Science.gov

Sample records for room crew performance

  1. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  2. 15. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 105, former briefing room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 105, former briefing room, looking northwest. Projection room in at the back wall. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  3. 16. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 105, former briefing room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 105, former briefing room, looking southeast. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  4. STS-86 crew members Bloomfield and Chretien in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    While a white room closeout crew member looks on, STS-86 Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, at right, gets some assistance from fellow crew member, Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES, before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  5. 12. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 101, upper level, former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Readiness Crew Building interior, Room 101, upper level, former dining hall. View towards south. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  6. Coordinated crew performance in commercial aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A specific methodology is proposed for an improved system of coding and analyzing crew member interaction. The complexity and lack of precision of many crew and task variables suggest the usefulness of fuzzy linguistic techniques for modeling and computer simulation of the crew performance process. Other research methodologies and concepts that have promise for increasing the effectiveness of research on crew performance are identified.

  7. Gemini 10 prime crew in White Room preparing for insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    In the white room atop the Gemini launch vehicle, Astronauts Michael Collins (left), pilot, and John W. Young (right), command pilot, prepare to enter the Gemini 10 spacecraft. Engineers and technicians stand by to assist in the insertion (42737); Young holds a pair of king-sized pliers presented to him by the crew at Pad 19. Dr. Donald K. Slayton, MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; Guenter Wendt, Pad 19 leader; and Astronaut Collins also shown (42738).

  8. STS-4 post flight crew debriefing in JSC conference room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    STS-4 Commander Ken Mattingly and Pilot Henry Hartsfield discuss mission events with astronauts and administrators during a post flight crew debriefing held in a JSC conference room. Seated around the conference table clockwise (from lower left) are astronaut William B. Lenoir, Hartsfield, Mattingly, astronaut Robert F. Overmyer, astronaut S. David Griggs, astronaut Karol J. Bobko, astronaut John W. Young, administrator George W. Abbey, and astronaut Vance D. Brand. On the perimeter of the room are astronaut George D. Nelson (left) and astronaut Francis (Dick) Scobee (right).

  9. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K.

    1996-03-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study.

  10. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  11. Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member Rene Arriens as she prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from closeout crew worker Bob Saulnier (behind Still).

  12. Crew Health and Performance on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegemoeller, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    The issues surrounding the health and performance on Mars of a human crew are discussed in this presentation. The work of Human Space Life Sciences Program Office (HSLSPO) in the preparation of a crew for a Martian mission is reviewed. This includes a review of issues relating to human health and performance (HHP) in space and microgravity. The Mars design reference mission requires the most rigorous life sciences critical path of any manned mission in the forseeable future. This mission will require a 30 months round trip, with 4 different transistions to different gravities, and two episodes of high gravity load, during the Mars and Earth Aerobraking exercises. A graph is presented which shows the number of subjects with human space flight experience greater than 30 days. A chart presents the physical challenges to HHP in terms of gravity and acceleration and the length of times the crew will be exposed to the various gravity loads. Another chart presents the radiation challenges to the HHP for the duration of the trip. The human element is the most complex element of the mission design. Some challenges (i.e., human engineering and life support) must be overcome, and some issues such as bone loss, and radiation exposure must be addressed prior to making a decision for a manned Martian mission.

  13. Crew behavior and performance in space analog environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives and the current status of the Crew Factors research program conducted at NASA-Ames Research Center are reviewed. The principal objectives of the program are to determine the effects of a broad class of input variables on crew performance and to provide guidance with respect to the design and management of crews assigned to future space missions. A wide range of research environments are utilized, including controlled experimental settings, high fidelity full mission simulator facilities, and fully operational field environments. Key group processes are identified, and preliminary data are presented on the effect of crew size, type, and structure on team performance.

  14. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Before entering the orbiter Discovery, STS-96 Mission Specialist Julie Payette, with the Canadian Space Agency, is checked out in the white room by Quality Assurance Specialist James Davis (left) and Closeout Crew Chief Travis Thompson (right). In the background, Suit Technician Carlouse Gillis checks another crew member. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  15. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  16. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Before entering the orbiter Discovery, STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry is checked out in the white room by Closeout Crew Chief Travis Thompson and Mechanical Technician Al Schmidt. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  17. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Before entering the orbiter Discovery, STS-96 Mission Specialist Valery Ivanovich Tokarev (center) is checked out by white room closeout crew members Mechanical Technician Chris Meinert and Quality Assurance Specialist Jim Davis on the left, and Closeout Chief Travis Thompson and Suit Technician Jean Alexander on the right. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  18. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Before entering the orbiter Discovery, STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan is checked out in the white room by Closeout Crew Chief Travis Thompson (back to camera) and Quality Assurance Specialist James Davis. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  19. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the white room prior to launch, STS-96 Commander Kent V. Rominger reaches to shake hands with Suit Technician Jean Alexander. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. At right are closeout crew members Chief Travis Thompson and Quality Assurance Specialist James Davis; at left is Mechanical Technician Chris Meinert. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.- built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  20. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-96 Pilot Rick D. Husband is checked out by white room closeout crew members before entering the orbiter Discovery. At left is Closeout Chief Travis Thompson; at right is Quality Assurance Specialist James Davis. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10- day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  1. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-96 Mission Specialist Ellen Ochoa chats with white room closeout crew members while being checked out for entry into the orbiter Discovery. At left are Mechanical Technicians Al Schmidt and Chris meinert; at right is Quality Assurance Specialist James Davis and Closeout Chief Travis Thompson. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10- day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  2. STS-55 SL-D2 crew reviews preflight CEIT procedures in KSC conference room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, seated at a conference table, discuss Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) procedures in a briefing room at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, MS3 Bernard J. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt. Seated in the foreground are KSC technicians and payload integration officers. Walter and Schlegel are representatives from DLR. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-212.

  3. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  4. Airbag Landing Impact Performance Optimization for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; McKinney, John; Corliss, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This report will discuss the use of advanced simulation techniques to optimize the performance of the proposed Orion Crew Module airbag landing system design. The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Langley Research Center collaborated in the analysis of the proposed airbag landing system for the next generation space shuttle replacement, the Orion spacecraft. Using LS-DYNA to simulate the Crew Module landing impacts, two main objectives were established and achieved: the investigation of potential methods of optimizing the airbag performance in order to reduce rebound on the anti-bottoming bags, lower overall landing loads, and increase overall Crew Module stability; and the determination of the Crew Module stability and load boundaries using the optimized airbag design, based on the potential Crew Module landing pitch angles and ground slopes in both the center of gravity forward and aft configurations. This paper describes the optimization and stability and load boundary studies and presents a summary of the results obtained and key lessons learned from this analysis.

  5. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  6. STS-85 crew poses in the white room at LC 39A during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-85 flight crew poses in the white room at Launch Pad 39A during a break in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities for that mission. They are (from left): Payload Commander N. Jan Davis; Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason; Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Pilot Kent V. Rominger; and Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. The primary payload aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery is the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2). Other payloads on the 11-day mission include the Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD), and Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 (IEH- 2) experiments.

  7. Crew performance and communication: Performing a terrain navigation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the map and route cues pilots use while navigating under controlled, but realistic, nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight conditions. US Army helicopter flight crews were presented a map and route overlay and asked to perform normal mission planning. They then viewed a video-recording of the out-the-window scene during low-level flights, without the route overlay, and were asked periodically to locate their current position on the map. The pilots and navigators were asked to communicate normally during the planning and flight phases. During each flight the navigator's response time, accuracy, and subjective workload were assessed. Post-flight NASA-TLX workload ratings were collected. No main effect of map orientation (north-up vs. track-up) was found for errors or response times on any of the tasks evaluated. Navigators in the north-up group rated their workload lower than those in the track-up group.

  8. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Mission (ARCM) nominal design and performance costs associated with an Orion based crewed rendezvous mission to a captured asteroid in an Earth-Moon DRO. The ARM study includes two fundamental mission phases: 1) The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and 2) the ARCM. The ARRM includes a solar electric propulsion based robotic asteroid return vehicle (ARV) sent to rendezvous with a selected near Earth asteroid, capture it, and return it to a DRO in the Earth-Moon vicinity. The DRO is selected over other possible asteroid parking orbits due to its achievability (by both the robotic and crewed vehicles) and by its stability (e.g., no orbit maintenance is required). After the return of the asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, the ARCM is executed and carries a crew of two astronauts to a DRO to rendezvous with the awaiting ARV with the asteroid. The outbound and inbound transfers employ lunar gravity assist (LGA) flybys to reduce the Orion propellant requirement for the overall nominal mission, which provides a nominal mission with some reserve propellant for possible abort situations. The nominal mission described in this report provides a better understanding of the mission considerations as well as the feasibility of such a crewed mission, particularly with regard to spacecraft currently undergoing development, such as the Orion vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS).

  9. STS-93: Columbia Flight Crew Arrival on FSS 195' Level, Walk Across OAA and Ingress into White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape opens with a view of the shuttle on the launch pad. It then shows the flight crew arrival on the 195 foot level of the fixed service structure (FSS), walks across the orbiter access arm (OAA) into the white room, where the crew is assisted in putting on the final stages of their spacesuits, and then their crawl into the orbiter.

  10. ISS Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Borrego, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crewmembers to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crewmember. Over a two year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. After four years on-orbit, this paper will review failures that have occurred and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  11. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  12. STS-86 Crew Photo outside hatch in LC-39A White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 crew members pose for a group photograph outside the hatch to the crew cabin of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A. Kneeling in front, from left, are Mission Specialists Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, David A. Wolf and Wendy B. Lawrence. Standing, from left, are Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Commander James D. Wetherbee, and Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the docking, Wolf will transfer to the orbiting Russian station and become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since the last docking mission, STS-84, in May. Launch of Mission STS-86 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

  13. STS-87 crew in LC-39B white room during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Standing, from left, Mission Specialist Winston Scott; Backup Payload Specialist Yaroslav Pustovyi, Ph.D., of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of NSAU; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Commander Kevin Kregel; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  14. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  15. Apollo 14 crew arrive at White Room atop Pad A, Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 astronauts arrive at the White Room atop Pad A, Launch Complex 39, during the Apollo 14 prelaunch countdown. Note identifying red bands on the sleeve and leg of Shepard. Standing in the center background is Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center Astronaut Office.

  16. Stress, performance, and control room operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The notion of control room operator performance being detrimentally affected by stress has long been the focus of considerable conjecture. It is important to gain a better understanding of the validity of this concern for the development of effective severe-accident management approaches. This paper illustrates the undeniable negative impact of stress on a wide variety of tasks. A computer-controlled simulated work environment was designed in which both male and female operators were closely monitored during the course of the study for both stress level (using the excretion of the urine catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine as an index) and job performance. The experimental parameters employed by the study when coupled with the subsequent statistical analyses of the results allow one to make some rather striking comments with respect to how a given operator might respond to a situation that he or she perceives to be psychologically stressful (whether the stress be externally or internally generated). The findings of this study clearly indicated that stress does impact operator performance on tasks similar in nature to those conducted by control room operators and hence should be seriously considered in the development of severe-accident management strategies.

  17. Individual differences in airline captains' personalities, communication strategies, and crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Aircrew effectiveness in coping with emergencies has been linked to captain's personality profile. The present study analyzed cockpit communication during simulated flight to examine the relation between captains' discourse strategies, personality profiles, and crew performance. Positive Instrumental/Expressive captains and Instrumental-Negative captains used very similar communication strategies and their crews made few errors. Their talk was distinguished by high levels of planning and strategizing, gathering information, predicting/alerting, and explaining, especially during the emergency flight phase. Negative-Expressive captains talked less overall, and engaged in little problem solving talk, even during emergencies. Their crews made many errors. Findings support the theory that high crew performance results when captains use language to build shared mental models for problem situations.

  18. Investigation of crew performance in a multi-vehicle supervisory control task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Plamondon, B. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.; Kirlik, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Crew information processing and decision making in a supervisory control task which is loosely based on the mission of future generation helicopters is measured and represented. Subjects control the motion and activities of their own vehicle and direct the activities of four additional craft. The task involves searching an uncertain environment for cargo and enemies, returning cargo to home base and destroying enemies while attempting to avoid destruction of the scout and the supervised vehicles. A series of experiments with two-person crews and one-person crews were performed. Resulting crew performance was modeled with the objective of describing and understanding the information processing strategies utilized. Of particular interest are problem simplification strategies under time stress and high work load, simplification and compensation in the one-person cases, crew coordination in the two-person cases, and the relationship between strategy and errors in all cases. The results should provide some insight into the effective use of aids, particularly aids based on artificial intelligence, for similar tasks. The simulation is described which is used for the study and some preliminary results from the first two-person crew study are discussed.

  19. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  20. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini P.; Rodriquez, Branelle R.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crew members to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crew member. Over a 2-year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. This paper will review failures that have occurred after 4 years on-orbit, and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  2. Crew Selection and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This research addressed a number of issues relevant to the performance of teams in demanding environments. Initial work, conducted in the aviation analog environment, focused on developing new measures of performance related attitudes and behaviors. The attitude measures were used to assess acceptance of concepts related to effective teamwork and personal capabilities under stress. The behavioral measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of flight crews operating in commercial aviation. Assessment of team issues in aviation led further to the evaluation and development of training to enhance team performance. Much of the work addressed evaluation of the effectiveness of such training, which has become known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). A second line of investigation was into personality characteristics that predict performance in challenging environments such as aviation and space. A third line of investigation of team performance grew out of the study of flight crews in different organizations. This led to the development of a theoretical model of crew performance that included not only individual attributes such as personality and ability, but also organizational and national culture. A final line of investigation involved beginning to assess whether the methodologies and measures developed for the aviation analog could be applied to another domain -- the performance of medical teams working in the operating room.

  3. Skylab experimental performance evaluation manual. Appendix D: Experiment M487 habitability/crew quarters (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purushotham, K. S.

    1973-01-01

    This appendix contains a series of analyses for Experiment M487, Habitability/ Crew Quarters (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post flight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  4. Aircraft Recognition Performance of Crew Chiefs with or without Forward Observers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Robert D.; And Others

    A test of aircraft recognition accuracy and decision speed compared the performance of single observers and four-man crews. The test used miniaturized simulations of aircraft which were moved at scaled speeds, altitudes, and distances. The validity of the simulation was evaluated and judged by comparing the results of the test with results…

  5. The Effects of a 48-Hour Period of Sustained Field Activity on Tank Crew Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, L. L.; Bishop, H. P.

    This report describes the effects of 48 hours of sustained operations on the performance of tank crews in communication, driving, surveillance, gunnery, and maintenance tasks. It is a continuation of research to determine the endurance of troops using combat equipment with 48-hour capability. Proficienty tests were constructed for each type of…

  6. A Full Mission Simulator Study of Aircrew Performances: the Measurement of Crew Coordination and Decisionmaking Factors and Their Relationships to Flight Task Performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Tanner, T. A.; Frankel, R. M.; Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen three man crews flew a full mission scenario in an airline flight simulator. A high level of verbal interaction during instances of critical decision making was located. Each crew flew the scenario only once, without prior knowledge of the scenario problem. Following a simulator run and in accord with formal instructions, each of the three crew members independently viewed and commented on a videotape of their performance. Two check pilot observers rated pilot performance across all crews and, following each run, also commented on the video tape of the crew's performance. A linguistic analysis of voice transcript is made to provide assessment of crew coordination and decision making qualities. Measures of crew coordination and decision making factors are correlated with flight task performance measures.

  7. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  8. The Effect of Predicted Vehicle Displacement on Ground Crew Task Performance and Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA continues to explore new launch vehicle concepts that will carry astronauts to low- Earth orbit to replace the soon-to-be retired Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle. A tall vertically stacked launch vehicle (> or =300 ft) is exposed to the natural environment while positioned on the launch pad. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding cause the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. Ground crews working high on the tower and inside the vehicle during launch preparations will be subjected to this motion while conducting critical closeout tasks such as mating fluid and electrical connectors and carrying heavy objects. NASA has not experienced performing these tasks in such environments since the Saturn V, which was serviced from a movable (but rigid) service structure; commercial launchers are likewise attended by a service structure that moves away from the vehicle for launch. There is concern that vehicle displacement may hinder ground crew operations, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability. The vehicle sway assessment objective is to replicate predicted frequencies and displacements of these tall vehicles, examine typical ground crew tasks, and provide insight into potential vehicle design considerations and ground crew performance guidelines. This paper outlines the methodology, configurations, and motion testing performed while conducting the vehicle displacement assessment that will be used as a Technical Memorandum for future vertically stacked vehicle designs.

  9. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  10. Leader personality and crew effectiveness: Factors influencing performance in full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Foushee, H. Clayton

    1989-01-01

    A full mission simulation research study was completed to assess the potential for selection along dimensions of personality. Using a selection algorithm described by Chidester (1987), captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles using a battery of personality assessment scales, and the performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one and one-half day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a Positive Instrumental Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Communion profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of Competitiveness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Impatience and Irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  11. Crew performance monitoring: Putting some feeling into it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, N.; Migeotte, P.-F.; Morais, J.; Soetens, E.; Cluydts, R.; Kolinsky, R.

    2009-08-01

    Two hypotheses have been invoked so far to explain performance decrements in space: the microgravity hypothesis and the multiple stressors hypothesis. Furthermore, previous investigations of cognitive performance did not specifically target executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of operational stress on cognitive control, towards both neutral and emotionally loaded material, using both psychometric and physiological indicators (autonomic nervous system activity computed through cardio-respiratory recordings). We applied the same design in a study on student pilots (N=12) in baseline conditions and right before a major evaluation flight and on astronauts (N=3) before, during and after a short-duration spaceflight. To address the problem of scarcity of subjects, we applied analytical methods derived from neuropsychology: comparing each astronaut treated as a single subject to a group of carefully matched controls (N=13). Results from both student pilots and astronauts showed that operational stress resulted in failing cognitive control, especially on emotionally loaded material that was relevant to the subjects' current concern. This impaired cognitive control was associated with a decreased physiological reactivity during mental tasks. Furthermore, for astronauts, this performance decrement appeared on the last data-collection before launch and lasted for the two in-flight measurements. These results thus allow us to conclude that: (i) performance testing including an emotional dimension seems more sensitive to operational stress, (ii) decreased heart rate reactivity was associated with impaired cognitive control and (iii) microgravity is not the sole causal factor of potential performance decrements in space, which are more likely due to the combination of multiple stressors.

  12. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  13. Preliminary Performance Analyses of the Constellation Program ARES 1 Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Mark; Hanson, John; Shmitt, Terri; Dukemand, Greg; Hays, Jim; Hill, Ashley; Garcia, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    By the time NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report had been released to the public in December 2005, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center had already initiated the first of a series of detailed design analysis cycles (DACs) for the Constellation Program Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which has been given the name Ares I. As a major component of the Constellation Architecture, the CLV's initial role will be to deliver crew and cargo aboard the newly conceived Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a staging orbit for eventual rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). However, the long-term goal and design focus of the CLV will be to provide launch services for a crewed CEV in support of lunar exploration missions. Key to the success of the CLV design effort and an integral part of each DAC is a detailed performance analysis tailored to assess nominal and dispersed performance of the vehicle, to determine performance sensitivities, and to generate design-driving dispersed trajectories. Results of these analyses provide valuable design information to the program for the current design as well as provide feedback to engineers on how to adjust the current design in order to maintain program goals. This paper presents a condensed subset of the CLV performance analyses performed during the CLV DAC-1 cycle. Deterministic studies include development of the CLV DAC-1 reference trajectories, identification of vehicle stage impact footprints, an assessment of launch window impacts to payload performance, and the computation of select CLV payload partials. Dispersion studies include definition of input uncertainties, Monte Carlo analysis of trajectory performance parameters based on input dispersions, assessment of CLV flight performance reserve (FPR), assessment of orbital insertion accuracy, and an assessment of bending load indicators due to dispersions in vehicle angle of attack and side slip angle. A short discussion of the various

  14. Auditory virtual environment with dynamic room characteristics for music performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel Dhaham

    A room-adaptive system was designed to simulate an electro-acoustic space that changes room characteristics in real-time according to the content of sound. In this specific case, the focus of the sound components is on the different styles and genres of music. This system is composed of real-time music recognition algorithms that analyze the different elements of music, determine the desired room characteristics, and output the acoustical parameters via multi-channel room simulation mechanisms. The system modifies the acoustic properties of a space and enables it to "improvise" its acoustical parameters based on the sounds of the music performances.

  15. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  16. Flight crew performance when pilot-flying and pilot-not-flying duties are exchanged

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    This study compares reports from the ASRS database depicting operational anomalies related to flight crew performance when pilot-flying and pilot-not-flying duties were exchanged. A greater number of near midair collisions, takeoff anomalies, and crossing altitude deviations were reported when the Captain was flying. More altitude deviations, near midair collisions during approach, and landing incidents occurred when the First Officer was flying. There were differences in monitoring effectiveness and in the type and distribution of information transfer problems associated with the anomalies. In addition, a number of crew performance factors were noted that were not affected by the exchange of duties. Several of these were deemed important enough to be included as matter of general interest.

  17. Validating Human Performance Models of the Future Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.; Walters, Brett; Fairey, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will provide transportation for crew and cargo to and from destinations in support of the Constellation Architecture Design Reference Missions. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is one of the design methods NASA employs for crew performance of the CEV. During the early development of the CEV, NASA and its prime Orion contractor Lockheed Martin (LM) strived to seek an effective low-cost method for developing and validating human performance DES models. This paper focuses on the method developed while creating a DES model for the CEV Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking (RPOD) task to the International Space Station. Our approach to validation was to attack the problem from several fronts. First, we began the development of the model early in the CEV design stage. Second, we adhered strictly to M&S development standards. Third, we involved the stakeholders, NASA astronauts, subject matter experts, and NASA's modeling and simulation development community throughout. Fourth, we applied standard and easy-to-conduct methods to ensure the model's accuracy. Lastly, we reviewed the data from an earlier human-in-the-loop RPOD simulation that had different objectives, which provided us an additional means to estimate the model's confidence level. The results revealed that a majority of the DES model was a reasonable representation of the current CEV design.

  18. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.; Vander Ark, Stephen T.

    2005-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  19. Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, J. Randolph

    1993-01-01

    The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

  20. Using micro saint to predict performance in a nuclear power plant control room

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, M.T.; Laughery, K.R.; Persenky, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires a technical basis for regulatory actions. In the area of human factors, one possible technical basis is human performance modeling technology including task network modeling. This study assessed the feasibility and validity of task network modeling to predict the performance of control room crews. Task network models were built that matched the experimental conditions of a study on computerized procedures that was conducted at North Carolina State University. The data from the {open_quotes}paper procedures{close_quotes} conditions were used to calibrate the task network models. Then, the models were manipulated to reflect expected changes when computerized procedures were used. These models` predictions were then compared to the experimental data from the {open_quotes}computerized conditions{close_quotes} of the North Carolina State University study. Analyses indicated that the models predicted some subsets of the data well, but not all. Implications for the use of task network modeling are discussed.

  1. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  2. International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crewmembers to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crewmember. Over a two year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. After five years on-orbit, this paper will review failures that have occurred and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  3. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters On-orbit vs Design Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) received the first two permanent ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) on Utility Logistics Flight Two (ULF2) in November 2008. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The CQs provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The racksized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. The deployment and initial operational checkout during integration of the ISS CQ to the Node is described. Additionally, the comparison of on-orbit to original design performance is outlined for the following key operational parameters: interior acoustic performance, air flow rate, temperature rise, and crewmember feedback on provisioning and restraint layout.

  4. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  5. Optimization of armored fighting vehicle crew performance in a net-centric battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, William P.; Espenant, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Traditional display, control and situational awareness technologies may not allow the fighting vehicle commander to take full advantage of the rich data environment made available in the net-centric battle field of the future. Indeed, the sheer complexity and volume of available data, if not properly managed, may actually reduce crew performance by overloading or confusing the commander with irrelevant information. New techniques must be explored to understand how to present battlefield information and provide the commander with continuous high quality situational awareness without significant cognitive overhead. Control of the vehicle's many complex systems must also be addressed the entire Soldier Machine Interface must be optimized if we are to realize the potential performance improvements. Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and General Dynamics Canada Ltd. have embarked on a joint program called Future Armoured Fighting Vehicle Systems Technology Demonstrator, to explore these issues. The project is based on man-in-the-loop experimentation using virtual reality technology on a six degree-of-freedom motion platform that simulates the motion, sights and sounds inside a future armoured vehicle. The vehicle commander is provided with a virtual reality vision system to view a simulated 360 degree multi-spectrum representation of the battlespace, thus providing enhanced situational awareness. Graphic overlays with decision aid information will be added to reduce cognitive loading. Experiments will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual control systems. The simulations are carried out in a virtual battlefield created by linking our simulation system with other simulation centers to provide a net-centric battlespace where enemy forces can be engaged in fire fights. Survivability and lethality will be measured in successive test sequences using real armoured fighting vehicle crews to optimize overall system effectiveness.

  6. Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Hirayama, Shinji; Oyabu, Noriaki; Custance, Óscar; Morita, Seizo

    2005-02-01

    The ability to manipulate single atoms and molecules laterally for creating artificial structures on surfaces is driving us closer to the ultimate limit of two-dimensional nanoengineering. However, experiments involving this level of manipulation have been performed only at cryogenic temperatures. Scanning tunnelling microscopy has proved, so far, to be a unique tool with all the necessary capabilities for laterally pushing, pulling or sliding single atoms and molecules, and arranging them on a surface at will. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to perform well-controlled lateral manipulations of single atoms using near-contact atomic force microscopy even at room temperature. We report the creation of 'atom inlays', that is, artificial atomic patterns formed from a few embedded atoms in the plane of a surface. At room temperature, such atomic structures remain stable on the surface for relatively long periods of time.

  7. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  8. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  9. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis.

  10. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  11. The Performance Evaluation of Room Air Conditioner Using R32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Shigeharu; Yazima, Ryuzaburo; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with an experimental study on the performance evaluation of a room air conditioner using R32. The test room air conditioner is a product developed for the R410A use. The COP, cooling and heating capacities, charge amount of refrigerant, electric power input, refrigerant thermodynamic states in the air conditioner etc. were measured for both refrigerant R410A and R32, based on JIS-C9612 standard. The experimental results of R32 are evaluated in comparison with the results of R410A, and the following are confirmed :(1) The performance of R32 is higher than R410A. This reason is mainly due to the pressure drop and heat exchange characteristics (in the evaporator and the condenser), (2) The charge amount of R32 is less than that of R410A. From the above results, the further improving the performance and saving the refrigerant amount are expected when refrigerant R410A is replaced with R32. The effects of the performance of components on the COP are also analyzed based on the measured thermodynamic states at both ends of components in the system. Then, it's clarified that the most effective factor is irreversibility of the compressor and the following is the pressure drop in low pressure side including the evaporator and the suction pipe in the system.

  12. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  13. Crew Health and Performance Improvements with Reduced Carbon Dioxide Levels and the Resource Impact to Accomplish Those Reductions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Sipes, Walter; Scully, Robert R.; Matty, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal is one of the primary functions of the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere revitalization systems. Primary CO2 removal is via the ISS s two Carbon Dioxide Removal Assemblies (CDRAs) and the Russian carbon dioxide removal assembly (Vozdukh); both of these systems are regenerable, meaning that their CO2 removal capacity theoretically remains constant as long as the system is operating. Contingency CO2 removal capability is provided by lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters, which are consumable, meaning that their CO2 removal capability disappears once the resource is used. With the advent of 6 crew ISS operations, experience showing that CDRA failures are not uncommon, and anecdotal association of crew symptoms with CO2 values just above 4 mmHg, the question arises: How much lower do we keep CO2 levels to minimize the risk to crew health and performance, and what will the operational cost to the CDRAs be to do it? The primary crew health concerns center on the interaction of increased intracranial pressure from fluid shifts and the increased intracranial blood flow induced by CO2. Typical acute symptoms include headache, minor visual disturbances, and subtle behavioral changes. The historical database of CO2 exposures since the beginning of ISS operations has been compared to the incidence of crew symptoms reported in private medical conferences. We have used this database in an attempt to establish an association between the CO2 levels and the risk of crew symptoms. This comparison will answer the question of the level needed to protect the crew from acute effects. As for the second part of the question, operation of the ISS s regenerable CO2 removal capability reduces the limited life of constituent parts. It also consumes limited electrical power and thermal control resources. Operation of consumable CO2 removal capability (LiOH) uses finite consumable materials, which must be replenished in the long term. Therefore, increased CO

  14. Flight Crew Workload, Acceptability, and Performance When Using Data Comm in a High-Density Terminal Area Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. Michael; Baxley, Brian T.; Adams, Cathy A.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a collaborative FAA/NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Data Comm to issue messages during busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage: Voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, and Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route. Each condition was used in an arrival and a departure scenario at Boston Logan Airport. Of particular interest was the flight crew response to D-TAXI, the use of Data Comm by Air Traffic Control (ATC) to send taxi instructions. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time, flight technical error, operational errors, and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload, situation awareness, and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. Results showed that 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute and 97% of the messages within two minutes. However, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Flight crews reported that Expected D-TAXI messages were useful, and employment of these messages acceptable at all altitude bands evaluated during arrival scenarios. Results also indicate that the use of Data Comm for all evaluated message types in the terminal area was acceptable during surface operations, and during arrivals at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix, in terms of response time, workload, situation awareness, and flight technical performance. The flight crew reported the use of Data Comm as implemented in this experiment as unacceptable in two instances: in clearances to cross an active runway, and D-TAXI messages between the Final Approach Fix and 80 knots during landing roll. Critical cockpit tasks and the urgency of out-the window scan made the

  15. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  16. [Aviation and high-altitude medicine for anaesthetists. Part 4: human performance limitations and crew resource management].

    PubMed

    Egerth, Martin; Pump, Stefan; Graf, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    For pilots and doctors, as well as a variety of other professions the knowledge of human performance limitations is essential, especially in critical situations. Crew resource management was developed in the 1980s in the aviation industry in order to ensure systematic training and support in such instances. Just recently, the value is recognized not only in other high reliability organizations but also in medicine. PMID:23828086

  17. The effects of bedrest on crew performance during simulated shuttle reentry. Volume 2: Control task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Peters, R. A.; Dimarco, R. J.; Allen, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simplified space shuttle reentry simulation performed on the NASA Ames Research Center Centrifuge is described. Anticipating potentially deleterious effects of physiological deconditioning from orbital living (simulated here by 10 days of enforced bedrest) upon a shuttle pilot's ability to manually control his aircraft (should that be necessary in an emergency) a comprehensive battery of measurements was made roughly every 1/2 minute on eight military pilot subjects, over two 20-minute reentry Gz vs. time profiles, one peaking at 2 Gz and the other at 3 Gz. Alternate runs were made without and with g-suits to test the help or interference offered by such protective devices to manual control performance. A very demanding two-axis control task was employed, with a subcritical instability in the pitch axis to force a high attentional demand and a severe loss-of-control penalty. The results show that pilots experienced in high Gz flying can easily handle the shuttle manual control task during 2 Gz or 3 Gz reentry profiles, provided the degree of physiological deconditioning is no more than induced by these 10 days of enforced bedrest.

  18. [Performance development of a university operating room after implementation of a central operating room management].

    PubMed

    Waeschle, R M; Sliwa, B; Jipp, M; Pütz, H; Hinz, J; Bauer, M

    2016-08-01

    The difficult financial situation in German hospitals requires measures for improvement in process quality. Associated increases in revenues in the high income field "operating room (OR) area" are increasingly the responsibility of OR management but it has not been shown that the introduction of an efficiency-oriented management leads to an increase in process quality and revenues in the operating theatre. Therefore the performance in the operating theatre of the University Medical Center Göttingen was analyzed for working days in the core operating time from 7.45 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. from 2009 to 2014. The achievement of process target times for the morning surgery start time and the turnover times of anesthesia and OR-nurses were calculated as indicators of process quality. The number of operations and cumulative incision-suture time were also analyzed as aggregated performance indicators. In order to assess the development of revenues in the operating theatre, the revenues from diagnosis-related groups (DRG) in all inpatient and occupational accident cases, adjusted for the regional basic case value from 2009, were calculated for each year. The development of revenues was also analyzed after deduction of revenues resulting from altered economic case weighting. It could be shown that the achievement of process target values for the morning surgery start time could be improved by 40 %, the turnover times for anesthesia reduced by 50 % and for the OR-nurses by 36 %. Together with the introduction of central planning for reallocation, an increase in operation numbers of 21 % and cumulative incision-suture times of 12% could be realized. Due to these additional operations the DRG revenues in 2014 could be increased to 132 % compared to 2009 or 127 % if the revenues caused by economic case weighting were excluded. The personnel complement in anesthesia (-1.7 %) and OR-nurses (+2.6 %) as well as anesthetists (+6.7 %) increased less compared to the

  19. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Rachel; Smidts, Carol; Boring, Ronald; Li, Yuandan; Mosleh, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  20. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue

  1. Crew decision making under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  3. Selection for optimal crew performance - Relative impact of selection and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    An empirical study supporting Helmreich's (1986) theoretical work on the distinct manner in which training and selection impact crew coordination is presented. Training is capable of changing attitudes, while selection screens for stable personality characteristics. Training appears least effective for leadership, an area strongly influenced by personality. Selection is least effective for influencing attitudes about personal vulnerability to stress, which appear to be trained in resource management programs. Because personality correlates with attitudes before and after training, it is felt that selection may be necessary even with a leadership-oriented training cirriculum.

  4. Enroute flight-path planning - Cooperative performance of flight crews and knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Galdes, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Interface design issues associated with the introduction of knowledge-based systems into the cockpit are discussed. Such issues include not only questions about display and control design, they also include deeper system design issues such as questions about the alternative roles and responsibilities of the flight crew and the computer system. In addition, the feasibility of using enroute flight path planning as a context for exploring such research questions is considered. In particular, the development of a prototyping shell that allows rapid design and study of alternative interfaces and system designs is discussed.

  5. Crew health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    Crew health concerns for Space Station Freedom are numerous due to medical hazards from isolation and confinement, internal and external environments, zero gravity effects, occupational exposures, and possible endogenous medical events. The operational crew health program will evolve from existing programs and from life sciences investigations aboard Space Station Freedom to include medical monitoring and certification, medical intervention, health maintenance and countermeasures, psychosocial support, and environmental health monitoring. The knowledge and experience gained regarding crew health issues and needs aboard Space Station Freedom will be used not only to verify requirements and programs for long duration space flight, but also in planning and preparation for Lunar and Mars exploration and colonization.

  6. A predictive model of nuclear power plant crew decision-making and performance in a dynamic simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, Kevin Anthony

    The safe operation of complex systems such as nuclear power plants requires close coordination between the human operators and plant systems. In order to maintain an adequate level of safety following an accident or other off-normal event, the operators often are called upon to perform complex tasks during dynamic situations with incomplete information. The safety of such complex systems can be greatly improved if the conditions that could lead operators to make poor decisions and commit erroneous actions during these situations can be predicted and mitigated. The primary goal of this research project was the development and validation of a cognitive model capable of simulating nuclear plant operator decision-making during accident conditions. Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment methods can improve the prediction of human error events by providing rich contextual information and an explicit consideration of feedback arising from man-machine interactions. The Accident Dynamics Simulator paired with the Information, Decision, and Action in a Crew context cognitive model (ADS-IDAC) shows promise for predicting situational contexts that might lead to human error events, particularly knowledge driven errors of commission. ADS-IDAC generates a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET) by applying simple branching rules that reflect variations in crew responses to plant events and system status changes. Branches can be generated to simulate slow or fast procedure execution speed, skipping of procedure steps, reliance on memorized information, activation of mental beliefs, variations in control inputs, and equipment failures. Complex operator mental models of plant behavior that guide crew actions can be represented within the ADS-IDAC mental belief framework and used to identify situational contexts that may lead to human error events. This research increased the capabilities of ADS-IDAC in several key areas. The ADS-IDAC computer code was improved to support additional

  7. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  8. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  9. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  10. Advanced Crew Escape Suit.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    Design of the S1032 Launch Entry Suit (LES) began following the Challenger loss and NASA's decision to incorporate a Shuttle crew escape system. The LES (see Figure 1) has successfully supported Shuttle missions since NASA's Return to Flight with STS-26 in September 1988. In 1990, engineers began developing the S1035 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) to serve as a replacement for the LES. The ACES was designed to be a simplified, lightweight, low-bulk pressure suit which aided self donning/doffing, provided improved comfort, and enhanced overall performance to reduce crew member stress and fatigue. Favorable crew member evaluations of a prototype led to full-scale development and qualification of the S1035 ACES between 1990 and 1992. Production of the S1035 ACES began in February 1993, with the first unit delivered to NASA in May 1994. The S1035 ACES first flew aboard STS-68 in August 1994 and will become the primary crew escape suit when the S1032 LES ends its service life in late 1995. The primary goal of the S1035 development program was to provide improved performance over that of the S1032 to minimize the stress and fatigue typically experienced by crew members. To achieve this, five fundamental design objectives were established, resulting in various material/configuration changes. PMID:11540717

  11. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  12. The Skylab Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Williams, Richard S.; Lindgren, Kjell N.; Mathes, Karen L.; Gillis, David B.; Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    From May of 1973 to February of 1974, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of three manned missions to the Skylab space station, a voluminous vehicle largely descendant of Apollo hardware, and America s first space station. The crewmembers of these three manned missions spent record breaking durations of time in microgravity (28 days, 59 days and 84 days, respectively) and gave the U.S. space program its first experiences with long-duration space flight. The program overcame a number of obstacles (including a significant crippling of the Skylab vehicle) to conduct a lauded scientific program that encompassed life sciences, astronomy, solar physics, materials sciences and Earth observation. Skylab has more to offer than the results of its scientific efforts. The operations conducted by the Skylab crews and ground personnel represent a rich legacy of operational experience. As we plan for our return to the moon and the subsequent manned exploration of Mars, it is essential to utilize the experiences and insights of those involved in previous programs. Skylab and SMEAT (Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test) personnel have unique insight into operations being planned for the Constellation Program, such as umbilical extra-vehicular activity and water landing/recovery of long-duration crewmembers. Skylab was also well known for its habitability and extensive medical suite; topics which deserve further reflection as we prepare for lunar habitation and missions beyond Earth s immediate sphere of influence. The Skylab Medical Operations Summit was held in January 2008. Crewmembers and medical personnel from the Skylab missions and SMEAT were invited to participate in a two day summit with representatives from the Constellation Program medical operations community. The purpose of the summit was to discuss issues pertinent to future Constellation operations. The purpose of this document is to formally present the recommendations of the

  13. STS-96 FD Highlights and Crew Activities Report: Flight Day 01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-96 Discovery mission, the flight crew, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev are seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  14. Perception, Evaluation, and Performance in a Neat and Messy Room by High and Low Sensation Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, David J.; Lindauer, Martin S.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes two studies that investigated the relationship between the effects of room environment (neat versus messy) and high and low sensation seeker's perception, evaluation, and performance. Elapsed time estimation did not vary as a function of room condition and personality. Sex differences were not found to be critical. (BT)

  15. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  16. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  17. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  18. Room Acoustic Conditions of Performers in AN Old Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IANNACE, GINO; IANNIELLO, CARMINE; MAFFEI, LUIGI; ROMANO, ROSARIO

    2000-04-01

    Proposed objective criteria related to the acoustic conditions for instrumentalists and singers have not received a sufficiently wide consent yet. In spite of this situation, it is the opinion of the authors that the measurement of existing criteria is useful for analysis and comparison. This paper reports the results of various acoustic measurements carried out in the Teatro di San Carlo, Naples-Italy, with the aim of obtaining objective information about its acoustics for performers. A first set of measurements was carried out when the theater was fitted for a symphonic concert and a second one when it was fitted for an opera performance.

  19. STS-99 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the crew, Commander Kevin R. Kregel, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, seated in the dining room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, walk out to the Astro-van, and strap-in into the vehicle. Also seen are the retractions of the orbiter access arm and the gaseous oxygen mint hood, main engine start, booster ignition, liftoff, and separation of the solid rocket boosters. The Red Team (first of the dual shift crew) includes Kregel, Kavandi, and Thiele, who are shown conducting jet thruster firings, activating radar instruments, and deploying the boom (mass).

  20. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  1. Li-Ion Pouch Cell Designs; Performance and Issues for Crewed Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work: Are there any performance show stoppers for spinning them into spacecraft applications? (1) Are the seals compatible with extended vacuum operations? (2) How uniformly and cleanly are they made? (3) How durable are they?

  2. PPP effectiveness study. [automatic procedures recording and crew performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    This design note presents a study of the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) effectiveness. The intent of the study is to determine manpower time savings and the improvements in job performance gained through PPP automated techniques. The discussion presents a synopsis of PPP capabilities and identifies potential users and associated applications, PPP effectiveness, and PPP applications to other simulation/training facilities. Appendix A provides a detailed description of each PPP capability.

  3. Effective Crew Operations: An Analysis of Technologies for Improving Crew Activities and Medical Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Craig

    2005-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration (February 2004) calls for development of a new crew exploration vehicle, sustained lunar operations, and human exploration of Mars. To meet the challenges of planned sustained operations as well as the limited communications between Earth and the crew (e.g., Mars exploration), many systems will require crews to operate in an autonomous environment. It has been estimated that once every 2.4 years a major medical issue will occur while in space. NASA's future travels, especially to Mars, will begin to push this timeframe. Therefore, now is the time for investigating technologies and systems that will support crews in these environments. Therefore, this summer two studies were conducted to evaluate the technology and systems that may be used by crews in future missions. The first study evaluated three commercial Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) (Versus, Ekahau, and Radianse) that can track equipment and people within a facility. While similar to Global Positioning Systems (GPS), the specific technology used is different. Several conclusions can be drawn from the evaluation conducted, but in summary it is clear that none of the systems provides a complete solution in meeting the tracking and technology integration requirements of NASA. From a functional performance (e.g., system meets user needs) evaluation perspective, Versus performed fairly well on all performance measures as compared to Ekahau and Radianse. However, the system only provides tracking at the room level. Thus, Versus does not provide the level of fidelity required for tracking assets or people for NASA requirements. From an engineering implementation perspective, Ekahau is far simpler to implement that the other two systems because of its wi-fi design (e.g., no required runs of cable). By looking at these two perspectives, one finds there was no clear system that met NASA requirements. Thus it would be premature to suggest that any of these systems are ready for

  4. Communication indices of crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Lozito, S.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between communication patterns and performance in 10 two-person flightcrews is explored with the aim of identifying speech variations which differentiate low- and high-error full mission simulator flights. Verbal data, transcribed from the videotaped performances, are treated as interactive sequences of speech events in which statements spoken by one crewmember are considered within the context of the other crewmember's prior and subsequent speech. Specific speech patterns characterized each crew, but the overriding findings included: a) marked homogeneity of patterns characterizing low-error crews, interpreted as the adoption of a standard form of communicating, and b) heterogeneity of patterns characterizing high-error crews, interpreted as the relative absence of a conventionalized form. Because conventions are regularities which confirm the expectations of those involved, predictability of crewmember behavior should be greater when standard conventions are followed. We conclude that such a practice can facilitate the coordination process and enhance crew performance.

  5. STS-106 crew participates in activities at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 Mission Specialist Yuri I. Malenchenko makes a speedy exit from the Shuttle Atlantis into the White Room during emergency egress training. Right behind him is Mission Specialist Daniel C. Burbank. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Activities (TCDT) the crew is undertaking at Launch Pad 39B. The TCDT also provides the crew with opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter'''s payload bay, and a simulated launch countdown. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. .

  6. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  7. STS-107 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a traditional crew portrait of the seven STS-107 crew members. Seated in front, from left, are: Astronauts Rick D. Husband, mission commander; Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; and William C. McCool, pilot. Standing, from left, are: David M. Brown, Laurel B. Clark, and Michael P. Anderson, all mission specialists; and Ilan Ramon, payload specialist, representing the Israeli Space Agency. Launched January 16, 2003, the STS-107 mission is strictly a multidiscipline microgravity and Earth science research mission involving 80-plus International experiments to be performed during 16-days, many of which will be managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The first shuttle mission in 2003, the STS-107 mission marks the 113th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program and the 28th flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia.

  8. Performance evaluation of ZnO–CuO hetero junction solid state room temperature ethanol sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ming-Ru; Suyambrakasam, Gobalakrishnan; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chavali, Murthy

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Sensor response (resistance) curves of time were changed from 150 ppm to 250 ppm alcohol concentration of ZnO–CuO 1:1. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The sensing material ZnO–CuO is a high potential alcohol sensor which provides a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature. Highlights: ► The main advantages of the ethanol sensor are as followings. ► Novel materials ZnO–CuO ethanol sensor. ► The optimized ZnO–CuO hetero contact system. ► A good sensor response and room working temperature (save energy). -- Abstract: A semiconductor ethanol sensor was developed using ZnO–CuO and its performance was evaluated at room temperature. Hetero-junction sensor was made of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles for sensing alcohol at room temperature. Nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and optimized with different weight ratios. Sensor characteristics were linear for the concentration range of 150–250 ppm. Composite materials of ZnO–CuO were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). ZnO–CuO (1:1) material showed maximum sensor response (S = R{sub air}/R{sub alcohol}) of 3.32 ± 0.1 toward 200 ppm of alcohol vapor at room temperature. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The linearity R{sup 2} of the sensor response was 0.9026. The sensing materials ZnO–CuO (1:1) provide a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature.

  9. Design of a multisystem remote maintenance control room

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Kring, C.T.; Kawatsuma, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Remote Systems Development Section of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) recently collaborated in the development of a control room concept for remote operations. This report describes design methods and the resulting control room concept. The design project included five stages. The first was compilation of a complete function list; functions are tasks performed by operators in the control room while operating equipment located in the remote area. The second step was organization of the function list into ''function groups;'' function groups are sets of functions that operate one piece of equipment. The third stage was determination of crew size and requirements for supervision. The fourth stage was development of conceptual designs of displays and controls. The fifth stage was development of plans for placement of crew stations within the control room. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Defense Nuclear Agency intermediate dose program: an overview (effects of total-body irradiation on the performance of personnel in Army combat crews)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.W.; Auton, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this research was to provide the quantitative basis for predicting performance decrement in Army crewmen irradiated with less than 4500 rads (cGy). The data were obtained using a questionnaire derived from detailed information on radiation sickness and analysis of 15 combat crew tasks. The questionnaire, which asked for quantitative information on the impact of radiation sickness symptoms on the performance of sub-tasks, was administered to experts in the performance of the combat tasks. The results obtained in this effort clearly demonstrate that this methodology can be used to obtain meaningful estimates of the impact of very hazardous environments on performance. Comparison of the results from this study with those from studies which have directly assessed the effects of sickness on performance suggests that this questionnaire approach could successfully be applied to the evaluation of other hazardous environments in other military systems.

  11. STS-106 Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-106 Atlantis mission, the flight crew, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov are seen performing pre-launch activities. They are shown sitting around the breakfast table with the traditional cake, suiting-up, and riding out to the launch pad. The final inspection team is seen as they conduct their final check of the space shuttle on the launch complex. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  12. Enhanced performance of room-temperature-grown epitaxial thin films of vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Joyeeta; Payzant, E Andrew; More, Karren Leslie; HaglundJr., Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Stoichiometric vanadium dioxide in bulk, thin film and nanostructured forms exhibits an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) accompanied by a structural phase transformation, induced by temperature, light, electric fields, doping or strain. We have grown epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide on c-plane (0001) of sapphire using two different procedures involving (1) room temperature growth followed by annealing and (2) direct high temperature growth. Strain at the film-substrate interface due to growth at different temperatures leads to interesting differences in morphologies and phase transition characteristics. Comparison of the morphologies and switching characteristics of the two films shows that contrary to conventional wisdom, the room-temperature grown films have smoother, more continuous morphologies and better switching performance, consistent with the behavior of epitaxially grown semiconductors.

  13. STS-109 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Posing for the traditional preflight crew portrait, the seven astronauts of the STS-109 mission are (left to right) astronauts Michael J. Massimino, Richard M. Linnehan, Duane G. Carey, Scott D. Altman, Nancy J. Currie, John M. Grunsfeld and James H. Newman. Altman and Carey were commander and pilot, respectively, with the others serving as mission specialists. Grunsfeld was payload commander. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on March 1, 2002, the group was the fourth visit to the the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for performing upgrade and servicing on the giant orbital observatory.

  14. Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, M.

    2008-07-08

    The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.

  15. STS-106 crew participates in activities at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-106 flight crew gather in the white room of Launch Pad 39-B. Crew members pictured are, from left, Mission Specialists Boris V. Morukov, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Daniel C. Burbank, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, Mission Specialists Richard A. Mastracchio and Edward T. Lu. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The flight crew were at Kennedy Space Center to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training and opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter'''s payload bay. STS- 106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  16. Crew chief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterly, Jill

    1993-01-01

    This software package does ergonomic human modeling for maintenance tasks. Technician capabilities can be directed to represent actual situations of work environment, strengths and capabilities of the individual, particular limitations (such as constraining characteristics of a particular space suit), tools required, and procedures or tasks to be performed.

  17. Communications indices of crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lozito, Sandra

    1987-01-01

    Verbal exchanges occuring during task execution during full mission two-person simulator flights are used to study the effect of the interactive communication process on crew coordination and performance. The ratio of initiator to response speech is calculated and speech variations are recorded. The results of this study are compared with the findings of Ginnett's (1986) study of leaders. It is shown that low-error crews adopt a standard form of communicating, allowing for the ability to predict one another's behavior, facilitating the coordination process. The higher performance of crews that have flown together before is believed to be due to the increased amount of time for establishing a conventional means of communication.

  18. A general route toward complete room temperature processing of printed and high performance oxide electronics.

    PubMed

    Baby, Tessy T; Garlapati, Suresh K; Dehm, Simone; Häming, Marc; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2015-03-24

    Critical prerequisites for solution-processed/printed field-effect transistors (FETs) and logics are excellent electrical performance including high charge carrier mobility, reliability, high environmental stability and low/preferably room temperature processing. Oxide semiconductors can often fulfill all the above criteria, sometimes even with better promise than their organic counterparts, except for their high process temperature requirement. The need for high annealing/curing temperatures renders oxide FETs rather incompatible to inexpensive, flexible substrates, which are commonly used for high-throughput and roll-to-roll additive manufacturing techniques, such as printing. To overcome this serious limitation, here we demonstrate an alternative approach that enables completely room-temperature processing of printed oxide FETs with device mobility as large as 12.5 cm(2)/(V s). The key aspect of the present concept is a chemically controlled curing process of the printed nanoparticle ink that provides surprisingly dense thin films and excellent interparticle electrical contacts. In order to demonstrate the versatility of this approach, both n-type (In2O3) and p-type (Cu2O) oxide semiconductor nanoparticle dispersions are prepared to fabricate, inkjet printed and completely room temperature processed, all-oxide complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) invertors that can display significant signal gain (∼18) at a supply voltage of only 1.5 V. PMID:25693653

  19. STS-79 Pilot Terrence Wilcutt in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt chats with white room closeout crew lead Rick Welty before climbing into the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A; at right is closeout crew member Jim Davis.

  20. Advance crew procedures development techniques: Procedures generation program requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Procedures Generation Program (PGP) is described as an automated crew procedures generation and performance monitoring system. Computer software requirements to be implemented in PGP for the Advanced Crew Procedures Development Techniques are outlined.

  1. STS-87 crew participates in Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center are STS-87 crew members, assisted by Glenda Laws, extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center. Standing behind Laws are Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, and Winston Scott, both mission specialists on STS-87. The STS-87 mission will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC, Dr. Doi and Scott will both perform spacewalks.

  2. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  3. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. PMID:27155428

  4. Simplified Aid For Crew Rescue (SAFR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion of a Crew Emergency Rescue System (CERS) are presented. Topics covered include: functional description; operational description; interfaces with other subsystems/elements; simplified aid for crew rescue (SACR) characteristics; potential resource requirements; logistics, repair, and resupply; potential performance improvements; and automation impact.

  5. Effect of Variation in Test Methods on Performance of Ultraviolet-C Radiation Room Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Cadnum, Jennifer L; Tomas, Myreen E; Sankar, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette; Mathew, J Itty; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of variation in test methods on performance of an ultraviolet-C (UV-C) room decontamination device. DESIGN Laboratory evaluation. METHODS We compared the efficacy of 2 UV-C room decontamination devices with low pressure mercury gas bulbs. For 1 of the devices, we evaluated the effect of variation in spreading of the inoculum, carrier orientation relative to the device, type of organic load, type of carrier, height of carrier, and uninterrupted versus interrupted exposures on measured UV-C killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile spores. RESULTS The 2 UV-C room decontamination devices achieved similar log10 colony-forming unit reductions in the pathogens with exposure times ranging from 5 to 40 minutes. On steel carriers, spreading of the inoculum over a larger surface area significantly enhanced killing of both pathogens, such that a 10-minute exposure on a 22-mm2 disk resulted in greater than 2 log reduction in C. difficile spores. Orientation of carriers in parallel rather than perpendicular with the UV-C lamps significantly enhanced killing of both pathogens. Different types of organic load also significantly affected measured organism reductions, whereas type of carrier, variation in carrier height, and interrupted exposure cycles did not. CONCLUSIONS Variation in test methods can significantly impact measured reductions in pathogens by UV-C devices during experimental testing. Our findings highlight the need for standardized laboratory methods for testing the efficacy of UV-C devices and for evaluations of the efficacy of short UV-C exposure times in real-world settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:555-560. PMID:26809607

  6. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  7. 49 CFR 218.24 - One-person crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One-person crew. 218.24 Section 218.24..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.24 One-person crew. (a) An engineer working alone as a one-person crew shall not perform duties on, under,...

  8. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  9. STS-109 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-109 (Commander Scott Altman, Pilot Duane Carey, Payload Commander John Grunsfeld, and Mission Specialists Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, and Michael Massimino) during various parts of their training. Scenes show the crew's photo session, Post Landing Egress practice, training in Dome Simulator, Extravehicular Activity Training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), and using the Virtual Reality Laboratory Robotic Arm. The crew is also seen tasting food as they choose their menus for on-orbit meals.

  10. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Katya; Joe, Jeffrey; Rice, Brandon; Ulrich, Thomas; Boring, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  11. STS-96 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The training for the crew members of the STS-96 Discovery Shuttle is presented. Crew members are Kent Rominger, Commander; Rick Husband, Pilot; Mission Specialists, Tamara Jernigan, Ellen Ochoa, and Daniel Barry; Julie Payette, Mission Specialist (CSA); and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, Mission Specialist (RSA). Scenes show the crew sitting and talking about the Electrical Power System; actively taking part in virtual training in the EVA Training VR (Virtual Reality) Lab; using the Orbit Space Vision Training System; being dropped in water as a part of the Bail-Out Training Program; and taking part in the crew photo session.

  12. Performance assessment of an RFID system for automatic surgical sponge detection in a surgery room.

    PubMed

    Dinis, H; Zamith, M; Mendes, P M

    2015-01-01

    A retained surgical instrument is a frequent incident in medical surgery rooms all around the world, despite being considered an avoidable mistake. Hence, an automatic detection solution of the retained surgical instrument is desirable. In this paper, the use of millimeter waves at the 60 GHz band for surgical material RFID purposes is evaluated. An experimental procedure to assess the suitability of this frequency range for short distance communications with multiple obstacles was performed. Furthermore, an antenna suitable to be incorporated in surgical materials, such as sponges, is presented. The antenna's operation characteristics are evaluated as to determine if it is adequate for the studied application over the given frequency range, and under different operating conditions, such as varying sponge water content. PMID:26736960

  13. Apollo experience report: Crew station integration. Volume 1: Crew station design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. D.; Nussman, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the evolution of the design and development of the Apollo command module and lunar module crew stations is given, with emphasis placed on the period from 1964 to 1969. The organizational planning, engineering techniques, and documentation involved are described, and a detailed chronology of the meetings, reviews, and exercises is presented. Crew station anomalies for the Apollo 7 to 11 missions are discussed, and recommendations for the solution of recurring problems of crew station acoustics, instrument glass failure, and caution and warning system performance are presented. Photographs of the various crew station configurations are also provided.

  14. STS-106 crew participates in activities at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt bends to place the STS-106 mission patch at the entrance of Atlantis in the white room of Launch Pad 39-B. Other STS-106 crew members pictured are, from left, Mission Specialists Boris V. Morukov, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Daniel C. Burbank, Pilot Scott D. Altman, Mission Specialists Richard A. Mastracchio and Edward T. Lu. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The flight crew were at Kennedy Space Center to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training and opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter'''s payload bay. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  15. STS-92 Meal - Suit up - Depart O&C - Launch Discovery On Orbit - Landing - Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The video begins with the introduction of the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-92, at their customary pre-flight meal. The crew consists of Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, William McArthur, Peter "Jeff" Wisoff, Michael Lopez-Alegria, and Koichi Wakata. The introduction and suit-up of the astronauts, and their departure in the Astrovan are shown at a quick pace. The video shows in detail the seating of the crew and each astronaut's final preparations in the White Room prior to boarding. Views of Discovery's night launch include: SLF Convoy, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad Perimeter, Tower-1, UCS-15, Press Site, UCS-23, OTV-61, OTV-70, OTV-71, and the In-Cabin Ascent Camera. While in orbit, the Discovery orbiter docks with the International Space Station (ISS). The docking is shown in a series of still images. The video includes clips from four extravehicular activities (EVAs). The crew members who performed the EVAs comment on them while speaking to Mission Control. During the EVAs, the Z1 Truss and an antenna are attached to the ISS. The crew members on the fourth EVA test jet packs. Views of landing include: TV-1, TV-2, TV-3, LRO-1, and HUD.

  16. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  17. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  18. STS-100 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-100, Commander Kent Rominger, Pilot Jeffrey Ashby, and Mission Specialists Chris Hadfield, Scott Parazynski, John Phillips, Umberto Guidoni, and Yuri Valentinovich Lonchakov, during various parts of their training, including the crew photo session, postlanding egress, extravehicular activity (EVA) large tool training, EVA training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), secondary payload training, and during VHF training.

  19. STS-51 Crew Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Commander Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. introduces the crew of STS-51, Pilot William F. Readdy, and Mission Specialists James H. Newman Ph.D., Daniel W. Bursch, and Carl E. Walz, in a preflight conference. Each crew member gives an overview of the mission activities, objectives, and payload (ACTS-TOS, ORFEUS-SPAS, etc.), and answers questions from the press.

  20. The Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-93 crew emergency egress training in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The five crewmembers of STS-93 in the middeck mock-up are from left to right: Mission Specialist Michel Tognini, Mission Specialist Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialist Stephen Hawley.

  1. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  2. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  3. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  4. STS-108 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The STS-108 crew members take a break from their training to pose for their preflight portrait. Astronauts Dominic L. Gorie right) and Mark E. Kelly, commander and pilot, respectively, are seated in front. In the rear are astronauts Linda M. Godwin and Daniel L. Tani, both mission specialists. The 12th flight to the International Space Station (ISS) and final flight of 2001, the STS-108 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on December 5, 2001. They were accompanied to the ISS by the Expedition Four crew, which remained on board the orbital outpost for several months. The Expedition Three crew members returned home with the STS-108 astronauts. In addition to the Expedition crew exchange, STS-108 crew deployed the student project STARSHINE, and delivered 2.7 metric tons (3 tons) of equipment and supplies to the ISS.

  5. Room temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb nBn detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Hoglund, Linda; Rosenberg, Robert; Kowalczyk, Robert; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Fisher, Anita; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2014-07-14

    In this work, we investigate the high temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb-AlAsSb nBn detectors with cut-off wavelengths near 4.5 μm. The quantum efficiency of these devices is 35% without antireflection coatings and does not change with temperature in the 77–325 K temperature range, indicating potential for room temperature operation. The current generation of nBn detectors shows an increase of operational bias with temperature, which is attributed to a shift in the Fermi energy level in the absorber. Analysis of the device performance shows that operational bias and quantum efficiency of these detectors can be further improved. The device dark current stays diffusion limited in the 150 K–325 K temperature range and becomes dominated by generation-recombination processes at lower temperatures. Detector detectivities are D*(λ) = 1 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 300 K and D*(λ) = 5 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 250 K, which is easily achievable with a one stage TE cooler.

  6. Room ventilation and its influence on the performance of fume cupboards: A parametric numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Denev, J.A.; Durst, F.; Mohr, B.

    1997-02-01

    The three-dimensional turbulent flow in a typical chemical laboratory containing two fume cupboards and furniture is investigated numerically in order to obtain detailed information needed for the improved design of ventilating systems for such rooms. The flow inside the two fume cupboards is simulated simultaneously with the room flow, and its dependence on the flow structure in the room is shown. The flow inside the cupboards and in the vicinity of their sash openings has been found to be essentially three-dimensional. Several room parameters are varied, and a quantitative evaluation of their influence on the flow, the comfort characteristics, and the ventilation efficiency is given. Additional ceiling-mounted openings, which extract room air outside the fume cupboards, can affect the capture efficiency of the cupboards, as well as the quality of the air in the room. It has been found also that small changes in the position of the radial inlet ceiling-mounted diffuser can influence the air quality of the room and at the same time the draught risk. These effects are shown for a given room arrangement. To accommodate the complex geometry, the elliptical nature of the mathematical problem, and the use of a turbulence model, a multigrid acceleration method with 245,000 control volumes is used, allowing CPU times on a workstation to become acceptable.

  7. A NASA Perspective on Maintenance Activities and Maintenance Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth Tim

    2007-01-01

    Proactive consideration of ground crew factors enhances the designs of space vehicles and vehicle safety by: (1) Reducing the risk of undetected ground crew errors and collateral damage that compromise vehicle reliability and flight safety (2) Ensuring compatibility of specific vehicle to ground system interfaces (3) Optimizing ground systems. During ground processing and launch operations, public safety, flight crew safety, ground crew safety, and the safety of high-value spacecraft are inter-related. For extended Exploration missions, surface crews perform functions that merge traditional flight and ground operations.

  8. The loudspeaker as musical instrument: An examination of the issues surrounding loudspeaker performance of music in typical rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, David

    2003-04-01

    The loudspeaker is the most important and one of the most variable elements in the electroacoustic music performance process. Nonetheless, its performance is subject to a ``willing suspension of disbelief'' by listeners and its behavior and variability are usually not accounted for in assessments of the quality of music reproduction or music instrument synthesis, especially as they occur in small rooms. This paper will examine the aesthetic assumptions underlying loudspeaker usage, the general timbral qualities and sonic characteristics of loudspeakers and some of the issues and problems inherent in loudspeakers interactions with small rooms and listeners.

  9. STS-121 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-121 crew portrait. From the left are mission specialists Stephanie D. Wilson, and Michael E. Fossum, Commander Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialist Piers J. Sellers, pilot Mark E. Kelly; European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut and mission specialist Thomas Reiter of Germany; and mission specialist Lisa M. Nowak. The crew members are attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suit. The crew, first ever to launch on Independence Day, tested new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as delivered supplies and made repairs to the space station.

  10. STS-111 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on June 6, 2002, these four astronauts comprised the prime crew for NASA's STS-111 mission. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cockrell (front right) was mission commander, and astronaut Paul S. Lockhart (front left) was pilot. Astronauts Philippe Perrin (rear left), representing the French Space Agency, and Franklin R. Chang-Diaz were mission specialists assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) work on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to the delivery and installation of the Mobile Base System (MBS), this crew dropped off the Expedition Five crew members at the orbital outpost, and brought back the Expedition Four trio at mission's end.

  11. STS-63 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the crew patch depicts the Orbiter maneuving to rendezvous with Russia's Space Station Mir. The name is printed in Cyrillic on the side of the station. Visible in the Orbiter's payload bay are the commercial space laboratory Spacehab and the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) satellite which are major payloads on the flight. The six points on the rising sun and the three stars are symbolic of the mission's Space Transportation System (STS) numerical designation. Flags of the United States and Russia at the bottom of the patch symbolize the cooperative operations of this mission. The crew will be flying aboard the space shuttle Discovery.

  12. Crew Transportation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  13. Apollo experience report: Crew station integration. Volume 4: Stowage and the support team concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hix, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Crew equipment stowage and stowage arrangement in spacecraft are discussed. Configuration control in order to maximize crew equipment operational performance, stowage density, and available stowage volume are analyzed. The NASA crew equipment stowage control process requires a support team concept to coordinate the integration of crew equipment into the spacecraft.

  14. Habitability Designs for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    NASA's space human factors team is contributing to the habitability of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), which will take crews to low Earth orbit, and dock there with additional vehicles to go on to the moon's surface. They developed a task analysis for operations and for self-sustenance (sleeping, eating, hygiene), and estimated the volumes required for performing the various tasks and for the associated equipment, tools and supplies. Rough volumetric mockups were built for crew evaluations. Trade studies were performed to determine the size and location of windows. The habitability analysis also contributes to developing concepts of operations by identifying constraints on crew time. Recently completed studies provided stowage concepts, tools for assessing lighting constraints, and approaches to medical procedure development compatible with the tight space and absence of gravity. New work will be initiated to analyze design concepts and verify that equipment and layouts do meet requirements.

  15. STS-87 crew participates in Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 astronaut crew members participate in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) with the Spartan-201 payload in Kennedy Space Centers (KSC's) Vertical Processing Facility. From left are Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; Commander Kevin Kregel; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands- on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS-87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  16. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  17. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  18. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  19. Skylab experimental performance evaluation manual. Appendix Q: Experiment T-013 crew/vehicle disturbances (MSFC/LaRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonetti, B. B.

    1972-01-01

    A series of analyses to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and postflight conditions is given. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  20. Crew factors in the aerospace workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of technological change in the aerospace workplace on pilot performance are discussed. Attention is given to individual and physiological problems, crew and interpersonal problems, environmental and task problems, organization and management problems, training and intervention problems. A philosophy and conceptual framework for conducting research on these problems are presented and two aerospace studies are examined which investigated: (1) the effect of leader personality on crew effectiveness and (2) the working undersea habitat known as Aquarius.

  1. NEEMO 14: Evaluation of Human Performance for Rover, Cargo Lander, Crew Lander, and Exploration Tasks in Simulated Partial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate success of future human space exploration missions is dependent on the ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks effectively, efficiently, and safely, whether those tasks represent a nominal mode of operation or a contingency capability. To optimize EVA systems for the best human performance, it is critical to study the effects of varying key factors such as suit center of gravity (CG), suit mass, and gravity level. During the 2-week NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 14 mission, four crewmembers performed a series of EVA tasks under different simulated EVA suit configurations and used full-scale mockups of a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) rover and lander. NEEMO is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Quantitative and qualitative data collected during NEEMO 14, as well as from spacesuit tests in parabolic flight and with overhead suspension, are being used to directly inform ongoing hardware and operations concept development of the SEV, exploration EVA systems, and future EVA suits. OBJECTIVE: To compare human performance across different weight and CG configurations. METHODS: Four subjects were weighed out to simulate reduced gravity and wore either a specially designed rig to allow adjustment of CG or a PLSS mockup. Subjects completed tasks including level ambulation, incline/decline ambulation, standing from the kneeling and prone position, picking up objects, shoveling, ladder climbing, incapacitated crewmember handling, and small and large payload transfer. Subjective compensation, exertion, task acceptability, and duration data as well as photo and video were collected. RESULTS: There appear to be interactions between CG, weight, and task. CGs nearest the subject s natural CG are the most predictable in terms of acceptable performance across tasks. Future research should focus on

  2. STS-98 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-98 during various phases of their training, including an undocking simulation in the Fixed Bases Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS), bailout training, and extravehicular activity (EVA) training at the NBL.

  3. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  4. STS-87 Crew Breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-87 flight crew enjoys the traditional pre-liftoff breakfast in the crew quarters of the Operations and Checkout Building. They are, from left, Mission Specialist Winston Scott; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Commander Kevin Kregel; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Pilot Steven Lindsey. After a weather briefing, the flight crew will be fitted with their launch and entry suits and depart for Launch Pad 39B. Once there, they will take their positions in the crew cabin of the Space Shuttle Columbia to await liftoff during a two-and-a-half-hour window that will open at 2:46 p.m. EDT, Nov. 19.

  5. STS-102 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-102, Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot James M. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Andrew S. W. Thomas and Paul Richards, during various parts of their training. Scenes include: (1) neutral buoyancy lab training; (2) undocking/fly-around training in the GNS (Navigation Simulator); (3) crew equipment interface test; (4) Remote Manipulator System (RMS) training in the GNS; and (5) docking training in the GNS.

  6. STS-107 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, Texas -- (JSC-STS107-5-002) -- The seven STS-107 crew members take a break from their training regimen to pose for the traditional crew portrait. Seated in front are astronauts Rick D. Husband (left), mission commander, and William C. McCool, pilot. Standing are (from left) astronauts David M. Brown, Laurel B. Clark, Kalpana Chawla and Michael P. Anderson, all mission specialists; and Ilan Ramon, payload specialist representing the Israeli Space Agency

  7. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  8. The effects of bed rest on crew performance during simulated shuttle reentry. Volume 1: Study overview and physiological results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A.; Vykukal, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifuge study was carried out to measure physiological stress and control task performance during simulated space shuttle orbiter reentry. Jet pilots were tested with, and without, anti-g-suit protection. The pilots were exposed to simulated space shuttle reentry acceleration profiles before, and after, ten days of complete bed rest, which produced physiological deconditioning similar to that resulting from prolonged exposure to orbital zero g. Pilot performance in selected control tasks was determined during simulated reentry, and before and after each simulation. Physiological stress during reentry was determined by monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Study results indicate: (1) heart rate increased during the simulated reentry when no g protection was given, and remained at or below pre-bed rest values when g-suits were used; (2) pilots preferred the use of g-suits to muscular contraction for control of vision tunneling and grayout during reentry; (3) prolonged bed rest did not alter blood pressure or respiration rate during reentry, but the peak reentry acceleration level did; and (4) pilot performance was not affected by prolonged bed rest or simulated reentry.

  9. American ASTP prime crew participate in press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew participate in an Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) press conference conducted on May 14, 1975 in bldg 2 briefing room at JSC. They are, left to right, Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford, commander. The astronauts discussed with the news media their recent ASTP joint training session in the Soviet Union, and the crew's tour of the USSR's Baykonur launch complex in Kazakhstan.

  10. STS-106 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Five NASA astronauts and two cosmonauts representing the Russian Aviation and Space Agency take a break in training from their scheduled September 2000 visit to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt (right front), and Scott D. Altman (left front) are mission commander and pilot, respectively. On the back row (from the left) are mission specialists Boris V. Morukov, cosmonaut, along with astronauts Richard A. Mastracchio, Edward T. Lu, and Daniel C. Burbank, and cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko. Morukov and Malenchenko represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on September 8, 2000 at 7:46 a.m. (CDT), the STS-106 crew successfully prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for occupancy. Acting as plumbers, movers, installers and electricians, they installed batteries, power converters, a toilet and a treadmill on the outpost. They also delivered more than 2,993 kilograms (6,600 pounds) of supplies. Lu and Malenchenko performed a space walk to connect power, and data and communications cables to the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module and the Station.

  11. STS-100 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the official crew portrait of the STS-100 mission. Seated are astronauts Kent V. Rominger, (left) and Jeffrey S. Ashby, commander and pilot, respectively. Standing (from the left) are cosmonaut Yuri V. Lonchakov with astronauts Scott E. Parazynski, Umberto Guidoni of the European Space Agency, Chris A. Hadfield, and John L. Phillips, all mission specialists. The seven launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Space shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on April 19, 2001 for an 11-day mission. The STS-100 mission, the sixth International Space Station (ISS) assembly flight, accomplished the following objectives: The delivery of the Canadian-built Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, which is needed to perform assembly operations on later flights; The delivery and installation of a UHF antenna that provides space-to-space communications capability for U.S.-based space walks; and carried the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module Raffaello containing six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab, Destiny.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael; Boyer, Roger; Thigpen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. There was at the time no viable technique to repair the orbiter s thermal protection system if it were to be damaged by debris during ascent. Furthermore in the event of damage, since the mission was not to the International Space Station, there was no safe haven for the crew to wait for an extended period of time for a rescue. The HST servicing mission was reconsidered because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for the astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damage thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of servicing mission, the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For HST there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue because of the limited consumables available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depends upon several factors including when a problem is identified, when and to what extent power down procedures are begun, and where the rescue vehicle is in its ground processing cycle. Severe power downs maximize crew rescue success but would eliminate the option for the orbiter servicing the HST to attempt a landing. Therefore, crew rescue success needed to be weighed against preserving the ability of the orbiter to have landing option in case there was a problem with the rescue vehicle. This paper focuses on quantification of the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down capabilities. That work supported NASA s decision to proceed with the HST service mission, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  14. LOFT Debriefings: An Analysis of Instructor Techniques and Crew Participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Jobe, Kimberly K.; McDonnell, Lori K.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyzes techniques instructors use to facilitate crew analysis and evaluation of their Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) performance. A rating instrument called the Debriefing Assessment Battery (DAB) was developed which enables raters to reliably assess instructor facilitation techniques and characterize crew participation. Thirty-six debriefing sessions conducted at five U.S. airlines were analyzed to determine the nature of instructor facilitation and crew participation. Ratings obtained using the DAB corresponded closely with descriptive measures of instructor and crew performance. The data provide empirical evidence that facilitation can be an effective tool for increasing the depth of crew participation and self-analysis of CRM performance. Instructor facilitation skill varied dramatically, suggesting a need for more concrete hands-on training in facilitation techniques. Crews were responsive but fell short of actively leading their own debriefings. Ways to improve debriefing effectiveness are suggested.

  15. High performance nickel-palladium nanocatalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline hydrous hydrazine at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Debaleena; Mandal, Kaustab; Dasgupta, Subrata

    2015-08-01

    Room temperature synthesized highly active bimetallic Ni60Pd40 nanocatalyst with large surface area (150 m2g-1) exerts 100% selectivity towards hydrogen generation (3 equivalents of gas in 60 min) from hydrous hydrazine under alkaline and ambient reaction conditions. This low noble metal content catalyst offers a new prospect for on-board hydrogen production system.

  16. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  17. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  18. Crew productivity issues in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, John M.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Ulschak, Francis L.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests the importance of teamwork, coordination, and conflict resolution to the performance and survival of isolated, confined groups in high-technology environments. With the advent of long-duration space flight, group-related issues of crew functioning will take on added significance. This paper discusses the influence of crew roles, status, leadership, and norms on the performance of small, confined groups, and offers guidelines and suggestions regarding organizational design, crew selection, training, and team building for crew productivity and social well-being in long-duration spaceflight.

  19. STS-103 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) team is preparing for NASA's third scheduled service call to Hubble. This mission, STS-103, will launch from Kennedy Space Center aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. The seven flight crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Scott J. Kelly, European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy who will join space walkers Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale, John M. Grunsfeld, and ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier. The objectives of the HST Third Servicing Mission (SM3A) are to replace the telescope's six gyroscopes, a Fine-Guidance Sensor, an S-Band Single Access Transmitter, a spare solid-state recorder and a high-voltage/temperature kit for protecting the batteries from overheating. In addition, the crew plans to install an advanced computer that is 20 times faster and has six times the memory of the current Hubble Space Telescope computer. To prepare for these extravehicular activities (EVAs), the SM3A astronauts participated in Crew Familiarization sessions with the actual SM3A flight hardware. During these sessions the crew spent long hours rehearsing their space walks in the Guidance Navigation Simulator and NBL (Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory). Using space gloves, flight Space Support Equipment (SSE), and Crew Aids and Tools (CATs), the astronauts trained with and verified flight orbital replacement unit (ORU) hardware. The crew worked with a number of trainers and simulators, such as the High Fidelity Mechanical Simulator, Guidance Navigation Simulator, System Engineering Simulator, the Aft Shroud Door Trainer, the Forward Shell/Light Shield Simulator, and the Support Systems Module Bay Doors Simulator. They also trained and verified the flight Orbital Replacement Unit Carrier (ORUC) and its ancillary hardware. Discovery's planned 10-day flight is scheduled to end with a night landing at Kennedy.

  20. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  1. STS-110 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the official STS-110 crew portrait. In front, from the left, are astronauts Stephen N. Frick, pilot; Ellen Ochoa, flight engineer; and Michael J. Bloomfield, mission commander; In the back, from left, are astronauts Steven L. Smith, Rex J. Walheim, Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin, all mission specialists. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission crew prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The mission served as the 8th ISS assembly flight.

  2. Expedition 5 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS -- EXPEDITION FIVE CREW PORTRAIT --- (JSC ISS05-5-002) -- Cosmonaut Valeri G. Korzun (left), Expedition Five mission commander; astronaut Peggy A. Whitson and cosmonaut Sergei Y. Treschev, both flight engineers, attired in training versions of the shuttle launch and entry suit, pause from their training schedule for a crew portrait. The three will be launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in early spring of this year aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Korzun and Treschev represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos)

  3. STS-118 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-118 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Richard A. 'Rick' Mastracchio, mission specialist; Barbara R. Morgan, mission specialist; Charles O. Hobaugh, pilot; Scott J. Kelly, commander; Tracy E. Caldwell, Canadian Space Agency's Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, and Alvin Drew Jr., all mission specialists. The crew members are attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. The main objective of the STS-118 mission was to install the fifth Starboard (S5) truss segment on the International Space Station (ISS).

  4. STS-98 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These five astronauts comprised the STS-98 crew that launched into Earth orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on February 7, 2001. Pictured right front is Kenneth D. Cockrell, mission commander; and Mark L. Polansky, pilot (left front); along with astronauts Marsha S. Ivins, Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., (left rear) and Thomas D. Jones (right rear), all mission specialists. During 3 space walks totaling 20 hours, the crew installed the U.S. Laboratory named Destiny onto the International Space Station (ISS). The addition of the Destiny Lab brought the ISS mass to about 101.6 metric tons (112 tons).

  5. 24 CFR 3286.407 - Supervising work of crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supervising work of crew. 3286.407... HUD-Administered States § 3286.407 Supervising work of crew. The installer will be responsible for the work performed by each person engaged to perform installation tasks on a manufactured home,...

  6. STS-102 Photo-op/Suit-up/Depart O&C/Launch Discovery On Orbit/Landing/Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The spacecrews of STS-102 and the Expedition 1 and 2 crews of the International Space Station (ISS) are seen in this video, which presents an overview of their activities. The crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot James Kelly, and Mission Specialists Andrew Thomas, and Paul Richards. The sections of the video include: Photo-op, Suit-up, Depart O&C, Ingress, Launch with Playbacks, On-orbit, Landing with Playbacks, and Crew Egress & Departs. The prelaunch activities are explained by two narrators, and the crew members are assisted in the White Room just before boarding the Space Shuttle Discovery. Isolated views of the shuttle's launch include: VAB, PAD-B, DLTR-3, UCS-23 Tracker, PATRICK IGOR, UCS-10 Tracker, Grandstand, Tower-1, OTV-160, OTV-170, OTV-171, and On-board Camera. The video shows two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to perform work on the ISS, one by astronauts Helms and Voss from Expedition 2, and another by Richards and Thomas. The attachment of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module, a temporary resupply module, is shown in a series of still images. The on-orbit footage also includes a view of the Nile River, and a crew exhange ceremony between Expedition 1 (Commander Yuri Gidzenko, Flight Engineer Sergei Krikalev) and Expedition 2 (Commander Yury Usachev, Flight Engineers James Voss, Susan Helms). Isolated views of the landing at Kennedy Space Center include: North Runway Camera, VAB, Tower-1, Mid-field, Midfield IR, Tower-2, and UCS-12 IR. The Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for unloading the astronauts is shown, administrators greet the crew upon landing, and Commander Wetherbee gives a briefing.

  7. Montage of Apollo Crew Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This montage depicts the flight crew patches for the manned Apollo 7 thru Apollo 17 missions. The Apollo 7 through 10 missions were basically manned test flights that paved the way for lunar landing missions. Primary objectives met included the demonstration of the Command Service Module (CSM) crew performance; crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities performance and testing during a manned CSM mission; CSM rendezvous capability; translunar injection demonstration; the first manned Apollo docking, the first Apollo Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), performance of the first manned flight of the lunar module (LM); the CSM-LM docking in translunar trajectory, LM undocking in lunar orbit, LM staging in lunar orbit, and manned LM-CSM docking in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 through 17 were lunar landing missions with the exception of Apollo 13 which was forced to circle the moon without landing due to an onboard explosion. The craft was,however, able to return to Earth safely. Apollo 11 was the first manned lunar landing mission and performed the first lunar surface EVA. Landing site was the Sea of Tranquility. A message for mankind was delivered, the U.S. flag was planted, experiments were set up and 47 pounds of lunar surface material was collected for analysis back on Earth. Apollo 12, the 2nd manned lunar landing mission landed in the Ocean of Storms and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) was deployed, and 75 pounds of lunar material was gathered. Apollo 14, the 3rd lunar landing mission landed in Fra Mauro. ALSEP and other instruments were deployed, and 94 pounds of lunar materials were gathered, using a hand cart for first time to transport rocks. Apollo 15, the 4th lunar landing mission landed in the Hadley-Apennine region. With the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), the crew was bale to gather 169 pounds of lunar material. Apollo 16, the 5th lunar

  8. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  9. STS-86 Crew Walkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 crew members smile and wave to the crowd of press representatives, KSC employees and other well-wishers as they prepare to board the astronaut van, at right, after departing from the Operations and Checkout Building. Leading the way are Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, at left, and Commander James D. Wetherbee. Mission Specialists David A. Wolf, at left, and Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency are directly behind them, followed by Mission Specialist Wendy B. Lawrence, at center. Bringing up the rear are Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, at left, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. The seven-member crew is en route to Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff on a planned 10-day mission slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle and the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf is scheduled to transfer to the Mir 24 crew for an approximate four- month stay aboard the Russian space station. He will replace U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew.

  10. STS-104 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the STS-104 crew portrait. Seated with the crew insignia (left to right) are astronauts Charles O. Hobaugh, pilot; and Steven W. Lindsey, mission commander. Standing, from the left, are astronauts Michael L. Gernhardt, Janet L. Kavandi, and James F. Reilly, all mission specialists. Launched July 12, 2001 from Kennedy Launch Pad 39B at 5:03:59 am EDT, the crew of five served as the International Space Station (ISS) assembly flight, 7A. The primary payload of the mission was the Joint Airlock Module which was attached in two space walks. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock became the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. space suits known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (Emu's), and the Russian Orlan space suit for extra vehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13- feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. The airlock includes two sections, the larger equipment lock on the left that will store space suits and associated gear, and the narrower crew lock on the right from which astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activity. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing.

  11. STS-71 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 crew patch design depicts the orbiter Atlantis in the process of the first international docking mission with the Russian Space Station Mir. The names of the 10 astronauts and cosmonauts who will fly aboard the orbiter are shown along the outer

  12. Cockpit crew research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the cockpit crew research work conducted at Ames Research Center including an overview of the problem areas of risk in the aviation environment. Attention is given to transportation fatalities, accident and incident reports, cockpit resource management, and current aircrew research.

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  14. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  15. STS-111 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-111 Crew is in training for space flight. The crew consists of Commander Ken Cockrell, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Franklin Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin. The crew training begins with Post Insertion Operations with the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). Franklin Chang-Diaz, Philippe Perrin and Paul Lockhart are shown in training for airlock and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) activities. Bailout in Crew Compartment Training (CCT) with Expedition Five is also shown. The crew also gets experience with photography, television, and habitation equipment.

  16. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf is seen during this preflight interview, where he first answers questions on his career path and role models. Other questions cover mission goals, ISS (International Space Station) Expedition 5 spacecrew, crew training, the S1 Truss and its radiators, the MBS (Mobile Base Structure), his experience onboard Mir, and his EVAs (extravehicular activities) on the coming mission. The EVAs are the subject of several questions. Wolf discusses his crew members, and elsewhere discusses Pilot Pamela Melroy's role as an IV crew member during EVAs. In addition, Wolf answers questions on transfer operations, the SHIMMER experiment, and his thoughts on multinational crews and crew bonding.

  17. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is

  18. STS-120 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts took a break from training to pose for the STS-120 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew members were attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. Tani joined Expedition 16 as flight engineer after launching to the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled to return home on mission STS-122. STS-120 launched October 23, 2007 with the main objectives of installing the U.S. Node 2, Harmony, and the relocation and deployment of the P6 truss to its permanent location.

  19. STS-67 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Observation and remote exploration of the Universe in the ultraviolet wavelengths of light are the focus of the STS-67/ASTRO-2 mission, as depicted in the crew patch designed by the crew members. The insignia shows the ASTRO-2 telescopes in the Space Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay, orbiting high above Earth's atmosphere. The three sets of rays, diverging from the telescope on the patch atop the Instrument Pointing System (IPS), correspond to the three ASTRO-2 telescopes - the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE). The telescopes are coaligned to simultaneously view the same astronomical object, as shown by the convergence of rays on the NASA symbol. This symbol also represents the excellence of the union of the NASA teams and the universality's in the exploration of the universe through astronomy. The celestial targets of ASTRO-2 include the observation of planets, stars and gala

  20. 14 CFR 135.330 - Crew resource management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Workload and time management; (5) Situational awareness; (6) Effects of fatigue on performance, avoidance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crew resource management training. 135.330... § 135.330 Crew resource management training. (a) Each certificate holder must have an approved...

  1. 14 CFR 135.330 - Crew resource management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Workload and time management; (5) Situational awareness; (6) Effects of fatigue on performance, avoidance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crew resource management training. 135.330... § 135.330 Crew resource management training. (a) Each certificate holder must have an approved...

  2. Sonic Boom Assessment for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Marissa

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Environmental Impact Statement (Cx EIS) requires that an assessment be performed on the environmental impact of sonic booms during the reentry of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This included an analysis of current planned vehicle trajectories for the Crew Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM) debris and the determination of the potential impact to the overflown environment.

  3. Ceramic stabilization of hazardous wastes: a high performance room temperature process

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    ANL has developed a room-temperature process for converting hazardous materials to a ceramic structure. It is similar to vitrification but is achieved at low cost, similar to conventional cement stabilization. The waste constituents are both chemically stabilized and physically encapsulated, producing very low leaching levels and the potential for delisting. The process, which is pH-insensitive, is ideal for inorganic sludges and liquids, as well as mixed chemical-radioactive wastes, but can also handle significant percentages of salts and even halogenated organics. High waste loadings are possible and densification occurs,so that volumes are only slightly increased and in some cases (eg, incinerator ash) are reduced. The ceramic product has strength and weathering properties far superior to cement products.

  4. Design, construction, and performance of a magnetically shielded room for a neutron spin echo spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltner, Helmut; Pabst, Ulrich; Butzek, Michael; Ohl, Michael; Kozielewski, Tadeusz; Monkenbusch, Michael; Sokol, Don; Maltin, Larry; Lindgren, Eric; Koch, Stuart; Fugate, David

    2011-07-01

    A double-layer magnetically shielded room (MSR) has been designed and constructed for the neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary objective of the MSR is to ensure an undisturbed operation of the spectrometer in terms of external magnetic fields from high-field magnets at neighboring beamlines and from other external devices. Because of the required mobility of the spectrometer along its beamline the MSR features a total length of about 17 m, which makes it the largest MSR worldwide. Several physics and engineering aspects addressed in the design phase and during the construction of this unique MSR are described in this article.

  5. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  6. Halogen poisoning effect of Pt-TiO2 for formaldehyde catalytic oxidation performance at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo; Ho, Wingkei

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature is an important method for HCHO removal. Pt-based catalysts are the optimal catalyst for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. However, the stability of this catalyst remains unexplored. In this study, Pt-TiO2 (Pt-P25) catalysts with and without adsorbed halogen ions (including F-, Cl-, Br-, and I-) were prepared through impregnation and ion modification. Pt-TiO2 samples with adsorbed halogen ions exhibited reduced catalytic activity for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature compared with the Pt-TiO2 sample; the catalytic activity followed the order of F-Pt-P25, Cl-Pt-P25, Br-Pt-P25, and I-Pt-P25. Characterization results (including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, BET, XPS, and metal dispersion) showed that the adsorbed halogen ions can poison Pt nanoparticles (NPs), thereby reducing the HCHO oxidation activity of Pt-TiO2. The poison mechanism is due to the strong adsorption of halogen ions on the surface of Pt NPs. The adsorbed ions form coordination bonds with surface Pt atoms by transferring surplus electrons into the unoccupied 5d orbit of the Pt atom, thereby inhibiting oxygen adsorption and activation of the Pt NP surface. Moreover, deactivation rate increases with increasing diameter of halogen ions. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance Pt-based catalysts for indoor air purification.

  7. Crew Skills and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

    1998-01-01

    One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

  8. STS-93 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of the STS-93 crewmembers shows Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman, and Michel Tognini going through various training activities. These activities include Bail Out Training NBL, Emergency Egress Training, Earth Observations Classroom Training, Simulator Training, T-38 Departure from Ellington Field, Chandra Deploy Training, SAREX Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment, CCT Bail Out Crew Compartment Training, and Southwest Research Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) Training.

  9. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  10. STS-112 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS -- (STS112-S-002) These five astronauts and cosmonaut take a break from training to pose for the STS-112 crew portrait. Astronauts Pamela A. Melroy and Jeffrey S. Ashby, pilot and commander respectively, are in the cen ter of the photo. The mission specialists are from left to right, astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, David A. Wolf and Piers J. Sellers, and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, who represents Rosaviakosmos.

  11. STS-97 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These five STS-97 crew members posed for a traditional portrait during training. On the front row, left to right, are astronauts Michael J. Bloomfield, pilot; Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA); and Brent W. Jett, Jr., commander. In the rear, wearing training versions of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) space suits, (left to right) are astronauts Carlos I. Noriega, and Joseph R. Tarner, both mission specialists. The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  12. STS-99 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  13. Behavioral characteristics of effective crew leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginnett, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The behaviors of effective versus less effective captains as they form and lead their crews in line operations are analyzed. The research examines real work groups in an actual organization with a specific and consequential task to perform and is based on a normative model of work group effectiveness. Selection of captains is outlined, as well as data collection over the course of six months of crew and cockpit observations including over 300 hours of direct crew observations and 110 hours of actual flight time. Common characteristics of the effective leaders as well as the deviations of the less effective are described, and organizational implications are assessed. The concept of 'shells' depicted as a series of concentric circles moving outward from the group's task execution at the center is introduced and discussed.

  14. STS-93: Crew Arrival and PR Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts arriving at Kennedy and an inspection in the clean room.

  15. Crew Management Processes Revitalize Patient Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, two physicians, former NASA astronauts, created LifeWings Partners LLC in Memphis, Tennessee and began using Crew Resource Management (CRM) techniques developed at Ames Research Center in the 1970s to help improve safety and efficiency at hospitals. According to the company, when hospitals follow LifeWings? training, they can see major improvements in a number of areas, including efficiency, employee satisfaction, operating room turnaround, patient advocacy, and overall patient outcomes. LifeWings has brought its CRM training to over 90 health care organizations and annual sales have remained close to $3 million since 2007.

  16. Design Considerations for a Crewed Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration architecture studies identified the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) as one of the largest "gear ratio" items in a crewed Mars mission. Because every kilogram of mass ascended from the Martian surface requires seven kilograms or more of ascent propellant, it is desirable for the MAV to be as small and lightweight as possible. Analysis identified four key factors that drive MAV sizing: 1) Number of crew: more crew members require more equipment-and a larger cabin diameter to hold that equipment-with direct implications to structural, thermal, propulsion, and power subsystem mass. 2) Which suit is worn during ascent: Extravehicular Activity (EVA) type suits are physically larger and heavier than Intravehicular Activity (IVA) type suits and because they are less flexible, EVA suits require more elbow-room to maneuver in and out of. An empty EVA suit takes up about as much cabin volume as a crew member. 3) How much time crew spends in the MAV: less than about 12 hours and the MAV can be considered a "taxi" with few provisions for crew comfort. However, if the crew spends more than 12 consecutive hours in the MAV, it begins to look like a Habitat requiring more crew comfort items. 4) How crew get into/out of the MAV: ingress/egress method drives structural mass (for example, EVA hatch vs. pressurized tunnel vs. suit port) as well as consumables mass for lost cabin atmosphere, and has profound impacts on surface element architecture. To minimize MAV cabin mass, the following is recommended: Limit MAV usage to 24 consecutive hours or less; discard EVA suits on the surface and ascend wearing IVA suits; Limit MAV functionality to ascent only, rather than dual-use ascent/habitat functions; and ingress/egress the MAV via a detachable tunnel to another pressurized surface asset.

  17. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  18. Endeavour's Crew Wakes to Song Contest Winner

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-134 crew members were awakened on the final day of their mission with the song “Sunrise Number 1,” performed by the band Stormy Mondays. This song was chosen in an online vote of the ge...

  19. Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT performed in non-HEPA filter rooms: initial experience from a single center in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Naithani, R; Mishra, P; Mahapatra, M; Seth, T; Dolai, T K; Bhargava, R; Saxena, R

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, it is important to ascertain the safety of performing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in single rooms without high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. We present our experience of performing 40 such transplants from July 2004 to November 2007. Source of stem cells was peripheral blood in 33, bone marrow in six and combined in one. G-CSF started from day +1. The indications were SAA-18, CML-7, AML-7, ALL-2, myelodysplastic syndrome-2 and thalassemia major-4. The median age was 19 years (range 2.2-46) with 29 male and 11 female participants. Antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis was administered along with conditioning, and at the onset of fever, systemic antibiotics were started. Antifungal agents were added if fever persisted for 3 days. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 10 days (range 8-17). Fever occurred in 38 (95%) for a median of 5 days (range 1-38), and blood cultures were positive in seven (17.5%). Systemic antibiotics were used in 95% and antifungals in 57.5% cases. The 30-day mortality was nil, and 100-day mortality was 1 (2.5%). After day 100, there were eight fatalities (20%) due to chronic GVHD-3, relapse-2, graft rejection-2, disseminated tuberculosis and aspergillosis-1. Our experience suggests that allogeneic HSCT can be safely performed in non-HEPA filter rooms in India. PMID:18794872

  20. High-performance room-temperature THz nanodetectors with a narrowband antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viti, Leonardo; Coquillat, Dominique; Ercolani, Daniele; Knap, Wojciech; Sorba, Lucia; Vitiello, Miriam S.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of a novel class of nanowire-based THz detectors in which the field effect transistor (FET) is integrated in a narrow-band antenna. When the THz field is applied between the gate and the source terminals of the FET, a constant source-to-drain photovoltage appears as a result of the non-linear transfer characteristic of the transistor. In order to achieve attoFarad-order capacitance we fabricate lateral gate FET with gate widths smaller than 100 nm. Our devices show a maximum responsivity of 110 V/W without amplification, with noise equivalent power levels <= 1 nW/√Hz at room temperature. The 0.3 THz resonant antenna has bandwidth of ~ 10 GHz and opens a path to novel applications of our technology including metrology, spectroscopy, homeland security, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Moreover the possibility to extend this approach to relatively large multi-pixel arrays coupled with THz sources makes it highly appealing for a future generation of THz detectors.

  1. Room acoustics investigations of beamforming performance using coprime linear microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Dane

    Linear microphone arrays are powerful tools for determining the direction of a sound source. Traditionally, uniform linear arrays (ULA) have inter-element spacing of half of the wavelength in question. This produces the narrowest possible beam without introducing grating lobes -- a form of aliasing governed by the spatial Nyquist theorem. Grating lobes are often undesirable because they make direction of arrival indistinguishable among their passband angles. Exploiting coprime number theory however, an array can be arranged sparsely with fewer total elements, exceeding the aforementioned spatial sampling limit separation. Two sparse ULA sub-arrays with coprime number of elements, when nested properly, each produce narrow grating lobes that overlap with one another exactly in just one direction. By combining the sub-array outputs it is possible to retain the shared beam while mostly canceling the other superfluous grating lobes. In this work beam patterns are simulated for a range of single frequencies, as well as for arbitrary bands of frequencies. Three coprime microphone arrays are built with different lengths and sub-array spacings. Two different techniques are explored for sub-array data processing and combination. Experimental beam patterns are shown to correspond with simulated results even at frequencies other than the array's design frequency. Beam width and side lobe locations are shown to correspond to the derived values. Side lobes in the directional pattern are mitigated by increasing bandwidth of analyzed signals. Accurate single-source direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is shown to be possible in free field and reverberant conditions. DOA estimation is also implemented for two simultaneous noise sources in the free field condition. Room reflections can be resolved in the reverberant condition, provided adequate reduction of side lobes.

  2. STS-62 crew patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-62 crew patch depicts the world's first reusable spacecraft on its sixteenth flight. Columbia is in its entry-interface attitude as it prepares to return to Earth. The varied hues of the rainbow on the horizon connote the varied, but complementary, nature of all the payloads united on this mission. The upward-pointing vector shape of the patch is symbolic of America's reach for excellence in its unswerving pursuit to explore the frontiers of space. The brilliant sunrise just beyond Columbia suggests the promise that research in space holds for the hopes and dreams of future generations. The STS-62 insignia was designed by Mark Pestana.

  3. STS-39 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 crew portrait includes 7 astronauts. Pictured are Charles L. Veach, mission specialist 5; Michael L. Coats, commander; Gregory J. Harbaugh, mission specialist 2; Donald R. McMonagle, mission specialist 4; L. Blaine Hammond, pilot; Richard J. Hieb, mission specialist 3; and Guion S. Buford, Jr., mission specialist 1. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 28, 1991 at 7:33:14 am (EDT), STS-39 was a Department of Defense (DOD) mission. The primary unclassified payload included the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675), the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS II).

  4. STS-107 Crew Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith

    2005-01-01

    NASA Crew Surgeons (CS) provides medical support to crewmembers assigned to a space flight. Upon this mission assignment, CS s develop close working and personal relationships with crewmembers, their families and close friends. This discussion covers the role of the NASA CS from start of a mission assignment through its completion. Specific emphasis is placed on events associated with the Columbia accident to include; premission planning, initial family medical support, interface with the astronaut Casualty Assistance Control Officers (CACOs), AFIP relationship and on-going care for the families.

  5. STS-86 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-86 mission included five U.S. astronauts, one Russian cosmonaut, and one Canadian astronaut. Kneeling is mission specialist Scott E. Parazynski. Others, pictured from left to right, are Michael J. Bloomfield, pilot; David A. Wolf, mission specialist; James D. Wetherbee, commander; and mission specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Vlamimir G. Titov (RSA), and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien (CNES). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on September 25, 1997 at 10:34:19 pm (EDT), the STS-86 mission served as the 7th U.S. Space Shuttle-Russian Space Station Mir docking.

  6. STS-84 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-84 mission included (seated front left to right) Jerry M Linenger, mission specialist; Charles J. Precourt, commander; and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist. On the back row (left to right) are Jean-Francois Clervoy (ESA), mission specialist; Eileen M. Collins, pilot; Edward T. Lu, mission specialist; Elena V. Kondakova (RSA), mission specialist; and Carlos I. Noriega, mission specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on May 15, 1997 at 4:07:48 am (EDT), the STS-84 mission served as the sixth U.S. Space Shuttle-Russian Space Station Mir docking.

  7. STS-101 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Six astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut comprised the STS-101 mission that launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on May 19, 2000 at 5:11 am (CDT). Seated in front are astronauts James D. Halsell (right), mission commander; and Scott J. Horowitz, pilot. Others, from the left, are Mary Ellen Weber, Jeffrey N. Williams, Yury V. Usachev, James S. Voss and Susan J. Helms, all mission specialists. Usachev represents the Russian Space Agency (RSA). The crew of the STS- 101 mission refurbished and replaced components in both the Zarya and Unity modules, with top priority being the Zarya module.

  8. STS-88 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Five NASA astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut assigned to the STS-88 mission pose for a crew portrait. Seated in front (left to right) are mission specialists Sergei K. Krikalev, representing the Russian Space Agency (RSA), and astronaut Nancy J. Currie. In the rear from the left, are astronauts Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist; Robert D. Cabana, mission commander; Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, pilot; and James H. Newman, mission specialist. The STS-88 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on December 4, 1998 at 2:35 a.m. (CST) to deliver the Unity Node to the International Space Station (ISS).

  9. STS-115 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These six astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-115 crew portrait. Astronauts Brent W. Jett, Jr. (right) and Christopher J. Ferguson, commander and pilot, respectively, flank the mission insignia. The mission specialists are, from left to right, astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Joseph R. (Joe) Tanner, Daniel C. Burbank, and Steven G. MacLean, who represents the Canadian Space Agency. This mission continued the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) with the installation of the truss segments P3 and P4.

  10. STS-63 crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the United States and Russian flags in the background, five NASA astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut named to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the the STS-63 mission pose for the flight crew portrait at JSC. Left to right (front row) are Janice E. Voss, mission specialist, Eileen M. Collins, pilot; James D. Wetherbee, mission commander; and Vladimir Titov of the Russian Space Agency, mission specialist. In the rear are Bernard A. Harris Jr., payload commander; and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist.

  11. Crew appliance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  12. STS-110 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The STS-110 mission began the third and final phase of construction for the International Space Station (ISS) by delivering and installing the Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss segment that was carried into orbit in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. The STS-110 crew patch is patterned after the cross section of the S0 truss, and encases the launch of the Shuttle Atlantis and a silhouette of the ISS as it will look following mission completion. The successfully installed S0 segment is highlighted in gold. The three prominent flames blasting from the shuttle emphasizes the first shuttle flight to use three Block II Main Engines.

  13. STS-92 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-92, Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela A. Melroy, and Mission Specialists Koichi Wakata, Leroy Chiao, Peter J.K. Wisoff, Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, and William S. McArthur during various parts of their training. Clips are seen of the Shuttle bailout training, Shuttle arm and extravehicular activity (EVA) training at the Virtual Reality Lab, EVA training at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab, Shuttle operations training, EVA prep and post training in the Full Fuselage Trainer, ascent and post insertion training in the Guidance Navigation Simulator, and Mission Specialist Wakata in the Shuttle Engineering Dome and training on the Manipulator Development Facility.

  14. Asteroid Crewed Segment Mission Lean Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gard, Joe; McDonald, Mark; Jermstad, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of human spaceflight missions presents numerous challenges to designers that must be addressed to produce a feasible concept. The specific challenges of designing an exploration mission utilizing the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts beyond earth orbit to explore an asteroid stored in a distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be addressed. Mission designers must carefully balance competing constraints including cost, schedule, risk, and numerous spacecraft performance metrics including launch mass, nominal landed mass, abort landed mass, mission duration, consumable limits and many others. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will be described along with results from the concurrent mission design trades that led to its formulation. While the trades presented are specific to this mission, the integrated process is applicable to any potential future mission. The following trades were critical in the mission formulation and will be described in detail: 1) crew size, 2) mission duration, 3) trajectory design, 4) docking vs grapple, 5) extravehicular activity tasks, 6) launch mass and integrated vehicle performance, 7) contingency performance, 8) crew consumables including food, clothing, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and 9) mission risk. The additional Orion functionality required to perform the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission and how it is incorporated while minimizing cost, schedule and mass impacts will be identified. Existing investments in the NASA technology portfolio were leveraged to provide the added functionality that will be beneficial to future exploration missions. Mission kits are utilized to augment Orion with the necessary functionality without introducing costly new requirements to the mature Orion spacecraft design effort. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission provides an exciting early mission for the Orion and SLS while providing a stepping stone to even more ambitious missions in the future.

  15. STS-113 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 crew consists of Commander Jim Weatherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. The goal of the STS-113 mission is to deliver the Expedition Six crew to the International Space Station and return the Expedition Five crew to Earth. Also, the P1 Truss will be installed on the International Space Station. The STS-113 crew is shown getting suited for Pre-Launch Ingress and Egress. The Neutral Buoyancy Lab Extravehicular Activity training (NBL) (EVA), CETA Bolt Familiarization, and Photography TV instruction are also presented.

  16. Awareness and performance of blood transfusion standards in operating rooms of Shiraz hospitals in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Robati, R; Mirahmadi Nejad, E

    2015-01-01

    Background Assuring safety and survival of blood in vitro depends on anti-coagulation substances, blood bag characteristics, storage conditions, and transport of blood. Besides, careful selection and screening of donors as well as blood tests can minimize the transmission risk of blood-transmissible pathogens and optimize blood health. The aim of this study was to assay the level of knowledge and practices among anesthesia technicians on blood transfusion standards. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among 85 anesthesia technicians Shiraz, Iran throughout 2012 who were examined by census using blood transfusion questionnaires and checklists. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results The obtained findings indicated that 32.44% of the technicians have corrected knowledge of blood transfusion standards; nevertheless, 73.84% have corrected performance. Conclusions The technicians mostly performed based on their habit and experience. However, their knowledge about blood transfusion and blood bag storage was low. PMID:26131349

  17. Facilitation techniques as predictors of crew participation in LOFT debriefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, L. K.

    1996-01-01

    Based on theories of adult learning and airline industry guidelines for Crew Resource Management (CRM), the stated objective during Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings is for instructor pilots (IP's) to facilitate crew self-analysis of performance. This study reviews 19 LOFT debriefings from two major U.S. airlines to examine the relationship between IP efforts at facilitation and associated characteristics of crew participation. A subjective rating scale called the Debriefing Assessment Battery was developed and utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of IP facilitation and the quality of crew participation. The results indicate that IP content, encouragement, and questioning techniques are highly and significantly correlated with, and can therefore predict, the degree and depth of crew participation.

  18. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Yurchikhin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.

  19. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  20. STS-86 Crew Walkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The five STS-86 mission specialists wave to the crowd of press representatives, KSC employees and other well-wishers as they depart from the Operations and Checkout Building. The three U.S. mission specialists (and their nicknames for this flight) are, from left, 'too tall' Scott E. Parazynski, 'just right' David A. Wolf and 'too short' Wendy B. Lawrence. The two mission specialists representing foreign space agencies are Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, in foreground at right, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES, in background at right. Commander James D. Wetherbee and Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield are out of the frame. STS-86 is slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf is scheduled to transfer to the Mir 24 crew for an approximate four-month stay aboard the Russian space station. Parazynski and Lawrence were withdrawn from training for an extended stay aboard the Mir - Parazynski because he was too tall to fit safely in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft, and Lawrence because she was too short to fit into a Russian spacewalk suit. The crew is en route to Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff on the planned 10-day mission.

  1. Using Clickers to Facilitate Interactive Engagement Activities in a Lecture Room for Improved Performance by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Naidoo, Ari; Winnips, Koos

    2014-01-01

    What impact can interactive engagement (IE) activities using clickers have on students' motivation and academic performance during lectures as compared to attending traditional types of lectures? This article positions the research on IE within the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness and Gagné's instructional events model.…

  2. STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker chats with white room closeout crew members Bob Saulnier (left), Regulo Villalobos and closeout crew leader Travis Thompson prior to entering the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A.

  3. Performance of a CsBr coated Nb photocathode at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Pianetta, Piero; Dowell, David H.; Smedley, John; Kneisel, Peter

    2010-01-15

    Experiments performed on Nb substrates coated with thin films of CsBr indicate a substantial enhancement of 150 to 800 times of the photoyield at 257 nm relative to the uncoated substrates. Results are presented for several power density illuminations and sample thickness. Further enhancement of photoyield was observed when the laser illumination was interrupted for a short time in samples with 5-10 nm thick CsBr coatings.

  4. STS-79 Mission Specialist Thomas Akers in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist Thomas D. Akers shares a light moment with white room closeout crew members Rick Welty (left) and Travis Thompson, before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  5. STS-79 Mission Specialist John Blaha in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist John E. Blaha shares a light moment with white room closeout crew members Rick Welty (No. 1) and Jim Davis (right), before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  6. STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman chats with white room closeout crew members Rene Arriens (far left), Travis Thompson and Bob Saulnier (right) prior to entering the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  7. STS-82 M.S. Steven Smith in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew members Dave Law, in front; Carlous Gillis, at left; and James Davis.

  8. STS-82 M.S. Steven Hawley in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew members James Davis, at left, and George Schramm.

  9. STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Troy Stewart, Ray Villalobos and Bob Saulnier.

  10. STS-124 crew visits Stennis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Deputy Director Gene Goldman (center) welcomed members of the STS-124 Discovery space shuttle crew during their July 23 visit to the center. Crew members who visited Stennis were (l to r) Pilot Ken Ham, Mission Specialist Karen Nyberg, Kelly, and Mission Specialists Ron Garan and Mike Fossum.