactured buildings development program. (MHR)

Huffman, J. B.; Lindsey, L. L.; Snyder, M. K.

1981-03-10

18

The strategic siting and the roofing area requirements of building-integrated photovoltaic solar energy generators in urban areas in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) generators are typically small and distributed solar power plants that occupy virtually no space because they are part of the building envelope, and they generate power at point of use. A more widespread use of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) is hindered by a number of reasons which include the declining, but still high costs of the photogenerated kilowatt

Carolina da Silva Jardim; Ricardo Rther; Isabel Tourinho Salamoni; Trajano de Souza Viana; Samuel Hilrio Rebechi; Paulo Jos Knob

2008-01-01

19

Thermal behavior of curved roof buildings exposed to solar radiation and wind flow for various orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study air flow, solar radiation and heat transfer from a two dimensional curved roof with north-south and east-west faced are determined and results are compared with flat roof for the same size and orientation. Comparison are performed for their corresponding roof surface temperature, and heat flow for several roof rim angles and also for various wind flow velocities,

M. Hadavand; M. Yaghoubi

2008-01-01

20

Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

2006-10-01

21

Solar radiation intensity influences extensive green roof plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted on a third-story rooftop to quantify the effect of solar radiation (full sun versus full shade) on several US native and non-native species for potential use on extensive green roofs. In the first study, plugs of six native and three non-native species were planted in May 2005 on substrates of two different depths (8.0 and 12.0cm)

Kristin L. Getter; D. Bradley Rowe; Bert M. Cregg

2009-01-01

22

Effect of roof solar reflectance on the building heat gain in a hot climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the roof solar reflectance on the thermal performance of a building is often ignored. However, there are significant differences in heat gain from light and dark-coloured roof surfaces. In this paper an equation for the average daily downward heat flow of a sunlit roof is derived. Using building simulation, it is first shown that the thermal mass

Harry Suehrcke; Eric L. Peterson; Neville Selby

2008-01-01

23

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-ENV-01 Envelope Insulation; Roofing; Fenestration (Page 1 of 3)  

E-print Network

: The roof area covered by building integrated photovoltaic panels and building integrated solar thermal panels are exempt from the above Cool Roof criteria. Roof constructions that have thermal mass over

24

Solar heat collection with suspended metal roofing and whole house ventilation  

SciTech Connect

A south pitched roof is employed for solar collection directly onto a roofing with chocolate brown color. The roofing is structural and is suspended over plywood decking so as to create an air space which receives input from the coolest and lowest basement air of the house interior. Air heated beneath the metal roofing is returned to a basement storage wall. Full length plenum cavities are formed into the ordinary rafter truss framing--at the knee wall and collar tie spaces. Preliminary testing of BTU gain at known air flows is acquired with a microprocessor system continuously collecting input and output temperatures at the roof collector into disk data files.

Maynard, T.

1996-10-01

25

EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks Amitangshu Pal experiments on solar-powered sensor nodes. Due to constraints in cost and size, the solar panels of solar energy available at such solar-powered sensor nodes can be highly unpredictable and at times

Nasipuri, Asis

26

Comparative study of solar cooling systems with building-integrated solar collectors for use in sub-tropical regions like Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

► Performance of building-integrated solar collectors analyzed. ► Comparisons made with solar collectors installed on roof. ► Use of building-integrated solar collectors increased the total primary consumption. ► Reduction in the building load could not compensate drop in solar collector output. ► Building-integrated solar collectors only used when roof space insufficient.

K. F. Fong; C. K. Lee; T. T. Chow

2012-01-01

27

Automatic Roof Plane Detection and Analysis in Airborne Lidar Point Clouds for Solar Potential Assessment  

PubMed Central

A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m2. PMID:22346695

Jochem, Andreas; Hofle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert

2009-01-01

28

The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL] [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

29

Photovoltaic Roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1984-01-01

30

Barrel-shaped solar roofing element and method for its manufacture  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar roofing element system. It comprises: a curved panel portion of plastic formed by injection molding having a liquid passageway therethrough and presenting an outer surface adapted for receiving solar energy constructed generally of insulative material having a relatively thin dimension between the outer surface and the liquid passageway comprising a tapered barrel-shaped construction with a smaller substantially closed end of conic section opposed to a larger substantially closed end of conic section, and means for connecting the passageway extending throughout the panel to a solar system for processing heat exchange fluid.

Allegro, J.

1990-09-04

31

City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

2012-08-31

32

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar Radiation Atlas. After identifying the shadow free area of the roof we recognize manufacturer dependent device sizes as well as lifetime of the building. While more and more CityGML data will be available in future or approach is a valuable contribution for decision makers and private households to estimate the return on invest of solar energy plants.

Baumanns, K.; Lwner, M.-O.

2009-04-01

33

Performance of a building integrated photovoltaic\\/thermal (BIPVT) solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of combining photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors (PVT collectors) to provide electrical and heat energy is an area that has, until recently, received only limited attention. Although PVTs are not as prevalent as solar thermal systems, the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors into the walls or roofing structure of a building could provide greater opportunity for

T. N. Anderson; M. Duke; G. L. Morrison; J. K. Carson

2009-01-01

34

Introduction, Energy savings of reflective roofs  

SciTech Connect

Several experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that reflective (cool) roofs reduce air-conditioning energy use between 10 percent and 50 percent. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of building and climate conditions. Darker roofs more quickly warm the air over urban areas, leading to the creation of summer urban ''heat islands.'' On the community scale, increasing the albedo (solar reflectivity) of roofs can limit or reverse an urban heat island effectively and inexpensively. This publication discusses the literature data and new research efforts in analyzing the impact of cool roofs on buildings' cooling and heating energy use.

Akbari, H.

1998-01-15

35

Roofing panels  

SciTech Connect

A roofing panel of glass-reinforced plastic (G.R.P.) or sheet metal is stiffened by longitudinal beams on its underside to span one pitch of a pitched roof from eaves to ridge. It has an outer skin and an inner impervious liner spaced therefrom and supported on the stiffening beams so as to form a tunnel open at both ends and extending from the vicinity of the eaves to theline of the roof ridge, where vents to atmosphere are provided in the outer skin. Air is convected upwards through the tunnel due to the heating of the outer skin by radiation from the sun. At the eaves end the tunnel also has an inlet port communicating with the roof space, and a damper controls the air flowing in from outside the building and the air flowing in from the roof space. At the line of the ridge the liner meets and is sealed on the corresponding liner of a counterpart panel on the opposite pitch of the roof so as to maintain the integrity of the convection air circuit in each section of the roof. A heat exchanger located in the tunnel transfers heat from the convected air to a hot water system in the building. A hollow box girder spans the width of the panel across the beams so as to rest on the top of a flank wall of the building and can be filled with concrete to anchor the panel in position.

Brill-edwards, K.O.

1983-05-10

36

The analysis of water use and water status of plants in a fluid-roof solar greenhouse  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Soil Science THE ANALYSIS OF WATER USE AND WATER STATUS OF PLANTS IN A FLL'ID-ROOF SOLAR GREENHOUSE A Thesis by GARY CLAUDE HEATHMAN Approved as to style and content by: arrman o ommrttee ea o epart nt... Measurements of evapotranspiration and leaf water potential were made in a fluid-roof, solar greenhouse to provide data with which to compare values calculated with a simulation model. The required inputs to the model were global radiation, ambient air...

Heathman, Gary Claude

2012-06-07

37

Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

2013-12-01

38

Integrated Modelling and Performance Analysis of Green Roof Technologies in Urban Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the changing global climate and increase in urbanisation, the behaviour of the urban environment has been significantly altered, causing an increase in both the frequency of extreme weather events, such as flooding and drought, and also the associated costs. Moreover, uncontrolled or inadequately planned urbanisation can exacerbate the damage. The Blue-Green Dream (BGD) project therefore develops a series of components for urban areas that link urban vegetated areas (green infrastructure) with existing urban water (blue) systems, which will enhance the synergy of urban blue and green systems and provide effective, multifunctional BGD solutions to support urban adaptation to future climatic changes. Coupled with new urban water management technologies and engineering, multifunctional benefits can be gained. Some of the technologies associated with BGD solutions include green roofs, swales that might deal with runoff more effectively and urban river restoration that can produce benefits similar to those produced from sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). For effective implementation of these technologies, however, appropriate tools and methodologies for designing and modelling BGD solutions are required to be embedded within urban drainage models. Although several software packages are available for modelling urban drainage, the way in which green roofs and other BGD solutions are integrated into these models is not yet fully developed and documented. This study develops a physically based mass and energy balance model to monitor, test and quantitatively evaluate green roof technology for integrated BGD solutions. The assessment of environmental benefits will be limited to three aspects: (1) reduction of the total runoff volume, (2) delay in the initiation of runoff, and (3) reduction of building energy consumption, rather than water quality, visual, social or economic impacts. This physically based model represents water and heat dynamics in a layered soil profile covered with vegetation which can be used to simulate the physical behaviour of different green roof systems in response to rainfall under various climatic conditions. Because it is a physically based model, this model could be generalised to other atmosphere-plant-soil systems. The validity of this mass and energy balance approach will be demonstrated by comparing its outcomes with observations from a green roof experimental site in London, UK.

Liu, Xi; Mijic, Ana; Maksimovic, Cedo

2014-05-01

39

Guide for Estimating Differences in Building Heating and Cooling Energy Due to Changes in Solar Reflectance of a Low-Sloped Roof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook describes a procedure that can be used to estimate changes in heating and cooling costs and the net energy cost difference for a building as a result of changing roof ''color'', or more technically roof solar reflectance. The cost of heatin...

E. I. Griggs, T. R. Sharp, J. M. MacDonald

1989-01-01

40

Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

Tombari, C.

2005-09-01

41

Cool Roofs at Pomona College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy efficiency of a building is directly related to the heat transfer between the building and the outside environment. In order to limit the heat transfer to the building by solar radiation cool roofs have been developed which increase the solar reflectivity of roofs. This report investigates the potential application of high reflectivity coatings to roofs at Pomona College

Jeremiah M Steuterman

2012-01-01

42

A detailed analysis of gains and losses of a fully-integrated flat roof amorphous silicon photovoltaic plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 a fully-integrated photovoltaic (PV) plant composed by amorphous silicon PV modules was installed on top of a flat roof in Lugano (Southern Switzerland) a site representative for most of continental Europe and continuously monitored since. This work follows a previous study which analyzed the first 2years of operation of the plant, ascribing most of the noticeable

Lorenzo Fanni; Alessandro Virtuani; Domenico Chianese

2011-01-01

43

ENHANCED INTEGRATED SOLAR HOME SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, many traditional Solar Home Systems (SHS) have consisted of separate components requiring assembly by trained individuals in the field. While this cannot be secured, many SHSs in remote areas have not fulfilled their expected lifecycles or have not functioned at all. The Integrated Solar Home System (I-SHS) offers a solution: All components such as PV module, charge controller,

S. C. W. Krauter

44

The effect of colour on the thermal performance of building integrated solar collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solar collectors with coloured absorbers for water heating is an area of particular interest when considering their integration with buildings. By matching the absorber colour with that of the roof or faade of the building, it is possible to achieve an architecturally and visually pleasing result. Despite the potential for the use of coloured absorbers, very little

T. N. Anderson; M. Duke; J. K. Carson

2010-01-01

45

Integrated solar collector  

DOEpatents

A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

Tchernev, Dimiter I. (9 Woodman Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167)

1985-01-01

46

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

47

Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials  

SciTech Connect

Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

2013-11-18

48

Roof Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The roof management program at the University of Wyoming involved a consulting firm that provided a computer analysis of the condition of each roof on campus and trained university personnel to act as inspectors in the future. (MLF)

American School and University, 1984

1984-01-01

49

TEST FACILITY FOR BUILDING INTEGRATED SOLAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building integrated solar energy is characterised by a high degree of interplay with the building it is installed in and often also a high degree of interaction between different kinds of building integrated solar energy features. The high degree of interplay often creates major difficulties when trying to determine the pe r- formance of these solar energy components. Today, building

Sren stergaard Jensen

50

what is a cool roof? what is the  

E-print Network

on hot, sunny days. Solar reflectance refers to a material's ability to reflect the sun's solar energy The Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC), at www.coolroofs.org, is the sole entity the California Energy the value, the `cooler' the roof. Solar Re ectance: the ability of a roof to re ect solar energy Thermal

51

The Solar Collector Calculation in Integrative Solar Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is an important material foundation of the economical and social development. Building energy consumption has become an important part of the total social energy consumption. Develop and use renewable energy is importance for building energy efficiency and many countries made clear renewable energy development goals in the world. China is actively promoting Integrative Solar Architecture, solar heating and solar

Ma Jing; Wang Qian

2011-01-01

52

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m³\\/d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal

R. M. Szostak; D. Agarwal; J. T. Callahan; J. V. Mohn

1981-01-01

53

Solar water disinfection (SODIS): a review from bench-top to roof-top.  

PubMed

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact. PMID:22906844

McGuigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronn M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; du Preez, Martella; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Fernandez-Ibaez, Pilar

2012-10-15

54

Integrated wind and solar powered desalination facility  

SciTech Connect

This design concept for a solar desalination plant couples a state of the art solar power generation system with a reverse osmosis membrane filtration system. An average throughput of 6000 m/sup 3//d is realized through operation totally independent of interconnection with the utility grid. Alternating current electric power is generated by an integrated wind and solar energy conversion system. The optimal wind/solar ratio is very dependent upon site conditions. 7 refs.

Szostak, R.M.; Agarwal, D.; Callahan, J.T.; Mohn, J.V. III

1981-01-01

55

Building with passive solar energy conditioning. [collector on modified A frame roof containing phase change material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structure or building with a solar energy collecting system in an upright wall, arranged to face the Sun, has a heat storage unit adjacent the wall for storing heat absorbed by the collecting system in sunlight, and for releasing the heat to the interior of the building in the absence of sunlight during those seasons requiring additional heat for

Eckels

1978-01-01

56

Roofing panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roofing panel of glass-reinforced plastic (G.R.P.) or sheet metal is stiffened by longitudinal beams on its underside to span one pitch of a pitched roof from eaves to ridge. It has an outer skin and an inner impervious liner spaced therefrom and supported on the stiffening beams so as to form a tunnel open at both ends and extending

Brill-edwards

1983-01-01

57

A building integrated, high temperature solar thermal system for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a novel approach to integrating energy producing systems into the building skin and structure. Over the past several years, building integrated photovoltaic has received attention for utilizing building skins that provide a portion of a building`s electricity needs. The system described herein incorporates into a modular, substantially prefabricated construction package a roofing system that delivers weather tightness, an infiltration/exfiltration barrier, thermal insulation, radiant barrier, passive heating, natural ventilation, daylighting and, most novelly, high temperature solar energy to be used for industrial process heat, electricity generation, absorption cooling or desalination.

Gerics, L.J.; Nicklas, M.H. [Solar Power, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

58

Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).  

PubMed

The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the treatment of stored rainwater for potable purposes. PMID:19783275

Amin, M T; Han, M Y

2009-12-01

59

Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology  

SciTech Connect

During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

60

Green roofs: potential at LANL  

SciTech Connect

Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

61

Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar disinfection (SODIS) and limitations.  

PubMed

Efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS) was evaluated for the potability of rainwater in view of the increasing water and energy crises especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples were collected from an underground storage tank in 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and SODIS efficiency was evaluated at different weather conditions. For optimizing SODIS, PET bottles with different backing surfaces to enhance the optical and thermal effects of SODIS were used and different physicochemical parameters were selected and evaluated along with microbial re-growth observations and calculating microbial decay constants. Total and fecal coliforms were used along with Escherichia Coli and Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality. For irradiance less than 600 W/m(2), reflective type PET bottles were best types while for radiations greater than 700 W/m(2), absorptive type PET bottles offered best solution due to the synergistic effects of both thermal and UV radiations. Microbial inactivation did not improve significantly by changing the initial pH and turbidity values but optimum SODIS efficiency is achieved for rainwater with acidic pH and low initial turbidity values by keeping air-spaced PET bottles in undisturbed conditions. Microbial re-growth occurred after one day only at higher turbidity values and with basic pH values. First-order reaction rate constant was in accordance with recent findings for TC but contradicted with previous researches for E. coli. No microbial parameter met drinking water guidelines even under strong experimental weather conditions rendering SODIS ineffective for complete disinfection and hence needed more exposure time or stronger sunlight radiations. With maximum possible storage of rainwater, however, and by using some means for accelerating SODIS process, rainwater can be disinfected and used for potable purposes. PMID:19633384

Amin, Muhammad Tahir; Han, Mooyoung

2009-01-01

62

Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

63

The NERIES Data Portal : integrating distributed heterogeneous data search and access under one roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERIES project (NEtwork of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an EC-funded Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) under the 6th Framework Programme developed to integrate data and service resources for the seismological community. The NERIES data portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu) provides a single integrated point of access to distributed data sets available from several of the NERIES activities, including event parametric information, seismic waveforms, and strong motion data. The data portal aggregates data search and access tools from several NERIES participants within a unified access point. These tools operate in a coordinated manner to provide a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers. In addition, the portal provides a platform from which to integrate access to external tools and processing centers. The portal provides interactive map-based interfaces to discover, explore, and download available data sets. With distributed tools operating in concert, the user is able to search and make selections from the EMSC event database, adding selections to a private Event Cart, and then search the ORFEUS data center archives for available data for the selected events. Data requests are then packaged and made available for download. The packaged data sets can also be made available for external processing services, such as through the RapidSeis system. The NERIES data portal is architected as a collection of web portlets operating at the respective data centers, supported by a distributed collection of web services. The portlets access both local and remote web data services. The data services are exposed through standard HTTP access mechanisms and are thus available for direct access by other external clients. This allows the creation of independent applications that access the data center holdings directly through these exposed web data services, such as the SeismoLink web service client which provides a single point of access to the ArcLink-connected European seismological data centers.

Kamb, Linus; Spinuso, Alessandro; Frobert, Laurent; Trani, Luca; Bossu, Remy; van Eck, Torild

2010-05-01

64

Optimal nonimaging integrated evacuated solar collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non imaging integrated evacuated solar collector for solar thermal energy collection is discussed which has the lower portion of the tubular glass vacuum enveloped shaped and inside surface mirrored to optimally concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube in the vacuum. This design uses vacuum to eliminate heat loss from the absorber surface by conduction and convection of air, soda lime glass for the vacuum envelope material to lower cost, optimal non imaging concentration integrated with the glass vacuum envelope to lower cost and improve solar energy collection, and a selective absorber for the absorbing surface which has high absorptance and low emittance to lower heat loss by radiation and improve energy collection efficiency. This leads to a very low heat loss collector with high optical collection efficiency, which can operate at temperatures up to the order of 250 degree(s)C with good efficiency while being lower in cost than current evacuated solar collectors. Cost estimates are presented which indicate a cost for this solar collector system which can be competitive with the cost of fossil fuel heat energy sources when the collector system is produced in sufficient volume. Non imaging concentration, which reduces cost while improving performance, and which allows efficient solar energy collection without tracking the sun, is a key element in this solar collector design.

Garrison, John D.; Duff, W. S.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland

1993-11-01

65

UMORE PARK -INTEGRATING SOLAR Overview, Solar Optimization & Technologies, & Recommendations  

E-print Network

development, increased open space, and lack of a #12;Currently, it is estimated that buildings contribute Energy 13 Optimal Solar Layout 14 Payback & State Incentives 15 UMore Park Recommendations & Conclusion power harvesting has yet to be thoroughly integrated as research within the energy budget

Netoff, Theoden

66

Integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH) developed from early systems comprised simply of a simple black tank placed in the sun. The ICSSWH, by its combined collection and storage function suffers substantial heat losses to ambient, especially at night-time and non-collection periods. To be viable economically, the system has evolved to incorporate new and novel methods of maximising

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; Brian Norton

2006-01-01

67

Multistep methods for integrating the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High order multistep methods, run at constant stepsize, are one of the most effective schemes for integrating the Newtonian solar system, for extended periods of time. The stability and error growth of these methods is studied when applied to harmonic oscillators and two body systems like the Sun-Jupiter pair. The truncation error of multistep methods on two-body systems grows in

Panayotis A. Skordos

1988-01-01

68

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. It was initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming (see study area map). WestConnect also includes utilities in California, but these were not included because California had already completed a renewable energy integration study for the state. This study was set up to answer questions that utilities, public utilities commissions, developers, and regional planning organizations had about renewable energy use in the west: (1) Does geographic diversity of renewable energy resource help mitigate variability; (2) How do local resources compare to out-of-state resources; (3) Can balancing area cooperation help mitigate variability; (4) What is the role and value of energy storage; (5) Should reserve requirements be modified; (6) What is the benefit of forecasting; and (7) How can hydropower help with integration of renewables? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and run by NREL with WestConnect as a partner organization. The study follows DOE's 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, which did not find any technical barriers to reaching 20% wind energy in the continental United States by 2030. This study and its partner study, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, performed a more in-depth operating impact analysis to see if 20% wind energy was feasible from an operational level. In DOE/NREL's analysis, the 20% wind energy target required 25% wind energy in the western interconnection; therefore, this study considered 20% and 30% wind energy to bracket the DOE analysis. Additionally, since solar is rapidly growing in the west, 5% solar was also considered in this study. The goal of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study is to understand the costs and operating impacts due to the variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. This is mainly an operations study, (rather than a transmission study), although different scenarios model different transmission build-outs to deliver power. Using a detailed power system production simulation model, the study identifies operational impacts and challenges of wind energy penetration up to 30% of annual electricity consumption.

Lew, D.; Piwko, R.; Jordan, G.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01

69

Rules To Roof By.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advises schools on keeping roofs healthy, thereby saving costly repairs to both the roof and the entire building. Discusses inspections, preventive-maintenance programs, weather, and when to re-roof. (EV)

Hale, Olivia

2002-01-01

70

Folded plate solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting wall or roof panel comprises a folded plate-type structural member capable of becoming an integral part of a building and incorporating a solar energy absorbent surface in heat-exchange relation with a fluid. The folded plate is configured to position the absorbent surface to optimize solar energy collection.

Soot

1981-01-01

71

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic bonding technology, an encapsulation technique for terrestrial solar array was developed. The process produces full integral, hermetic bonds with no adhesives or pottants. Panels of six solar cells on a simple glass superstrate were produced. Electrostatic bonding for making the cell front contact was also developed. A metal mesh is trapped into contact with the cell front during the bonding process. Six cell panels using the bonded mesh as the only cell front contact were produced. The possibility of using lower cost glass, with a higher thermal expansion mismatch to silicon, by making lower temperature bonds is developed. However, this requires a planar surface cell.

Landis, G. A.

1981-01-01

72

Integrated Solar Concentrator and Shielded Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shielded radiator is integrated within a solar concentrator for applications that require protection from high ambient temperatures with little convective heat transfer. This innovation uses a reflective surface to deflect ambient thermal radiation, shielding the radiator. The interior of the shield is also reflective to provide a view factor to deep space. A key feature of the shield is the parabolic shape that focuses incoming solar radiation to a line above the radiator along the length of the trough. This keeps the solar energy from adding to the radiator load. By placing solar cells along this focal line, the concentration of solar energy reduces the number and mass of required cells. By shielding the radiator, the effective reject temperature is much lower, allowing lower radiator temperatures. This is particularly important for lower-temperature processes, like habitat heat rejection and fuel cell operations where a high radiator temperature is not feasible. Adding the solar cells in the focal line uses the concentrating effect of the shield to advantage to accomplish two processes with a single device. This shield can be a deployable, lightweight Mylar structure for compact transport.

Clark, David Larry

2010-01-01

73

DOE's Roof Savings Calculator (RSC)  

E-print Network

: · Albedo engineering for solar radiation management ­ increasing Earth's reflectance Examples: cloud Steven Chu, Daily Show, July 21, 2009 #12;Cool roof context Goal to address climate change, manage Earth's heat budget (amount of Earth's heat from the sun minus amount reflected into space) 2 pillars of geo-engineering

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

74

Analytical study of residential building with reflecting roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an analysis of the effect of roof solar reflectance on the annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and roof temperatures of the residential buildings. The annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and exterior roof temperatures for a small compact ranch house are computed using the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). The residential models,

Zarr

1998-01-01

75

Role of Roof Treatment in Thermal Design of Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the treatment of roof sections used by the construction agencies in different parts of India for low income group and economically weaker sections of the society. The thermal performance of roofs should be improved for alleviating indoor thermal conditions and minimizing the effect of solar heat in buildings. The evaluation of various roof sections reveals that the

B. M. Suman; B. K. Saxena

1992-01-01

76

Integral Glass Encapsulation for Solar Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of permanent, integral glass encapsulation of terrestrial solar photovoltaic arrays by electrostatic bonding is reported. Two basic types of electrostatically bonded modules were demonstrated and their reliability proven in accelerated environmental testing. Economic analyses indicate that electrostatic bonding can be a cost effective, practical, and automatable process for large-scale production of arrays with lifetimes of more than 20 years.

1979-01-01

77

Studies of control strategies for Building Integrated Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development work on Building Integrated Solar Energy Systems (BISES) has become an area of growing interest, not only in New Zealand (NZ) but worldwide. This interest has led to a significant growth in the use of solar energy to provide heating and electricity generation. This paper presents the theoretical and experimental results of a novel building integrated solar

Hanani Abd Wahab; Mike Dukea; James K. Carsona; Tim Anderson

2011-01-01

78

Introduction, Energy savings of reflective roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that reflective (cool) roofs reduce air-conditioning energy use between 10 percent and 50 percent. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of building and climate conditions. Darker roofs more quickly warm the air over urban areas, leading to the creation of summer urban ''heat islands.'' On

Akbari

1998-01-01

79

Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to  

E-print Network

Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated to a building as solar panels on a roof or facades are. Ref. TU Delft OCT-13-022 TU Delft / Valorisation Centre of the window, integrated in the window frames, strip-shaped CIGS PV solar cells convert the light

Langendoen, Koen

80

Hawaii Solar Integration Study Final Technical Report for Oahu  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................................19 4.5. Statistical analysis of wind, solar and load dataHawaii Solar Integration Study Final Technical Report for Oahu Prepared for: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Hawaii Electric Company Maui Electric Company Prepared

81

Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by the winter-time penalty, and the net benefit from adopting white roof technology in Portland is small. That said, there are other potential benefits of white roofing such as impact on urban heat islands and roof life that must also be considered.

Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

82

Data Integration in the Virtual Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is the integration of diverse data archives relevant to the study of Solar Physics into a virtual collection providing common search and delivery services. The back-end query services are implemented as Web Services and accessible via the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). SOAP defines a remote procedure call mechanism that employs HTTP as its transport and encodes the client-server interactions in XML documents. In addition to its core function in identifying relevant datasets locally, a SOAP server at each data provider acts as a wrapper that maps descriptions in an abstract data model to those in the provider's specific model, and vice versa. Heterogeneous data search services can thereby be integrated with a common interface. This allows scientists to access multiple archives with differing data organizations at once, enhancing their ability to discover and and analyze correlative data from multiple sources. We have chosen two SOAP implementations for the VSO: SOAP::Lite and OpenSOAP. The former, written in Perl, is suitable for fast and flexible prototyping in data search applications. SOAP::Lite servers have been set up at each of the VSO archives, and can be readily installed at other servers. OpenSOAP, written in C with built-in support for service description and dispatch, may prove useful in transforming current computing utilities into Web Services. We report on initial experiments using OpenSOAP to provide additional services to the basic query functionality of VSO.

Bogart, R. S.; Davey, A.; Dimitoglou, G.; Gurman, J. B.; Hill, F.; Martens, P. C.; Tian, K. Q.; Wampler, S.

2003-12-01

83

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

84

Ultraviolet radiation testing of roofing systems  

SciTech Connect

The Roof Research Center (RRC), a DOE national user facility planned for construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will be used for studying roof systems subjected to accelerated testing. A review of relevant literature concerning ultraviolet radiation (uv) and related testing and equipment was completed to determine the feasibility of using this proposed facility for artificially-induced ultraviolet weathering of twelve by twelve foot roof systems that will be tested for periods of up to eight weeks. Artificial weathering sources now in use for ultraviolet exposure include carbon-arc and xenon-arc lamps, ultraviolet lamps, and mirrors which concentrate natural solar radiation (EMMAQUA method). The shortest exposure period using these devices for which changes in tensile strength (-9% to +1%) and percent elongation (-29% to -3%) have been observed in roofing materials are: ultraviolet lanps - 2000 hours (approx. =83 days); carbon-arc - 2000 hours; xenon-arc - 2000 hours; EMMAQUA - 300,000 langleys (approx. =75 days exposure in Arizona). An exposure period of only eight weeks is considered to be too short to degrade roof materials of interest with existing weathering sources. Separate ultraviolet exposure outside the Roof Research Canter would be required to evaluate uv sensitivity of the subject roof system. Aged (in-service) roofs could be tested at the Center to determine changes produced during weathering.

Amirkhanian, K.R.; Busching, H.W.

1987-07-01

85

Roof System EPDM Shrinkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer rubber roof membranes and the potential problems associated with this material's shrinkage. Discusses how long such a roof should perform and issues affecting repair or replacement. Recommends that a building's function be considered in any roofing decision. (RJM)

Betker, Edward

1998-01-01

86

Summer Roof Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the items to review in roofing maintenance to prepare for the impact of summer, including checking drainage, roof-field surface and membrane, flashings, sheet metal, and rooftop equipment, such as skylights and penthouses. A list of roofing facts facility managers should know are highlighted. (GR)

Liscum, Curtis L.

1999-01-01

87

Integrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes  

E-print Network

years, experimental solar physics has seen renewed efforts to design, build and operate the nextIntegrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes C. Denker and A. P. Verdoni New Jersey Institute of Technology, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research 323 Martin Luther King Blvd

88

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11

89

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA  

SciTech Connect

Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL

2011-01-01

90

Integrated RF antenna and solar array for spacecraft application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated high-gain RF antenna and solar array technology for spacecraft application. The RF antenna technology selected was a printed microstrip reflectarray, which uses a large number of thin crossed dipoles as the radiating elements. A microstrip reflectarray has the capability of integration with a solar array

M. Zawadzki; J. Huang

2000-01-01

91

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

92

The integration of terrestrial and extraterrestrial solar generators into existing power generation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of a decentralized terrestrial solar-power generation system and a solar-power-satellite/microwave-transmission generation system is analyzed comparatively for the case of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The models considered are a 5-GW-peak-capacity network comprising one million 50-sq-m roof arrays of Si solar cells and the 5-GW-capacity 52-sq-km-array 100-sq-km-receiver reference satellite system proposed by the DOE and NASA; both models are assumed to be integrated into the present FRG power network, and the load requirements and system outputs are compared in a series of graphs and diagrams. The terrestrial system is found to provide no savings in grid-capacity or plant-capacity requirements and minimal fuel savings (at least in the FRG climate) corresponding to at most 5 Pfennig/kWh. The satellite system, assuming that a European grid can provide an emergency reserve, offers substantial fuel and plant-capacity savings corresponding to about 8.75 Pfennig/kWh. It is pointed out that the overall economy of these systems depends on the investment costs of installing them (plus the investment cost of additional conventional plant capacity for the terrestrial model).

Stoy, B.; Beyer, U.

93

IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

94

What's Up with Your Roof?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the importance of knowing what condition the school's roof(s) is in and how to design a preventive maintenance program that is cost effective and will help extend the roof's lifecycle. Cost calculation techniques to value a roof maintenance program, maintenance documentation requirements, and roof surveying are discussed. (GR)

Kalinger, Peter

1998-01-01

95

A Scalable Solar Antenna for Autonomous Integrated Wireless Sensor Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel scalable low-profile omnidirectional antenna that can be integrated underneath a solar panel is presented. The topology alleviates the effect of solar panel to the antenna while achieving a monopole-like radiation performance above a ground plane. A 72 72 11.5 mm solar antenna 3-D structure oper- ating around 2.4 GHz demonstrates the potential of the presented configuration for the

Terence Wu; Ronglin Li; Manos. M. Tentzeris

2011-01-01

96

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

2013-09-01

97

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

Not Available

2013-09-01

98

Building structure and integral solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting apparatus is disclosed which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes solar energy absorptive panels which are

Mcarthur

1981-01-01

99

Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: integration testing and commissioning planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), has been in its construction phase since 2010, anticipating the onset of the integration, test, and commissioning (IT&C) phase late in 2016, and the commencement of science verification in early 2019. In this paper we describe the planning of the Integration, Testing and Commissioning (IT&C) phase of the project.

Craig, Simon; Bulau, Scott E.; Gonzales, Kerry; Hansen, Eric; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Eric; Liang, Chen; Kneale, Ruth A.; McBride, William; Sekulic, Predrag; Williams, Timothy R.

2014-08-01

100

Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?  

SciTech Connect

A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2014-01-01

101

Why Cool Roofs?  

SciTech Connect

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2010-01-01

102

The Rehab Guide: Roofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who has been on a roof on a hot day can attest to the difficulty of performing basic maintenance on that particular part of a building. Fortunately, this time-consuming process can be made simpler with this handy online guide to rehabbing a roof. Created by the PATH Group, this 99-page document covers major roofing systems, ââ¦as well as protective strategies, energy and air filtration issues, roofing materials, and gutters and downspouts.â Throughout the document, users can rely on drawings and photographs that illustrate various rehabbing techniques. Much is revealed here, including timely information on low-slope and metal roofing, along with suggestions on installing moisture barriers.

1999-01-01

103

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

2013-09-01

104

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

105

Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The Universitys microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion processimproving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

None

2012-02-09

106

Evaluation of Green Roof Plants and Materials for Semi-Arid Climates  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract While green roof systems have proven to be highly effective in the evaporative cooling of buildings, reduction of roof top temperatures, protection of roof membranes from solar radiation degradation, reducing stormwater runoff, as well as beautification of the urban roo...

107

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Rigid Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test. Eight topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives and information sheets are provided. Information sheets are

Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

108

Improved roof stabilization technologies  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users` Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

109

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-print Network

, spray heads with tiny serrations were used, and these did have a tendency to clog up. We use a system of piercing the pipe at 30 inch intervals at 10 o'clock and 2 O'ClOCK. To quote W. O. Kind of ITT: "The type of spray selected was one con sisting..., spray heads with tiny serrations were used, and these did have a tendency to clog up. We use a system of piercing the pipe at 30 inch intervals at 10 o'clock and 2 O'ClOCK. To quote W. O. Kind of ITT: "The type of spray selected was one con sisting...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01

110

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-print Network

from 120o F to 82o F. This presentation will include current engineering techniques, system designs and documented cases of 20% to 30% reduction in air-conditioning run time. In non air-conditioned buildings heat stress, due to high internal...

Patterson, G. V.

1982-01-01

111

Green Roofs for Stormwater Management  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

112

Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association, a trade association which represents manufacturers of cold-applied coatings and cements used in the roofing industry, this site provides users with a useful assortment of materials as well as some basic information about the association itself. The easy to navigate site offers users an overview that details some specifics on cold applied roof coatings including a brief history, the types of coatings available and the product's advantages. A list of organizational links, articles and technical bulletins provide more in depth information on topics related to application of roof coatings, weather related concerns, fire ratings, white coatings and much more. A news and events page and a supplier�s directory are valuable additions to this useful site.

2006-11-21

113

Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

1991-01-01

114

Influence of solar heating on the performance of integrated solar cell microstrip patch antennas  

SciTech Connect

The integration of microstrip patch antennas with photovoltaics has been proposed for applications in autonomous wireless communication systems located on building facades. Full integration was achieved using polycrystalline silicon solar cells as both antenna ground plane and direct current power generation in the same device. An overview of the proposed photovoltaic antenna designs is provided and the variation characterised of the electromagnetic properties of the device with temperature and solar radiation. Measurements for both copper and solar antennas are reported on three different commercial laminates with contrasting values for thermal coefficient of the dielectric constant. (author)

Roo-Ons, M.J.; Shynu, S.V.; Ammann, M.J. [Antenna and High Frequency Research Centre, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Seredynski, M. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); McCormack, S.J. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

2010-09-15

115

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 287 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-12-01

116

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

PubMed Central

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g?1 at 0.5 A g?1 and 287 F g?1 at 1 A g?1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-01-01

117

Solar energy systems installed on Chinese-style buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A building-integrated solar energy system is proposed, with the panels installed such that the overall morphology resembles that of a traditional Chinese building, i.e., roofing (eaves) at each storey, in addition to that on top of the building. The panels include photovoltaic cells and solar thermal collectors, thus producing electric power as well as heating. The particular morphology provides a

D. Johnston

2007-01-01

118

Optimisation of solar-optical and thermal properties of buildings incorporating solar panels, emulating traditional Chinese building style  

Microsoft Academic Search

A building-integrated solar energy system, based on the traditional Chinese building (e.g., pagoda) buildings with roofing at intermediate levels (known as eaves) was investigated, with regard to providing for heating and cooling demands. A number of building parameters, related to energy exchange solar absorptivity of the exterior wall, level of glazing, etc. were optimised to minimise

David A. Johnston

2010-01-01

119

Integrated Access to Solar Observations With EGSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

{\\\\b Co-Authors}: J.Aboudarham (2), E.Antonucci (3), R.D.Bentely (4), L.Ciminiera (5), A.Finkelstein (4), J.B.Gurman(6), F.Hill (7), D.Pike (8), I.Scholl (9), V.Zharkova and the EGSO development team {\\\\b Institutions}: (2) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France); (3) INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); (4) University College London (U.K.); (5) Politecnico di Torino (Italy), (6) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA); (7) National Solar

A. Csillaghy

2003-01-01

120

Development of integral covers on solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electron-beam technique for evaporating a dielectric material onto solar cells is investigated. A process has been developed which will provide a highly transparent, low stress, 2 mil thick cover capable of withstanding conventional space type qualification tests including humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycling. The covers have demonstrated the ability to withstand 10 to the 15th power 1 MeV electrons and UV irradiation with minor darkening. Investigation of the cell AR coating has produced a space qualifiable titanium oxide coating which will give an additional 6% current output over similar silicon oxide coated cells when covered by glass.

Stella, P.; Somberg, H.

1971-01-01

121

Integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater (ISAHP) is designed and tested in the present study. The storage tank and the Rankine cycle unit are integrated together to make a more compact size. A thermosyphon loop is used to transfer the heat from the condenser to the water storage tank. The highest COP obtained in the tests is 3.83.

B. J. Huang; J. P. Chyng

1999-01-01

122

76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice...S.C. 1337, on behalf of Westinghouse Solar, Inc. of Campbell, California and Andalay Solar, Inc. of Campbell, California....

2011-11-08

123

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

124

Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution  

E-print Network

10/31/2008 1 Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution Brett LongBrett Long Shirley ClarkTested membranes highly recommended ­­ Plastic root barrier above membrane?Plastic root barrier above membrane

Clark, Shirley E.

125

Solar thermal power cycle with integration of methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have proposed a new solar thermal power cycle which integrates methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy, and investigated its features based on the principle of the cascade utilization of chemical exergy. Also, the methanol decomposition with a catalyst was experimentally studied at temperatures of 150300C and under atmospheric pressure. The chemical energy released by methanol

Hui Hong; Hongguang Jin; Jun Ji; Zhifeng Wang; Ruixian Cai

2005-01-01

126

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-print Network

at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

Tora, Eman

2012-02-14

127

Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Built-up Roofing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in roofing apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains eight units on skills used in built-up roofing, a listing of instructional materials, a glossary, and the text of Labor Code Article 30, Construction Safety Orders, "Roofing Operations and Equipment." Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and

Klingensmith, Robert, Ed.

128

Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

2014-07-01

129

Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

130

Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

131

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

2012-09-01

132

System design optimization for large building integrated solar heating systems for domestic hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and economy for building integrated solar domestic hot water (DHW) heating systems have been calculated as a function of installed solar collector area per housing unit, and benefits from having a high summer solar fraction are calculated and discussed. A presentation of new Danish solar heating DHW demonstration projects, where a high solar fraction is combined with heat loss

P PEDERSEN

1993-01-01

133

Mine roof collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the after noon of July 2, 1948, while returning from geological work, I took a short cut along the trail pictured across the upper edge of the view (Illustration of Mine Roof Collapse at the Mammoth Coal Mine North of Sheridan, Wyoming (EOS, 60 (3), p. 28)). I might be mistaken of the exactspot, but the slightly elongated `collapse'

Walter M. Small

1979-01-01

134

Choosing the Right Roof.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers tips for selecting roofing products for new or renovated buildings. Examines various site-specific design parameters such as building life, climatic exposure, water drainage, traffic resistance, and insurer's requirements. Notes points to address in preparing clear, detailed, and well-conceived specifications. (GR)

Evans, Jeff

1999-01-01

135

Green roofs: potential at LANL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze

Pacheco; Elena M

2009-01-01

136

High-Tech Roof Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions. (GR)

Benzie, Tim

1997-01-01

137

Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

2012-12-01

138

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

139

Multistep methods for integrating the solar system. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-order multistep methods, run at constant step size, are one of the most-effective schemes for integrating the Newtonian solar system, for extended periods of time. The stability and error growth of these methods is studied when applied to harmonic oscillators and two-body systems like the Sun-Jupiter pair. The truncation error of multistep methods on two-body systems grows in time like

Skordos

1988-01-01

140

Modelling the effects of a solar flare on INTEGRAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delayed effects of a large solar flare proton flux on the ?-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL have been modelled. We simulated exposing INTEGRAL to a varying flux over a period of five days. The total integrated input proton flux for the flare chosen was 1.51014 protons. The induced count rates due to this proton flux over an energy range of 30 MeV - 2 GeV one minute after the end of the flare are 345.9+/-0.5 c/s for IBIS (the imager) and 10.03+/-0.06 c/s for SPI (the spectrometer). Spectra one minute after the end of the flare are shown for each instrument. The most significant spectral lines have been identified and the isotopic half-lives compared to the half-lives of the total count rates.

Perfect, C. L.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Diallo, N.; Ferguson, C.; Lei, F.; Lockley, J. J.

2001-09-01

141

40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45...Storage Vessels 65.45 External floating roof converted into...material emissions by using an external floating roof converted...

2010-07-01

142

Passive solar energy design and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive solar approaches are examined, taking into account direct gain, the thermal storage wall, the solar greenhouse, the roof pond, and the convective loop. Various system components are considered. Window treatments are discussed along with thermal storage, freon-activated controls, hinged skylid shutters and nightwall clips, beadwalls, thermic diode solar panels, heat pipes, the Skytherm roof pond, the energy roof, Suncatcher

J. K. Paul

1979-01-01

143

The Benefits of Preventive Roof Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to convince school administration of the importance of roof-maintenance programs as a way of extending roof life and saving money, even in the presence of roof warranties. Discusses techniques for evaluating the cost benefits of roof maintenance and the importance of creating a roof historical file. (GR)

Kalinger, Peter

1998-01-01

144

Users installing systems below metal roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiberglass insulation can be installed below metal roofs for 62% less per R-value than traditional installation and material costs of insulating above the roof. Installation above the roof only makes sense if roof repairs are needed or if the roof needs replacing. Critics claim the subsystems form a thermal short by crushing the insulation against metal sheeting and allowing heat

Stokes

1984-01-01

145

Thesis Title : Field Comparative Analysis of Thermal Performance of a Solar Chimney Ventilated House with Common House  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis presents a comparative study of thermal performance of solar chimney (SC) house compared to a common house. The SC house is a common conventional one that was modified (retrofit) by integrating roof solar collector (RSC) and modified trombe wall (MTW) units. The RSC is facing due east and west whereas the wall is facing due south. The surface

Joseph Khedari

146

High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate high efficiency triple junction solar cells with submillimeter dimensions in an all-back-contact architecture. 550 550 ?m2 cells flash at 41.3% efficiency under the air mass 1.5 direct normal spectrum at 50 W/cm2 at 25 C. Compared to standard size production cells, the micro cells have reduced performance at 1-sun due to perimeter recombination, but the performance gap closes at higher concentrations. Micro cells integrated with lens arrays were tested on-sun with an efficiency of 34.7%. All-back-contact architecture and submillimeter dimensions are advantageous for module integration and heat dissipation, allowing for high-performance, compact, lightweight, and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic modules.

Fidaner, Onur; Suarez, Ferran A.; Wiemer, Michael; Sabnis, Vijit A.; Asano, Tetsuya; Itou, Akihiro; Inoue, Daijiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Nakagawa, Tohru

2014-03-01

147

HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME  

E-print Network

1 HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME P. H radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi: Double-skin roof; Radiation; Natural convection; Passive cooling; Solar loads. * Corresponding author

Boyer, Edmond

148

Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and

Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

149

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

Acker, T.; Pete, C.

2012-03-01

150

Factory-built integrated solar homes - A progress report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past fifteen years, hundreds of people across the US have built for themselves highly advanced residences which integrated passive solar architecture; photovoltaic power systems; high-efficiency lights, appliances, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and cooling) equipment; high-level insulation and airtight construction; and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Such a home can be referred to as an {open_quotes}integrated solar home{close_quotes}. As the essential technologies have improved in performance, price, and availability, the performance of such homes has steadily advanced to the point where they could provide amenities at more-or-less normal US standards of luxury, yet require as little as 5% to 10% of the level of fossil fuel or biomass use that are required in an average US home. However, the resources required to build such a home, both in terms of the time and dedication needed for research, design, and construction of the homes, and in terms of the additional cost of the renewable energy/energy efficient features, have prevented such construction from moving beyond a tiny handful of highly motivated homeowners and into the mainstream of residential construction. This paper has design summaries of six different houses.

Rawlings, L.K.

1995-12-31

151

Energy saving potential of various roof technologies  

E-print Network

Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2010-01-01

152

Exploring Tomorrow's Technology in Roofing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive greenroof technology has been tried and proven in Europe more than 30 years but has not been fully developed for North American climates. Perennial plant ground covers and shallow growing substrates on roofs: 1) improve energy efficiency by reducing interior temperature fluctuations, 2) significantly extend roof membrane life, 3) ameliorate storm water run off, 4) provide beauty & wildlife

John W. White

153

Effects of large scale integration of wind and solar energy in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of different energy scenarios exist for the development of renewable energy technologies in a variety of countries. Each of these scenarios produces different composition mixes depending on the assumptions on which they are based and the motivation of the authors. These studies are often based on annual data, which make general assumptions about the maximum and minimum output of a range of renewable technologies that are not considered to produce electricity at a predictable rate. These include solar power (which generally varies with the intensity of sunlight) and wind power (depending on the strength of the wind). To take into account the variability in the production of these technologies, many authors assume that the energy production sector cannot whole rely on these technologies, and that enough conventional production capacity (thermo, nuclear or hydro) must exist to cover the essential part of the electricity production. In the present work, the authors used the historical records of wind and solar radiation to estimate the minimum amount of electricity that could be produced by a given composition of renewable energies in the year 2100. The methodology used starts by inputting the geographical location and power rating of each of the power plants in the system. It assumes that PV installations will be located in roof-tops in cities (hence each of the major cities would act as a solar power plant) and that the location of wind farms closely resembles those of today. Wind farms, however, are assumed to use much greater units than those presently used, with each one having a rated power of 20MW. The method then used the historical meteorological data obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency to compute the power production at each location sequentially for each of the 8760 hours in the year. The results show how although on adverse climate days in certain parts of the country the electricity generation from renewables is greatly reduced, when the results for the country as a whole are considered it is still substantial. The results are greatly dependant on the mix between the proposed renewables (solar and wind), and by comparing different distributions and mixes, the optimum composition for the target country can be established. The methodology proposed is able to obtain the optimum mix of solar and wind power for a given system, provided that adequate storage capacity exists to allow for excess capacity to be used at times of low electricity production (at the comparatively rare times when there is neither enough sun nor wind throughout the country). This highlights the challenges of large-scale integration of renewable technologies into the electricity grid, and the necessity to combine such a system with other renewables such as hydro or ocean energy to further even out the peaks and lows in the demand.

Esteban, Miguel; Zhang, Qi; Utama, Agya; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Keiichi

2010-05-01

154

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOEpatents

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

155

NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

2012-07-01

156

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-07-01

157

TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING  

E-print Network

like a highly reflective "white" roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

158

An integrated energy storage scheme for a dispatchable solar and wind powered energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzed an integrated energy system that includes a novel configuration of wind and solar coupled with two storage methods to make both wind and solar sources dispatchable during peak demand, thereby enabling their broader use. Named DSWiSS for Dispatchable Solar and Wind Storage System, the proposed system utilizes compressed air energy storage (CAES) that is driven from wind

Jared B. Garrison; Michael E. Webber

2011-01-01

159

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar

Xinping Zhou; Jiakuan Yang; Jinbo Wang; Bo Xiao

2009-01-01

160

Integrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 sq m panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200 C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100 to 300 C range including industrial progress heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

1982-09-01

161

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

2013-06-01

162

Towards an improved architectural quality of building integrated solar thermal systems (BIST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural integration is a major issue in the development and spreading of solar thermal technologies. Yet the architectural quality of most existing building integrated solar thermal systems (BIST) is quite poor, which often discourages potential new users.In this paper, the results of a large web survey on architectural quality, addressed to more than 170 European architects and other building professionals

Maria Cristina Munari-Probst; Christian Roecker

2007-01-01

163

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool roofsroofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emissionlessen the flow\\u000a of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may\\u000a also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load\\u000a is

Ronnen Levinson; Hashem Akbari

2010-01-01

164

Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation  

E-print Network

INTEGRATING SOLAR THERMAL AND PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN WHOLE BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION Soolyeon Cho1 and Jeff S. Haberl2 1The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 2Texas A&M University, College Station, TX ABSTRACT... This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which then can be available to analyze...

Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

165

Dynamic model of a solar thermochemical water-splitting reactor with integrated energy collection and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-splitting solar thermochemical cycles are important in meeting the challenges of global climate change and limited fossil fuels. However, solar radiation varies in availability, leading to unsteady state operation. We propose a solar receiver-reactor with integrated energy collection and storage. The reactor consists of a double-pipe heat exchanger placed at the focal line of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. Molten

Rong Xu; Theodore F. Wiesner

166

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

167

Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops  

SciTech Connect

The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2012-01-01

168

Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

2002-12-15

169

Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

170

Using Remote Sensing to Quantify Roof Albedo in Seven California Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool roofs reflect sunlight and therefore can reduce cooling energy use in buildings. Further, since roofs cover about 20-25% of cities, wide spread deployment of cool roofs could mitigate the urban heat island effect and partially counter urban temperature increases associated with global climate change. Accurately predicting the potential for increasing urban albedo using reflective roofs and its associated energy use and climate benefits requires detailed knowledge of the current stock of roofs at the city scale. Until now this knowledge has been limited due to a lack of availability of albedo data with sufficient spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral information. In this work we use a novel source of multiband aerial imagery to derive the albedos of individual roofs in seven California cities: Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego, Bakersfield, Sacramento, San Francisco, and San Jose. The radiometrically calibrated, remotely sensed imagery has high spatial resolution (1 m) and four narrow (less than 0.1 ?m wide) band reflectances: blue, green, red, and near-infrared. To derive the albedo of roofs in each city, we first locate roof pixels within GIS building outlines. Next we use laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectances of 190 roofing products to empirically relate solar reflectance (albedo) to reflectances in the four narrow bands; the root-mean-square of the residuals for the albedo prediction is 0.016. Albedos computed from remotely sensed reflectances are calibrated to ground measurements of roof albedo in each city. The error (both precision and accuracy) of albedo values is presented for each city. The area-weighted mean roof albedo ( standard deviation) for each city ranges from 0.17 0.08 (Los Angeles) to 0.29 0.15 (San Diego). In each city most roofs have low albedo in the range of 0.1 to 0.3. Roofs with albedo greater than 0.4 comprise less than 3% of total roofs and 7% of total roof area in each city. The California Building Energy Efficiency Standard (Title-24, Part 6) includes the use of high-albedo surfaces on low-sloped roofs on non-residential buildings. Analyzing a subset of large presumably commercial buildings, we find high albedo roofs represent 0.5% and 10% of total roofs and roof surface area, respectively. The potential for high albedo roofs to reduce urban temperatures was investigated for a California city (Bakersfield) with warm summers using a state-of-the-art meteorological model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF). Base case and cool roof scenarios were simulated with the only difference being that the surface albedo was increased under the cool roof scenario. Roof albedos derived from the aerial imagery were used as an input to the climate model in the base case scenario. Simulation results indicate that seasonal average afternoon (1500 h) temperatures could be reduced by up to 0.2 C across Bakersfield during both the summer and winter. While temperature changes are similar during winter and summer, only summer shows statistically significant temperature changes downwind (southeast) from Bakersfield. This indicates that reduced summertime temperatures may be felt over a distance that is 2 or 3 times the length scale of the region with high albedo roofs.

Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Woods, J.; Millstein, D.; Levinson, R.

2013-12-01

171

Low Impact Development (LID) Technologies for Sustainable Water Management: Studies from a Green Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic induced landscape alterations, such as urbanization, can cause drastic alterations to predevelopment hydrologic conditions and the systems linked to these cycles. Low impact development (LID) technologies, such as green roofs, can help to minimize these impacts given their ability to retain and detain stormwater and subsequently evapotranspire or infiltrate excess water. An innovative technique for simultaneously monitoring stormwater retention, allowing for runoff quantification, as well as evapotranspiration from a small scale green roof box was employed for a green roof at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School located in the Bronx, NY. A 1.2 meter long by 0.6 meter wide green roof box was created as a replica section of the 525 m2 green roof on the building. The layers of the green roof box consisted of a roof membrane, drainage layer, four inch media layer, and vegetative Sedum layer. Monitoring equipment on the green roof included a weather station and real time environmental sensors which quantify wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture, temperature, humidity, albedo, and incident solar radiation. In addition to this equipment, a platform scale was positioned beneath the green roof box. Data was collected at 5 minute time intervals over a six month monitoring period between Spring and Fall 2009. A mass balance technique was utilized to quantify runoff from the green roof box. Evapotranspiration during antecedent conditions was also quantified utilizing a mass balance methodology and compared to energy balance estimates based on climatic conditions measured on the green roof. Results of runoff generation under a variety of rainfall conditions, as well as a comparison between mass balance and energy balance measures of evapotranspiration will be presented. The incorporation of this and further data collection into model development and calibration activities will be informative in predicting the impact that the implementation of green roof technologies could have on hydrologic patterns in urban areas and the subsequent impact on systems linked to these hydrologic cycles.

Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.; Gaffin, S.

2009-12-01

172

510 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 10, 2011 A Scalable Solar Antenna for Autonomous Integrated  

E-print Network

that can be integrated underneath a solar panel is presented. The topology alleviates the effect of solar--3-D RF modules, autonomous modules, omni- directional antenna, solar antenna, solar panel, wireless consumption of every individual node [11]. Currently, solar panels harvest the largest reported amount

Tentzeris, Manos

173

Economics of solar air pre-heating in south Indian tea factories: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea processing is an energy intensive operation requiring both thermal and electrical energy. Hot air at a temperature of 100130C for tea drying and withering has been obtained in the past by burning coal or firewood. Over the last four years, roof integrated solar air heating systems have been introduced in some of the tea factories of south India, as

C. Palaniappan; S. V. Subramanian

1998-01-01

174

System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

1979-01-01

175

The Integrative Application Study on Solar Energy Technology Used In a Student Dormitory  

E-print Network

. Shandong Jianzhu University has carried an integrative application study on solar energy technology used in student dorm and proof-tested the energy conservation efficiency after completing the study. This has provided new, significant data...

Xue, Y.; Wang, C.

2006-01-01

176

Submodule Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications  

E-print Network

This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use of submodule integrated maximum power point trackers (MPPT). We propose a system architecture that provides ...

Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

177

SoDa: a project for the integration and exploitation of networked solar radiation databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project SoDa (solar data) answers the needs of industry and research for infor- mation on solar radiation parameters with a satisfactory quality. The methodology is user-driven with a large involvement of users in the project, who gauge the pro- gresses and achievements. A prototype servicehas been developed, using Internet technology, that integrates and efficiently exploits diverse networked information sources

Lucien Wald; Michel Albuisson; Clive Best; Catherine Delamare; Elena Gaboardi; Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Richard Kift; Stefan Kunz; Mireille Lefvre; Sbastien Leroy; Mario Martinoli; Lionel Mnard; John Page; Tamas Prager; Corrado Ratto; Christian Reise; Jan Remund; Aniko Rimoczi-Paal; Erik Van der Goot; Fritz Vanroy; Ann Webb

178

Techno-economic appraisal of an integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters, due to their simple compact structure and inherent freeze protection, offer a promising approach for solar water heating in colder climates. Such a system, designed specifically for application at a Northern latitude, has been developed incorporating a heat retaining storage vessel mounted within a concentrating cusp reflector supported by a novel exo-skeleton framework. The performance

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2004-01-01

179

Integration of distributed on site control actions via combined photovoltaic and solar panels system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic evaluation of the potential energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction on buildings was carried out, when a renewable energy system is locally installed. The exploitation of a combined solar and photovoltaic system and the integration of suitable energy management actions were deeply investigated. A model of these solar and photovoltaic components has been developed and included within a

G. C. Giaconia; G. Fiscelli; F. L. Bue; A. Di Stefano; D. La Cascia; R. Miceli

2009-01-01

180

innovati nNREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power  

E-print Network

innovati nNREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from penetrations of wind power. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy

181

Hawai`i Solar Integration Study: Final Technical Report for Maui  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................................9 4.5. Statistical analysis of wind, solar and load dataHawai`i Solar Integration Study: Final Technical Report for Maui Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-06NT

182

Building Integrated Facades in New York, using High Efficient Back Contact Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In BIPV applications, architects have always looked for new designs and colors of solar cells which can be integrated into building envelopes in an aesthetic manner. Consequently, various color and size variations in solar cells have been used to create unique BIPV installations all over the world. Still, these applications have always been imperfect, the visual appearance impaired by gridline

J. Jurgens; V. Desai; P. Aschenbrenner; A. O. Pereira

2006-01-01

183

The green roof dilemma - discussion of Francis and Lorimer (2011).  

PubMed

Urban ecosystems are the most complex mosaics of vegetative land cover that can be found. In a recent paper, Francis and Lorimer (2011) evaluated the reconciliation potential of living roofs and walls. For these authors, these two techniques for habitat improvement have strong potential for urban reconciliation ecology. However they have some ecological and societal limitations such as the physical extreme environmental characteristics, the monetary investment and the cultural perceptions of urban nature. We are interested in their results and support their conclusions. However, for a considerable time, green roofs have been designed to provide urban greenery for buildings and the green roof market has only focused on extensive roof at a restricted scale within cities. Thus, we have strong doubts about the relevance of their use as possible integrated elements of the network. Furthermore, without dynamic progress in research and the implementation of well-thought-out policies, what will be the real capital gain from green roofs with respect to land-use complementation in cities? If we agree with Francis and Lorimer (2011) considering that urban reconciliation ecology between nature and citizens is a current major challenge, then "adaptive collaborative management" is a fundamental requirement. PMID:22484659

Henry, Alexandre; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2012-08-15

184

IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

2010-02-22

185

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND...opening dimensions and roof stresses; or (2) Tests which...opening dimensions and roof stresses as the area where the...

2012-07-01

186

30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND...opening dimensions and roof stresses; or (2) Tests which...opening dimensions and roof stresses as the area where the...

2013-07-01

187

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

188

Media depth influences Sedum green roof establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species selection and initial establishment of plants is critical for long term survival and health of green roofs. Plants\\u000a that can withstand harsh environmental conditions and provide rapid coverage on extensive green roofs can reduce erosion,\\u000a limit weed invasion, and provide a more aesthetically pleasing roof to satisfy customers. This study evaluated the effect\\u000a of green roof substrate depth on

Kristin L. Getter; D. Bradley Rowe

2008-01-01

189

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-01

190

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-01

191

Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook on materials and equipment is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers eight topics: production of bitumens and asphaltic roofing materials; built-up roofing materials and adhesives; asphaltic products and rigid roofing materials; elastomeric and

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

192

Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies Higher operating frequencies enable greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of GaAs solar cell MIMs (Monolithically Integrated Module) with a single patch antenna on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the integration of MIMs and antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

2004-01-01

193

Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies  

SciTech Connect

Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

Bird, L.; Lew, D.

2012-09-01

194

D Local Scale Solar Radiation Model Based on Urban LIDAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study is to obtain the direct, diffuse and reflected solar energy that reaches a generic point of an urban landscape regardless of its location on a roof, on the ground or on a faade. The vertical faades embody a discontinuity in a digital elevation surface function and most models fail in the determination of solar radiation for points on faades. The presented algorithm solves the problem in an integrated way: starting with a georreferenced LIDAR data cloud covering a 400 400 m2 urban area resampled in a 1m 1m mesh, applies a new shadow algorithm over roofs, terrain and faades for each time frame, applies the Kumar solar radiation model for the calculation of direct, diffuse and reflected irradiation for each 1x1m raster cell on non vertical surfaces of roof and terrain, and calculates total and mean irradiation of each 1 meter wide column of vertical faade based on the illuminated area at each time frame. The results for each time frame are integrated for the wished time period from one hour to one year, being the time steps also selectable, allowing several kinds of solar radiation and shadowing studies. GIS were used to evaluate monthly averages of solar radiation for a particular location as well as to map the photovoltaic potential of the building faades and their roofs according to determined classes of potential.

Redweik, P. M.; Catita, C.; Brito, M. C.

2011-09-01

195

An inverted roof with mineral wool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen months monitoring is reported of an experimental roof on the building physics laboratory of the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. The existing lightweight roof with roofing felt finish, built some twenty years before, was covered with water?repellent mineral wool slabs, of which only the edge slabs were bonded. The results showed poor water?repellent quality of the MW slab, leading

H. L. Hens; F. Vaes

1986-01-01

196

Keys to a Successful Roofing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides advice on successfully managing an educational facility's roofing system by first getting the best roofing system possible, then undertaking regular precautionary measures to assure its peak performance. Specific points address such areas as choosing a roofing contractor, hiring a professional to create specifications, monitoring

Kornahrens, Rob

1999-01-01

197

Integrating Multiple Approaches to Solving Solar Wind Turbulence Problems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate understanding of the solar wind turbulence must explain the physical process and their connection at all scales ranging from the largest down to electron kinetic scales. This is a daunting task and as a result a more piecemeal approach to the problem has been followed. For example, the role of each wave has been explored in isolation and in simulations with scales limited to those of the underlying waves. In this talk, we present several issues with this approach and offer an alternative with an eye towards more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence. The main simulation techniques used have been MHD, Hall MHD, hybrid, fully kinetic, and gyrokinetic. We examine the limitations of each approach and their viability for studies of solar wind turbulence. Finally, the effect of initial conditions on the resulting turbulence and their comparison with solar wind are demonstrated through several kinetic simulations.

Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.

2013-12-01

198

Radiation control coatings on rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility: Two summers of monitoring plus roof and whole building modeling  

SciTech Connect

Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) allowed the authors to learn the effect of radiation control coatings on roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray coated with a white, latex-based product with ceramic beads. Samples of the coated roofs were brought periodically to the laboratory to measure the solar reflectance as the coatings weathered. The authors monitored the power demand of the all-electric buildings that the roofs covered and temperatures and heat fluxes for two instrumented areas on each roof. Average decreases in the sunlit temperatures of the coated vs. the uncoated surfaces show weathering effects. They also show that the shading enhanced the effect of the coating on the significantly shaded roof because the coated instrumented area on it was preferentially shaded near noon of sunny days. Whole building models were constructed for DOE 2.1E and model predictions were compared to measurements of total electrical power for each all-electric building. The building with the significantly shaded roof had very high internal loads. The effect of the shading on annual energy use for cooling was twice that of the coating but the coating decreased annual cooling energy needs only by 0.5%. The building with the heavyweight concrete-decked roof had small internal loads. For it, the DOE 2.1E model predicted a 7.4% decrease in annual cooling energy use due to the coating and a comparatively small effect of the less extensive shading.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1998-01-01

199

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting designs. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mechanisms of modern roof bolting systems including both the tension and fully grouted bolts. Parameters to be studied are: bolt length, bolt spacing, bolt size/strength, grout annulus, in-situ stress condition, overburden depth, and roof geology (massive strata, fractured, and laminated or thinly-bedded). Based on the analysis of the mechanisms of both bolting systems and failure modes of the bolted strata, roof bolting design criteria and programs for modern roof bolting systems were developed. These criterion and/or programs were combined with the MRGIS for use in conjunction with roof bolt installation.

Syd S. Peng

2005-10-01

200

TryEngineering: Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan on surface engineering, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students learn about nanotechnology and its application in developing hydrophobic surfaces. (Hydrophobicity is a physical property, and is defined as the tendency of a molecule to repel water.) Students work in teams to to design a roof from simple materials that will keep the contents of a box dry during a water test. The driving question of the lesson: How do civil engineers apply principles of nanotechnology to develop waterproof roofs? This resource includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Editor's Note: Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar, whereas H2O is a polar molecule. Examples of hydophobic molecules include oils and fats. But as the size of objects is reduced to the nanoscale, the effects of surface properties become even more pronounced. To extend this lesson, see Related Materials for an article by the Nanoterra Group that provides information on newer applications of nanotechnology in surface design.

201

Roof bolt assembly having a sealing plug for preventing a deterioration of the mine roof  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a roof bolt assembly for preserving the natural geological structure of a mine roof which consists of an elongated bolt rod with first and second distal ends, an expandable anchor threaded on the first end for operatively engaging the walls of a roof bolt hole bored in the mine roof at points inboard of the roof surface, a bolt head on the second end of the bolt rod, and a roof plate sandwiched between the roof surface and the bolt head. The entire assembly is pre-tensioned to tightly hold the roof plate against the roof surface. The hole bored in the roof is larger in diameter than the diameter of the roof bolt rod defining an annular space around the rod. The improvement comprises sealing means totally disposed within the annular space adjacent the second end of the bolt but spaced from the roof plate. The sealing means further being spaced from the roof surface such that a gap is formed between the roof surface and the sealing means. The sealing means preclude the entrance of air and moisture into the hole and the annular space around the rod is generally free from material in a region between the anchor and the sealing means such that the bolt is generally out of contact with the mine roof in this region.

Unrug, K.F.; Thompson, E.D.; Nandy, S.K.

1987-09-15

202

Simulating Nonlinear Deformations of Solar Sail Membranes Using Explicit Time Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, the explicit time integration method is employed to predict deformation of highly flexible solar sail structural components. The nonlinear static analysis of a highly flexible ribbon structure is presented to demonstrate the need for having the explicit time integration method in the analysis toolbox for solar sail. Static analyses of the ribbon structure produce ambiquous results whereas the explicit time integration method determines the correct results. Extensive benchmarking examples are also presented to build confidence in the use of the explicit method. Previously determined nonlinear wrinkling deformations of solar sail membranes are found by the explicit method. As the explicit method is known to often require more computational time than nonlinear static methods, a study on mass scaling was also conducted. The computational times are reported for the nonlinear static and explicit time integration solutions to calibrate the advantage of using mass scaling for these problems.

Wang, John T.; Chen, Tzikang; Sleight, David W.; Tessler, Alex

2004-01-01

203

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form  

E-print Network

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

204

Collaborative Integral Design of Active Roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the world of design and engineering, gaps of knowledge between these disciplines are recognized. The learning capacity of the building industry - as well as in other industries - is becoming a main issue, also within Architect-organizations. To link the parts of the knowledge-triangle practice, education and research forms the basis for possible solutions - within the context

EMCJ Quanjel; Wim Zeiler

2007-01-01

205

Roof Polishing of Optical Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bevealed tip gives optimum coupling efficiency. Abrasive tape used to grind tip of optical fiber. Grinding force depends on stiffness of optical fiber. "Roof" shape on end of optical glass fiber increases efficiency which couples laser light. End surface angle of 65 degrees with perpendicular required for optimum coupling. Since fiber and tape are light in weight and compliant, ridge defect-free, and chipping on fiber edge totally eliminated.

Dholakia, A. R.

1985-01-01

206

Integration of Solar Photocatalysis and Membrane Bioreactor for Pesticides Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater containing recalcitrant contaminants as pesticides can be treated by a coupled system which consists of a solar photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a biological oxidation process. Membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is particularly suitable for advanced biological treatment of wastewater containing biorecalcitrant compounds and shows a variety of advantages that make it a good alternative to be coupled with photo-Fenton, especially

J. L. Casas Lpez; A. Cabrera Reina; E. Ortega Gmez; M. M. Ballesteros Martn; S. Malato Rodrguez; J. A. Snchez Prez

2010-01-01

207

Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of these areas. In our own solar system, astrobiology encompasses much more than just the search for life on Mars or Europa. Our goal is to understand the nature of planetary habitability--which planets have evolved to have environments that are habitable by microorganisms, and which have not. By understanding the processes that control the architecture of our solar system, we can extrapolate how these same processes might have played out in other planetary systems and what the distribution of habitability might be beyond our own system. In this context, Mars and Europa appear as potentially habitable worlds either today or in the past, Ganymede and Callisto might have deep subsurface oceans and be habitable, Venus might have been habitable early on but does not appear to be today, and Titan probably has had intermittent liquid water as well as ongoing chemical evolution involving organic molecules. Looking more broadly, the origin and the evolution of the gas-giant planets and their dynamical effects have had a major influence on the terrestrial planets; the characteristics of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud influence our understanding of early chemical and volatile processes that affect habitability; and asteroids have had a tremendous impact on the terrestrial planets throughout their history. In order to understand planetary habitability in general, and the implications of a discovery of the presence or absence of life on any given object, we need to understand the detailed origin and evolution of our solar system as a whole and of the individual bodies within it. A broad program of planetary exploration is the best way to investigate the astrobiology of our solar system.

Jakosky, B. M.

2003-12-01

208

Energy factors and temporary distribution in insulated built-up roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating) required, radiative cooling, and insulation efficiency. Results indicate that for a black surface, solar heat response is significantly higher in the roof portion with the higher R-value. Solar heat response is directly affected by color of surfacing; lowest to highest values were found with white, white gravel, gray gravel, aluminum-gray, and black. Recommendations are given for reducing surface temperatures of insulated built-up roofs.

Keeton, J. R.; Alumbaugh, R. L.

1981-02-01

209

Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design  

E-print Network

emissions targets. That is why the Cambridge-MIT Institute set up a project to design buildings that consume less energy. The Challenge Their work focuses on the design of energy efficient buildings that use natural ventilation processes, solar... Awards E-stack brings a breath of fresh air to UK schools HOME ABOUT US FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES PROJECTS EDUCATION NEWS EVENTS DOWNLOADS CONTACT US PROJECTS Natural Ventilation Solar Heating and Integrated Low-Energy Building Design SEARCH: Go Page 1...

2009-07-10

210

An Innovative Building-Integrated Solar-Air Collector: Presentation and First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new solar air collector totally integrated into a shutter. The air is moved by a fan supplied with electricity\\u000a by a PV module inserted into the shutter. The produced hot air is injected in the house to heat it and to maintain a healthy\\u000a air. This solar air shutter is reversible and can run in all positions.

Jean Louis Canaletti; Gilles Notton; Christian Cristofari

211

Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs  

SciTech Connect

Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

1998-06-01

212

Cool Roofs Will Revolutionize the Building Industry Adoption of infrared-reflective paints is one of the major advances in roofing in our  

E-print Network

paints that are dark in color but highly reflective in the near-infrared portion of the solar spectrum. First used in paints for military camouflage to match the near-infrared reflectance of background. Cool Roofs Will Revolutionize the Building Industry Adoption of infrared-reflective paints is one

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

213

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements. The owner or operator...internal floating roof shall comply with the design requirements in paragraphs (a)(1...liquid-mounted seal. (ii) A metallic shoe seal. (iii) Two continuous...

2011-07-01

214

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

...internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements. The owner or operator...internal floating roof shall comply with the design requirements in paragraphs (a)(1...liquid-mounted seal. (ii) A metallic shoe seal. (iii) Two continuous...

2014-07-01

215

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements. The owner or operator...internal floating roof shall comply with the design requirements in paragraphs (a)(1...liquid-mounted seal. (ii) A metallic shoe seal. (iii) Two continuous...

2010-07-01

216

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements. The owner or operator...internal floating roof shall comply with the design requirements in paragraphs (a)(1...liquid-mounted seal. (ii) A metallic shoe seal. (iii) Two continuous...

2012-07-01

217

40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...internal floating roof (IFR). (a) IFR design requirements. The owner or operator...internal floating roof shall comply with the design requirements in paragraphs (a)(1...liquid-mounted seal. (ii) A metallic shoe seal. (iii) Two continuous...

2013-07-01

218

Roof mounting site analysis for micro-wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building-integrated micro-wind turbines are promising low-cost renewable energy devices. However, the take-up of micro-wind turbines in high density suburban environments is still very limited due to issues such as: a) low wind speeds; b) high turbulence intensity; and c) the perception of potentially high levels of aerodynamic noise generated by the turbines. The wind flow field above the roof of

L. Ledo; P. B. Kosasih; P. Cooper

2011-01-01

219

Green roof vegetation for North American ecoregions: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green roof is a vegetated roof or deck designed to provide urban greening for buildings, people, or the environment. Made popular across Europe over the past few decades, green roofs are now becoming more familiar to North Americans as some cities have built green roof pilot projects and adopted incentives for using green roofs or even require their use.

Bruce Dvorak; Astrid Volder

2010-01-01

220

Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof Part 2  

E-print Network

temperatures for the green roof compared with the conventional roof and a significant shift in when the peak green roof temperature occurs compared to the conventional roof. Data analysis of the same 2005 period also shows lower heat fluxes for the green roof...

Sonne, J.; Parker, D.

221

A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting  

SciTech Connect

Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

2013-02-21

222

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress report No. 13  

SciTech Connect

Progress on the development of electrostatic bonding as a method of integrally encapsulating silicon solar cells in glass is reported. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue to demonstrate process uniformity of encapsulation by electrostatic bonding. An additional goal for this program is to develop preformed contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure, resulting in a low-cost module assembly technique.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

1980-03-01

223

Micro-financing solar power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posing for the camera, Mr. Gunapala Seneviratne and family stand on their porch under a solar lamp. The light is powered by a solar photovoltaic panel that has just been installed on their roof. For five hours technicians from SELCO Solar Lanka, a local solar company, have been busy installing this 40 W, five light, one electric outlet, solar home

Judith Lipp

2001-01-01

224

Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) on Solar Probe Plus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. There is still a lot of uncertainty about the specific acceleration processes that generate high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher-energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements in the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide critical measurements that, when integrated with the measurements of other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and the origin of SEPs.

Christian, E. R.; McComas, D. J.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Livi, S. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Schwadron, N. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

2013-05-01

225

The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2011-01-01

226

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

2013-10-01

227

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

2013-10-01

228

Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 15th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period December 1979 to April 1980 is described. Project analysis and integration, technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheet and encapsulation, production process and equipment development, engineering, and operation are included.

1980-01-01

229

Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

Mcdonald, R. R.

1982-01-01

230

Improved power conditioning system for grid integration of photovoltaic solar energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing utilization of photovoltaic (PV) solar systems in distributed (or dispersed) generation systems imposes new requirements for the operation and management of the distribution grid, especially when high penetration levels are achieved. Under this scenario, the power electronics technology plays a vital role in managing an effective grid integration of the PV system, since it is subject to requirements

Marcelo G. Molina; E. C. dos Santos; M. Pacas

2010-01-01

231

Combined photovoltaic and solar thermal systems for facade integration and building insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most photovoltaic (PV) facades are built as curtain facades in front of thermally insulated buildings, with air ducts in between. This causes additional costs for support structure and installation, while heat dissipation from the solar cells is often not optimal. Measurements carried out are facing both concerns: integration of a thermal insulating layer (which meets the latest German heat-preserving regulation,

Stefan Krauter; Rodrigo Guido Arajo; Sandra Schroer; Rolf Hanitsch; Mohammed J Salhi; Clemens Triebel; Reiner Lemoine

1999-01-01

232

An efficient way to use medium-or-low temperature solar heat for power generation integration into conventional power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the medium-or-low temperature solar heat can be used to generate power efficiently by integrating into conventional coal-fired power plants. In so-called solar aided power generation (SAPG) technology, medium-or-low temperature solar heat is used to replace parts of bled-off steams in regenerative Rankine cycle to pre-heat feedwater. Thermal oil can be used as solar heat carrier and

Yongping Yang; Qin Yan; Rongrong Zhai; Abbas Kouzani; Eric Hu

2011-01-01

233

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-07-01

234

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

235

30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Roof bolt torque or tension measurements or the condition of conventional support indicate excessive loading; (2) Roof fractures are present; (3) There is any other indication that the roof is structurally weak; or (4) Pillar recovery has...

2013-07-01

236

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

237

Mine roof drill bits that save money  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, has developed advanced technology roof bolt drill bits which have demonstrated longer life, higher penetration rates at lower thrust and torque, and lower specific energy than conventional roof bolt drill bits. This is achieved through use of advanced technology cutting materials and novel bit body designs. These bits have received extensive laboratory and mine testing.

Ford

1982-01-01

238

ROOFING PROJECT ODORS How Can EHS Help?  

E-print Network

of exposure found inside buildings during roofing projects. Can Breathing Fumes Cause Cancer? According), there is no direct evidence that inhalation of asphalt roofing odors causes cancer in building occupants. Some epidemiological studies of asphalt works suggests that they may be at a somewhat increased risk for lung cancer

Stephens, Graeme L.

239

Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22m wide3.66m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof typestwo aspectsfour

Mingteh Chang; Matthew W. McBroom; R. Scott Beasley

2004-01-01

240

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. A new mechanical approach to estimate rock strengths using the acquired drilling parameters has been proposed. This approach takes a number of important factors, that have never been studied in the previous researches, into the considerations. Good results have been shown using the new approach on the testing data.

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-15

241

Integration between solar and space science data for space weather forecast using web services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the technology develops, the opportunity that the human beings behave in space, and it is still understood that the solar activities (especially the solar flare) influence the airlines communication, the ship communication and the power generator of the electric power company, etc. Forecasting the effects of the solar activities is becoming very important because there is such a background. Our goal is that constructs the detailed model from the Sun to the magnetosphere of the earth and simulates the solar activities and the effects. We try to integrate the existing observational data including the ground observational data and satellite observational data using by web service technology as a base to construct the model. We introduce our activity to combine the solar and space science data in Japan. Methods Generally, it is difficult to develop the virtual common database, but web service makes interconnection among different databases comparatively easy. We try to connect some databases in the portal site. Each different data objects is aggregated to a common data object. We can develop more complex services. We use RELAX NG in order to develop these applications easily. We begin the trial of the interconnection among the solar and space science data in Japan. In the case of solar observational data, we find the activity such as VO, for example, VSO and EGSO, but space science data seems to be very complex. In addition to this, there is time lag that solar activity has an effect on the magnetosphere of the Earth. We discuss these characteristic in the data analysis between the solar and space data. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research `The Basic Study of Space Weather Prediction' (17GS0208) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Technology, and Culture of Japan

Kato, S.

2007-08-01

242

Experimental polyurethane foam roof systems, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental roofing installation is described in which polyurethane foam (PUF) was spray-applied directly to metal Butlerib-type metal decks, the roof divided into five approximately equal areas, and the PUF protected with five different elastomeric coating systems. Three of the coating systems were damaged by hailstones about a year after installation; these systems were recoated within 3 years of the initial installation. The current coatings include two of the original coating systems - a plural component silicone and a single component silicone - and those applied over the three systems damaged by hail - a single component silicone, an aluminum filled, hydrocarbon-extended catalyzed urethane, and a catalyzed urethane. The performance of these five PUF systems over a 7-year period is reported. The temperature distributions throughout the roof systems are described. The decay in the thermal conductivity of the PUF roof over a 5-year period is presented, and the energy savings realized by foaming the roof are presented.

Alumbaugh, R. L.; Keeton, J. R.; Humm, E. F.

1983-01-01

243

Interpretation of 2d and 3d Building Details on Facades and Roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Internet-inspired mapping data are in the form of street maps, orthophotos, 3D models or street-side images and serve to support mostly search and navigation. Yet the only mapping data that currently can really be searched are the street maps via their addresses and coordinates. The orthophotos, 3D models and street-side images represent predominantly "eye candy" with little added value to the Internet-user. We are interested in characterizing the elements of the urban space from imagery. In this paper we discuss the use of street side imagery and aerial imagery to develop descriptions of urban spaces, initially of building facades and roofs. We present methods (a) to segment facades using high-overlap street side facade images, (b) to map facades and facade details from vertical aerial images, and (c) to characterize roofs by their type and details, also from aerial photography. This paper describes a method of roof segmentation with the goal of assigning each roof to a specific architectural style. Questions of the use of the attic space, or the placement of solar panels, are of interest. It is of interest that roofs have recently been mapped using LiDAR point clouds. We demonstrate that aerial images are a useful and economical alternative to LiDAR for the characterization of building roofs, and that they also contain very valuable information about facades.

Meixner, P.; Leberl, F.; Brdif, M.

2011-04-01

244

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

1997-01-01

245

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-06-01

246

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-01-01

247

Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

2005-01-01

248

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool

Hashem Akbari; Ronnen Levinson; Arthur Rosenfeld; Matthew Elliot

2009-01-01

249

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

2008-07-01

250

Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

2012-05-01

251

NREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from these renewable resources could be integrated reliably into the grid. To inform the discussion about the potential of such variable sources, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched two key regional studies, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically possible for U.S. power systems to integrate 20%-35% renewable electricity if infrastructure and operational improvements can be made.

Not Available

2011-10-01

252

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress report No. 14  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth quarterly report under a JPL/DOE program to develop electrostatic bonding as a method of integral encapsulation of solar cells in glass. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue demonstrations of process uniformity of electrostatic bonding encapsulation by production of 24-cell minimodules by ESB. Additional goals of this program are to develop preformed (wire-mesh) contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure, resulting in a low-cost module assembly technique, and to investigate low-temperature bonding to commercially available glass (Pyrex) superstrates. Progress is reported.

None

1980-08-01

253

Solar integrated current-fed quasi-Z-source inverter with power buck-boost capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar integrated current-fed quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) have been proposed to overcome the limitations of current-source inverter (CSI) and current-fed Z (impedance) source inverter (ZSI). The problems with CSI are unidirectional power flow and can perform only voltage boost operation. On the other hand ZSI is bidirectional with an additional diode and have voltage buck-boost capability. The techniques of ZSI and

S. Karolin Selvia; F. X. Edwin Deepak

2012-01-01

254

Measured performance and modeling of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of an evacuated-tube, integral-collector-storage water heater was conducted in an indoor solar simulator. Useful collected energy, radiation-induced stratification and draw-induced mixing are characterized in eight trials in which test duration, initial tank water temperature, flow rate during withdrawal of heated water from the collector, withdrawal pattern and reflectance of the backplane were varied. All tests were performed

A. A. Mason; J. H. Davidson

1995-01-01

255

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

256

Radiometric calibration of a 100 cm sphere integrating source for VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS) mission has a solar diffuser as a reflective band calibrator. Due to UV solarization of the solar diffuser, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is on-board to track the reflectance change of the solar diffuser in visible to near IR wavelengths. A 100 cm Sphere Integrating Source (SIS) has been used to configure and test the SDSM on the ground since MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) programs. Recent upgrades of the radiance transfer and BRDF measurement instruments in Raytheon have enabled more spectral data and faster measurement time with comparable uncertainty to the previous methods. The SIS has a Radiance Monitor, which has been mainly used as a SIS real-time health checker. It has been observed that the Radiance Monitor response is sufficiently linear and stable thus the Radiance Monitor can be used as a calibrator for ground tests. This paper describes the upgraded SIS calibration instruments, and the changes in the calibration philosophy of the SIS for the SDSM bands.

Kim, Eugene D.; Murgai, Vijay; Menzel, Reinhard W.

2012-09-01

257

Roofing Systems Have Continued To Improve in Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of each of three types of roofing systems: built-up roofing (BUR); modified bitumen; and a combination of BUR and modified bitumen. Roof performance, performance maximization, and inspection and maintenance issues are addressed. A brief glossary of commercial roofing terms is included. (GR)

Hobson, Joseph W.

2000-01-01

258

In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented current technology in 1989 and were blown with CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HCFC-141b. These foams were installed in roof systems comprised of loosely-laid insulation boards covered by either

A. O. Desjarlais; J. E. Christian; R. S. Graves

1993-01-01

259

Solar energy assessment in the Alpine area: satellite data and ground instruments integration for studying the radiative forcing of aerosols.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this work is to purpose an approach for estimating the effect of aerosols on surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) in the Alpine region, which is based on the integration of different instruments: we develop a GIS model, whose output is corrected by monthly atmospheric coefficients, and then we progressively add details by daily updated atmospheric information. The assessment of solar energy availability at the earth's surface over a specific geographic area is crucial for planning photovoltaic panels installation. When modeling SIS with GIS instruments or retrieving it from satellites measurements, we have to account for terrain shadowing and atmospheric extinction, both of which are difficult to describe in the Alpine area, because of the topographic complexity and the local atmospheric circulation influence on the atmospheric composition. While advanced methods were developed to carefully describe the effect of topography, the atmospheric attenuation was considered so far only through monthly turbidity values, and the question remains whether it be possible to develop a time-effective routine to model the atmospheric effect on SIS at daily scale. As a first step we produced a WebGIS for the town of Bressanone, Italy, showing a classification of the roofs of the buildings according to the yearly amount of global irradiance. Furthermore we provide the annual electricity production based on the efficiency of the most common PV technologies. At this stage clear sky irradiance was computed with a GIS based model, and afterwards monthly correction coefficients were applied to add real sky conditions to the merely geometrical computations, which were obtained from 20 years of measurement collected by the pyranometer in the closest meteorological station. As a second step we investigate the influence of aerosol optical properties on SIS by running the radiative transfer model libRadtran by using as input the aerosol model defined for the measurement site of Bolzano, where we installed an AERONET sun-photometer for measuring aerosol optical properties and column water-vapor amount. The impact of aerosols on the surface irradiance was already demonstrated, in fact the literature shows that the daily aerosol direct forcing on the surface radiation in the Italian Po valley amounts on average to -12.2 Wm-2, with extremes values beyond -70 Wm-2. In particular here we examine the role in the radiation budget of the Alpine valleys of aerosol microphysical characteristics, such as size distribution, and optical properties, such as phase function, derived from the inversion of spectrally resolved sky radiances. After provided evidence of the radiative impact of atmospheric aerosols on solar energy availability in the Alpine area, the final step will be the enhancement of the most advanced existent algorithm for retrieving SIS in the Alpine area from satellite data, developed by MeteoSwiss in the framework of CM-SAF, which thoroughly considers the effect of topography and clouds, while can still be improved in terms of atmospheric input data.

Castelli, M.; Petitta, M.; Emili, E.

2012-04-01

260

Design considerations for retractable-roof stadia  

E-print Network

As existing open-air or fully enclosed stadia are reaching their life expectancies, cities are choosing to replace them with structures with moving roofs. This kind of facility provides protection from weather for spectators, ...

Frazer, Andrew H., 1981-

2005-01-01

261

Coal Mine Roof Instability: Categories and Causes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal mine roof failure is categorized according to character, trend, or pattern of occurrence. Two principal categories of failure are proposed--geology related and stress related. Geology-related failure includes both lithology and structure. Each of sev...

N. N. Moebs, R. M. Stateham

1986-01-01

262

Design of a hybrid composite roof bar  

SciTech Connect

This project entailed the design and construction of a hybrid composite roof bar for a passenger vehicle in accordance to AS 1235-1989. The design was based on finite element modeling. The manufacture of the roof bar incorporated tool fabrication and a wet lay-up technique. Experimental substantiation of the roof bar was performed by testing the roof bar to the static loading requirements set by AS 1235-1989. The findings of both the finite element and experimental work were presented and discussed, which included a comparison between the two sets of results. A commercial manufacture technique which could be adopted, alternative designs, and the applicability of composites in high load bearing automotive structures, were also discussed and recommended.

Falzon, P.J.; Janardhana, M.N. [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1993-12-31

263

Solar cell shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (inventors)

1977-01-01

264

Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof.  

PubMed

Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO3(-) retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input-output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation. PMID:24017999

Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

2014-01-01

265

Modeling and analysis of solar photovoltaic-electrolyzer-fuel cell hybrid power system integrated with a floriculture greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the modeling and analysis of a greenhouse-integrated power system consisting of solar photovoltaic panels, electrolyzer bank and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. Electric power is generated in an array of solar photovoltaic modules. Excess energy after meeting the requirements of the greenhouse during peak sunshine hours, is supplied to an electrolyzer bank to generate hydrogen

A. Ganguly; D. Misra; S. Ghosh

2010-01-01

266

Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two

Viorel Badescu

2003-01-01

267

Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter. PMID:19848177

Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

2009-10-01

268

Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains  

E-print Network

benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially... benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially...

Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

2006-01-01

269

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

270

Energy factors and temperature distribution in insulated built-up roofs. Technical note July 1977-January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Surface temperatures of 4-ply built-up roofs insulated with (1) 1 inch of perlite (R = 2.8) and 2-1/2 inches of urethane (R = 19.2) and (2) 1 inch of urethane (R = 7.1) and 1-7/8 inches of glass fiber (R = 7.7) are presented. Energy factors are shown in terms of temperature-time areas defined as solar heat response, cooling (heating) required, radiative cooling, and insulation efficiency. Results indicate that for a black surface, solar heat response is significantly higher in the roof portion with the higher R-value. Solar heat response is directly affected by color of surfacing; lowest to highest values were found with white, white gravel, gray gravel, aluminum-gray, and black. Recommendations are given for reducing surface temperatures of insulated built-up roofs.

Keeton, J.R.; Alumbaugh, R.L.

1981-02-01

271

Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure  

SciTech Connect

In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one cylindrical guide sleeve extending downwardly from said floatable roof; a shoe depending laterally from said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve's lower end for engaging the tank floor when the level of contained liquid is insufficient to support said floatable roof, said shoe having means forming a passage there through to register a support column and, an elongated support column removably positioned in said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve, of being sufficient length to extend downward beyond the shoe to engage the tank floor, whereby to sustain the floatable roof a predetermined distance above said floor after the contained liquid has drained from the tank.

Vaughn, L.G.

1993-07-27

272

Thin film silicon solar cells with non-simple integral period ratio between front and back gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an ultra-thin amorphous silicon solar cell with dual-interface gratings of non-simple integral period ratios. The non-simple integral period ratio structure (NIPRS) shows a broad absorption band compared to the simple integral period ratio structure (SIPRS). Both the front and back gratings couple light into different optical modes in wavelength ranges that do not overlap. An integrated absorption of 67.2% is achieved when the thickness of the active layer is 100 nm.

Xia, Zihuan; Wu, Yonggang; Jiao, Hongfei; Cao, Hong; Liang, Zhaoming; Zhou, Jian; Qin, Xuefei

2014-10-01

273

Solar Energetic Particle Events detected by the Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) onboard INTEGRAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SREM is a cost-effective instrument mounted onboard multiple ESA missions. The SREM objective is the in-situ measurement of high-energy solar particles at the spacecraft location. Within the previous solar cycle 23, SREM units onboard ESA's INTEGRAL and Rosetta missions detected several tens of SEPEs and accurately pinpointed their onset, rise, and decay times. We have undertaken a detailed study to determine the solar sources and subsequent interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that gave rise to these events, as well as the timing of SEPEs with the onset of possible geomagnetic activity triggered by these ICMEs. We find that virtually all SREM SEPEs may be associated with CME-driven shocks. For a number of well-studied INTEGRAL/SREM SEPEs, moreover, we see an association between the SEPE peak and the shock passage at L1. Shortly (typically within a few hours) after the SEPE peak, the ICME-driven modulation of the magnetosphere kicks in, with either an increase or a dip of the Dst index, indicating stormy conditions in geospace. We conclude that, pending additional investigation, SREM units may prove useful for a short-term prediction of inclement space-weather conditions in Geospace, especially if mounted onboard dayside missions ahead of the magnetospheric bow shock.

Georgoulis, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Sandberg, I.; Balasis, G.; Nieminen, P.

2012-01-01

274

An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.  

PubMed

This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day). PMID:23596946

Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

2013-02-01

275

An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays  

E-print Network

An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell material.11,15 Compared with other integrated solar power supplies,16,17 double-sided TiO2 NTs with large

Wang, Zhong L.

276

Surface heat budget on green roof and high reflection roof for mitigation of urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the surface temperature, net radiation, water content ratio, etc., of green roofs and high reflection roofs are observed. The heat and water budget are compared to each other. In the daytime, the temperature of the cement concrete surface, the surface with highly reflective gray paint, bare soil surface, green surface and the surface with highly reflective white

Hideki Takebayashi; Masakazu Moriyama

2007-01-01

277

Cool roof Q+A 011.doc 29 July 2009 Cool Roof Q & A (draft)  

E-print Network

that of a comparable standard product. For example, the afternoon surface temperature of a specially designed "cool thermal radiation. An easy way to judge the coolness of a roof is to compare its surface temperature, and a surface temperature elevation (surface temperature ­ outside air temperature) T of 69°F [38 K]. A roof

278

Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.  

PubMed

Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers. PMID:20923966

Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

2010-11-01

279

Study on functional integration of the SKA and the solar thermal power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A separate building of solar power plants may take hundreds of millions of euros. The dish-stirling system is one of the concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) technologies. Considering the dish-stirling system is structurally similar to a radio telescope, with its diameter similar to the antenna that is used in the SKA, It is assumed that a radio telescope and the dish-stirling system could be functionally integrated in the design for time-based sharing, thus to reduce the SKA and the dish-stirling system in the repeated construction costs on the reflecting surface, the two-axis tracking mechanism, the civil engineering, and the roads, etc. Based on the above idea on the functional integration of devices, whilst taking account on the functional requirements of the SKA and the dish-stirling system, the Principle design of functional integration is conducted. In addition, the control system and multi-functional reflector regarding its processing and coating technology is covered.

Dong, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Dehua; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xuebin

2012-09-01

280

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

Bower, Ward

2011-09-01

281

Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

2012-06-01

282

Estimating integrated cloud liquid water from extended time observations of solar irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated liquid water content (LWC) from the measured solar irradiance is described. The cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the same time on a cloudless day. From the transmittance and the zenith angle, the cloud LWC is computed using the radiative transfer parameterizations of Stephens et al., (1984). The results are compared with 17 days of mm-wave (20.6 and 31.65 GHz) radiometer measurements made during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observation (IFO) in July of 1987.

Fairall, C. W.; Rabadi, Raja El-Salem; Snider, Jack B.

1990-01-01

283

Prospects for integrating utility-scale solar photovoltaics and industrial agriculture in the U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key challenges to many alternative energy options is land use competition, such as conflict with food production (e.g., corn or sugar cane ethanol) or natural resource protection (e.g., solar panels in desert habitat). Wind power has largely avoided these conflicts by leasing land from farmers and maintaining a small footprint on the landscape. Here, we ask whether similar opportunities exist for solar photovoltaics in agricultural settings. Our test case consists of a soybean field in Ames, Iowa (USA), with south-facing solar panels in rows spaced 16 m apart (~3 times further than typical), a center pole height of 3 m (3 times higher than in a typical ground-mounted system), and a fixed tilt of 25 degrees. Using a geometric shade model coupled to a common crop model (DSSAT) and driven by 14 years of weather data, we find that the average annual soybean yield is not significantly reduced (< 3% or < 0.1 t ha-1 yr-1) by the shade cast by the solar panels. Furthermore, shading appears to slightly improve yields during dry years. These results are consistent across five soybean cultivars spanning the three maturity groups commonly grown in Iowa, suggesting that incorporation of solar photovoltaics into agricultural fields may provide renewable energy with little or no reduction in yields. Using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model and assuming 18 to 20% efficient panels, we estimate that this configuration at this location will produce 295 MWh ha-1 in the first year of operation. With this configuration the United States' current (2007) electricity production could be met by incorporating photovoltaic panels into as little as 11% of currently cropped land. We are currently developing an independent model that will complement our DSSAT analyses by simulating the effects of solar photovoltaics on available light, albedo and temperature on a range of different crops. We also review some of the major challenges to and potential benefits of integrated solar-agricultural systems in different regions and cropping systems.

Dahlin, K.; Anderegg, W.; Hernandez, R. R.; Hiza, N.; Johnson, J. E.; Maltais-landry, G.; Wolf, A.; Zimmerman, N. B.

2011-12-01

284

Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof  

E-print Network

and roof heat flux, and simulations indicate cooling load reductions of up to 25%. This monitored study evaluates summer and winter energy performance aspects of a green roof on a central Florida university building addition that was completed in 2005... heat flux estimates show the green roof to have an average heat flux of 0.39 Btu/ft 2 /hr or 18.3% less than the conventional roofs average heat flux rate of 0.48 Btu/ft 2 /hr. Winter data again show significantly lower peak roof surface...

Sonne, J.

2006-01-01

285

Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices  

SciTech Connect

This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

2012-01-01

286

Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

Hummon, M.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Mehos, M.

2013-10-01

287

Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

Hummon, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

2013-10-01

288

Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge performances. Also, the active materials did not decompose at 80C, and the battery was performing well under low temperature of -27C. Lastly, the batteries were embedded inside a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate to characterize their performance under fatigue loading. Finally, an intense pulsed light (IPL) was used to sinter printed silver nanoink patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find grain size of printed silver nanoink patterns. From these analyses it was confirmed that IPL is able to adequately sinter silver nanoink patterns for printed electronics without degradation of the substrates in less than 30 ms.

Kang, Jin Sung

289

The wind resistance of asphalt roofing shingles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asphalt shingle roofing is the leading cause of hurricane wind-related insured losses in residential buildings. Damage statistics generated from recent hurricanes indicate shingle roofs sustain damage in wind velocities below design-level with damage frequency increasing with shingle roof age. The objective of this dissertation is the identification of primary mechanisms triggering the failure of shingle roof systems in wind. The research goal is to reduce future shingle roof wind damage and improve our ability to predict asphalt shingle wind resistance. Five studies comprising this dissertation addressed the adhesive consistency and strength of aged asphalt shingles, system-level wind resistance, and the load model underpinning the ASTM D7158 wind test standard. The most significant and unexpected finding was partially unsealed shingles on field, hip, and ridge locations on Florida and Texas homes. Location on the shingle's sealant strip where unsealed and failure mode were consistent at each location. Total quantity of partially unsealed shingles in the field of the roof significantly increased with age, aligning with damage statistics. Full-scale wind tunnel tests demonstrate partially unsealed shingles are more vulnerable than fully sealed due to increased distributed force on sealant strip and concentrated force at the adhered and non-adhered interface. Uplift resistance was measured in artificially and naturally aged shingles. For artificially aged shingles, one of three products evaluated had statistically significant decreases in mean uplift resistance as exposure time increased. However, resistance was above design-level at all exposure test intervals. Naturally aged shingles also had resistance above design-level. Combined results demonstrate that reduced uplift capacity can occur, but high initial bond strength promotes long-term uplift resistance. Wind loads exerted on the shingles sealant strip load path were directly measured on fully sealed and partially unsealed three-tab and laminate shingles. Results indicate that ASTM D7158 and load model is conservative in force prediction for fully sealed shingles. ASTM D7158 is not conservative for partially unsealed shingles. Research concludes that partially unsealed shingles occur naturally and represent a large contributor to wind damage. Retrofit of existing shingle roofs and further work identifying specific cause will provide significant reduction of wind risk in shingle roofing.

Dixon, Craig Robert

290

Mine roof drill bits that save money  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, has developed advanced technology roof bolt drill bits which have demonstrated longer life, higher penetration rates at lower thrust and torque, and lower specific energy than conventional roof bolt drill bits. This is achieved through use of advanced technology cutting materials and novel bit body designs. These bits have received extensive laboratory and mine testing. Their performance has been evaluated and estimates of their value in reducing coal production costs have been made. The work was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy.

Ford, L.M.

1982-04-01

291

Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is formulated and presented for the integrated structural dynamic analysis of space stations with controllable solar arrays and non-controllable appendages. The structural system flexibility characteristics are considered in the dynamic analysis by a synthesis technique whereby free-free space station modal coordinates and cantilever appendage coordinates are inertially coupled. A digital simulation of this analysis method is described and verified by comparison of interaction load solutions with other methods of solution. Motion equations are simulated for both the zero gravity and artificial gravity (spinning) orbital conditions. Closed loop controlling dynamics for both orientation control of the arrays and attitude control of the space station are provided in the simulation by various generic types of controlling systems. The capability of the simulation as a design tool is demonstrated by utilizing typical space station and solar array structural representations and a specific structural perturbing force. Response and interaction load solutions are presented for this structural configuration and indicate the importance of using an integrated type analysis for the predictions of structural interactions.

Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.

1972-01-01

292

13. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ON WEST SIDE, FACING SOUTH. SHOWS SMC ROOF UTILITY PAD. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

293

Predicting moisture problems in low-slope roofing  

SciTech Connect

Moisture intrusion is the major reason why low-slope roofing systems fail prematurely. With approximately 75% of all roofing activity being reroofing, the roofing professional is faced with deciding what to do with an existing wet roof on almost a daily basis. This paper describes finite-difference computer modeling that has been performed to address moisture control in low-slope roof systems. Based on a large database of finite difference modeling results, algorithms have been developed that allow the roofing practitioners to simply determine if a roofing system design requires a vapor retarder or if the system can be modified to enhance its tolerance for small leaks. This paper illustrates how modeling results were obtained, describes the process employed to develop the algorithms, and demonstrates how these algorithms can be used to design a moisture tolerant low-slope roof. The range of applicability and limitations of these algorithms is also detailed.

Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byars, N.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States). Dept. of Engineering Technology

1998-11-01

294

Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System  

E-print Network

Roof-Spray cooling systems are being extensively used to reduce the air-conditioning usage in industrial and commercial buildings. In buildings without air-conditioning, evaporative roof spray cooling systems help to reduce the interior temperatures...

Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

1987-01-01

295

Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling  

E-print Network

This paper will examine in depth the development of roof spray cooling in this country and elsewhere, the theory and practice of roof cooling, and the limits of system application. While this relatively simple method of air conditioning has been...

Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

1985-01-01

296

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall completely cover the annular space between the external floating roof and the wall of the storage vessel in a continuous fashion. (c) EFR inspection requirements. To demonstrate compliance for an external floating roof vessel, the owner or...

2010-07-01

297

Comparative Summer Thermal Performance of Finished and Unfinished Metal Roofing Products with Composition Shingles  

E-print Network

of five roofing systems against a control roof using dark shingles. The intent of the testing is to evaluate how roofing systems impact residential cooling energy use. Recent testing emphasizes evaluation of how increasingly popular metal roofing systems...

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J.; Sonne, J.

2004-01-01

298

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

299

Solar heated office complex--Greenwood, South Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report contains thorough docuumentation of project meeting 85 percent of building heat requirements. System uses roof mounted recirculating water solar panels and underground hot water energy storage. Aluminum film reflectors increase total solar flux captured by panels.

1981-01-01

300

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

2009-11-20

301

The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; Livi, S. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roelof, E. C.; Stone, E. C.; Schwardron, N. A.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

2011-01-01

302

Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.  

PubMed

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of So Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places. PMID:23903263

Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio

2013-01-01

303

Natural course of orbital roof fractures.  

PubMed

The natural course of several isolated and nonisolated orbital roof fractures is reported, by showing four cases in which a "wait and see" policy was followed. All four cases showed spontaneous repositioning and stabilizing of the fracture within less than a year. This might be explained by the equilibrium between the intraorbital and intracranial pressures. PMID:25383150

Stam, Liselotte H M; Wolvius, Eppo B; Schubert, Warren; Koudstaal, Maarten J

2014-12-01

304

Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

Tadolini, Stephen C. (Lakewood, CO); Dolinar, Dennis R. (Golden, CO)

1992-01-01

305

Radiant Barriers in Roof Insulation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local building owner purchased a 6000 square foot metal building to be used as a retail store, parts storage, and repair shop for a large truck maintenance facility. The building manufacturer offered a radiant barrier product as an option in the roof and wall insulating systems. The building manufacturer claimed that using two inches of conventional fiberglass insulation along

Mark C. Tatum

306

40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section...Related Requirements 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined...

2012-07-01

307

40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section...Related Requirements 1037.140 Curb weight and roof height. (a) Where applicable, a vehicle's curb weight and roof height are determined...

2013-07-01

308

Solarize Raleigh Program Attachment B -Pricing Proposal  

E-print Network

Model Number Warranty Inverter(s) PV Modules Mounting System Production Meter Data Acquisition System proposed equipment for the typical solar PV installation. If more than one variety of equipment might include, but is not limited to: -Additional cost micro- inverters -Steep roof / tall roof (define) -Cedar

309

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2007-06-01

310

Solar Flare Kernel Observations with Integral Field Spectroscopy in H-alpha Line and SDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a field integral spectroscopic instrument using a micro-lens array at the Domeless Solar Telescope, Hida Obervatory. and obtained data of H-alpha flares in X-ray C- and M-class flares taking place on 3 Nov 2011. The field of view was about 10 arc seconds square and time cadence was 12 seconds. The data demonstrate that simultaneous spectroscopic observations over extended solar structures, at a high spatial resolution and temporal cadence, are important to track and understand the physics of transient phenomena happening in impulsive flare kernels. With two-dimensional field spectral data, we made monochromatic images at given wavelengths in the H-alpha line and nearby continuum to co-align with X-ray and UV images from SDO. We also carried out line profile analysis to derive 2-D distribution of atmospheric parameters. Obtained H-alpha spectra clearly show the rapid development of red asymmetry at the flare kernels, giving a large downward Doppler shift of up to 50 km/sec. The accompanied formation of coronal flaring loop structures are consistent with a scenario of downward motion of compressed chromospheric flare kernels due do impulsive heat flow from the corona to the chromosphere and simultaneous evaporation of the chromospheric material into the corona.

Suematsu, Y.

2013-12-01

311

Space Solar Power Multi-body Dynamics and Controls, Concepts for the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiting space solar power systems are currently being investigated for possible flight in the time frame of 2015-2020 and later. Such space solar power (SSP) satellites are required to be extremely large in order to make practical the process of collection, conversion to microwave radiation, and reconversion to electrical power at earth stations or at remote locations in space. These large structures are expected to be very flexible presenting unique problems associated with their dynamics and control. The purpose of this project is to apply the expanded TREETOPS multi-body dynamics analysis computer simulation program (with expanded capabilities developed in the previous activity) to investigate the control problems associated with the integrated symmetrical concentrator (ISC) conceptual SSP system. SSP satellites are, as noted, large orbital systems having many bodies (perhaps hundreds) with flexible arrays operating in an orbiting environment where the non-uniform gravitational forces may be the major load producers on the structure so that a high fidelity gravity model is required. The current activity arises from our NRA8-23 SERT proposal. Funding, as a supplemental selection, has been provided by NASA with reduced scope from that originally proposed.

Glaese, John R.; McDonald, Emmett J.

2000-01-01

312

Component integration strategies in metamorphic 4-junction III-V concentrator solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressing beyond 3-junction inverted-metamorphic multijunction solar cells grown on GaAs substrates, to 4-junction devices, requires the development of high quality metamorphic 0.7 eV GaInAs solar cells. Once accomplished, the integration of this subcell into a full, monolithic, series connected, 4J-IMM structure demands the development of a metamorphic tunnel junction lattice matched to the 1eV GaInAs subcell. Moreover, the 0.7 eV junction adds about 2 hours of growth time to the structure, implying a heavier annealing of the subcells and tunnel junctions grown first. The final 4J structure is above 20 ?m thick, with about half of this thickness used by the metamorphic buffers required to change the lattice constant throughout the structure. Thinning of these buffers would help reduce the total thickness of the 4J structure to decrease its growth cost and the annealing time. These three topics: development of a metamorphic tunnel junction for the 4th junction, analysis of the annealing, and thinning of the structure, are tackled in this work. The results presented show the successful implementation of an antimonide-based tunnel junction for the 4th junction and of pathways to mitigate the impact of annealing and reduce the thickness of the metamorphic buffers.

Garca, Ivn; Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J.

2014-09-01

313

Development of micro image slicer of integral field unit for spaceborne solar spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and manufacturing method which overcome optical limitation of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of micro image slicer of 45 arrayed highly-narrow flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo pupil mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates their optical quality high enough for a visible light spectrograph. The each slicer mirror is 1.58 mm in length and 30?m in width with surface roughness < 1 nm rms, edge sharpness < 0.1?m, etc. This IFU is small-sized and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics in which one slit is real and the others are of pseudo slits from the IFU. Those properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph to be aboard such as a next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C.

Suematsu, Y.; Sukegawa, T.; Okura, Y.; Nakayasu, T.; Enokida, Y.; Koyama, M.; Saito, K.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuneta, S.

2014-07-01

314

Solar heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

315

Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.  

PubMed

Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated roofing industry and experienced installers for future green roof construction. PMID:18389306

Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

2008-07-01

316

You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

317

Design challenges and methodology for developing new integrated circuits for the robotics exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Next generation space-based robotics systems will be constructed using distributed architectures where electronics capable of working in the extreme environments of the planets of the solar system are integrated with the sensors and actuators in plug-and-play modules and are connected through common multiple redundant data and power buses.

Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Blalock, Benjamin; Johnson, R. Wayne

2005-01-01

318

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR AN INTEGRATED SOLAR THERMAL-BIOGAS CO-GENERATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The immediate goal is a system based on the integration of the suite of modules developed solar thermal, biogas, ORC, absorption-chiller) that can be assembled together to create systems tailored to the unique demands of individual communities and climates, optimized for effic...

319

TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING  

SciTech Connect

Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within the attic and the whole building. Field measures and computer predictions showed that the d

Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2010-03-01

320

Effects of Interplanetary Particle Transport on the Event Integrated Spectra of Solar Energetic Particles Observed in the Inner Heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It takes from a few minutes to hours for solar energetic particles to transport from the Sun to Earth. Because the speed of particle transport and scattering are energy dependent, the instantaneous spectrum of solar energetic particles rapidly varies over the time scale of an event. As a result, we typically look at their event-integrated spectrum, in order to infer the spectral properties of source particles and to minimize time dependent variations. Observed event-integrated spectrum often shows a joint double power-law distribution with a smaller spectral slope at lower energies. The energy at the spectral break or roll-over depends on the charge-to-mass ratio of particles (Mewaldt et al., 2006; Tylka et al., 2000). We have used a stochastic model of solar energetic particle transport (Zhang et al., 2009) in a 3-dimensional Parker magnetic field to study the event-integrated solar energetic particle spectrum. With this model we can study how the event-integrated spectra at different locations in the inner heliosphere, particularly at Earth or at Mars orbit, depend on the properties of particle transport in the interplanetary medium. Our model results show the event-integrated spectrum still has an approximate power-law distribution but the spectral index is smaller than that of source particles injected at the Sun. At high energies, the event-integrated spectra show a gradual roll-over to steeper spectral slopes. The value of the roll-over energy and observed spectral index depends on the spectrum of injected particles and on the radial distance. In addition, we will show how the event-integrated spectrum is affected by interplanetary transport coefficients.

Diaz, I.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H. K.

2010-12-01

321

TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.  

PubMed

Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. PMID:24107414

Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

2013-11-01

322

TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

2013-11-01

323

Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

1986-01-01

324

Insulation for built-up roofing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and mechanical properties are discussed for insulating materials for built-up roofing systems, the various materials including fiberboard, perlite, fiberglass, cellular glass, foamed urethane, perlite\\/urethane, fiberglass\\/urethane, extruded polystyrene, molded polystyrene, sprayed urethane foam, poured insulating concrete, and compacted thermosetting fill. An example calculation of the overall coefficient of heat transfer is given, and criteria for selecting insulation are presented. (PMA)

1977-01-01

325

Can wet roof insulation be dried out  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive techniques are being widely used to locate wet insulation in compact roofing systems. Now that wet insulation can be found, breather vents and so called ''breathable'' membranes are being promoted to dry out wet insulation, thereby recovering its thermal effectiveness. Exposure tests in New Hampshire indicate that the above venting methods are all rather ineffective in drying sealed specimens of perlite and fibrous glass roof insulation. It would take many decades to dry specimens at the rates measured over the past two years. Cross-ventilation within the insulation increased the rate of drying. For perlite insulation, the faster rate would still result in a drying time measured in decades. For fibrous glass insulation, the drying time was reduced to 13 years. The authors have succeeded in drying fibrous glass insulation in a roof by removing the water with a vacuum cleaner. In a series of tests with a total duration of 134 h, about 0.42 m/sup 3/ (110 gal) of water was removed from a 17-m/sup 2/ (180-ft/sup 2/) area of 38-mm (1.5-in.)-thick insulation. Before the water was removed the insulation had only 21 percent of its dry insulating ability; afterward it had 83 percent.

Tobiasson, W.; Coutermarsh, B.; Greatorex, A.; Korhonen, C.

1981-12-01

326

Can wet roof insulation be dried out  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive techniques are being widely used to locate wet insulation in compact roofing systems. Now that wet insulation can be found, breather vents and so-called breathable membranes are being promoted to dry out wet insulation, thereby recovering its thermal effectiveness. Exposure tests in New Hampshire indicate that the above venting methods are all rather ineffective in drying sealed specimens of perlite and fibrous glass roof insulation. It would take many decades to dry our specimens at the rates measured over the past two years. Cross-ventilation within the insulation increased the rate of drying. For perlite insulation, the faster rate would still result in a drying time measured in decades. For fibrous glass insulation, the drying time was reduced to 13 years. Fibrous glass insulation in a roof was dried by removing the water with a vacuum cleaner. In a series of tests with a total duration of 134 h, about 0.4 2 m/sup 3/ (110 gal) of water was removed from a 17-m/sup 2/ (180-ft/sup 2/) area of 38-mm (1.5-in.)-thick insulation. Before the water was removed the insulation had only 21% of its dry insulating ability; afterward it had 83%.

Tobiasson, W.; Korhonen, C.; Coutermarsh, B.; Greatorex, A.

1983-01-01

327

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

328

Reflective cool roofs under aerosol-burdened skies: radiative benefits across selected Indian cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of reflective surfaces offers one low-cost solution for reducing solar loading to urban environments and the Earth that should be considered as part of sustainable urban design. Here, we characterize the radiative benefits, i.e. the additional shortwave radiation leaving the atmosphere, from the installation of highly reflective cool roofs in urban areas in India that face relatively large local aerosol burdens. We use a previously tested column radiative transfer model to estimate the energy per unit area reflected to space from increasing the surface albedo at six cities within India. The model is used to characterize radiative transfer each day over five years (20082012) based on mid-day satellite retrievals of MODIS aerosol depth, cloud water path, and average surface albedo and MERRA atmospheric profiles of temperature and composition. Compared against ten months of field observations in two cities, the model derived incoming surface shortwave radiation estimates relative to observations show small biases (0.5% and ?2.6%, at Pantnagar and Nainital, respectively). Despite the high levels of local aerosols we found cool roofs provided significant radiative benefits at all locations. Averaged over the five year period we found that increasing the albedo of 1 m2 of roof area by 0.5 would reflect to space 0.91.2 kWh daily from 08:3015:30 LST, depending on location. This is equivalent to a constant forcing of 3750 W m?2 (equivalent to reducing CO2 emissions by 74 to 101 kg CO2 m?2 roof area). Last, we identify a co-benefit of improving air quality, in that removing aerosols from the atmosphere could increase the radiative benefits from cool roofs by 2374%, with the largest potential increase found at Delhi and the smallest change found at Nainital.

Millstein, D. E.; Fischer, M. L.

2014-10-01

329

Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers at The Newark Museum's Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss Planetarium teamed up with the New Jersey Institute of Technology's (NJIT) Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and the Big Bear Solar Observatory in presenting Solar Fireworks. The exhibit opened on May 15, 2004 and features two exhibition kiosks with interactive touch screen displays, where students and other visitors can take "virtual tours" in the fields of solar physics, solar activity, Sun-Earth connection, and geo-sciences. Planetarium and museum visits are an integral part of the introductory physics and astronomy classes at NJIT and the exhibition has been integrated in the astronomy curriculum. For example, NJIT students of the Astronomy Club and regular astronomy courses were closely involved in the design and development of the exhibit. The exhibit is the latest addition to the long-running natural science exhibit "Dynamic Earth: Revealing Nature's Secrets" at the museum. More than 30,000 people per year attend various programs offered by the planetarium including public shows, more than a dozen programs for school groups, after school activities, portable planetarium outreach, outdoor sky watches, solar observing and other family events. More than 1,000 high school students visited the planetarium in 2004. The exhibit is accompanied by a yearly teacher workshop (the first one was held on October 18-20, 2004) to enhance the learning experience of classes visiting the Newark Museum. The planetarium and museum staff has been working with teachers of Newark high schools and has presented many workshops for educators on a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology. At the conclusion of the exhibit in December 2005, the exhibit will go "on the road" and will be made available to schools or other museums. Finally, the exhibit will find its permanent home at the new office complex of CSTR at NJIT. Acknowledgements: Solar Fireworks was organized by The Newark Museum and the New Jersey Institute of Technology's Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research and supported by a two-year grant from NASA's Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Program (NASA NAG5-12733 EPO-02-219). http://www.bbso.njit.edu

Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.

2005-05-01

330

Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The use of dark roofs affects cooling and heating energy use in buildings and the urban climate. At the building scale, dark roofs are heated by the summer sun and thus raise the summertime air-conditioning (a/c) demand. For highly-absorptive (low-albedo) roofs the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures may be as high as 90 F on a summer afternoon. While for less absorptive (high-albedo) surfaces with similar insulative properties, such as roofs covered with a white coating, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs (which absorb little insolation) can be effective in reducing cooling energy use. Earlier studies have suggested that cool roofs incur no additional cost if color changes are incorporated into routine re-roofing and re-surfacing schedules. There is a sizable body of measured data (primarily collected for residential sector) documenting energy-saving effects of cool roofs as shown. Both measured data and simulations clearly demonstrate that increasing the albedo of roofs is an attractive (and cost-effective) way of reducing the net radiative heat gains through the roof and hence, reducing building cooling loads. To change the albedo, the rooftops of buildings may be painted with reflective coatings or covered with a new light-colored material. Since most roofs have regular maintenance schedules or need to be re-roofed or re-coated periodically, the change of the albedo should be done then. In that case, the cost would be limited to the incremental cost associated with the high-albedo material. In buildings and climates with significant air-conditioning use, increasing the albedo of roofs will reduce energy use and produce a stream of savings immediately.

Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

1998-06-01

331

Proceedings of the roof wind uplift testing workshop  

SciTech Connect

On November 8--9, 1989, a group of concerned roofing professionals gathered in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to exchange information and to hear discussions on topics dealing with wind's effect on roofs. Several important issues were addressed: (1) Wind-related roofing problems are a concern to the roofing industry; (2) There is no comprehensive understanding in the US roofing industry of the dynamics of wind phenomena; (3) There is inadequate field data on wind's effect of roof performance; (4) The correlation between field performance and laboratory testing is poor; (5) Procedures for laboratory testing and field testing are inadequate for many roof systems; (6) There is little roof uplift resistance research underway in the US, and what does exist is poorly coordinated; (7) Manuals, test procedures, standards, and codes for wind uplift are often inadequate, even confusion and contradictory at times; and (8) Building owners are not well enough informed to commit to the cost of wind uplift technology development or even to the design and construction of stronger roofs. These concerns led one group, the Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI), to commission a study in 1986 to determine the feasibility of an apparatus for testing whole roof assemblies under conditions that closely simulated real roof wind effects. Results from this study were shared with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which has subsequently submitted a review. A major conclusion from the joint talks with ORNL was the importance of avoiding decisions on an individual uplift testing concept with too narrow a focus on wind-related roofing issues. Subsequently, it was decided to schedule a workshop on the topic with the original sponsors being SPRI, ORNL, and the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratories (NCEL). Each document will have a separate abstract.

Courville, G.E. (comp.); Gillis, P.S. (ed.)

1990-02-01

332

Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time  

E-print Network

The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

2013-01-01

333

Characterization of the Turbulent Magnetic Integral Length in the Solar Wind: From 0.3 to 5 Astronomical Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [ ?], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic-autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We used observations from the Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguished between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs), and also studied solar-wind samples with low and high proton beta [?p]. We find that in the last three regimes the PDF of ? is a log-normal function, consistent with the multiplicative and nonlinear processes that take place in the solar wind, the initial ? (before the Alfvnic point) being larger in ICMEs.

Ruiz, M. E.; Dasso, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.

2014-10-01

334

Monitored passive-solar buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two story trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete and water trombe wall; two story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond.

Jones, R. W.

1982-06-01

335

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

336

Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

1989-01-01

337

Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience evaluates the environmental benefits of green roof construction.Green roofs (roofs with a vegetated surface and substrate) provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including improved storm-water management, better regulation of building temperatures, reduced urban heat-island effects, and increased urban wildlife habitat. This article reviews the evidence for these benefits and examines the biotic and abiotic components that contribute to overall ecosystem services. We emphasize the potential for improving green-roof function by understanding the interactions between its ecosystem elements, especially the relationships among growing media, soil biota, and vegetation, and the interactions between community structure and ecosystem functioning. Further research into green-roof technology should assess the efficacy of green roofs compared to other technologies with similar ends, and ultimately focus on estimates of aggregate benefits at landscape scales and on more holistic cost-benefit analyses.

ERICA OBERNDORFER (Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;Biology); JEREMY LUNDHOLM (Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;Biology); Brad Bass (University of Toronto's Centre for Environment;); Reid Coffman (University of Oklahoma in Norman;Division of Landscape Architecture); Hitshi Doshi (Ryerson University;Architectural Science); Nigel Dunnett (University of Sheffield;Landscape)

2007-12-26

338

Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dark roofs affects cooling and heating energy use in buildings and the urban climate. At the building scale, dark roofs are heated by the summer sun and thus raise the summertime air-conditioning (a\\/c) demand. For highly-absorptive (low-albedo) roofs the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures may be as high as 90 F on a summer

S. Konopacki; L. Gartland; H. Akbari; L. Rainer

1998-01-01

339

Cool Roofs to Save Money and Delay Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

White roofs, and now cool-colored roofs, with a high reflectivity or `albedo' have a long history (best known around the Mediterranean) of keeping buildings and cities cool. In modern times, cool roofs have been shown to reduce air conditioning (a-c) demand and slow the formation of ozone (smog). Studies establishing a typical 10% reduction in a-c demand and electricity savings

Arthur Rosenfeld

2006-01-01

340

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07

341

Green Roofs in the New York Metropolitan Region  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................1 Cynthia Rosenzweig, Stuart Gaffin, and Lily Parshall I. Data Analysis and Modeling Energy Balance Potential Impact of Green Roofs on the Urban Heat Island Effect

342

15. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF SKYLIGHT AT ROOF PEAK, ORIGINAL BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF SKYLIGHT AT ROOF PEAK, ORIGINAL BUILDING - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

343

5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF VENTILATION HOUSES AND ROOF MONITOR FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ROOF. ROOF MONITOR WINDOWS HAVE BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. THE VENTILATION HOUSES ARE PART OF THE ORIGINAL CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND CONTAINED AIR WASHERS, FANS AND OTHER HUMIDFYING EQUIPMENT FROM PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS. LOCATING THIS EQUIPMENT ON THE ROOF MADE IT UNNECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT A FULL BASEMENT, AND THEREFORE LOWERED CONSTRUCTION COSTS. THIS ARRANGEMENT ALSO PUT THE AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT CLOSEST TO THE TOP FLOOR SPINNING ROOM, WHICH HAD THE GREATEST COOLING REQUIREMENTS. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

344

for doubling solar panel  

E-print Network

to produce any juice at all. On average, just 20 percent of the sun's rays actually get converted to energy hot the panels on my roof get and say, `What a waste! We're losing energy!'" says Lusk, a Mines physics professor and solar energy researcher, who admits to checking out his panels and their energy

345

Wind induced airflow through lightweight pitched roof constructions: Test roof element - measurements and model validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: In the case of non ventilated compact roofs the wind tightness of the construction is usually warranted by a windproof underlay membrane and the flow resistance of the thermal insulation, as well as sealed eave and ridge details. Because of the current construction practice of wind tight layers in Austria there are numerous small leakages in the eaves, the

Christoph Deseyve; Thomas Bednar

346

Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays. Quarterly progress Report No. 12, October 11, 1979-January 10, 1980  

SciTech Connect

This is the twelfth quarterly report under a JPL/DOE program for the development of electrostatic bonding as a method of integral encapsulation of solar cells in glass. Efforts for the current phase of this program are to continue to demonstrate process uniformity of electrostatic bonding encapsulation. Additional goals of this program are to develop preformed (wire mesh) contacts as a method of integrating cell processing into the encapsulation procedure resulting in a low cost module assembly technique, and to investigate low-temperature bonding to commercially available glass (pyrex) substrates. Progress is reported.

Young, Peter R.

1980-02-01

347

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

348

Building-integrated solar photovoltaic systemsa hybrid solar cooled ventilation technique for hot climate applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents two low-cost photovoltaic utilization schemes (150 kW) for ventilation and air conditioning loads. Both schemes can be controlled by novel dynamic on-line power tracking regulator. This ensures maximum power utilization and energy efficiency under varying conditions of solar insolation levels. The system could be used to conserve electric energy through the decrease of electric demand particularly in

A. M Sharaf; M. M AboulNaga; R El Diasty

2000-01-01

349

ASTM standards for measuring solar reflectance and infrared emittance of construction materials and comparing their steady-state surface temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Numerous experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that painting roofs white reduces air conditioning load up to 50%, depending on the thermal resistance or amount of insulation under the roof. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of a building and climate. In earlier work, the authors have estimated the national energy savings potential from reflective roofs and paved surfaces. Achieving this potential, however, is conditional on receiving the necessary Federal, states, and electric utilities support to develop materials with high solar reflectance and design effective implementation programs. An important step in initiating an effective program in this area is to work with the american Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the industry to create test procedures, rating, and labeling for building and paving materials. A subcommittee of ASTM E06, E06.42, on Cool Construction Materials, was formed as the vehicle to develop standard practices for measuring, rating, and labeling cool construction materials. The subcommittee has also undertaken the development of a standard practice for calculating a solar reflectance index (SRI) of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces. SRI is a measure of the relative steady-state temperature of a surface with respect to a standard white surface (SRI = 100) and a standard black surface (SRI = 0) under standard solar and ambient conditions. This paper discusses the technical issues relating to development of these two ASTM standards.

Akbari, H.; Levinson, R.; Berdahl, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01

350

Building solar energy heating system and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A built-in solar combination heating and cooling system for a building, particularly a residence, having a sub-floor below grade, walls, one or more ceilings, and a peaked roof comprises a first heat exchange means and a second heat exchange means, where the first heat exchange means absorbs heat from the southerly surface of the roof, and the second heat exchange

Stilber

1980-01-01

351

Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles  

SciTech Connect

The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

2012-01-01

352

A Roof for the Lion's House  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fans of the National Football League's Detroit Lions don't worry about gameday weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat "Silverdome" is the world's largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome-and many other types of buildings-is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency. Fabric structures-tents, for example have been around since the earliest years of human civilization. But their coverings-hides, canvas and more recently plastics-were considered temporary; though tough, these fabrics were subject to weather deterioration. Teflon TFE-coated Beta Fiberglas is virtually impervious to the effects of weather and sunlight and it won't stretch, shrink, mildew or rot, thus has exceptional longevity; it is also very strong, lightweight, flame resistant and requires no periodic cleaning, because dirt will not stick to the surface of Teflon TFE. And to top all that, it costs only 30 to 40 percent as much as conventional roofing.

1978-01-01

353

Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average service life of roofing membranes used in low-slope applications on U.S. Army buildings is estimated to be considerably shorter than the industry-presumed 20-year design life, even when installers carefully adhere to the latest guide specifications. This problem is due in large part to market-driven product development cycles, which do not include time for long-term field testing. To reduce delivery costs, contractors may provide untested, interior membranes in place of ones proven satisfactory in long-term service. Federal procurement regulations require that roofing systems and components be selected according to desired properties and generic type, not brand name. The problem is that a material certified to have satisfactory properties at installation time will not necessarily retain those properties in service. The overall objective of this research is to develop a testing program that can be executed in a matter of weeks to adequately predict a membrane's long-term performance in service. This report details accelerated aging tests of 12 popular membrane materials in the laboratory, and describes outdoor experiment stations set up for long-term exposure tests of those same membranes. The laboratory results will later be correlated with the outdoor test results to develop performance models and predictive service life tests.

Bailey, David M.; Cash, Carl G.; Davies, Arthur G.

2002-09-01

354

Solar energy collection panels and energy recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy collection panels and energy recovery systems for recovering solar energy to reduce the power consumption in water heaters, air-conditioning systems and the like are described. The solar panels comprise decorative roofing panels having a second formed panel thereunder so as to define an air flow passage therebetween. The panels absorb solar energy, thereby heating the air within, which

1978-01-01

355

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-print Network

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren ?stergaard Jensen

356

Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

Tabares Velasco, P. C.

2011-04-01

357

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

358

Solar Powered Classroom  

SciTech Connect

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-13

359

NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

2011-07-01

360

Green roof hydrologic performance and modeling: a review.  

PubMed

Green roofs reduce runoff from impervious surfaces in urban development. This paper reviews the technical literature on green roof hydrology. Laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff volume by 30 to 86%, reduce peak flow rate by 22 to 93% and delay the peak flow by 0 to 30 min and thereby decrease pollution, flooding and erosion during precipitation events. However, the effectiveness can vary substantially due to design characteristics making performance predictions difficult. Evaluation of the most recently published study findings indicates that the major factors affecting green roof hydrology are precipitation volume, precipitation dynamics, antecedent conditions, growth medium, plant species, and roof slope. This paper also evaluates the computer models commonly used to simulate hydrologic processes for green roofs, including stormwater management model, soil water atmosphere and plant, SWMS-2D, HYDRUS, and other models that are shown to be effective for predicting precipitation response and economic benefits. The review findings indicate that green roofs are effective for reduction of runoff volume and peak flow, and delay of peak flow, however, no tool or model is available to predict expected performance for any given anticipated system based on design parameters that directly affect green roof hydrology. PMID:24569270

Li, Yanling; Babcock, Roger W

2014-01-01

361

RIS-M-2471 RUN-OFF FROM ROOFS  

E-print Network

a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon

362

40 CFR 63.1042 - Standards-Separator fixed roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators 63.1042 Standards...controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a fixed roof...between the interface of the roof edge and the separator wall....

2012-07-01

363

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators 63.1043 Standards...controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof...of the separator and the roof edge. The lower seal is...

2011-07-01

364

40 CFR 63.1042 - Standards-Separator fixed roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators 63.1042 Standards...controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a fixed roof...between the interface of the roof edge and the separator wall....

2010-07-01

365

40 CFR 63.1042 - Standards-Separator fixed roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators 63.1042 Standards...controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a fixed roof...between the interface of the roof edge and the separator wall....

2011-07-01

366

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators 63.1043 Standards...controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof...of the separator and the roof edge. The lower seal is...

2010-07-01

367

40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators 63.1043 Standards...controlling air emissions from an oil-water separator or organic-water separator using a floating roof...of the separator and the roof edge. The lower seal is...

2012-07-01

368

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

369

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

...floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR design requirements. The owner...floating roof shall comply with the design requirements listed in paragraphs...seal shall be either a metallic shoe seal or a liquid-mounted seal...liquid-mounted or metallic shoe primary seal as of...

2014-07-01

370

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR design requirements. The owner...floating roof shall comply with the design requirements listed in paragraphs...seal shall be either a metallic shoe seal or a liquid-mounted seal...liquid-mounted or metallic shoe primary seal as of...

2012-07-01

371

40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR design requirements. The owner...floating roof shall comply with the design requirements listed in paragraphs...seal shall be either a metallic shoe seal or a liquid-mounted seal...liquid-mounted or metallic shoe primary seal as of...

2013-07-01

372

Numerical evaluation of sound propagating over green roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound propagation over intensive and extensive green roofs was numerically studied by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The Zwikker and Kosten model was used to simulate sound propagation in the substrate layer itself. The presence of a green roof is mainly interesting in a street canyon configuration, and fits well in the concept of quiet sides. Positive effects of green

T. Van Renterghem; D. Botteldooren

2008-01-01

373

The influence of extensive vegetated roofs on runoff water quality.  

PubMed

The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff water quality was studied for four full scale installations located in southern Sweden. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the vegetated roof behaves as a sink or a source of pollutants and whether the age of a vegetated roof influences runoff quality. The runoff quality from vegetated roofs was also compared with the runoff quality from non-vegetated roofs located in study areas. The following metals and nutrients were investigated: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, NO3-N, NH4-N, Tot-N, PO4-P, and Tot-P. The results show that, with the exception of nitrogen, vegetated roofs behave as source of contaminants. While in lower concentrations than normally found in urban runoff, some metals appear in concentrations that would correspond to moderately polluted natural water. Nitrate nitrogen is retained by the vegetation or soil or both. Apart from the oldest, the studied vegetated roofs contribute phosphate phosphorus to the runoff. The maintenance of the vegetation systems on the roofs has to be carefully designed in order to avoid storm-water contamination; for instance, the use of easily dissolvable fertilizers should be avoided. PMID:16442432

Berndtsson, Justyna Czemiel; Emilsson, Tobias; Bengtsson, Lars

2006-02-15

374

Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green roofs (roofs with a vegetated surface and substrate) provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including improved storm-water management, better regulation of building emperatures, reduced urban heat-island effects, and increased urban wildlife habitat. This article reviews the evidence for these benefits and examines the biotic and abiotic components that contribute to overall ecosystem services. We emphasize the potential for improving

Erica Oberndorfer; Jeremy Lundholm; Brad Bass; REID R. COFFMAN; Hitesh Doshi; Nigel Dunnett; Stuart Gaffin; Manfred Khler; KAREN K. Y. LIU; Bradley Rowe

2007-01-01

375

Energy Star{reg{underscore}sign} label for roof products  

SciTech Connect

Home and buildings owners can save up to 40% of cooling energy costs by installing reflective roofs, especially in hot and sunny climates. The increase in exterior albedo and subsequent decrease in heat flow across the building envelope reduces the energy requirements to maintain air-conditioned space. Indirectly, the increase in overall albedo of a community as these roofs are installed in a large fraction of the buildings results in lower ambient air temperature and less need for air conditioning. Another indirect effect is a decrease in smog formation due to lower ambient air temperatures and less air pollution from power plants because of minimized electrical demand and use. The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy are currently developing the Energy Star Roof Products Program to create a vibrant market for energy-efficient, cost-effective roof materials through the widespread availability of products, clear recognition of the benefits by consumers, and active promotion of products by manufacturers. Several activities, including pilot procurements of room materials, and the development of outreach and training materials, will be performed to assist the transformation of the roofing market toward more energy-efficient products. Using the experiences gained in establishing the Energy Star Roof Products Program as an example, this paper will discuss the barriers to the development of energy-efficient roofing practices, program implementation, and program successes. This paper will further describe the specifics of the Energy Star Roof Products Program, its goals, benefits, activities, and timeframe.

Schmeltz, R.S.; Bretz, S.E.

1998-07-01

376

The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by the use of solar cells with an average efficiency of 13.3 percent at 1 kW/sq m air-mass-1.5 insolation and at a cell temperature of 28 C. When these modules are mounted on a sloping south-facing roof which is insulated on the rear surface, the annual energy generated at the maximum power operating point will vary from 255.6 to 137.3 kWh/sq m of module area depending on the site location, with Albuquerque, NM, and Seattle, WA, representing the highest and lowest values of the thirteen sites considered.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

1978-01-01

377

Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.  

PubMed

Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics. PMID:24135095

Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jrg; Vesuviano, Gianni

2013-01-01

378

Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was first designed in 1978 and proven with a successful pilot plant built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering, safety and excessive energy cost. A novel concept for producing

Xinping Zhou; Jiakuan Yang; Jinbo Wang; Bo Xiao

379

Conceptual design of the Truscott Brine Lake solar pond system. Volume 2: Utility-integrated scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual designs were developed for salt gradient solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. Energy is extracted from six, 10.5 ha (26 acre) solar ponds for conversion to electricity using three organic Rankine cycle turbines. The solar pond system is located in a brine impoundment lake at Truscott, Texas. Low salinity brine flowing into this lake is concentrated by natural evaporation to form the solar pond, and is also used for solar pond maintenance. Two operating scenarios were investigated. A continuous base load system could deliver 9.8 GWh/yr at an output of 1120 kW to the utility electric grid for an estimated capital expenditure of $12.8 million. A system operating only from June through September would cost $21.2 million for an annual energy delivery of 7.7 GWh at a net output during the operating period of 2640 kW.

May, E. K.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1982-12-01

380

Green Roof Media Selection forGreen Roof Media Selection for the Minimization of Pollutantthe Minimization of Pollutant  

E-print Network

Minimization of Pollutant Loadings in Roof RunoffLoadings in Roof Runoff Brett LongBrett Long Shirley Clark and wildlife valuesBiodiversity and wildlife values Filtering airborne pollution.Filtering airborne pollution for retrofits Tested membranes highly recommendedTested membranes highly recommended ­­ Plastic root barrier

Clark, Shirley E.

381

Fall Protection for Roof Workers Before working on roofs above 7 feet,1 Physical Plant staff should implement an  

E-print Network

Fall Protection for Roof Workers Before working on roofs above 7 ½ feet,1 Physical Plant staff 5 feet from edge2 and flag them visibly every 6 feet. Also, support them to prevent displacement and ensure that they can withstand a vertical or horizontal force of 13 pounds per linear feet. Guard rails

de Lijser, Peter

382

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

383

Solar control on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term observation over three solar cycles indicates a perceptible influence of solar activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the solar control on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of solar activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.

Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita

2014-12-01

384

Dual Mechatronic MPPT Controllers With PN and OPSO Control Algorithms for the Rotatable Solar Panel in PHEV System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at increasing the efficiency of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by using rotatable solar panel. Conventionally, the PHEV with solar panel has a critical problem of putting on the roof of a PHEV. Since the limited space on the roof of the vehicle is not large enough, rotatable structure is considered to track the sunlight by

Jian-Long Kuo; Kai-Lun Chao; Li-Shiang Lee

2010-01-01

385

High-performance broadband optical coatings on InGaN/GaN solar cells for multijunction device integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a bulk (0001) substrate with high-performance broadband optical coatings to improve light absorption. A front-side anti-reflective coating and a back-side dichroic mirror were designed to minimize front surface reflections across a broad spectral range and maximize rear surface reflections only in the spectral range absorbed by the InGaN, making the cells suitable for multijunction solar cell integration. Application of optical coatings increased the peak external quantum efficiency by 56% (relative) and conversion efficiency by 37.5% (relative) under 1 sun AM0 equivalent illumination.

Young, N. G.; Perl, E. E.; Farrell, R. M.; Iza, M.; Keller, S.; Bowers, J. E.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

2014-04-01

386

See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

Yang, Yang [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)] [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); OBrien, Paul G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Ozin, Geoffrey A., E-mail: gozin@chem.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Kherani, Nazir P., E-mail: gozin@chem.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2013-11-25

387

Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells  

E-print Network

We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

Sheng, Xing

388

Economic assessment of the integration of a solar tower to the Aruban water/electric facility  

SciTech Connect

The costs for the conversion of an oil burning plant to a hybrid system through the addition of a solar power tower are presented and compared with the cost savings made through reduced fuel consumption. The plant, located on the Island of Aruba, currently produces the island's water through desalination and its electricity through conventional generation. Because of the Aruban climate, it seems reasonable to attempt to use solar energy to reduce the level of oil usage. While the solar hybrid is capital and land intensive, analysis indicates that fuel consumption can be reduced by 5% at an annual savings of $1.8 million (1982 prices). With low interest loans available from the European Community, the capital investment can be paid back in 12 years; estimated life of the solar tower is 30 years.

Savilonis, B.; Buckley, R.; Every, R.

1983-11-01

389

Method for measuring integrated sensitivity of solar cells and multielement photoconverters using an X-Y scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method for automated measurement of the integrated sensitivity of solar cells (SCs) and multielement photoconverters (MPCs) using an experimental apparatus including a Pentium III personal computer (PC), an HP-34401A digital multimeter (DM), a stabilized radiation source (SRS), a controllable focusing system, an X-Y positioning device based on CD-RW optical disk storage devices. The method provides high accuracy in measuring the size of photosensitive areas of the solar cells and multielement photoconverters and inhomogeneities in their active regions, which makes it possible to correct the production process in the development stage and during fabrication of test prototypes for the solar cells and multielement photoconverters. The radiation power from the stabilized radiation source was ?1 W; the ranges of the scanning steps along the X, Y coordinates were 10 100 m, the range of the transverse cross sectional diameters of the focused radiation beam was 10 100 m, the measurable photocurrents were 10-9 A to 2 A; scanning rate along the X, Y coordinates, ?100 mm/sec; relative mean-square error (RMSE) for measurement of the integrated sensitivity of the solar cells, 0.2 ? ?S int ? 0.9% in the ranges of measurable photocurrents 1 mA ? Iph ? 750 mA and areas 0.1 ? A ? 25 cm2 for number of measurements equal to ? 2 105; instability of the radiation power (luminosity) ? 0.08% for 1 h or ? 0.4% for 8 h continuous operation; stabilized power range for the stabilized radiation source, 10-2 102 W. The software was written in Delphi 7.0.

Naumov, V. V.; Grebenshchikov, O. A.; Zalesskii, V. B.

2006-09-01

390

Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.  

PubMed

Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates. PMID:23712113

Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

2013-09-01

391

Hydrological Modelling and Parameter Identification for Green Roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green roofs, a multilayered system covered by plants, can be used to replace traditional concrete roofs as one of various measures to mitigate the increasing stormwater runoff in the urban environment. Moreover, facing the high uncertainty of the climate change, the present engineering method as adaptation may be regarded as improper measurements; reversely, green roofs are unregretful and flexible, and thus are rather important and suitable. The related technology has been developed for several years and the researches evaluating the stormwater reduction performance of green roofs are ongoing prosperously. Many European counties, cities in the U.S., and other local governments incorporate green roof into the stormwater control policy. Therefore, in terms of stormwater management, it is necessary to develop a robust hydrologic model to quantify the efficacy of green roofs over different types of designs and environmental conditions. In this research, a physical based hydrologic model is proposed to simulate water flowing process in the green roof system. In particular, the model adopts the concept of water balance, bringing a relatively simple and intuitive idea. Also, the research compares the two methods in the surface water balance calculation. One is based on Green-Ampt equation, and the other is under the SCS curve number calculation. A green roof experiment is designed to collect weather data and water discharge. Then, the proposed model is verified with these observed data; furthermore, the parameters using in the model are calibrated to find appropriate values in the green roof hydrologic simulation. This research proposes a simple physical based hydrologic model and the measures to determine parameters for the model.

Lo, W.; Tung, C.

2012-12-01

392

Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities are reported on the following areas: project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; and engineering and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts. Visual materials presented at the project Integration Meeting are included.

Mcdonald, R. R.

1980-01-01

393

Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

2006-01-01

394

Specifying, Installing and Maintaining Built-Up and Modified Bitumen Roofing Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines built-up, modified bitumen, and hybrid combinations of the two roofing systems and offers advise on how to assure high- quality performance and durability when using them. Included is a glossary of commercial roofing terms and asphalt roofing resources to aid in making decisions on roofing and systems product selection. (GR)

Hobson, Joseph W.

2000-01-01

395

Understanding the physical processes of pollutant build-up and wash-off on roof surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutants originating with roof runoff can have a significant impact on urban stormwater quality. This signifies the importance of understanding pollutant processes on roof surfaces. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant processes on roof surfaces is important as roofs are used as the primary catchment surface for domestic rainwater harvesting. In recent years, rainwater harvesting has become one of the primary sustainable

Prasanna Egodawatta; Evan Thomas; Ashantha Goonetilleke

2009-01-01

396

High-temperature integrated thermal-energy-storage system for solar-thermal applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is presented of a novel, very high temperature solar thermal energy storage system which uses molten slag as the storage medium. Slat bead aggregate is melted in a solar central receiver and stored in liquid form at 16500K in an insulated refractory storage vessel. Sensible heat is extracted from the molten slag in a direct-contact droplet heat exchanger, in which the slag is sprayed as a multitude of droplets through a high pressure counter-flowing working gas. The heated gas is used in a high-temperature regenerative Brayton cycle. The solidified slag droplets are returned to the solar receiver to repeat the cycle. Capital cost and present worth revenue requirement data are developed from a 10 MW sub e point-design electric power system for 1, 6, 15, and 48 hour storage.

Bruckner, A. P.; Hertzberg, A.

1982-12-01

397

View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof and Wall Juncture and Crane Trolley - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

398

Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

399

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

400

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

401

18. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ON WEST SIDE, FACING NORTH. SMC DUCTWORK LEADS TO HANGAR DOOR. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

402

19. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ON WEST SIDE, FACING EAST. DETAIL OF HANGAR DOOR LEAVES. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

403

15. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ON NORTHWEST SIDE, FACING NORTH. SMC IN FOREGROUND. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

404

20. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON HIGH ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON HIGH ROOF ON SOUTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. DETAIL OF EMPENNAGE DOOR AND BRACING FOR DOOR AND WALL. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

405

38. INTERIOR VIEW OF FOUNDRY SHOWING HEAVY TIMBER ROOF TRUSSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. INTERIOR VIEW OF FOUNDRY SHOWING HEAVY TIMBER ROOF TRUSSES AND TRAVELING CRANE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

406

7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

407

4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE PAIR OF RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; BRAKE WHEEL AND WINDSHAFT - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

408

Interior view of the roof structure at the east end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the roof structure at the east end of the attic space. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

409

14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION OF BUILDING 4. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

410

Exterior view of the south side from the roof of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of the south side from the roof of facility 1670. View facing north-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

411

Interior view of the roof structure at the west end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the roof structure at the west end of the attic space. View facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

412

Plain Talk About Condensation and Radiation Below Metal Roof Assemblies  

E-print Network

During recent decades an increasing number of users have chosen metal roofing for various commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Because of several advantages, construction of new pre-engineered and "hybrid" buildings has outpaced low...

Ward, L.

413

52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, SACKING SHED-FLOTATION UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

414

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

415

51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Roof plans, General Services Administration, Construction Management Division, Region 2, New York, October 29, 1976. Scale 1/31=1. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

416

3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopy of BUILDING WITH ORIGINAL ROOF BALUSTRADE, taken ca. 1860, from A History of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society 1816-1916, page 64. - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 306 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

417

11. LOOKING SOUTH ALONG ROOF OF BAGGAGE AND DORMITORY BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. LOOKING SOUTH ALONG ROOF OF BAGGAGE AND DORMITORY BUILDING TOWARD MAIN BUILDING; STATUE OF LIBERTY IS VISIBLE (UNDER SCAFFOLDING) AT FAR RIGHT - Ellis Island, Main Building, New York Harbor, New York, New York County, NY

418

5. HOUSE No. 16 AND SURGE TANK. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. HOUSE No. 16 AND SURGE TANK. ROOF OF POWERHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

419

12. October 1972. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. October 1972. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM. - Atlantic & Great Western Railroad, Meadville Repair Shops, Blacksmith Shop, East bank of French Creek, 800 feet South of Spring Street, Meadville, Crawford County, PA

420

8. MACHINE SHOP, INTERIOR, LOOKING AT ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. MACHINE SHOP, INTERIOR, LOOKING AT ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM. NOTE DECORATIVE WOOD COLUMN AT LOWER LEFT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

421

7. October 1972. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING THE ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. October 1972. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING THE ROOF TRUSS SYSTEM. - Atlantic & Great Western Railroad, Meadville Repair Shops, Blacksmith Shop, East bank of French Creek, 800 feet South of Spring Street, Meadville, Crawford County, PA

422

16. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ON NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. DETAIL OF EMPENNAGE DOOR DESIGNED FOR ENTRY OF AIRCRAFT TAIL ASSEMBLY. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

423

46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF DAMAGE AND NOT QUITE AS WIDE AN ANGLE VIEW. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

424

INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southeast into a penthouse (Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR, ROOF, A view looking southeast into a penthouse (Room 207P), revealing the building's mechanical apparatus - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

425

INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

426

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

427

1. View southeast of Climatic Chambers Building from roof of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View southeast of Climatic Chambers Building from roof of Research Building. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

428

33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106357. FLUOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106357. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

429

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-print Network

Since the Energy Crisis Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

430

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-print Network

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01

431

9. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

432

3. SOUTH FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS EAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

433

2. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

434

Looking northeast from roof of Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking northeast from roof of Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) at transfer table pit and Boiler Shop (Bldg. 152) - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

435

Looking south from roof of Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking south from roof of Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) at 120-foot turntable and site of 35-stall roundhouse - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

436

Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

437

Interior view showing the roof structure for the third level ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view showing the roof structure for the third level - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Auxiliary Machine & Electric Shop, Avenue G near Fifth Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

438

Interior view from the third level showing the roof structures ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view from the third level showing the roof structures on the east side - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Auxiliary Machine & Electric Shop, Avenue G near Fifth Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

439

21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

440

OVERVIEW OF NEW HAVEN RAIL YARD, LOOKING NORTH FROM ROOF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF NEW HAVEN RAIL YARD, LOOKING NORTH FROM ROOF OF FACTORY BUILDING ON HALLOCK STREET, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - New Haven Rail Yard, Vicinity of Union Avenue & Cedar & Lamberton Streets , New Haven, New Haven County, CT

441

5. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL ROOF. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL ROOF. (photographer unknown, pre-1922) - Cohoes Company, Gate House No. 1, On Mohawk River, North end of Canal abutting East bank, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

442

2. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CASTIRON ROOF TRUSSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CAST-IRON ROOF TRUSSES AND OCTAGONAL, CAST-IRON COLUMNS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Martinsburg East Roundhouse, East End of Race & Martin Streets, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

443

49. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF CENTER POST OF TRANSITION OF KING POST TRUSS TO QUEEN POST TRUSS WHERE BUILDING TURNS OR DOGLEGS. NOTE ELEVATOR MACHINERY AT REAR. - Continental Gin Company, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

444

Abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed; looking southwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

445

Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition and horizontal siding at the ends, view facing northwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

446

Steel Roofing Systems Have School Districts Looking Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the leading benefits of choosing steel roofing for educational facilities. Benefits examined are durability, energy efficiency, aesthetics and design flexibility, and construction efficiency and low life cycle cost. (GR)

Werner, Michael F.

2001-01-01

447

Solar Schematic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

1979-01-01

448

Soil-water fluxes modelling in a green roof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green roofs differ from a natural environment as they are on top of a building and are not connected to the natural ground; therefore it is critical that soils can drain and retain water simultaneously and that they work even in very shallow systems. The soil or growing medium used for green roofs is specifically engineered to provide the vegetation with nutrients, discharging any excess water into the drainage layer, and releasing stored water back into the substrate. In this way, medium depth and porosity plays an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth in a green roof. Due to the lack of a good understanding about the hydraulic efficiency of each green roof's layer in rainwater management, a detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected with the green roof technical design is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this research is analyzing the soil-water dynamics through the different components of a green roof and modeling these processes though a detailed but clear subsurface hydrology module, based on green roof vertical soil water movement reproduction, in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). A multi-layer bucket model has been applied to examine the hydrological response of the green roof system under a temperate maritime climate, by varying the physical and geometric parameters that characterize the different components of the vegetated cover. Following a stage of validation and calibration, results confirm the suitability of the model to describe the hydrologic response of the green roof during the observed rainfall events: the discharge hydrograph profile, volume and timing, predicted by the model, matched experimental measurements rather good, as demonstrated by the limited Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient obtained both for the total discharged volume and the peak flow. The relative percentage deviations, obtained for the total discharged volume and the peak flow at event scale, shows that the model slightly tends to overestimate the effluent volume and underestimates the peak flow rate.

Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

2014-05-01

449

Effects of the integration of sunn hemp and soil solarization on plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes.  

PubMed

Sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea, is known to suppress Rotylenchulus reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes involved in nutrient cycling. Field trials were conducted in 2009 (Trial I) and 2010 (Trial II) to examine if SH cover cropping could suppress R. reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes if integrated with soil solarization (SOL). Cover cropping of SH, soil solarization, and SH followed by SOL (SHSOL) were compared to weedy fallow control (C). Rotylenchulus reniformis population was suppressed by SHSOL at the end of cover cropping or solarization period (Pi) in Trial I, but not in Trial II. However, SOL and SHSOL did not suppress R. reniformis compared to SH in either trial. SH enhanced abundance of bacterivores and suppressed the % herbivores only at Pi in Trial II. At termination of the experiment, SH resulted in a higher enrichment index indicating greater soil nutrient availability, and a higher structure index indicating a less disturbed nematode community compared to C. SOL suppressed bacterivores and fungivores only in Trial II but not in Trial I. On the other hand, SHSOL enhanced bacterivores and fungivores only at Pi in Trial I. Weeds were suppressed by SH, SOL and SHSOL throughout the experiment. SHSOL suppressed R. reniformis and enhanced free-living nematodes better than SOL, and suppressed weeds better than SH. PMID:23482700

Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S; Hooks, Cerruti R R

2012-03-01

450

Effects of the Integration of Sunn Hemp and Soil Solarization on Plant-Parasitic and Free-Living Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea, is known to suppress Rotylenchulus reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes involved in nutrient cycling. Field trials were conducted in 2009 (Trial I) and 2010 (Trial II) to examine if SH cover cropping could suppress R. reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes if integrated with soil solarization (SOL). Cover cropping of SH, soil solarization, and SH followed by SOL (SHSOL) were compared to weedy fallow control (C). Rotylenchulus reniformis population was suppressed by SHSOL at the end of cover cropping or solarization period (Pi) in Trial I, but not in Trial II. However, SOL and SHSOL did not suppress R. reniformis compared to SH in either trial. SH enhanced abundance of bacterivores and suppressed the % herbivores only at Pi in Trial II. At termination of the experiment, SH resulted in a higher enrichment index indicating greater soil nutrient availability, and a higher structure index indicating a less disturbed nematode community compared to C. SOL suppressed bacterivores and fungivores only in Trial II but not in Trial I. On the other hand, SHSOL enhanced bacterivores and fungivores only at Pi in Trial I. Weeds were suppressed by SH, SOL and SHSOL throughout the experiment. SHSOL suppressed R. reniformis and enhanced free-living nematodes better than SOL, and suppressed weeds better than SH. PMID:23482700

Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R. R.

2012-01-01

451

Mineral mining plough with worm adjustable roof cutter  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining plough has a plough body provided with a carrier supporting roof-level cutters. The carrier is movable vertically with respect to the plough body so as to adjust the cutting level of the roof-level cutters. A worm mounted on the plough body and a toothed rack attached to the carrier constitute means for adjusting the vertical position of the carrier, the worm meshing with the toothed rack.

Bernd, S.; Breuer, O.; Merten, G.

1981-06-30

452

Reinforcing Coal Mine Roof with Polyurethane Injection: 4 Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIOSH has recently completed a study of the interaction between polyurethane (PUR) and coal mine roof in order to determine\\u000a the mechanism of reinforcement, in both highly fractured rock and unfractured rock. Four case studies of PUR reinforcement\\u000a are presented. At a West Virginia site, a borehole camera revealed the location of roof voids and guided the PUR injection.\\u000a By

Gregory Molinda

2008-01-01

453

Automatic Roof Outlines Reconstruction from Photogrammetric Dsm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of geometric and semantic information from image and range data is one of the main research topics. Between the different geomatics products, 3D city models have shown to be a valid instrument for several applications. As a consequence, the interest for automated solutions able to speed up and reduce the costs for 3D model generation is greatly increased. Image matching techniques can nowadays provide for dense and reliable point clouds, practically comparable to LiDAR ones in terms of accuracy and completeness. In this paper a methodology for the geometric reconstruction of roof outlines (eaves, ridges and pitches) from aerial images is presented. The approach keeps in count the fact the usually photogrammetrically derived point clouds and DSMs are more noisy with respect to LiDAR data. A data driven approach is used in order to keep the maximum flexibility and to achieve satisfying reconstructions with different typologies of buildings. Some tests and examples are reported showing the suitability of photogrammetric DSM for this topic and the performances of the developed algorithm in different operative conditions.

Nex, F.; Remondino, F.

2012-07-01

454

A Roof for the Lions' House  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fans of the National Football League s Detroit Lions don't worry about game day weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat Silverdome is the world s largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome--and many other types of buildings--is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency.The team of DuPont, Chemical Fabrics and Birdair have collaborated on a number of fabric structures. Some are supported by air pressure, others by cables alone. Most of the structures are in the recreational category. With conventional construction costs still on the upswing, you're likely to see a great many more permanent facilities enclosed by the aerospace spinoff fabric.

1978-01-01

455

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) laboratory tests have been conducted, (2) with the added trendline analysis method, the accuracy of the data interpretation methodology will be improved and the interfaces and voids can be more reliably detected, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (4) about 80% of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed.

Syd S. Peng

2003-01-15

456

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) laboratory tests have been conducted, (2) with the added trendline analysis method, the accuracy of the data interpretation methodology will be improved, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (3) about one half of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed.

Syd S. Peng

2003-10-15

457

Solar Water Heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

1993-01-01

458

The gastrocoel roof plate in embryos of different frogs.  

PubMed

The morphology of the gastrocoel roof plate and the presence of cilia in this structure were examined in embryos of four species of frogs. Embryos of Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae) and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae) develop rapidly, provide comparison for the analysis of gastrocoel roof plate development in the slow-developing embryos of Epipedobates machalilla (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Embryos of the analyzed frogs develop from eggs of different sizes, and display different reproductive and developmental strategies. In particular, dorsal convergence and extension and archenteron elongation begin during gastrulation in embryos of rapidly developing frogs, as in Xenopus laevis. In contrast, cells that involute during gastrulation are stored in the large circumblastoporal collar that develops around the closed blastopore in embryos of slow-developing frogs. Dorsal convergence and extension only start after blastopore closure in slow-developing frog embryos. However, in the neurulae, a gastrocoel roof plate develops, despite the accumulation of superficial mesodermal cells in the circumblastoporal collar. Embryos of all four species develop a ciliated gastrocoel roof plate at the beginning of neurulation. Accordingly, fluid-flow across the gastrocoel roof plate is likely the mechanism of left-right asymmetry patterning in these frogs, as in X. laevis and other vertebrates. A ciliated gastrocoel roof plate, with a likely origin as superficial mesoderm, is conserved in frogs belonging to four different families and with different modes of gastrulation. PMID:22138030

Senz-Ponce, Natalia; Santillana-Ortiz, Juan-Diego; del Pino, Eugenia M

2012-02-01

459

Locating Wet Cellular Plastic Insulation In Recently Constructed Roofs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared scanners are quite successful in finding wet roof insulation, especially boards of rapidly absorbing insulations like perlite, wood fiber and fibrous glass. But wet areas develop more slowly and nonuniformly in the cellular plastic insulations, such as urethane, which are commonly used in new roofs. These differences can affect the outcome of an infrared survey of new roofs. To determine the feasibility of detecting incipient wet insulation, several recently constructed roofs were examined thermographically. It was usually more difficult to find moisture in new roofs containing cellular plastic insulations than in new roofs with more-absorbent insulations. This increased difficulty is due to the slower rate of wetting and to the nonuniform manner of wetting of some of the cellular plastics. Perlite, wood fiber and fibrous glass insulations tend to become uniformly wet throughout an entire board, whereas moisture initially concentrates at the perimeters of boards of some cellular plastic insulations. However, eight to ten months after construction, enough moisture can accumulate in most cellular plastic insulations to be visible to aninfrared scanner. Since this moisture is concentrated in a small portion of each insulation board, much of it would probably be overlooked by a nuclear or capacitance grid survey.

Korhonen, Charles; Tobiasson, Wayne

1983-03-01

460

Feasibility of determining flat roof heat losses using aerial thermography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of aerial thermography for determining rooftop heat losses was investigated experimentally using several completely instrumented test roofs with known thermal resistances. Actual rooftop heat losses were obtained both from in-situ instrumentation and aerial thermography obtained from overflights at an altitude of 305 m. In general, the remotely determined roof surface temperatures agreed very well with those obtained from ground measurements. The roof heat losses calculated using the remotely determined roof temperature agreed to within 17% of those calculated from 1/R delta T using ground measurements. However, this agreement may be fortuitous since the convective component of the heat loss is sensitive to small changes in roof temperature and to the average heat transfer coefficient used, whereas the radiative component is less sensitive. This, at this time, it is felt that an acceptable quantitative determination of roof heat losses using aerial thermography is only feasible when the convective term is accurately known or minimized. The sensitivity of the heat loss determination to environmental conditions was also evaluated. The analysis showed that the most reliable quantitative heat loss determinations can probably be obtained from aerial thermography taken under conditions of total cloud cover with low wind speeds and at low ambient temperatures.

Bowman, R. L.; Jack, J. R.

1979-01-01

461

An integrated approach to realizing high-performance liquid-junction quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Solution-processed semiconductor quantum dot solar cells offer a path towards both reduced fabrication cost and higher efficiency enabled by novel processes such as hot-electron extraction and carrier multiplication. Here we use a new class of low-cost, low-toxicity CuInSexS2?x quantum dots to demonstrate sensitized solar cells with certified efficiencies exceeding 5%. Among other material and device design improvements studied, use of a methanol-based polysulfide electrolyte results in a particularly dramatic enhancement in photocurrent and reduced series resistance. Despite the high vapour pressure of methanol, the solar cells are stable for months under ambient conditions, which is much longer than any previously reported quantum dot sensitized solar cell. This study demonstrates the large potential of CuInSexS2?x quantum dots as active materials for the realization of low-cost, robust and efficient photovoltaics as well as a platform for investigating various advanced concepts derived from the unique physics of the nanoscale size regime. PMID:24322379

McDaniel, Hunter; Fuke, Nobuhiro; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

2013-01-01

462

Performance prediction of site-built building integrated solar air heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model was developed which will predict the thermal performance of solar air heaters constructed of conventional sheet metal ductwork laid over insulated building framing. This model was validated with a 17 m² test collector built by the proposed methods. The model was then used to develop graphic information which can be input into a series of simple hand

Milburn

1981-01-01

463

An integrated approach to realizing high-performance liquid-junction quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution-processed semiconductor quantum dot solar cells offer a path towards both reduced fabrication cost and higher efficiency enabled by novel processes such as hot-electron extraction and carrier multiplication. Here we use a new class of low-cost, low-toxicity CuInSexS2-x quantum dots to demonstrate sensitized solar cells with certified efficiencies exceeding 5%. Among other material and device design improvements studied, use of a methanol-based polysulfide electrolyte results in a particularly dramatic enhancement in photocurrent and reduced series resistance. Despite the high vapour pressure of methanol, the solar cells are stable for months under ambient conditions, which is much longer than any previously reported quantum dot sensitized solar cell. This study demonstrates the large potential of CuInSexS2-x quantum dots as active materials for the realization of low-cost, robust and efficient photovoltaics as well as a platform for investigating various advanced concepts derived from the unique physics of the nanoscale size regime.

McDaniel, Hunter; Fuke, Nobuhiro; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

2013-12-01

464

NREL Energy Models Examine the Potential for Wind and Solar Grid Integration (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

As renewable energy generating sources, such as wind turbines and solar power systems, reach high levels of penetration in parts of the United States, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping the utility industry to peer into the future. Using software modeling tools that the lab developed, NREL is examining the future operation of the electrical grid as renewable energy continues to grow.

Not Available

2013-11-01

465

29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION...wood or other materials) to roofs of buildings or other structures. The term also includes all jobs on the ground related...

2013-07-01

466

29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION...wood or other materials) to roofs of buildings or other structures. The term also includes all jobs on the ground related...

2010-07-01

467

29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION...wood or other materials) to roofs of buildings or other structures. The term also includes all jobs on the ground related...

2012-07-01

468

29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION...wood or other materials) to roofs of buildings or other structures. The term also includes all jobs on the ground related...

2011-07-01

469

Impact of height and shape of building roof on air quality in urban street canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A building's roof shape and roof height play an important role in determining pollutant concentrations from vehicle emissions and its complex flow patterns within urban street canyons. The impact of the roof shape and height on wind flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust within urban canyons were investigated numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were analyzed using standard ?- ? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion fields in the urban canyons were examined with three roof heights ( Z H/ H = 0.17, 0.33 and 0.5) and five roof shapes: (1) flat-shaped roof, (2) slanted-shaped roof, (3) downwind wedge-shaped roof, (4) upwind wedge-shaped roof, and (5) trapezoid-shaped roof. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnels results in order to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical simulations agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicated that the pollutant concentration increased as the roof height decreases. It also decreased with the slanted and trapezoid-shaped roofs but increased with the flat-shaped roof. The pollutant concentration distributions simulated in the present work, indicated that the variability of the roof shapes and roof heights of the buildings are important factors for estimating air quality within urban canyons.

Yassin, Mohamed F.

2011-09-01

470

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATED SOLAR HOME SYSTEM (I-SHS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through integration of a water tank that serves as a cooling unit as well as the system's foundation, a significant reduction of operating cell tem