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1

Zwitterionic Polymersomes in an Ionic Liquid: Room Temperature TEM Characterization  

E-print Network

Zwitterionic Polymersomes in an Ionic Liquid: Room Temperature TEM Characterization Raghavendra R)- dimethylammonium methanesulfonate (see Figure 1). Polymer vesicles, also known as "polymersomes", have attracted

Tew, Gregory N.

2

Are Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Dilute Electrolytes?  

E-print Network

An important question in understanding the structure of ionic liquids is whether ions are truly "free" and mobile which would correspond to a concentrated ionic melt, or are rather "bound" in ion pairs, that is a liquid of ion pairs with a small concentration of free ions. Recent surface force balance experiments from different groups have given conflicting answers to this question. We propose a simple model for the thermodynamics and kinetics of ion pairing in ionic liquids. Our model takes into account screened ion-ion, dipole-dipole and dipole-ion interactions in the mean field limit. The results of this model suggest that almost two thirds of the ions are free at any instant, and ion pairs have a short lifetime comparable to the characteristic timescale for diffusion. These results suggest that there is no particular thermodynamic or kinetic preference for ions residing in pairs. We therefore conclude that ionic liquids are concentrated, rather than dilute, electrolytes.

Lee, Alpha A; Perkin, Susan; Goriely, Alain

2014-01-01

3

BIOELECTROCATALYTIC REACTIONS IN ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The direct electrochemical reduction of hemin, protopophyrin(IX) iron(III) chloride, ligated with strong or weak heterocyclic bases, was investigated in the ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([omim][...

4

Room temperature ionic liquids and their mixtures: Potential pharmaceutical solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquids at ambient temperature. Composed of relatively large asymmetric organic cations and inorganic or organic anions, they have generated interest as ‘green’ solvents. Here we report on the solvency of alkyl imidazolium salts (PF6?Br?Cl?) for poorly water-soluble model drugs, albendazole and danazol, indicating their potential application as pharmaceutical solvents\\/cosolvents. The

H. Mizuuchi; V. Jaitely; S. Murdan; A. T. Florence

2008-01-01

5

Orientational dynamics in a lyotropic room temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

In a previous study of room temperature ionic liquid/water mixtures, the first clearly observed biexponential decays in optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments on a liquid were reported, (Sturlaugson, A. L.; Fruchey, K. S.; Fayer, M. D. J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 1777), and it was suggested that the biexponential behavior is indicative of the approach to gelation. Here, new OHD-OKE experiments on mixtures of the room temperature ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride (OmimCl) with water are presented. The OmimCl/water system is shown to gel over the water mole fraction range of 0.69-0.81. In the OHD-OKE decays, the biexponential behavior becomes more distinct as the gelling concentration range is approached from either high or low water concentrations. The biexponential decays are analyzed in terms of the wobbling-in-a-cone model, and the resulting diffusion constants and "relative" order parameters and cone angles are reported. Comparison of the OmimCl/water data with the previously reported room temperature ionic liquid/water OHD-OKE decays supports the previous hypothesis that the biexponential dynamics are due to the approach to the liquid-gel transition and suggests that the order of the concentration-dependent phase transition can be tuned by the choice of anion. PMID:24171452

Sturlaugson, Adam L; Arima, Aaron Y; Bailey, Heather E; Fayer, Michael D

2013-11-27

6

Dissolution of cellulose in room temperature ionic liquids: anion dependence.  

PubMed

The dissolution of cellulosic biomass in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is studied through free energy calculations of its monomer, viz., cellobiose, within a molecular dynamics simulation approach. The solvation free energy (SFE) of cellobiose in ionic liquids containing any of seven different anions has been calculated. The ranking of these liquids based on SFE compares well with experimental data on the solubility of cellulose. The dissolution is shown to be enthalpically dominated, which is correlated with the strength of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between cellobiose and the anions of the IL. Large entropic changes upon solvation in [CF3SO3](-) and [OAc](-) based ionic liquids have been explained in terms of the solvent-aided conformational flexibility of cellobiose. PMID:25535797

Payal, Rajdeep Singh; Bejagam, Karteek K; Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

2015-01-29

7

The relationship between ionic structure and viscosity in room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

We investigate the relationship between ionic structure and viscosity in room-temperature ionic liquids. We build on an earlier theoretical work and derive an ionic property we call the charge lever moment (CLM) that provides insight on ionic liquid dynamics. We use electronic structure calculations to determine the CLM for ions in typical ionic liquids and demonstrate a correlation between this property and the experimental viscosities of ionic liquids. The relationship provides insight into the role of librational motion in ionic liquids in general, and the interpretation of Kerr effect experiments is discussed. PMID:19045036

Li, Hualin; Ibrahim, Murvat; Agberemi, Ismail; Kobrak, Mark N

2008-09-28

8

Contracting cardiomyocytes in hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatible room-temperature ionic liquid was applied on beating cardiomyocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lifetime of beating cardiomyocytes was depended on anion functional group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A longer lifetime was recorded for no functional group on alkyl chain on their anion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino group on alkyl chain and fluorine in anion induced fatal condition changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported liquid electrolyte interface to stimulate cardiomyocytes. -- Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are drawing attention as a new class of nonaqueous solvents to replace organic and aqueous solvents for chemical processes in the liquid phase at room temperature. The RTILs are notable for their characteristics of nonvolatility, extremely low vapor pressure, electric conductivity, and incombustibility. These distinguished properties of RTILs have brought attention to them in applications with biological cells and tissue in vacuum environment for scanning electron microscopy, and in microfluidic devices for micro-total analysis system (micro-TAS). Habitable RTILs could increase capability of nonaqueous micro-TAS for living cells. Some RTILs seemed to have the capability to replace water in biological applications. However, these RTILs had been applied to just supplemental additives for biocompatible test, to fixed cells as a substitute for an aqueous solution, and to simple molecules. None of RTILs in which directly soaks a living cell culture. Therefore, we demonstrated the design of RTILs for a living cell culture and a liquid electrolyte to stimulate contracting cardiomyocytes using the RTILs. We assessed the effect of RTILs on the cardiomyocytes using the beating lifetime to compare the applicability of RTILs for biological applications. Frequent spontaneous contractions of cardiomyocytes were confirmed in amino acid anion RTILs [P{sub 8,8,8,8}][Leu] and [P{sub 8,8,8,8}][Ala], phosphoric acid derivatives [P{sub 8,8,8,8}][MeO(H)PO{sub 2}], and [P{sub 8,8,8,8}][C{sub 7}CO{sub 2}]. The anion type of RTILs had influence on applicable characteristics for the contracting cardiomyocyte. This result suggested the possibility for biocompatible design of hydrophobic group RTILs to achieve biological applications with living cells.

Hoshino, Takayuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Bio-Application and System Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujita, Kyoko [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Higashi, Ayako; Sakiyama, Keiko [Department of Bio-Application and System Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Bio-Application and System Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Ohno, Hiroyuki [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Morishima, Keisuke, E-mail: morishima@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Bio-Application and System Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

2012-10-19

9

Laser desorption from a room temperature ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report laser desorption from a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL) as a novel source for time of flight mass spectrometry. We use the 2nd harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser to deposit intensities of 1-50 MW/cm2 via backside illumination onto our RTIL desorption sample. A microstructured metal grid situated on top of a glass microscope slide coated with RTIL serves as our desorption sample. The RTIL we use, 1-Butyl, 3-Methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate, remains liquid at pressures below 10-8 torr. The use of liquid desorption sample allows for improved surface conditions, homogeneity and sample life as compared to Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) techniques. Our desorption technique is also unique as it allows the study of both multiphoton and acoustic desorption processes within the same time of flight spectra. Our technique yields intrinsically high resolution, low noise data. We observe differences between ion species in their preference for desorption by a particular desorption method. Specifically, we observe desorption solely by acoustic means of an entire RTIL molecule adducted with an RTIL cation. Finally, we report the applicability of this technique for the desorption of biomolecules.

Harris, Peter Ronald

10

Mesophases in nearly 2D room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Computer simulations of (i) a [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, as well as relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants. PMID:19886615

Manini, N; Cesaratto, M; Del Pópolo, M G; Ballone, P

2009-11-26

11

Vaporisation of an ionic liquid near room temperature.  

PubMed

The temperature at which the vapour phase of the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide, [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N], and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [C(2)C(1)Im][EtOSO(3)], can be detected was investigated using line-of-sight mass spectrometry (LOSMS). By optimising the detection system used in previous experiments, the lowest temperature for which vapour was detected for [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] was approximately 340 K, whereas for [C(2)C(1)Im][EtOSO(3)] it was approximately 390 K. Initial investigations also show that the temperature at which measurements are made affects the enthalpy of vaporisation at 298 K, Delta(vap)H(298). The reasons for these differences in Delta(vap)H(298) with respect to temperature are discussed. The vapour pressure of both ILs is estimated at far lower temperatures than previously achieved and extrapolations to room temperature are given. PMID:20535409

Lovelock, Kevin R J; Deyko, Alexey; Licence, Peter; Jones, Robert G

2010-08-21

12

Applications of room temperature ionic liquids in interfacial polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), with their unique physical and chemical properties, have been of great interest in various areas of chemical science and engineering during the last decade. In this dissertation, polyurea and polyamide films with surface nanostructures were synthesized by interfacial polymerization (IP) with ILs without stirring. Both polymers were prepared at the interface between n-hexane and a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs. Nanoporous or nanofibrous polymer morphologies with various sizes ranging from 50 to 500 nm and geometries, depending on the ILs used, were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A correlation length of ˜20nm and a suppression of three-dimensional (3-D) crystalline structure of the polyurea were found by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. FTIR spectra showed no significant changes in the chemical composition of the polymer by the employment of ILs. The peculiar nanostructure of the polymer could be ascribed to the intermolecular interactions between the ILs and the polymer, which affected the development of the polymer morphology. The polyamides prepared with ILs showed larger intrinsic viscosities, and consequently higher molecular weights, compared to the one prepared without ILs; this could be due to the prevention of the side reaction between sebacoyl chloride and water. The enhancement of the molecular weight renders a better thermal stability to the polyamide film, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which showed a higher decomposition temperature. Coating of fine particulates with polyurea by IP has been developed. With increasing stirring speed in the coating process, a decreased mean particle size and a narrower particle size distribution, as well as a lower coating weight percentage were found by particle size analysis and TGA, respectively. A Porous coating layer was formed in the IP coating in the presence of ILs. The reaction kinetics of Nylon 610 film formation with ILs were studied by measuring the product mass at different reaction times. The polymer film ceased to grow in the late stage of the reaction due to the diffusion barrier formed by the film. The characteristic time marking the cessation of the film growth was found to be dependent on the initial reactant concentrations. The evolution of the polymer molecular weight with reaction time was monitored by intrinsic viscosity measurements. It is found that the molecular weight leveled off faster than the film growth under the same reactant concentrations. Based on our experimental studies, a simplified diffusion-controlled mathematical model of IP with ILs was developed, in which the effective diffusivity in the polymer film decayed with the square of time. The model was used to fit the measured growth rate of the polymer film and the fitting results showed a conspicuously good agreement between the model and the experimental data. Physical properties of ILs relevant to the biphasic systems were also studied in this work. The interfacial tensions between organic solvents and ILs were found to decrease with ascending alkyl chain length attached to the imidazolium cations. In general, the interfacial tensions between ILs and aromatic solvents are lower than the ones with aliphatic solvents; this is attributed to the pi-pi interactions between ILs and the aromatic solvent. Self-aggregation of IL molecules in aqueous solutions and self-aggregation of ethanol in ILs are suggested based on the interfacial tension measurements. These properties are important in multi-phase chemical processes. Our study has demonstrated the potential application of ionic liquids in the interfacial polymerization of polymers with nanoscale structures.

Zhu, Lining

2006-12-01

13

Electrochemical Windows of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids from Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory Calculations  

E-print Network

We investigated the cathodic and anodic limits of six room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) formed from a combination of two common cations, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) and N,N-propylmethylpyrrolidinium (P13), and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

14

Orientational Dynamics of Room Temperature Ionic Liquid/Water Mixtures: Water-Induced Structure  

E-print Network

effect (OHD-OKE) measurements on a series of 1-alkyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate room-temperatureOrientational Dynamics of Room Temperature Ionic Liquid/Water Mixtures: Water-Induced Structure University, Stanford, California 94305, United States ABSTRACT: Optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr

Fayer, Michael D.

15

A New Class of Solvents for CCC: The Room Temperature Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are salts with melting point close or below room temperature. Changing the nature of the anion or the cation produces a new salt that may or may not be a RTIL. The physico chemical properties of RTILs are briefly reviewed. The partitioning of 38 aromatic derivatives with acid, base, or neutral functionalities was studied between

Alain Berthod

2003-01-01

16

Heat Capacity of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: A Critical Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on heat capacity of room-temperature ionic liquids in the liquid state were compiled and critically evaluated. The compilation contains data for 102 aprotic ionic liquids from 63 literature references and covers the period of time from 1998 through the end of February 2010. Parameters of correlating equations for temperature dependence of the heat capacities were developed.

Paulechka, Yauheni U.

2010-09-01

17

Investigation of Nanostructure in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids using Electronic Excitation Transfer  

E-print Network

for this phenomenon has be seen in fluorescence21,22 and optical Kerr effect studies.23 This partitioning appearsInvestigation of Nanostructure in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids using Electronic Excitation temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-methyl-3- octylimidazolium chloride using time dependent fluorescence

Fayer, Michael D.

18

Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c entrapped in agarose hydrogel in room temperature ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c (cyt-c) entrapped in agarose hydrogel on gold electrode (Au), edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE) and glassy carbon electrode (GC) in two room temperature ionic liquids was investigated. The effects of the addition of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the agarose-cyt-c film, water concentration in ionic liquids and exterior metal ions on the electrochemical behavior of cyt-c

Sui Wang; Zhiyong Guo; Huina Zhang

2011-01-01

19

Determination of Binding Constants of Cyclodextrins in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-print Network

Determination of Binding Constants of Cyclodextrins in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by Near to determine association binding constants between phe- nol and r-, - and -cyclodextrin (CD) in [butylmethyl solubility power, a variety of additive compounds, including cyclodextrins and their derivatives, can

Reid, Scott A.

20

Room Temperature Ionic Liquid-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Optical Kerr Effect Dynamical Measurements  

E-print Network

Room Temperature Ionic Liquid-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Optical Kerr Effect Dynamical Measurements optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was used to study the change in dynamics, principally orientational. In this work, optically heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, which measures the time

Fayer, Michael D.

21

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and  

E-print Network

pollutants on human health and safety has escalated the demand for sensors to monitor hazardous gases. Room, low power, multi-gas monitoring systems suitable for individuals to wear and capable of constantlyFabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and Safety

Mason, Andrew

22

Determination of Iron(III) by Room Temperature Ionic Liquids\\/Surfactant Sensitized Fluorescence Quenching Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the determination of iron (III) has been described. The analytical procedure was based on the fluorescence\\u000a quenching of salicylfluorone (SAF) by iron (III) and the fluorescence quenching value (?F) could be increased in the medium\\u000a of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate)\\/SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The main\\u000a factors influencing the fluorescence quenching (?F) were

Xiashi Zhu; Rongrong Jiang

2011-01-01

23

Photoreduction of benzophenones by amines in room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] The amine-mediated photoreduction of benzophenones in room temperature ionic liquids was investigated. Unlike the analogous reaction in organic solvents, the photoreduction produces mainly the corresponding benzhydrol in most cases. Because the reaction consumes only 1 equiv of amine and the solvent can be easily recycled, the photoreduction allows a very clean method for the conversion of benzophenones to benzhydrols. PMID:11893185

Reynolds, John L; Erdner, Kimberly R; Jones, Paul B

2002-03-21

24

Electrochemical property and analysis application of biosensors in miscible nonaqueous media—Room-temperature ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable heme proteins entrapped in dimethylformamide (DMF)–chitosan organohydrogel films modified electrodes were operated in neat hydrophilic room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) [bmim][BF4] for the first time. The modified electrodes possess outstanding electrochemical response in [bmim][BF4] without adding water. The morphology studies of films were demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). UV–Vis and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the heme proteins retained their

Hua Yu Xiong; Ting Chen; Xiu Hua Zhang; Sheng Fu Wang

2007-01-01

25

Decoupling charge transport from the structural dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Light scattering and dielectric spectroscopy measurements were performed on the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [C4mim][NTf2] in a broad temperature and frequency range. Ionic conductivity was used to estimate self-diffusion of ions, while light scattering was used to study structural relaxation. We demonstrate that the ionic diffusion decouples from the structural relaxation process as the temperature of the sample decreases toward Tg. The strength of the decoupling appears to be significantly lower than that expected for a supercooled liquid of similar fragility. The structural relaxation process in the RTIL follows well the high-temperature mode coupling theory (MCT) scenario. Using the MCT analysis we estimated the dynamic crossover temperature in [C4mim][NTf2] to be Tc 225 5 K. However, our analysis reveals no sign of the dynamic crossover in the ionic diffusion process.

Griffin, Phillip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Novikov, Vladimir [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2011-01-01

26

Decoupling charge transport from the structural dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Light scattering and dielectric spectroscopy measurements were performed on the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [C4mim][NTf2] in a broad temperature and frequency range. Ionic conductivity was used to estimate self-diffusion of ions, while light scattering was used to study structural relaxation. We demonstrate that the ionic diffusion decouples from the structural relaxation process as the temperature of the sample decreases toward T(g). The strength of the decoupling appears to be significantly lower than that expected for a supercooled liquid of similar fragility. The structural relaxation process in the RTIL follows well the high-temperature mode coupling theory (MCT) scenario. Using the MCT analysis we estimated the dynamic crossover temperature in [C4mim][NTf2] to be T(c) ~ 225 ± 5 K. However, our analysis reveals no sign of the dynamic crossover in the ionic diffusion process. PMID:21950873

Griffin, Philip; Agapov, Alexander L; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Novikov, Vladimir N; Sokolov, Alexei P

2011-09-21

27

DEVELOPMENT OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS FOR APPLICATIONS IN ACTINIDE CHEMISTRY  

SciTech Connect

One area of on-going research in our group at Los Alamos National Laboratory is directed toward characterization of the basic coordination chemistry and electrochemical behavior of f-element ions dissolved in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The ultimate goal of this work is to introduce advanced, environmentally sustainable, nuclear processing and purification strategies into both the DOE complex and the civilian nuclear industry. Efforts to develop ambient temperature electrorefining and/or electrowinning technologies are focused on the design of ionic liquids characterized by extended cathodic stability. In this chapter a summary of the synthesis, physical properties and electrochemical behavior of the ionic liquids used in this work is presented. The feasibility of efficient electrochemical production of high electropositive metals is demonstrated through reversible plating and stripping of sodium and potassium metals.

W. OLDHAM; D. COSTA; W. SMITH

2001-05-01

28

Reversible swelling of the cell wall of poplar biomass by ionic liquid at room temperature  

PubMed Central

Time-resolved autofluorescence, Raman microspectroscopy, and scanning microprobe X-ray diffraction were combined in order to characterize lignocellulosic biomass from poplar trees and how it changes during treatment with the ionic liquid 1-n-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAC) at room temperature. The EMIMAC penetrates the cell wall from the lumen, swelling the cell wall by about a factor of two towards the empty lumen. However, the middle lamella remains unchanged, preventing the cell wall from swelling outwards. During this swelling, most of the cellulose microfibrils are solubi-lized but chain migration is restricted and a small percentage of microfibrils persist. When the EMIMAC is expelled, the cellulose recrystallizes as microfibrils of cellulose I. There is little change in the relative chemical composition of the cell wall after treatment. The action of EMIMAC on the poplar cell wall at room temperature would therefore appear to be a reversible swelling and a reversible decrystallization of the cell wall. PMID:21247757

Lucas, Marcel; Wagner, Greg L.; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Hanson, Leif; Samayam, Indira P.; Schall, Constance A.; Langan, Paul; Rector, Kirk D.

2012-01-01

29

Effects of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids on Fluorescence Characteristics of 17?-estradiol and its Derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous reports have seldom concerned about the RTILs (Room temperature ionic liquids), and their effects on derivatization\\u000a reaction or derivatives. In this study, we reported that the effects of four different RTILs, i.e., [EMIM]PF6, [BMIM]PF6, [HMIM]PF6 and [OMIM]PF6, on fluorescence spectra of 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and its derivatization solvent dansyl chloride (DNSCl) and the derivative.\\u000a [BMIM]PF6 had a significant quenching

Xuedong Wang; Yanyan Li; Xiwei Du; Zhenkun Lin; Changjiang Huang

30

Chemical capacitance of nanoporous-nanocrystalline TiO2 in a room temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The electrochemical behaviour of nanoporous TiO(2) in a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI), was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy. Exponentially rising currents in voltammetry were attributed to the charging/discharging of electrons in the TiO(2) film and a charge transfer mechanism. The main features of the voltammetry and impedance followed the same trends in the ionic liquid as in other organic solvents and also in aqueous electrolytes. In the presence of lithium ions, the onset potential of the charge accumulation increased due to the change of the initial position of the TiO(2) conduction band. The results show that substitution of organic solvents contained in solar cells, supercapacitors or other electrochemical devices is in general feasible, though requires some adjustment in the electrolyte composition for optimal performance. PMID:16633668

Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Zaban, Arie; Garcia-Cañadas, Jorge; Garcia-Belmonte, G; Bisquert, Juan

2006-04-21

31

Polyoxometalate-lyotropic liquid crystal hybrid material formed in room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Manganese(II)-substituted polyoxometalate, Na6(NH4)4[(Mn(II)(H2O)3)2(WO2)2(BiW9O33)2] x 37H2O (POM-Mn), was assembled within lyotropic hexagonal liquid crystal (LLC) formed in the room-temperature ionic liquids (RT-ILs), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), fabricating the POM-LLC inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Polarized optical microscope images combined with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results indicate that the introduction of POM-Mn does not destroy the structure of hexagonal LLCs. The increase of d spacing demonstrates the integration of POM-Mn within the basic unit of the hexagonal LLCs. The FTIR spectra of the POM-LLC hybrid material show the characteristic absorption peaks of W-O bond. The rheological results indicate POM-LLC hybrid materials are highly viscoelastic and that the apparent viscosity is enhanced due to the introduction of the POM-Mn. The tribological properties were explored to greatly extend the applications of POM-LLC composites in RT-ILs as lubricating materials. The research of magnetic properties indicates the POM-LLC composite is ferromagnetic, therefore illuminating the potential application in the fields of magnetic materials. PMID:21449365

Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Liping; Hao, Jingcheng

2011-03-01

32

SEM Observation of Hydrous Superabsorbent Polymer Pretreated with Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

PubMed Central

Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), which is a liquid salt at or below room temperature, shows peculiar physicochemical properties such as negligible vapor pressure and relatively-high ionic conductivity. In this investigation, we used six types of RTILs as a liquid material in the pretreatment process for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of hydrous superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles. Very clear SEM images of the hydrous SAP particles were obtained if the neat RTILs were used for the pretreatment process. Of them, tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium dimethylphosphate ([P4, 4, 4, 1][DMP]) provided the best result. On the other hand, the surface morphology of the hydrous SAP particles pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C2mim][BF4]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]) was damaged. The results of SEM observation and thermogravimetry analysis of the hydrous SAP pretreated with the RTILs strongly suggested that most water in the SAP particles are replaced with RTIL during the pretreatment process. PMID:24621609

Tsuda, Tetsuya; Mochizuki, Eiko; Kishida, Shoko; Iwasaki, Kazuki; Tsunashima, Katsuhiko; Kuwabata, Susumu

2014-01-01

33

Orientational dynamics of room temperature ionic liquid/water mixtures: water-induced structure.  

PubMed

Optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) measurements on a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as a function of chain length and water concentration are presented. The pure RTIL reorientational dynamics are identical in form to those of other molecular liquids studied previously by OHD-OKE (two power laws followed by a single exponential decay at long times), but are much slower at room temperature. In contrast, the addition of water to the longer alkyl chain RTILs causes the emergence of a long time biexponential orientational anisotropy decay. Such distinctly biexponential decays have not been seen previously in OHD-OKE experiments on any type of liquid and are analyzed here using a wobbling-in-a-cone model. The slow component for the longer chain RTILs does not obey the Debye-Stokes-Einstein (DSE) equation across the range of solutions, and thus we attribute it to slow cation reorientational diffusion caused by a stiffening of cation alkyl tail-tail associations. The fast component of the decay is assigned to the motions (wobbling) of the tethered imidazolium head groups. The wobbling-in-a-cone analysis provides estimates of the range of angles sampled by the imidazolium head group prior to the long time scale complete orientational randomization. The heterogeneous dynamics and non-DSE behavior observed here should have a significant effect on reaction rates in RTIL/water cosolvent mixtures. PMID:22224942

Sturlaugson, Adam L; Fruchey, Kendall S; Fayer, Michael D

2012-02-16

34

Translation-rotation decoupling and nonexponentiality in room temperature ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of light scattering techniques and broadband dielectric spectroscopy, we have measured the temperature dependence of structural relaxation time and self diffusion in three imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids: [bmim][NTf2], [bmim][PF6], and [bmim][TFA]. A detailed analysis of the results demonstrates that self diffusion decouples from structural relaxation in these systems as the temperature is decreased toward Tg. The degree to which the dynamics are decoupled, however, is shown to be surprisingly weak when compared to other supercooled liquids of similar fragility. In addition to the weak decoupling, we demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in all three liquids can be well described by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann function over 13 decades in time from 10 11 s up to 102 s. Furthermore, the stretching of the structural relaxation is shown to be temperature independent over the same range of time scales, i.e., time temperature superposition is valid for these ionic liquids from far above the melting point down to the glass transition temperature.We suggest that these phenomena are interconnected and all result from the same underlying mechanism strong and directional intermolecular interactions.

Griffin, Phillip [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2012-01-01

35

Translation-rotation decoupling and nonexponentiality in room temperature ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have many characteristics in common with prototypical molecular glass formers. In order to understand the glassy dynamics of RTILs, we have measured the temperature dependence of structural relaxation time and self diffusion in three imidazolium based RTILs. We demonstrate that self diffusion decouples from structural relaxation in these systems as the temperature is decreased toward Tg, but the degree of decoupling is shown to be exceptionally small. In addition to the weak decoupling, we demonstrate that the temperature dependence of structural relaxation time in all three liquids can be well described by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) function over 13 decades in time. Furthermore, the stretching of the structural relaxation is shown to be temperature independent over the same range of timescales, i.e. time-temperature superposition is valid for these ionic liquids in the entire temperature range. These properties are at odds with the usual behavior of most ``fragile'' glass forming liquids. We suggest that these differences may result from strong and directional intermolecular interactions characteristic to RTILs.

Griffin, Philip; Agapov, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei

2013-03-01

36

Existence of optical phonons in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate  

PubMed Central

The technologically important properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are fundamentally linked to the ion–ion interactions present among the constituent ions. These ion–ion interactions in one RTIL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [C2mim]CF3SO3) are characterized with transmission FTIR spectroscopy and polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy. A quasilattice model is determined to be the best framework for understanding the ionic interactions. A novel spectroscopic approach is proposed to characterize the degree of order that is present in the quasilattice by comparing the dipole moment derivative calculated from two independent spectroscopic measurements: (1) the TO–LO splitting of a vibrational mode using dipolar coupling theory and (2) the optical constants of the material derived from polarized ATR experiments. In principle, dipole moment derivatives calculated from dipolar coupling theory should be similar to those calculated from the optical constants if the quasilattice of the RTIL is highly structured. However, a significant disparity for the two calculations is noted for [C2mim]CF3SO3, indicating that the quasilattice of [C2mim]CF3SO3 is somewhat disorganized. The potential ability to spectroscopically characterize the structure of the quasilattice, which governs the long-range ion–ion interactions in a RTIL, is a major step forward in understanding the interrelationship between the molecular-level interactions among the constituent ions of an ionic liquid and the important physical properties of the RTIL. PMID:21476760

Burba, Christopher M.; Frech, Roger

2011-01-01

37

Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c entrapped in agarose hydrogel in room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c (cyt-c) entrapped in agarose hydrogel on gold electrode (Au), edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE) and glassy carbon electrode (GC) in two room temperature ionic liquids was investigated. The effects of the addition of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the agarose-cyt-c film, water concentration in ionic liquids and exterior metal ions on the electrochemical behavior of cyt-c were monitored, and electrocatalytic properties of cyt-c were also done. Results showed that a good quasi-reversible redox behavior of cyt-c could be found after adding DMF in agarose-cyt-c film, and peak shape would not change after continuously scanning for 50 cycles. In addition, a certain amount of water in hydrophilic ionic liquids is necessary to maintain electrochemical activities of cyt-c, electrochemical performance of cyt-c is the best when the water content is 5.2% and 5.8% for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim][Br]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([Bmim][BF(4)]) respectively. However, electrochemical activities of cyt-c are inhibited by exterior metal ions. Interestingly, cyt-c entrapped in agarose hydrogel on EPPGE and GC could catalyze the electroreduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in [Bmim][BF(4)], but could not in [Bmim][Br]. Reasons for above-mentioned differences of electrochemical properties of cyt-c in different ionic liquids were preliminarily discussed. PMID:21659008

Wang, Sui; Guo, Zhiyong; Zhang, Huina

2011-08-01

38

Quasielastic neutron scattering characterization of the relaxation processes in a room temperature ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first quasielastic neutron scattering measurements on a room temperature ionic liquid: 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim][PF6]. Data were collected using a medium resolution spectrometer as a function of temperature in the range 250-320 K. The data unequivocally indicate the existence of two different relaxation processes: a fast, localized motion occurring in the subpicosecond range and a slower process spanning the subnanosecond regime. These results provide experimental support to recently published molecular dynamics simulations. Evidence for slower, unresolved dynamics (under the present experimental conditions) is also obtained. Both temperature and momentum transfer dependence of the intermediate incoherent dynamic structure factor were investigated, after Fourier transformation into the temporal domain. The fast process shows no appreciable Q- and T-dependence. On the other hand the slow process shows evidence of a complex, non-Debye and non-Arrhenius behavior.

Triolo, Alessandro; Russina, Olga; Arrighi, Valeria; Juranyi, Fanni; Janssen, Stefan; Gordon, Charles M.

2003-10-01

39

Study on the reaction of chlorophenols in room temperature ionic liquids with ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of cations and anions of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) on the decomposition of chlorophenols and formation of phenol were investigated by gamma and pulse radiolyses. Absorption bands were observed for aliphatic RTILs just after pulsed electron irradiation, and were assigned as solvated electrons. The decomposition yield of chlorophenol (CP), G(-CP), and the formation yield of phenol, G(Phenol), in RTILs, in which solvated electrons were observed, were higher than those in RTILs, in which the solvated electrons were not detected. G(-CP) and G(Phenol) increased with the viscosity of the RTILs which have diethylmethyl(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium (DEMMA) as cation. G(Phenol) in DEMMA-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) having high viscosity was higher than that in trimethylpropylammonium (TMPA)-TFSI having low viscosity. The ratios of G(Phenol)/ G(-CP) were not affected by the substituted position of chlorine on CP in RTILs.

Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kondoh, Takafumi; Yang, Jinfeng; Yoshida, Yoichi; Hirota, Koichi

2008-10-01

40

Ultramicroelectrode voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy in room-temperature ionic liquid electrolytes.  

PubMed

The high viscosity and unusual properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) present a number of challenges when performing steady-state voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy in RTILs. These include difficulties in recording steady-state currents at ultramicroelectrode surfaces due to low diffusion coefficients of redox species and problems associated with unequal diffusion coefficients of oxidised and reduced species in RTILs. In this tutorial review, we highlight the recent progress in the use of RTILs as electrolytes for ultramicroelectrode voltammetry and SECM. We describe the basic principles of ultramicroelectrode voltammetry and SECM and, using examples from the recent literature, we discuss the conditions that must be met to perform steady-state voltammetry and SECM measurements in RTILs. Finally, we briefly discuss the electrochemical insights that can be obtained from such measurements. PMID:20835469

Walsh, Darren A; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Licence, Peter

2010-11-01

41

Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization  

SciTech Connect

The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

2009-11-25

42

Magnetomotive room temperature dicationic ionic liquid: A new concept toward centrifuge-less dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

A new centrifuge-less dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique based on application of magnetomotive room temperature dicationic ionic liquid followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of trace amount of gold and silver in water and ore samples, for the first time. Magnetic ionic liquids not only have the excellent properties of ionic liquids but also exhibit strong response to an external magnetic field. These properties provide more advantages and potential application prospects for magnetic ionic liquids than conventional ones in the fields of extraction processes. In this work, thio-Michler's ketone (TMK) was used as chelating agent to form Ag/Au-TMK complexes. Several important factors affecting extraction efficiency including extraction time, rate of vortex agitator, pH of sample solution, concentration of the chelating agent, volume of ionic liquid as well as effects of interfering species were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 3.2 and 7.3ngL(-1) with the preconcentration factors of 245 and 240 for Au and Ag, respectively. The precision values (RSD%, n=7) were 5.3% and 5.8% at the concentration level of 0.05?gL(-1) for Au and Ag, respectively. The relative recoveries for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 96-104.5%. The results demonstrated that except Hg(2+), no remarkable interferences are created by other various ions in the determination of Au and Ag, so that the tolerance limits (WIon/WAu or Ag) of major cations and anions were in the range of 250-1000. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of Au and Ag in some water and ore samples. PMID:25528072

Beiraghi, Asadollah; Shokri, Masood; Seidi, Shahram; Godajdar, Bijan Mombani

2015-01-01

43

Ultrafast solvation dynamics and charge transfer reactions in room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a new type of solvent with peculiar properties. ILs are usually composed of an anion and a bulky cation with one or more alkyl chains to decrease the melting point. These structural peculiarities lead to the high viscosity and the heterogeneity of ILs, which could affect chemical reactions. In the present perspective, we will first introduce the experimentally observed nature of the heterogeneous liquid structure and then introduce recent developments in the study on electron transfer (ET) and charge transfer (CT) reactions in relation with the solvation and the heterogeneity of ILs. Because of the high viscosity of ILs, diffusive solvation is expected to be slow which could be the rate-limiting factor for ET and CT processes. However, ILs could provide a unique reaction field depending on the location of the solute within the heterogeneous liquid structure and the reaction could be faster than that expected from the bulk viscosity due to the fast fluctuation of the local environment. PMID:24879120

Nagasawa, Yutaka; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

2014-07-14

44

Selective fluorescence quenching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by nitromethane within room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently discovered room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) show tremendous promise to replace volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Investigation of these RTILs as solvents is in the very early stages. Before the full potential of these RTILs is realized, much more information about them as solvent systems must be obtained. The applicability of one such RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM PF6), as a

Kristin A Fletcher; Shubha Pandey; Isaiah K Storey; Ashley E Hendricks; Siddharth Pandey

2002-01-01

45

Room-temperature ionic liquids as replacements for organic solvents in multiphase bioprocess operations.  

PubMed

Organic solvents are widely used in a range of multiphase bioprocess operations including the liquid-liquid extraction of antibiotics and two-phase biotransformation reactions. There are, however, considerable problems associated with the safe handling of these solvents which relate to their toxic and flammable nature. In this work we have shown for the first time that room-temperature ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimi- dazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim][PF(6)], can be successfully used in place of conventional solvents for the liquid-liquid extraction of erythromycin-A and for the Rhodococcus R312 catalyzed biotransformation of 1, 3-dicyanobenzene (1,3-DCB) in a liquid-liquid, two-phase system. Extraction of erythromycin with either butyl acetate or [bmim][PF(6)] showed that values of the equilibrium partition coefficient, K, up to 20-25 could be obtained for both extractants. The variation of K with the extraction pH was also similar in the pH range 5-9 though differed significantly at higher pH values. Biotransformation of 1,3-DCB in both water-toluene and water-[bmim][PF(6)] systems showed similar profiles for the conversion of 1,3-DCB initially to 3-cyanobenzamide and then 3-cyanobenzoic acid. The initial rate of 3-cyanobenzamide production in the water-[bmim][PF(6)] system was somewhat lower, however, due to the reduced rate of 1,3-DCB mass transfer from the more viscous [bmim] [PF(6)] phase. It was also shown that the specific activity of the biocatalyst in the water-[bmim] [PF(6)] system was almost an order of magnitude greater than in the water-toluene system which suggests that the rate of 3-cyanobenzamide production was limited by substrate mass transfer rather than the activity of the biocatalyst. PMID:10861402

Cull, S G; Holbrey, J D; Vargas-Mora, V; Seddon, K R; Lye, G J

2000-07-20

46

Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization.  

PubMed

The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be DeltaH(vap)(298.15 K) = 195 +/- 19 kJ mol(-1). The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (DeltaH(vap)(298.15 K) = 174 +/- 12 kJ mol(-1)) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (DeltaH(vap)(298.15 K) = 171 +/- 12 kJ mol(-1)) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion pairs. PMID:20050589

Chambreau, Steven D; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R

2010-01-28

47

Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

Luo, Huimin

2006-11-15

48

Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

Luo, Huimin; Hussey, Charles L.

2005-09-30

49

On the diffusion of ferrocenemethanol in room-temperature ionic liquids: an electrochemical study.  

PubMed

The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocenemethanol (FcMeOH) has been studied in a range of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperomery and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The diffusion coefficient of FcMeOH, measured using chronoamperometry, decreased with increasing RTIL viscosity. Analysis of the mass transport properties of the RTILs revealed that the Stokes-Einstein equation did not apply to our data. The "correlation length" was estimated from diffusion coefficient data and corresponded well to the average size of holes (voids) in the liquid, suggesting that a model in which the diffusing species jumps between holes in the liquid is appropriate in these liquids. Cyclic voltammetry at ultramicroelectrodes demonstrated that the ability to record steady-state voltammograms during ferrocenemethanol oxidation depended on the voltammetric scan rate, the electrode dimensions and the RTIL viscosity. Similarly, the ability to record steady-state SECM feedback approach curves depended on the RTIL viscosity, the SECM tip radius and the tip approach speed. Using 1.3 ?m Pt SECM tips, steady-state SECM feedback approach curves were obtained in RTILs, provided that the tip approach speed was low enough to maintain steady-state diffusion at the SECM tip. In the case where tip-induced convection contributed significantly to the SECM tip current, this effect could be accounted for theoretically using mass transport equations that include diffusive and convective terms. Finally, the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer across the electrode/RTIL interface during ferrocenemethanol oxidation was estimated using SECM, and k(0) was at least 0.1 cm s(-1) in one of the least viscous RTILs studied. PMID:21526252

Lovelock, Kevin R J; Ejigu, Andinet; Loh, Sook Fun; Men, Shuang; Licence, Peter; Walsh, Darren A

2011-06-01

50

Nonionic surfactant mixtures in an imidazolium-type room-temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties of nonionic surfactant mixtures in an aprotic, imidazolium-type room-temperature ionic liquid (RT-IL) have been studied using a combination of static surface tensiometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The surfactants used in this study are phytosterol ethoxylates (BPS-n, where n is an oxyethylene chain length of either 5 or 30) and the selected RT-IL is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF(6)). The shorter chain oxyethylene surfactant (BPS-5) exhibits greater surface activity in BmimPF(6) than BPS-30; hence, BPS-5 is a major component in driving the interfacial adsorption and molecular aggregation of the mixed system. The surface tension data demonstrate that an increased mole fraction of BPS-5 results in a decreased critical aggregation concentration (cac) and negatively increased Gibbs free energies estimated for molecular aggregation (?G(0)(agg)) and interfacial adsorption (?G(0)(ads)). Indeed, the compositions of the monolayer adsorbed at the air/solution interface and the molecular aggregate formed in the bulk solution are enriched with BPS-5. The combination of the DLS and cryo-TEM results demonstrates the spontaneous formation of multi-lamellar vesicles resulting from the BPS-5-rich composition of the molecular aggregates. PMID:22027021

Sakai, Hideki; Saitoh, Takanori; Misono, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Abe, Masahiko

2011-01-01

51

Hydrogen-bonding interactions and protic equilibria in room-temperature ionic liquids containing crown ethers.  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study hydrogen-bonding interactions between water, associated and dissociated acids (i.e., nitric and methanesulfonic acids), and the constituent ions of several water-immiscible room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). In chloroform solutions also containing a crown ether (CE), water molecules strongly associate with the IL ions, and there is rapid proton exchange between these bound water molecules and hydronium associated with the CE. In neat ILs, the acids form clusters differing in their degree of association and ionization, and their interactions with the CEs are weak. The CE can either promote proton exchange between different clusters in IL solution when their association is weak or inhibit such exchange when the association is strong. Even strongly hydrophobic ILs are shown to readily extract nitric acid from aqueous solution, typically via the formation of a 1:1:1 {l_brace}H{sub 3}O{sup +} {center_dot} CE{r_brace}NO{sub 3}{sup -} complex. In contrast, the extraction of methanesulfonic acid is less extensive and proceeds mainly by IL cation-hydronium ion exchange. The relationship of these protic equilibria to the practical application of hydrophobic ILs (e.g., in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing) is discussed.

Marin, T.; Shkrob, I.; Dietz, M. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Benedictine Univ.); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee)

2011-04-14

52

Decomposition of halophenols in room-temperature ionic liquids by ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we report the reaction of halophenols with solvated electrons in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) initiated by ?-ray and pulsed electron radiolyses. The decomposition G-values of ortho-chlorophenol (CP) in N-methyl- N-propylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI), N-butyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium-TFSI and N-methyl- N-propylpiperidinium-TFSI were estimated to be 1.4, 1.6, and 1.7 molecules 10 -2 eV -1 under ?-ray irradiation; these values were almost the same as the yield of solvated electron formation. The second-order rate constant for the reaction of CP with solvated electrons in diethylmethyl(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium (DEMMA)-tetrafluoroborate (BF 4) was one order of magnitude lower than that in DEMMA-TFSI although the G-values of CP decomposition and phenol formation in DEMMA-BF 4 were higher. The decomposition yield of ortho-iodophenol in DEMMA-TFSI was slightly higher than that of the other halophenol ( ortho-fluorophenol, CP, and ortho-bromophenol), and the formation yield of phenol for the decomposition of only ortho-fluorophenol was lower.

Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kondoh, Takafumi; Yang, Jinfeng; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoichi; Hirota, Koichi

2010-11-01

53

Hydrogen-bonding interactions and protic equilibria in room-temperature ionic liquids containing crown ethers.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study hydrogen-bonding interactions between water, associated and dissociated acids (i.e., nitric and methanesulfonic acids), and the constituent ions of several water-immiscible room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). In chloroform solutions also containing a crown ether (CE), water molecules strongly associate with the IL ions, and there is rapid proton exchange between these bound water molecules and hydronium associated with the CE. In neat ILs, the acids form clusters differing in their degree of association and ionization, and their interactions with the CEs are weak. The CE can either promote proton exchange between different clusters in IL solution when their association is weak or inhibit such exchange when the association is strong. Even strongly hydrophobic ILs are shown to readily extract nitric acid from aqueous solution, typically via the formation of a 1:1:1 {H(3)O(+)•CE}NO(3)(-) complex. In contrast, the extraction of methanesulfonic acid is less extensive and proceeds mainly by IL cation-hydronium ion exchange. The relationship of these protic equilibria to the practical application of hydrophobic ILs (e.g., in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing) is discussed. PMID:21434622

Marin, Timothy W; Shkrob, Ilya A; Dietz, Mark L

2011-04-14

54

Fluorescent probe studies of polarity and solvation within room temperature ionic liquids: a review.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids display an array of useful and sometimes unconventional, solvent features and have attracted considerable interest in the field of green chemistry for the potential they hold to significantly reduce environmental emissions. Some of these points have a bearing on the chemical reactivity of these systems and have also generated interest in the physical and theoretical aspects of solvation in ionic liquids. This review presents an introduction to the field of ionic liquids, followed by discussion of investigations into the solvation properties of neat ionic liquids or mixed systems including ionic liquids as a major or minor component. The ionic liquid based multicomponent systems discussed are composed of other solvents, other ionic liquids, carbon dioxide, surfactants or surfactant solutions. Although we clearly focus on fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to illuminate ionic liquid systems, the issues discussed herein are of general relevance to discussions of polarity and solvent effects in ionic liquids. Transient solvation measurements carried out by means of time-resolved fluorescence measurements are particularly powerful for their ability to parameterize the kinetics of the solvation process in ionic liquids and are discussed as well. PMID:22711136

Pandey, Shubha; Baker, Sheila N; Pandey, Siddharth; Baker, Gary A

2012-09-01

55

Phase behavior of phytosterol ethoxylates in an imidazolium-type room-temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The temperature-concentration phase behavior of nonionic surfactants in an aprotic imidazolium-type room-temperature ionic liquid (RT-IL) was evaluated on the basis of a combination of visual appearance, polarized optical microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering data. Phytosterol ethoxylates (BPS-n, where n denotes oxyethylene chain lengths of 5, 10, 20, and 30) were used as surfactants in the RT-IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF?). The two component mixtures yielded various phases such as discontinuous cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar phases. An increased tendency toward formation of lesser-curved molecular assemblies was observed at higher BPS-n concentrations, at lower temperatures, and for shorter oxyethylene chain surfactants. These trends are similar to those observed in aqueous BPS-n systems; however, notable differences in the phase states of the aqueous system versus the BmimPF? system were evident. Comparison with the water system showed that the BmimPF? system yielded fewer phases and generally required higher BPS-n concentrations to induce phase transitions. Evaluation of the effects of addition of a third component (e.g., 1-dodecanol and dodecane) to the binary system on the phase behavior showed that at a given composition ratio of BPS-20 to BmimPF?, the addition of 1-dodecanol generally results in the phase transition to lesser-curved assemblies whereas dodecane generated no significant effects. The observed phase change is satisfactorily rationalized by localized solubilization of the third component into the binary surfactant assemblies. PMID:22362144

Sakai, Hideki; Saitoh, Takanori; Misono, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Abe, Masahiko

2012-01-01

56

An electrochemical gas sensor based on paper supported room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A sensitive and fast-responding membrane-free amperometric gas sensor is described, consisting of a small filter paper foil soaked with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), upon which three electrodes are screen printed with carbon ink, using a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs as well as their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. Moreover, thanks to a careful control of the preparation procedure, a very close contact between the RTIL and electrode material can be achieved so as to allow gaseous analytes to undergo charge transfer just as soon as they reach the three-phase sites where the electrode material, paper supported RTIL and gas phase meet. Thus, the adverse effect on recorded currents of slow steps such as analyte diffusion and dissolution in a solvent is avoided. To evaluate the performance of this device, it was used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analysis of 1-butanethiol vapours, adopted as the model gaseous analyte, present in headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations. With this purpose, the RTIL soaked paper electrochemical detector (RTIL-PED) was assembled by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide as the wicking RTIL and printing the working electrode with carbon ink doped with cobalt(II) phthalocyanine, to profit from its ability to electrocatalyze thiol oxidation. The results obtained were quite satisfactory (detection limit: 0.5 ?M; dynamic range: 2-200 ?M, both referring to solution concentrations; correlation coefficient: 0.998; repeatability: ±7% RSD; long-term stability: 9%), thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:22076475

Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Carrilho, Emanuel; Piccin, Evandro; Battiston, Simone; Bontempelli, Gino

2012-01-01

57

Modeling stability and flexibility of ?-Chymotrypsin in room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

We investigate the structure and dynamics of ?-Chymotrypsin in five room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) sharing a common cation, hydrated with different water percentages (w/w) (weight of water over protein). Results from molecular dynamics simulations are correlated with experimental evidences from studies on the activity of enzymes in RTILs. ?-Chymotrypsin protein structure is closer to its native crystallographic structure in RTILs than in aqueous environment. We show that the structural properties of ?-Chymotrypsin were affected by the water concentration assayed in a typical bell-shaped profile, which is also frequently reported for organic solvents. The protein structure was more native like at 10-20% of water (w/w) for all RTILs except for [BMIM][Cl]. We found that the fluctuations of the main chain in [BMIM][BF4] and [BMIM][TfO] were not significantly affected by the increasing amount of water. However, we were able to show that the flexible regions were the ones more hydrated, indicating that water is responsible for the flexibility of the protein. The solvation of the enzyme in water-immiscible RTILs, such as [BMIM][PF6] and [BMIM][Tf2N] lead to higher enzyme flexibility at increased water content. Enzyme solvation by [BMIM][Cl] resulted in ion penetration in the core enzyme structure, causing incremented flexibility and destabilization at low water percentages. All RTILs stripped water molecules from the protein surface, following a similar behavior also found in organic solvents. Anions formed structured arrangements around the protein, which allowed non-stripped water molecules to localize on the protein surface. PMID:23844874

Latif, Muhammad A M; Tejo, Bimo A; Abedikargiban, Roghayeh; Abdul Rahman, Mohd B; Micaêlo, Nuno M

2014-01-01

58

Room temperature ionic liquid as solvent for in situ Pd/H formation: hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds.  

PubMed

This work undertakes mechanistic studies of H(+) reduction on a palladium microelectrode in a room temperature ionic liquid. It was found that the electrode was initially in a partially passivated state in [NTf(2)](-) based RTILs and that pre-anodisation of the electrode surface has a dramatic effect on the reversibility of the system, also triggering a change from hydrogen evolution to hydrogen absorption. Theoretical modelling supported the idea of Pd/H formation under these conditions. Utilising Pd/H as an activated hydrogen source, a proof-of-concept method for hydrogenation of multiple bond containing organic molecules by in situ generation of Pd/H via reduction of H(+) on palladium in a room temperature ionic liquid has been demonstrated. PMID:23223389

Martindale, Benjamin C M; Menshykau, Dzianis; Ernst, Sven; Compton, Richard G

2013-01-28

59

Activity and stability of horseradish peroxidase in hydrophilic room temperature ionic liquid and its application in non-aqueous biosensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were investigated in a hydrophilic room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluroborate ([bmim][BF4]) by electrochemical methods. Although no detectable activity exhibited in anhydrous [bmim][BF4], HRP was active in the presence of a small amount of water (4.53%, v\\/v). And its activity can be improved by immobilization in agarose hydrogel. The immobilized HRP possesses

Sheng-Fu Wang; Ting Chen; Zhi-Ling Zhang; Dai-Wen Pang

2007-01-01

60

Transparent and colourless room temperature ionic liquids having high refractive index over 1.60.  

PubMed

Transparent and colourless ionic liquids with refractive index over 1.60 were synthesised by combining 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium or hexyltriphenylphosphonium cations with suitable anions. There is a positive relation between their refractive index and Kamlet-Taft parameters, especially dipolarity/polarisability, suggested as a potential parameter to design ionic liquids with high refractive index. PMID:25319716

Kayama, Yoko; Ichikawa, Takahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki

2014-12-01

61

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19

62

Preconcentration of aqueous dyes through phase-transfer liquid-phase microextraction with a room-temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

In this study, we employed the room-temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF(6)] as both ion-pair agent and an extractant in the phase-transfer liquid-phase microextraction (PTLPME) of aqueous dyes. In the PTLPME method, a dye solution was added to the extraction solution, comprising a small amount of [bmim][PF(6)] in a relatively large amount of CH(2)Cl(2), which serves as the disperser solvent to an extraction solution. Following extraction, CH(2)Cl(2) was evaporated from the extractant, resulting in the extracted dyes being concentrated in a small volume of the ionic liquid phase to increase the enrichment factor. The enrichment factors of for the dye Methylene Blue, Neutral Red, and Methyl Red were approximately 500, 550 and 400, respectively; their detection limits were 0.014, 0.43, and 0.02 ?g L(-1), respectively, with relative standard deviations of 4.72%, 4.20%, and 6.10%, respectively. PMID:22884207

Chen, Hsiu-Liang; Chang, Shuo-Kai; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chuang, Li-Lin; Wei, Guor-Tzo

2012-09-12

63

Double layer in room temperature ionic liquids: influence of temperature and ionic size on the differential capacitance and electrocapillary curves.  

PubMed

Differential capacity-potential curves, C(E), were obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra (12 kHz-2 Hz) for the interfaces between Hg and a series of alkyl imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids having the same anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [EMIM][Tf(2)N], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [BMIM][Tf(2)N], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [HMIM][Tf(2)N]. The electrocapillary curves were obtained from drop time measurements and the values of the pzc were calculated. The pzc apparently becomes more negative as the imidazolium alkyl chain length increases. A small effect of the cation is seen on the C(E) curves at negative potentials. The effect of the aromatic nature of the cation is assessed by comparing 1-butyl-1-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide, with 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [BMPyr][Tf(2)N]. The effects of temperature on the capacitance, drop time electrocapillary curve and on the pzc were also obtained. The capacity was found to increase with increasing temperature in the whole range of accessible potentials. PMID:20672152

Costa, Renata; Pereira, Carlos M; Silva, Fernando

2010-09-28

64

Room temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt mixtures: optical Kerr effect dynamical measurements.  

PubMed

The addition of lithium salts to ionic liquids causes an increase in viscosity and a decrease in ionic mobility that hinders their possible application as an alternative solvent in lithium ion batteries. Optically heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was used to study the change in dynamics, principally orientational relaxation, caused by the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide to the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Over the time scales studied (1 ps-16 ns) for the pure ionic liquid, two temperature-independent power laws were observed: the intermediate power law (1 ps to approximately 1 ns), followed by the von Schweidler power law. The von Schweidler power law is followed by the final complete exponential relaxation, which is highly sensitive to temperature. The lithium salt concentration, however, was found to affect both power laws, and a discontinuity could be found in the trend observed for the intermediate power law when the concentration (mole fraction) of lithium salt is close to chi(LiTf(2)N) = 0.2. A mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model was also used to fit the data for both the pure ionic liquid and the different salt concentration mixtures. It was found that dynamics in both types of liquids are described very well by MCT. PMID:20527943

Nicolau, Bruno G; Sturlaugson, Adam; Fruchey, Kendall; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Fayer, M D

2010-07-01

65

NOVEL FISSION PRODUCT SEPARATION BASED ON ROOM-TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The DoE/NE underground storage tanks at Hanford, SRS, and INEEL contain liquid wastes with high concentrations of radioactive species, mainly 137Cs and 90Sr. Because the other components of the liquid waste are mainly sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide, most of this tank waste can be treated inexpensively as low-level waste if 137Cs and 90Sr can be selectively removed. Many ionophores (crown ether and calixarene compounds) have been synthesized for the purpose of selectively extracting Cs+ and Sr2+ from an aqueous phase into an immiscible organic phase. Recent studies conducted at ORNL1,2 reveal that hydrophobic ionic liquids might be better solvents for extracting metal ions from aqueous solutions with these ionophores than conventional immiscible organic solvents, such as benzene, toluene, and dichloromethane, because both Cs+ and Sr2+ exhibit larger distribution coefficients in the ionic liquids. In addition, the vapor pressures of these ionic liquids are insignificant. Thus, there is little or no vaporization loss of these solvents. Most of the ionic liquids under investigation are relatively nontoxic compared to the hydrocarbon solvents that they replace, classifying them as ''green'' solvents.

Hussey, Charles L.

2004-06-01

66

Theoretical and computational studies of renewable energy materials: Room temperature ionic liquids and proton exchange membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two kinds of renewable energy materials, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and proton exchange membranes (PEMs), especially Nafion, are studied by computational and theoretical approaches. The ultimate purpose of the present research is to design novel materials to meet the future energy demands. To elucidate the effect of alkyl side chain length and anion on the structure and dynamics of the mixtures, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three RTILs/water mixtures at various water mole fractions: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM+)/BF4-, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM+)/BF4-, and OMIM +/Cl- are performed. Replacing the BMIM + cation with OMIM+ results in stronger aggregation of the cations as well as a slower diffusion of the anions, and replacing the BF4- anion with Cl- alters the water distribution at low water mole fractions and slows diffusion of the mixtures. Potential experimental manifestations of these behaviors in both cases are provided. Proton solvation properties and transport mechanisms are studied in hydrated Nafion, by using the self-consistent multistate empirical valence bond (SCI-MS-EVB) method. It is found that by stabilizing a more Zundel-like (H5O 2+) structure in the first solvation shells, the solvation of excess protons, as well as the proton hydration structure are both influenced by the sulfonate groups. Hydrate proton-related hydrogen bond networks are observed to be more stable than those with water alone. In order to characterize the nature of the proton transport (PT), diffusive motion, Arrhenius activation energies, and transport pathways are calculated and analyzed. Analysis of diffusive motion suggests that (1) a proton-hopping mechanism dominates the proton transport for the studied water loading levels and (2) there is an obvious degree of anti-correlation between the proton hopping and the vehicular transport. The activation energy drops rapidly with an increasing water content when the water loading level is smaller than ˜ 10 H2O/SO 3-, which is consistent with experimental observations. The sulfonate groups are also found to have influence on the proton hopping directions. The temperature and water content effects on the PT pathways are also investigated. The morphological effects on proton solvation and transport in hydrated Nafion are investigated, by using the SCI-MS-EVB method. Two of the most significant morphological models of Nafion, the lamellar model and the cylinder model, are selected. The two models exhibit distinct PT patterns, which result in different proton diffusion rates. In both models, the interaction between protons and the sulfonate groups are proven to be the key to determining PT behavior. The proton solvation structure change as a function of the distance between protons and sulfonate groups has been analyzed. It is found that the increase of water cylinder radius or water layer height leads to the presence of more protons around the sulfonate groups. Furthermore, at a lower hydration level, the increased amount of protons around the sulfonate groups consists of more Zundel-like structures, which is influenced by the distinct morphological structures of Nafion.

Feng, Shulu

2011-12-01

67

NOvel Fission Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The effective extraction of Cs+ and Sr2+ into a relatively new and heretofore untested hydrophobic ionic liquid, tri-n-butylmethylammonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide was demonstrated with calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6, respectively. The coordinated Cs+ and Sr2+ were subsequently removed from the ionic liquid extraction solvent by an electrochemical reduction process carried out at mercury electrodes. This process is non-destructive, permitting the ionic liquid and ionophores to be recycled. Although the process is based on mercury electrodes, this is a benefit rather than a detriment because the liquid mercury containing the Cs and Sr can be easily transported to another electrochemical cell where the Cs and Sr could be electrochemically recovered from the mercury amalgam and concentrated into a minimum volume of water or some other inexpensive solvent. This should facilitate the development of a suitable waste form for the extracted Cs+ and Sr2+. Thus, the feasibility of the proposed ionic liquid-based extraction cycle for the removal of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ from simulated aqueous tank waste was demonstrated.

Hussey, Charles L.

2005-11-13

68

Phase behavior of CO2 in room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide solubility (vapor-liquid equilibria: VLE) in an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate ([eeim][Ac]) was measured using a gravimetric microbalance at four isotherms (about 283, 298, 323, and 348 K) up to about 2 MPa. An equation-of-state (EOS) model was used to analyze the VLE data and has predicted vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria (VLLE: or liquid-liquid separations) in CO(2)-rich solutions. The VLLE prediction was confirmed experimentally using a volumetric method and likely the liquid-liquid equilibria will intersect with the solid-liquid equilibria such that no lower critical solution temperature can exist and the binary system may be classified as Type III phase behavior. Carbon dioxide solubility in the ionic-liquid-rich solution show extremely unusual behavior. CO(2) dissolves in the ionic liquid at large concentrations (up to about 20 mole % of CO(2)) with almost no vapor pressure above the mixtures. This result is similar to our previous findings with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][Ac]). In all three cases the CO(2) forms a molecular complex (or chemical reaction) with the ionic liquid. (13)C NMR spectroscopy has identified the structure for CO(2) absorbed in [eeim][Ac] to be [eeim]-2-carboxylate. Addition of water to the carboxylate leads to the dissolution of CO(2). The thermodynamic excess properties (enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for all three systems have been calculated using the EOS and support the complex formation of the type AB(2) (where A is CO(2) and B is ionic liquid). Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry has verified the heat of reaction calculations and found for CO(2) absorbing in [emim][Ac], [eeim][Ac] and [bmim][Ac] to be about -38 kJ mol(-1). Additional experiments have examined the effect of water on the density, viscosity and CO(2) solubility in [eeim][Ac] and the CO(2) solubility in mixtures of [eeim][Ac] with other acetate salts. PMID:22511252

Shiflett, Mark B; Elliott, Beth A; Lustig, Steve R; Sabesan, Subramaniam; Kelkar, Manish S; Yokozeki, A

2012-05-14

69

FISSION-PRODUCT SEPARATION BASED ON ROOM-TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new ext...

70

Enhanced esterification conversion in a room temperature ionic liquid by integrated water removal with pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most esterification reactions equilibrium is reached without conversion to a sufficient level. A promising way to improve conversion consists in coupling the esterification reaction with a pervaporation process, able to selectively recover the reaction products in situ. This work is focused on the study of a catalyzed esterification reaction, taking place in the ionic liquid ([bmim] [BF4]), while one

Pavel Izák; Nuno M. M. Mateus; Carlos A. M. Afonso; João G. Crespo

2005-01-01

71

Electrochemistry and spectroscopy of electrolytes and cathode materials in room-temperature ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demonstration of a stable, reversible, alkali metal anode is an important step in the development of practical secondary batteries using room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts as electrolytes. Such melts are made by mixing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC) with aluminum chloride, and can be Lewis buffered by adding LiCl or NaCl. It has been shown previously that protons added to a sodium chloride buffered melt as 1-ethyl-3-methyfimidazolium hydrogen dichloride (EMIHCl2) provide a more negative voltage window and nearly reversible deposition-stripping behavior for sodium. It is reported here that triethanolamine hydrogen chloride is effective in widening the voltage window, allows the plating and stripping of both lithium and sodium, and is stable in buffered EMIC/AlCl3 melts for months. It is suggested that deprotonation of one ethanolic group of triethanolamine HCl is responsible for the effect. The electrochemistry and UV-visible spectroscopy of several vanadium oxides have been examined in room temperature melts. By varying the mole ratio of the two components, Lewis basic, neutral and acidic melts were made. Most oxides have very low solubility: V2O4 and V2O3 are insoluble and V2O5 has a solubility limit less than 5 mM, but the solubilities of the salts NaVO 3, Na3VO4, and NH4VO3, VOCl 3 and VOF3 are significantly higher. The electrochemistry of V2O5, NaVO3, Na3VO4, NH4VO3, VOCl3 and VOF3 is similar in neutral and acidic melts. In the neutral melt each compound shows an irreversible reduction at about 0.45V vs. an Al wire reference electrode. In an acidic melt (mole fraction AlCl3 = 0.55) each of these compounds exhibit additional reduction peaks at more positive potentials. Coulometric and spectroscopic data for the 0.45V reduction suggest that mixed oxidation state polyvanadates may be formed. Controlled potential coulometry demonstrated that the reduction at 0.45V was the reduction of V(V) to V(IV) and the more positive reduction peaks were caused by the reduction of some other species of V(V) present in the acidic melts. New room temperature melts have been prepared by mixing Lewis acidic, VOCl3, with Lewis basic, EMIC. The new melts are dark red homogeneous liquids that are very conductive and easily reduced.

Ryan, David Martin

72

Characterization of a Novel Intrinsic Luminescent Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Based on [P6,6,6,14 ][ANS].  

PubMed

Intrinsically luminescent room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) can be prepared by combining a luminescent anion (more common) or cation with appropriate counter ions, rendering new luminescent soft materials. These RTILs are still new, and many of their photochemical properties are not well known. A novel intrinsic luminescent RTIL based on the 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate ([ANS]) anion combined with the trihexyltetradecylphosphonium ([P6,6,6,14 ]) cation was prepared and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Detailed photophysical studies highlight the influence of the ionic liquid environment on the ANS fluorescence, which together with rheological and (1) H?NMR experiments illustrate the effects of both the viscosity and electrostatic interactions between the ions. This material is liquid at room temperature and possesses a glass transition temperature (Tg ) of 230.4?K. The fluorescence is not highly sensitive to factors such as temperature, but owing to its high viscosity, dynamic Stokes shift measurements reveal very slow components for the IL relaxation. PMID:25124894

Delgado, Joana M; Raymundo, Anabela; Vilarigues, Márcia; Branco, Luís C; Laia, César A T

2015-01-01

73

Friedel–Crafts alkylation of 2-methylnaphthalene in room temperature ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedel–Crafts alkylations of 2-methylnaphthalene with long-chain alkenes (mixed C11–12 olefins) in the ethyl-containing amine chloroaluminate ionic liquids modified with HCl as environmentally friendly catalysts have been investigated. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) were used as the evaluation method for alkylation technology. The influences of the type and dosage of catalysts, molar ratio of 2-methylnaphthalene to alkenes and

Zhongkui Zhao; Zongshi Li; Guiru Wang; Weihong Qiao; Lübo Cheng

2004-01-01

74

Pressure-induced frustration-frustration process in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, a room-temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

We have found that the room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) reveals outstanding pressure-induced phase changes from a liquid state to a crystal polymorph and finally to a glass form upon compression by up to 8 GPa. The RTIL is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], which offers the opportunity to investigate a variety of fluctuations in one system and can be completely recovered without dissociation or polymerization, even after decompression. Similar to charge frustration, spin ice-like frustration, and geometric frustration in high potential spintronics/multiferroic materials, the RTIL frustrations are classified into charge (scalar), orientation (vector), and coordination number (topology). Degrees of freedom at each state of [C4mim][PF6] are described by charge balancing, molecular orientational order/disorder, molecular conformations of the C4mim(+) cation, and the coordination number. Here, we show a novel "conformation glass" induced by high pressure. PMID:24358982

Abe, Hiroshi; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Hatano, Naohiro; Shigemi, Machiko; Hamaya, Nozomu; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

2014-01-30

75

Facile preparation of polysaccharide-coated capillaries using a room temperature ionic liquid for chiral separations.  

PubMed

In this study, the dissolution of polysaccharides into an ionic liquid was investigated and applied as a coating onto the capillary walls of a fused-silica capillary in open-tubular CEC. The coating was evaluated by examining the chiral separation of two analytes (thiopental, sotalol) with three cellulose derivatives (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate phthalate, and cellulose acetate butyrate). Baseline separation of thiopental enantiomers was achieved by use of each polysaccharide coating (Rs: 7.0, 8.1, 7.1), while sotalol provided partial resolution (Rs: 0.7, 1.0, 0.9). In addition, reproducibility of the cellulose-coated capillaries was evaluated by estimating the run-to-run and capillary-to-capillary RSD values of the EOF. Both stability and reproducibility were very good with RSD values of less than 7%. PMID:23463600

Stavrou, Ioannis J; Moore, Leonard; Fernand, Vivian E; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P; Warner, Isiah M

2013-05-01

76

Highly Efficient Extraction of Phenolic Compounds by Use of Magnetic Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Environmental Remediation  

PubMed Central

A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C6PC14][FeCl4]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl3·6H2O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C6PC14][FeCl4] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substitutents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (DPh) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D3,5-DCP) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C6PC14][FeCl4] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C6PC14][FeCl4] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 ?g.mL?1 to 0.2 ?g.mL?1 after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C6PC14][FeCl4]. PMID:21783320

Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L.; Warner, Isiah M.

2011-01-01

77

Competitive complexation of nitrates and chlorides to uranyl in a room temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

By coupling EXAFS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations, we studied the competitive complexation of uranyl cations with nitrate and chloride ions in a water immiscible ionic liquid (IL), C(4)mimTf(2)N (C(4)mim(+): 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium; Tf(2)N(-) = (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N)(-): bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). Both nitrate and chloride are stronger ligands for uranyl than the IL Tf(2)N(-) or triflate anions and when those anions are simultaneously present, neither the limiting complex UO(2)(NO(3))(3)(-) nor UO(2)Cl(4)(2-) alone could be observed. At a U/NO(3)/Cl ratio of 1/2/2, the dominant species is likely UO(2)Cl(NO(3))(2)(-). When chloride is in excess over uranyl with different nitrate concentrations (U/NO(3)/Cl ratio of 1/2/6, 1/4/4, and 1/12/4) the solution contains a mixture of UO(2)Cl(4)(2-) and UO(2)Cl(3)(NO(3))(2-) species. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental protocol for introducing these anions to the solution (either as uranyl counterion, as added salt, or as IL component) influences the UV-vis spectra, pointing to the formation of different kinetically equilibrated complexes in the IL. PMID:20557035

Gaillard, C; Chaumont, A; Billard, I; Hennig, C; Ouadi, A; Georg, S; Wipff, G

2010-07-19

78

Electrochemical gas sensors based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids for improved analysis of acid vapours.  

PubMed

A prototype of a fast-response task-specific amperometric gas sensor based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is proposed here for improved analysis of volatile acid species. It consists of a small filter paper foil soaked with a RTIL mixture containing an ionic liquid whose anion (acetate) displays a basic character, upon which three electrodes are screen printed by carbon ink profiting from a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs and of their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. The performance of this device, used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analyses of headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations, was evaluated for phenol and 1-butanethiol vapours which were adopted as model acid gaseous analytes. The results obtained showed that the quite high potentials required for the detection of these analytes are lowered significantly, thanks to the addition of the basic acetate RTIL. In such a way, overlap with the medium discharge is avoided, and the possible adverse effect of interfering species is minimised. The sensor performance was quite satisfactory (detection limits, ca. 0.3 ?M; dynamic range, ca. 1-200 ?M, both referred to solution concentrations; correlation coefficients in the range 0.993-0.997; repeatability, ± 6% RSD; long-term stability, 9%); thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:23232956

Toniolo, Rosanna; Dossi, Nicolò; Pizzariello, Andrea; Casagrande, Alice; Bontempelli, Gino

2013-04-01

79

Room-temperature ionic liquid-amine solutions: tunable solvents for efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Solutions of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and commercially available amines were found to be effective for the capture of CO{sub 2} as carbamate salts. RTIL solutions containing 50 mol % (16% v/v) monoethanolamine (MEA) are capable of rapid and reversible capture of 1 mol of CO{sub 2} per 2 moles MEA to give an insoluble MEA-carbamate precipitate that helps to drive the capture reaction (as opposed to aqueous amine systems). Diethanolamine (DEA) can also be used in the same manner for CO{sub 2} capture in RTILs containing a pendant hydroxyl group. The captured CO{sub 2} in the resulting RTIL-carbamate salt mixtures can be readily released by either heating and/or subjecting them to reduced pressure. Using this unprecedented and industrially attractive mixing approach, the desirable properties of RTILs (i.e., nonvolatility, enhancedCO{sub 2} solubility, lower heat capacities) can be combined with the performance of amines for CO{sub 2} capture without the use of specially designed, functionalized 'task-specific' ionic liquids. By mixing RTILs with commercial amines, reactive solvents with a wide range of amine loading levels can be tailored to capture CO{sub 2} in a variety of conditions and processes. These RTIL-amine solutions behave similarly to their water-based counterparts but may offer many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, compared to current aqueous amine technologies.

Dean Camper; Jason E. Bara; Douglas L. Gin; Richard D. Noble [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

2008-11-05

80

Determination of the upper limits, benchmarks, and critical properties for gas separations using stabilized room temperature ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) for the purpose of guiding future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature reports that supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) outperform standard polymers for the separations of CO2\\/N2 and CO2\\/CH4, even under continuous flow mixed gas conditions. Before the expenditure of more resources to develop new room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and SILMs, it is time to consider what benchmarks for SILM performance exist and if upper limits could be projected

Paul Scovazzo

2009-01-01

81

Supported phospholipid bilayer interaction with components found in typical room-temperature ionic liquids - a QCM-D and AFM study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy were combined to evaluate the defects created by room-temperature ionic liquid anion and cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of Zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl im...

82

Characterization of uranyl(VI) nitrate complexes in a room temperature ionic liquid using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids form potentially important solvents in novel nuclear waste reprocessing methods, and the solvation, speciation, and complexation behaviors of actinides and lanthanides in room temperature ionic liquids is of current interest. In this study, the coordination environment of uranyl(VI) in solutions of the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing either tetrabutylammonium nitrate or nitric acid was characterized using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Both UO(2)(NO(3))(2) and UO(2)(NO(3))(3)(-) species were detected in solutions containing tetrabutylammonium nitrate. ?(as)(UO(2)) for these two species were found to lie at 951 and 944 cm(-1), respectively, while ?(as)(UO(2)) arising from uranyl(VI) coordinated by bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was found to lie at 968 cm(-1). In solutions containing nitric acid, only UO(2)(NO(3))(2) was detected, due to the high water content. The UO(2)(NO(3))(+) species was not detected under the conditions used in this study. From the results shown here, we conclude that infrared spectroscopy forms a valuable addition to the suite of tools currently used to study the chemical behavior of uranyl(VI) in room temperature ionic liquids. PMID:20722398

Quach, Donna L; Wai, Chien M; Pasilis, Sofie P

2010-09-20

83

Computational study of room-temperature ionic liquids interacting with a POPC phospholipid bilayer.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations based on an empirical force field have been carried out to investigate the properties of a zwitter-ionic phospholipid (POPC) bilayer in contact with a water solution of [bmim][Cl], [bmim][PF(6)] and [bmim][Tf(2)N] at concentration c = 0.5 M. The results reveal important and specific interactions of cations and anions with the bilayer. The [bmim](+) cation, in particular, shows a clear tendency to be incorporated tail-first into the bilayer. [Cl](-) remains in solution, [PF(6)](-) forms a thin layer on the lipid surface, and [bmim][Tf(2)N] precipitates out of the solution, giving rise to an ionic droplet deposited on the lipid surface. The simulation results provide a microscopic basis to interpret the available experimental observations. PMID:22905780

Bingham, Richard J; Ballone, Pietro

2012-09-13

84

Room temperature ionic liquids as useful overlayers for estimating food quality from their odor analysis by quartz crystal microbalance measurements.  

PubMed

An array of quartz crystals coated with different room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is proposed for the analysis of flavors by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. Seven RTILs were adopted as sensing layers, all containing imidazolium or phosphonium cations, differing from one another in the length and branching of alkyl groups and neutralized by different anions. The array was at first applied to the analysis of 31 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, acids, amines, hydrocarbons and terpenes, chosen as representative components of a wide variety of food flavors. Multivariate data analysis by the principal component analysis (PCA) approach of the set of the corresponding responses led to separated clusters for these different chemical categories. To further prove the good performance of the RTIL-coated quartz crystal array as an "electronic nose", it was applied to the analysis of headspaces from cinnamon samples belonging to different botanical varieties ( Cinnamon zeylanicum and Cinnamon cassia ). PCA applied to responses recorded on different stocks of samples of both varieties showed that they could be fully discriminated. PMID:23808811

Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Dossi, Nicolò; Lorenzon, Stefano; Abollino, Ornella; Bontempelli, Gino

2013-08-01

85

Effect of a room-temperature ionic liquid on the structure and properties of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers.  

PubMed

Novel anti-static nanofibers based on blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], were fabricated using an electrospinning approach. The effects of the RTIL on the morphology, crystal structure, and physical properties of the PVDF nanofibers were investigated. Incorporation of RTIL leads to an increase in the mean fiber diameter and the rough fiber surface of the PVDF/RTIL composite nanofibers compared with the neat PVDF nanofibers. The PVDF in the PVDF/RTIL nanofibers exhibits an extremely high content (almost 100%) of ? crystals, in contrast to the dominance of PVDF ? crystals in bulk melt-blended PVDF/RTIL blends. Nonwoven fabrics produced from the electrospun PVDF/RTIL composite nanofibers show better stretchability and higher electrical conductivity than those made from neat PVDF without RTIL, and are thus excellent antielectrostatic fibrous materials. In addition, RTIL greatly improved the hydrophobicity of the PVDF fibers, enabling them to effectively separate a mixture of tetrachloromethane (CCl4) and water. The extremely high ? content, excellent antielectrostatic properties, better stretchability, and hydrophobicity of the present PVDF/RTIL nanofibers make them a promising candidate for micro- and nanoscale electronic device applications. PMID:24598382

Xing, Chenyang; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Yongjin; Li, Jingye

2014-03-26

86

Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins entrapped in agarose hydrogel films in room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of a number of heme proteins entrapped in agarose hydrogel films in the room-temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF(6)]) have been investigated. UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy show that the heme proteins retain their native structure in agarose film. The uniform distribution of hemoglobin in agarose-dimethylformamide film was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry shows that direct electron transfer between the heme proteins and glassy carbon electrode is quasi-reversible in [bmim][PF(6)]. The redox potentials for hemoglobin, myoglobin, horseradish peroxidase, cytochrome c, and catalase were found to be more negative than those in aqueous solution. The charge-transfer coefficient and the apparent electron-transfer rate constant for these heme proteins in [bmim][PF(6)] were calculated from the peak-to-peak separation as a function of scan rate. The heme proteins catalyze the electroreduction of trichloroacetic acid and tert-butyl hydroperoxide in [bmim][PF(6)]. The kinetic parameter I(max) (maximum current at saturation concentration of substrate) and the apparent K(m) (Michaelis-Menten constant) for the electrocatalytic reactions were evaluated. PMID:16171360

Wang, Sheng-Fu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Shen, Xin-Cheng; Lu, Zhe-Xue; Pang, Dai-Wen; Wong, Kwok-Yin

2005-09-27

87

Long-term, continuous mixed-gas dry fed CO 2\\/CH 4 and CO 2\\/N 2 separation performance and selectivities for room temperature ionic liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported on using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in place of traditional solvents in liquid membranes and showed that stabilized RTIL-membranes outperformed standard polymers for the separations of CO2\\/CH4 and CO2\\/N2 (considering ideal gas permeabilities). Here, we report on mixed-gas permeances and selectivities for the gas pairs CO2\\/CH4 and CO2\\/N2 using continuous flows of the mixed gases at

Paul Scovazzo; Drew Havard; Mike McShea; Sarah Mixon; David Morgan

2009-01-01

88

The joint effects of room temperature ionic liquids and ordered media on fluorescence characteristics of estrogens in water and methanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17?-estradiol (E2) in the presence of ordered media (?-cyclodextrins (?-CD) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)). In addition, we analyzed the effects of four room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) on the fluorescence intensities (FIs) of EE2/?-CD and E2/?-CD inclusion complexes in methanol. Both ?-CD and CTAB enhanced the fluorescence of EE2 and E2. The FIs of EE2 and E2 with ?-CD or CTAB in methanol were greater than those in water, possibly resulting from decreased oxygen-quenching in H2O molecules. ?-CD and CTAB may form inclusion complexes with estrogen in both water and methanol. The inclusion ratio of the complex was 1:1 and the inclusion constant (K) values in water were greater than those in methanol. The fluorescence lifetimes were 2.50 and 4.13 ns for EE2 and 2.58 and 4.03 ns for E2 in aqueous solution and methanol, respectively. The changing trend of fluorescence lifetimes for EE2 and E2 in ?-CD or CTAB was similar to the steady-state FIs. The four RTILs had a significant quenching effect on the FIs of EE2/?-CD and E2/?-CD, and the quenching process for EE2/?-CD and E2/?-CD by RTILs was demonstrated to be a dynamic quenching mechanism. Fluorescent data obtained from these complex systems provide a theoretical foundation for understanding the interaction mechanisms between ordered media and RTILs in the analysis of estrogens.

Wang, Huili; Duan, Ailian; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Li, Yanyan; Li, Changli; Wang, Wenwei; Zeng, Aibing; Wang, Xuedong

2014-07-01

89

Solvation of fluoro and mixed fluoro/chloro complexes of EuIII the [BMI][PF6] room temperature ionic liquid. A theoretical studyw  

E-print Network

Solvation of fluoro and mixed fluoro/chloro complexes of EuIII in the [BMI][PF6] room temperature report a molecular dynamics study on the solvation of EuFn (3�n) complexes in the [BMI][PF6] ionic liquid in a cage formed by 6­9 BMI1 cations at ca. 8 A° , hydrogen-bonded by imidazolium­CHÁ Á ÁF� interactions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Effect of nitrate, perchlorate, and water on uranyl(VI) speciation in a room-temperature ionic liquid: a spectroscopic investigation.  

PubMed

Room-temperature ionic liquids form potentially important solvents in novel nuclear waste reprocessing methods, and the solvation, speciation, and complexation behaviors of lanthanides and actinides in these solvents are of great current interest. In the study reported here, the coordination environment of uranyl(VI) in solutions of the room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][Tf(2)N]) containing perchlorate, tetrabutylammonium nitrate, and water was investigated using Raman, ATR-FTIR, and NMR spectroscopies in order to better understand the role played in uranyl(VI) solution chemistry in room-temperature ionic liquids by water and other small, weakly complexing ligands. The (2)H NMR chemical shift for water in a solution of uranyl perchlorate hexahydrate in [EMIM][Tf(2)N] appears at 6.52 ppm, indicating that water is coordinated to uranyl(VI). A broad ?(OH) stretching mode at 3370 cm(-1) in the ATR-FTIR spectrum shows that this coordinated water is engaged in hydrogen bonding with water molecules in a second coordination sphere. A significant upfield shift in the (2)H NMR signal for water and the appearance of distinct ?(as)(HOH) (at 3630 cm(-1)) and ?(s)(HOH) (at 3560 cm(-1)) vibrational bands in the ATR-FTIR spectra show that coordinated water is displaced by nitrate upon formation of the UO(2)(NO(3))(2) and UO(2)(NO(3))(3)(-) complexes. The Raman spectra indicate that perchlorate complexed to uranyl(VI) is also displaced by nitrate. Our results indicate that perchlorate and water, though weakly complexing ligands, do have a role in uranyl(VI) speciation in room-temperature ionic liquids and that Raman, infrared, and NMR spectroscopies are valuable additions to the suite of tools currently used to study the chemical behavior of uranyl(VI)-ligand complexes in these solvents. PMID:21786806

Pasilis, Sofie P; Blumenfeld, Alexander

2011-09-01

91

Effect of viscosity on steady-state voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy in room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The electrochemical properties of a series of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were studied using voltammetric methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The RTILs consisted of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [C(n)C(1)Im](+), and either bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anions, [Tf(2)N](-), or hexafluorophosphate anions, [PF(6)](-). The effect of RTIL viscosity on mass transfer dynamics within each RTIL was studied electrochemically using ferrocene as a redox probe. In the case of the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] RTILs, the viscosity was altered by changing the alkyl chain length. [C(4)C(1)Im][PF(6)] was used for comparison as its viscosity is significantly higher than that of the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] RTILs. The RTIL viscosity affected the ability to record steady-state voltammograms at ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs). For example, it was possible to record steady-state voltammograms at scan rates up to 10 mV s(-1) in [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] using 1.5 mum radius disk UMEs, but non-steady-state behavior was observed at 50 mV s(-1). However, at 12.5 microm radius UMEs, steady-state voltammetry was only observed at 1 mV s(-1) in [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N]. The RTIL viscosity also affected the ability to record SECM feedback approach curves that agreed with conventional SECM theory. In the most viscous [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] RTILs, feedback approach curves agreed with conventional theory only when very slow tip approach speeds were used (0.1 microm s(-1)). These observations were interpreted using the Peclet number, which describes the relative contributions of convective and diffusive mass transfer to the tip surface. By recording feedback approach curves in each RTIL at a range of tip approach speeds, we describe the experimental conditions that must be met to perform SECM in imidazolium-based RTILs. The rate of heterogeneous electron transfer across the RTIL/electrode interface was also studied using SECM and the standard heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k(0), for ferrocene oxidation recorded in each RTIL was higher than that determined previously using voltammetric methods. PMID:20225849

Lovelock, Kevin R J; Cowling, Frances N; Taylor, Alasdair W; Licence, Peter; Walsh, Darren A

2010-04-01

92

High Power Electric Double-Layer Capacitors based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Nanostructured Carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient storage of electrical energy constitutes both a fundamental challenge for 21st century science and an urgent requirement for the sustainability of our technological civilization. The push for cleaner renewable forms of energy production, such as solar and wind power, strongly depends on a concomitant development of suitable storage methods to pair with these intermittent sources, as well as for mobile applications, such as vehicles and personal electronics. In this regard, Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors (supercapacitors) represent a vibrant area of research due to their environmental friendliness, long lifetimes, high power capability, and relative underdevelopment when compared to electrochemical batteries. Currently supercapacitors have gravimetric energies one order of magnitude lower than similarly advanced batteries, while conversly enjoying a similar advantage over them in terms of power. The challenge is to increase the gravimentric energies and conserve the high power. On the material side, research focuses on highly porous supports and electrolytes, the critical components of supercapacitors. Through the use of electrolyte systems with a wider electrochemical stability window, as well as properly tailored carbon nanomaterials as electrodes, significant improvements in performance are possible. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids and Carbide-Derived Carbons are promising electrolytes and electrodes, respectively. RTILs have been shown to be stable at up to twice the voltage of organic solvent-salt systems currently employed in supercapacitors, and CDCs are tunable in pore structure, show good electrical conductivity, and superior demonstrated capability as electrode material. This work aims to better understand the interplay of electrode and electrolyte parameters, such as pore structure and ion size, in the ultimate performance of RTIL-based supercapacitors in terms of power, energy, and temperature of operation. For this purpose, carbon nanomaterials such as nanoporous CDC nanopowders, vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays, and single wall carbon nanotube aerogels, were synthesized and used as electrodes, alongside RTIL electrolytes with systematically varying ion sizes and compositions. While electrode/electrolyte development can take place along parallel lines, both must be properly matched to the device's ultimate operating conditions and specific application. The resulting devices exhibit good performance characteristics, and the best temperature range of any electrochemical storage device to date.

Perez, Carlos R.

93

Investigation of the Effect of Functional Group Substitutions on the Gas-Phase Electron Affinities and Ionization Energies of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Ions using Density Functional Theory  

E-print Network

The cathodic and anodic stabilities of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are important factors in their applications in electrochemical devices. In this work, we investigated the electron affinities of cations and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

94

Production of CNT-taxol-embedded PCL microspheres using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid: As a sustained drug delivery system.  

PubMed

We describe a one-pot method for the mass production of polymeric microspheres containing water-soluble carbon-nanotube (w-CNT)-taxol complexes using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid. Polycaprolactone (PCL), trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC; liquid state from -20 to 240°C), and taxol were used, respectively, as a model polymer, room temperature ionic liquid, and drug. Large quantities of white colored PCL powder without w-CNT-taxol complexes and gray colored PCL powders containing w-CNT-taxol (1:1 or 1:2 wt/wt) complexes were produced by phase separation between the hydrophilic TOMAC and the hydrophobic PCL. Both microsphere types had a uniform, spherical structure of average diameter 3-5?m. The amount of taxol embedded in PCL microspheres was determined by HPLC and (1)H NMR to be 8-12?g per 1.0mg of PCL (loading capacity (LC): 0.8-1.2%; entrapment efficiency (EE): 16-24%). An in vitro HPLC release assay showed sustain release of taxol without an initial burst over 60days at an average rate of 0.003-0.0073mg per day. The viability patterns of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) for PCTx-1 and -2 showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects. In the presence of PCTx-1 and -2, the MCF-7 cells showed high viability in the concentration level of, respectably, <70 and <5?g/mL. PMID:25527087

Kim, Seong Yeol; Hwang, Ji-Young; Seo, Jae-Won; Shin, Ueon Sang

2015-03-15

95

Self-assembly of imidazolium-based surfactants in magnetic room-temperature ionic liquids: binary mixtures.  

PubMed

The phase behaviour of binary mixtures of ionic surfactants (1-alkyl-3-imidazolium chloride, Cn mimCl with n=14, 16 and 18) and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate, Cn mimFeCl4 , with n=2 and 4) over a broad temperature range and the complete range of compositions is described. By using many complementary methods including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarised microscopy, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS), and surface tension, the ability of this model system to support self-assembly is described quantitatively and this behaviour is compared with common water systems. The existence of micelles swollen by the solvent can be deduced from SANS experiments and represent a possible model for aggregates, which has barely been considered for ionic-liquid systems until now, and can be ascribed to the rather low solvophobicity of the surfactants. Our investigation shows that, in general, Cn mimCl is a rather weak amphiphile in these ionic liquids. The amphiphilic strength increases systematically with the length of the alkyl chain, as seen from the phase behaviour, the critical micelle concentration, and also the level of definition of the aggregates formed. PMID:25314359

Klee, Andreas; Prevost, Sylvain; Gradzielski, Michael

2014-12-15

96

Effect of aqueous phase anion on the mode of facilitated ion transfer into room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Measurements of the partitioning of various alkali and alkaline earth cations between solutions of hydrochloric acid and a series of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to which a crown ether has been added have revealed substantial differences in extraction behavior versus both conventional molecular solvents (e.g., 1-octanol) under the same conditions and the same ILs when nitric acid solutions are employed as the aqueous phase. These results can be rationalized by application of a three-path model for metal ion partitioning into ILs in the presence of a neutral extractant. Additionally, the results point to a significant role for anion hydration energy in determining the balance amongst the possible modes of partitioning and strongly suggest that ion exchange involving the cationic metal complex and the cationic constituent of the ionic liquid constitutes the "default" route for metal ion extraction in IL systems incorporating a neutral extractant. PMID:22748551

Garvey, Sarah L; Hawkins, Cory A; Dietz, Mark L

2012-06-15

97

Trace determination of dichlorvos in environmental samples by room temperature ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-phase microextraction combined with HPLC.  

PubMed

Using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexa?uorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as extraction solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF) as disperser solvent, the organophosphorus pesticide dichlorvos in water was determined by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Factors affecting RTIL-DLLME (type of disperser solvent, amount of RTIL, volume of disperser solvent, percentage of NaCl and volume and pH of water sample) were optimized by the single-factor method, obtaining the most favorable results when using 65 µL of [BMIM][PF6] and 260 µL of THF to extract the compound from an 8-mL water sample at pH 5.0 containing 25% (w/v) of NaCl. Under these optimum conditions, an enrichment factor of 215-fold was obtained. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 2-1,000 µg/L. The limit of detection calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.2 µg/L. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for six replicate experiments at 20, 100 and 200 µg/L concentration levels were 1.8%, 1.3% and 1.3 %, respectively. Then the proposed method was applied to the analysis of three different water sample sources (tap, farm and rain water) and the relative recoveries and RSD of spiked water samples were 95.6-102.4% and 0.6-3.1%, respectively, at three different concentration levels of 20, 100 and 200 µg/L. PMID:22618021

Wang, Songhui; Xiang, Bingren; Tang, Qianqian

2012-09-01

98

Evaluation of solid-supported room-temperature ionic liquids containing crown ethers as media for metal ion separation and preconcentration.  

PubMed

Extraction chromatographic (EXC) resins incorporating an appropriate crown ether in an oxygenated organic solvent such as 1-octanol are well established as sorbents for the analytical-scale separation and preconcentration of radiostrontium from a variety of sample types. Recent solvent extraction studies employing crown ethers in various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based (CnC1im(+)) room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) indicate that under certain conditions, distribution ratios (DSr) for strontium far in excess of those observed with conventional organic solvents are observed. To determine if this increase in liquid-liquid extraction efficiency will lead to improved strontium sorbents, several EXC resins and sol-gel glasses incorporating di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) in either 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (C10C1imTf2N) or the related hydroxyalkyl-functionalized IL 1-(12-hydroxydodecyl)-3-butylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (C12OHC4im Tf2N) were prepared and characterized. Unexpectedly the performance of these materials was not uniformly better than that of a conventional EXC resin, an apparent result of the greater viscosity of the ionic liquids and the lower solubility of the crown ether in ILs versus conventional organic solvents. PMID:25640134

Hawkins, Cory A; Momen, M A; Garvey, Sarah L; Kestell, John; Kaminski, Michael D; Dietz, Mark L

2015-04-01

99

Effect of room temperature surface active ionic liquids on aggregated nanostructures of ?-Cyclodextrins: A picosecond fluorescence spectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we report on controllable transition of aggregated ?-Cyclodextrins (?-CDs) nanostructures by tuning the concentration of a long chain ionic liquid, 1-dodecyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (C12mimCl) added to the aqueous solution of ?-CDs. The gradual increase in concentration of C12mimCl first results in the breaking of ?-CDs aggregates by the formation of inclusion complexes with C12mimCl and then self-organizes into a new supramolecular aggregate. This spontaneous transition from one nanostructure to another has been established by spectroscopic and microscopic studies. It is worth to mention that addition of 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (C8mimCl) does not lead to any such transition.

Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Ghosh, Surajit; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

2014-05-01

100

Preparation of room temperature ionic liquids based on aliphatic onium cations and asymmetric amide anions and their electrochemical properties as a lithium battery electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and electrochemical properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) based on asymmetric amide anions (TSAC: 2,2,2-trifluoro- N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)acetamide, C1C2: N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)pentafluoroethylsulfonamide) and aliphatic onium cations, such as ammonium, phosphonium, and sulfonium, were reported. The melting point of the C1C2 salts decreased compared to the corresponding TFSI salts (TFSI: bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), however, the viscosity was about twice that of the TFSI salts. Relatively low viscosity RTILs based on aliphatic onium cations could be prepared using the TSAC anion and tetraalkylammonium cation containing an alkoxy group. The linear sweep voltammogram of these RTILs with and without Li-TFSI were investigated in order to estimate the electrochemical windows and possible use as a lithium battery electrolyte.

Matsumoto, Hajime; Sakaebe, Hikari; Tatsumi, Kuniaki

101

Electrochemistry of heme proteins entrapped in DNA films in two imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Two imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), hydrophilic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) and hydrophobic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]), have been chosen as solvents for investigating bioelectroanalysis of four heme proteins. Heme proteins including hemoglobin, myoglobin, catalase and horseradish peroxidase immobilized in DNA can form stable and electrochemically active films on glassy carbon electrode. The morphology studies of films were demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. The direct electrochemistry of heme proteins were performed in ILs, and a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox peaks were observed. The electron transfer rate and reversibility of heme proteins in [bmim][BF4]/water were better than those in [bmim][PF6]. Through comparing several electrochemical parameters such as formal potentials and electron transfer rate constant of proteins in ILs, this paper tried to explain the differences of electrochemical properties of proteins as a function of viscosity, solubility characteristics, etc. of ILs. The possibility to specifically vary the properties of ILs by the selection of suitable cations and anions make them ideal candidates for wide applications in cell biological processes. PMID:23274540

Chen, Ting; Xiong, Huayu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

2013-06-01

102

Ultrafast solvation response in room temperature ionic liquids: Possible origin and importance of the collective and the nearest neighbour solvent modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent three-pulse photon echo peak shift (3PEPS) measurements [M. Muramatsu, Y. Nagasawa, and H. Miyasaka, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 3886 (2011)], 10.1021/jp108282v with several room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have revealed multi-exponential dynamics with ultrafast solvation timescale in the range, 20 < ?1/fs < 250, for both imidazolium and phosphonium RTILs. This is striking for two reasons: (i) the timescale is much faster than those reported by the dynamic Stokes shift (DSS) experiments [S. Arzhantsev, H. Jin, G. A. Baker, and M. Maroncelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 4978 (2007)], 10.1021/jp067273m and (ii) sub-hundered femtosecond solvation response in phosphonium ionic liquids is reported for the first time. Here, we present a mode coupling theory based calculation where such ultrafast solvation in 3PEPS measurements has been visualized to originate from the nearest neighbour solute-solvent interaction. Consideration of Lennard-Jones interaction for the nearest neighbour solute-solvent non-dipolar interaction leads to biphasic dynamics with a predicted ultrafast time constant in the ˜100-250 fs range, followed by a slower one similar to that reported by the 3PEPS measurements. In addition, the calculated fast time constants and amplitudes are found to be in general agreement with those from computer simulations. Different microscopic mechanisms for ultrafast solvation response measured by the 3PEPS and DSS experiments have been proposed and relative contributions of the collective and nearest neighbour solvent modes investigated. Relation between the single particle rotation and ultrafast polar solvation in these RTILs has been explored. Our analyses suggest 3PEPS and DSS experiments are probably sensitive to different components of the total solvation energy relaxation of a laser-excited dye in a given ionic liquid. Several predictions have also been made, which may be re-examined via suitable experiments.

Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit

2012-09-01

103

Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM). PMID:19233554

Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

2009-08-15

104

Protein Crystallization Using Room Temperature Ionic Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidizolium chloride (C4mim-C1), 1-butyl-3- methylimidizolium diethyleneglycol monomethylethersulfate ([C4mim]DEMGS), and 1-butyl-1 -methylpyrollidinium dihydrogenphosphate ([p1,4]dhp) were tested for their effects on the crystallization of the proteins canavalin, beta-lactoglobulin B, xylanase, and glucose isomerase, using a standard high throughput screen. The crystallization experiments were set up with the ILs added to the protein solutions at 0.2 and 0.4 M final concentrations. Crystallization droplets were set up at three proteixprecipitant ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 4:l), which served to progressively dilute the effects of the screen components while increasing the equilibrium protein and IL concentrations. Crystals were obtained for all four proteins at a number of conditions where they were not obtained from the IL-free control experiment. Over half of the protein-IL combinations tested had more successful outcomes than negative, where the IL-free crystallization was better than the corresponding IL-containing outcome, relative to the control. One of the most common causes of a negative outcome was solubilization of the protein by the IL, resulting in a clear drop. In one instance, we were able to use the IL-induced solubilizing to obtain beta-lactoglobulin B crystals from conditions that gave precipitated protein in the absence of IL. The results suggest that it may be feasible to develop ILs specifically for the task of macromolecule crystallization.

Pusey, Marc L.; Paley, Mark Steve; Turner, Megan B.; Rogers, Robin D.

2006-01-01

105

Molecular dynamics study of the temperature-dependent Optical Kerr effect spectra and intermolecular dynamics of room temperature ionic liquid 1-methoxyethylpyridinium dicyanoamide.  

PubMed

We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the Optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectra of 1-methoxyethylpyridinium dicyanoamide, a room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) which has been recently studied by Shirota and Castner (Shirota, H. ; Castner, E. J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 9388-9392) in comparison to its neutral isoelectronic solvent mixture. Our theoretical and computational studies show that the decay of the collective polarizability anisotropy correlation exhibits several different time scales originating from inter- and intramolecular dynamics, in good agreement with experiments. What's more, we find that the portion of the collective anisotropic polarizability relaxation due to "interaction-induced" phenomena is important at times much longer than those observed in normal solvents when these are far from their glass transition temperature. From our long (60 ns) molecular dynamics simulations, we are able to determine the appropriate time scales for orientational relaxation and interaction-induced processes occurring in the liquid. We find that the cationic contribution to the OKE signal is predominant. Because of the slow nature of relaxation processes in ILs, these calculations are very time, memory, and storage intensive. In the context of this research, we have developed a polarizable force field for this system and also theoretical methodology to generate molecular polarizabilities for arbitrarily shaped molecules and ions from corresponding atomic polarizabilities. We expect this methodology to have an important impact on the speed of molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable systems in the future. PMID:18537285

Hu, Zhonghan; Huang, Xuhui; Annapureddy, Harsha V R; Margulis, Claudio J

2008-07-01

106

Structure and stability of phospholipid bilayers hydrated by a room-temperature ionic liquid/water solution: a neutron reflectometry study.  

PubMed

Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements were carried out to probe the structure and stability of two model biomembranes consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) phospholipid bilayers hydrated by water solutions of two prototypical room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), namely, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]) and choline chloride ([Chol][Cl]) at concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.5 M, respectively. The raw data were analyzed by fitting a distribution of scattering length densities arising from the different chemical species in the system. The results of this analysis show that (a) for all systems and concentrations that we considered, the thickness of the bilayers shrinks by ?1 Å upon dissolving the ionic liquid into water and that (b) the RTIL ions enter the bilayer, finding their way to a preferred location in the lipid range that is nearly independent of the lipid and of the [bimim](+) or [Chol](+) choice. The volume fraction of RTIL sorbed in/on the bilayer, however, does depend on the lipid, but, again, is the same for [bmim][Cl] and for [Chol][Cl]. Thus, the RTIL occupies ?5% of the bilayer volume in POPC, rising to ?10% in DMPC. Repeating the measurements and data analysis after rinsing in pure water shows that the changes in the bilayer due to the RTIL sorption are irreversible and that a measurable amount of IL remains in the lipid fraction, that is, ?2.5% of the bilayer volume in POPC and ?8% in DMPC. PMID:25251987

Benedetto, Antonio; Heinrich, Frank; Gonzalez, Miguel A; Fragneto, Giovanna; Watkins, Erik; Ballone, Pietro

2014-10-23

107

Exploring the photophysics of curcumin in zwitterionic micellar system: an approach to control ESIPT process in the presence of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and anionic surfactant.  

PubMed

In this manuscript, we have modulated the photophysical properties of curcumin in a zwitterionic (N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB-16)) micellar aggregates with addition of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as well as commonly used anionic surfactant (SDS), using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. To modulate the photophysics, first we studied its interaction with an SB-16 micellar system, then to further exploit its photophysics, three RTILs (EmimES, EmimBS, EmimHS) with variation of alkyl chain lengths as well as SDS were used. It is observed that the rate of degradation of curcumin is drastically decreased after partitioning into the zwitterionic micellar system. It is shown that the dynamics of excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) processes can be controlled by using those RTILs and SDS. Our study also reveals that the hindrance of nonradiative processes of curcumin, i.e., ESIPT is more pronounced in the case of RTIL containing a long alkyl chain compared to a small one. However, most interestingly the addition of long chain (dodecyl) anionic surfactant (SDS) promotes the ESIPT process of curcumin. We have also studied the effect of the addition of inorganic salt and compared the results with RTILs. The present work demonstrates an effort to decipher the photophysics of curcumin in zwitterionic micellar systems by monitoring its excited state dynamics. PMID:24617495

Banerjee, Chiranjib; Ghosh, Surajit; Mandal, Sarthak; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Kundu, Niloy; Sarkar, Nilmoni

2014-04-01

108

Polymerization of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Monomers by Electron Beam Irradiation with the Aim of Fabricating Three-Dimensional Micropolymer/Nanopolymer Structures.  

PubMed

A novel method for fabricating microsized and nanosized polymer structures from a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) on a Si substrate was developed by the patterned irradiation of an electron beam (EB). An extremely low vapor pressure of the RTIL, 1-allyl-3-ethylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethane)sulfonyl)amide, allows it to be introduced into the high-vacuum chamber of an electron beam apparatus to conduct a radiation-induced polymerization in the nanoregion. We prepared various three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanopolymer structures having high aspect ratios of up to 5 with a resolution of sub-100 nm. In addition, the effects of the irradiation dose and beam current on the physicochemical properties of the deposited polymers were investigated by recording the FT-IR spectra and Young's modulus. Interestingly, the overall shapes of the obtained structures were different from those prepared in our recent study using a focused ion beam (FIB) even if the samples were irradiated in a similar manner. This may be due to the different transmission between the two types of beams as discussed on the basis of the theoretical calculations of the quantum beam trajectories. Perceptions obtained in this study provide facile preparation procedures for the micro/nanostructures. PMID:25322348

Minamimoto, H; Irie, H; Uematsu, T; Tsuda, T; Imanishi, A; Seki, S; Kuwabata, S

2014-11-17

109

Quaternary ammonium room-temperature ionic liquid including an oxygen atom in side chain/lithium salt binary electrolytes: ab initio molecular orbital calculations of interactions between ions.  

PubMed

Interactions of the lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) complex with N, N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium (DEME), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) cations, neutral diethylether (DEE), and the DEMETFSA complex were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. An interaction energy potential calculated for the DEME cation with the LiTFSA complex has a minimum when the Li atom has contact with the oxygen atom of DEME cation, while potentials for the EMIM cation with the LiTFSA complex are always repulsive. The MP2/6-311G**//HF/6-311G** level interaction energy calculated for the DEME cation with the LiTFSA complex was -18.4 kcal/mol. The interaction energy for the neutral DEE with the LiTFSA complex was larger (-21.1 kcal/mol). The interaction energy for the DEMETFSA complex with LiTFSA complex is greater (-23.2 kcal/mol). The electrostatic and induction interactions are the major source of the attraction in the two systems. The substantial attraction between the DEME cation and the LiTFSA complex suggests that the interaction between the Li cation and the oxygen atom of DEME cation plays important roles in determining the mobility of the Li cation in DEME-based room temperature ionic liquids. PMID:18636771

Tsuzuki, Seiji; Hayamizu, Kikuko; Seki, Shiro; Ohno, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime

2008-08-14

110

Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes showing unusual complexation of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy, and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) with varying structural modifications were evaluated for actinide complexation from their extraction behavior toward actinide ions such as UO2(2+), Pu(4+), PuO2(2+), and Am(3+) in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (C8mimNTf2). The formation constants were calculated for Am(3+) which showed a significant role of ligand structure, nature of substituents, and spacer length. Although the alkyl substituents on the amidic nitrogen increase the extraction efficiency of americium at lower acidity because of the inductive effect of the alkyl groups, at higher acidity the steric crowding around the ligating site determines the extraction efficiency. All C4DGAs formed 1:1 complexes with Am(3+) while for the analogous Eu(3+) complexes no inner sphere water molecules were detected and the asymmetry of the metal ligand complex differed from one another as proved by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS). Thermodynamic studies indicated that the extraction process, predominant by the Am(3+)-C4DGA complexation reaction, is exothermic. The unique role of the medium on Am(3+) complexation with the C4DGA molecules with varying spacer length, L-IV and L-V, was noticed for the first time with a reversal in the trend observed in the RTIL compared to that seen in a nonpolar molecular diluent like n-dodecane. Various factors leading to a more preorganized structure were responsible for favorable metal ion complexation. The solvent systems show promise to be employed for nuclear waste remediation, and sustainability options were evaluated from radiolytic stability as well as stripping studies. PMID:23394577

Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Sengupta, Arijit; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

2013-03-01

111

Synthesis and development of ordered, phase-separated, room-temperature ionic liquid-based AB and ABC block copolymers for gas separation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 capture process development is an economically and environmentally important challenge, as concerns over greenhouse gas emissions continue to receive worldwide attention. Many applications require the separation of CO 2 from other light gases such as N2, CH4, and H2 and a number of technologies have been developed to perform such separations. While current membrane technology offers an economical, easy to operate and scale-up solution, polymeric membranes cannot withstand high temperatures and aggressive chemical environments, and they often exhibit an unfavorable tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. Room-temperature ionic-liquids (RTILs) are very attractive as next-generation CO2-selective separation media and their development into polymerized membranes combat these challenges. Furthermore, polymers that can self-assemble into nanostructured, phase-separated morphologies (e.g., block copolymers, BCPs) have a direct effect on gas transport as materials morphology can influence molecular diffusion and membrane transport performance. In this thesis, nanophase-separated, RTIL-based AB and ABC di- and tri-BCPs were prepared via the sequential, living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of an IL-based monomer and one or more mutually immiscible co-monomers. This novel type of ion-containing BCP system forms various ordered nanostructures in the melt state via primary and secondary structure control. Monomer design and control of block composition, sequence, and overall polymer lengths were found to directly affect the ordered polymer assembly. Supported, composite membranes of these new BCPs were successfully fabricated, and the effect of BCP composition and nanostructure on CO2/light gas transport properties was studied. These nanostructured IL-based BCPs represent innovative polymer architectures and show great potential CO2/light gas membrane separation applications.

Wiesenauer, Erin F.

112

The Partitioning Behavior of Tyramine and 2?Methoxyphenethylamine in a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid–Water System Compared to Traditional Organic–Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids have been proposed as replacements for volatile organic solvents (VOSs) by a range of authors, due to their very low vapor pressure, ability to dissolve a range of organic, inorganic, and organometallic compounds, immiscibility with water, and ability to form biphasic systems depending on the choice of cation\\/anion combination making up the ionic liquid. In this study the

Kelly K. L. Yung; Jilska M. Perera; Craig D. Smith; Geoffrey W. Stevens

2005-01-01

113

The Formation of High-Order Polybromides in a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid: From Monoanions ([Br5 ](-) to [Br11 ](-) ) to the Isolation of [PC16 H36 ]2 [Br24 ] as Determined by van der Waals Bonding Radii.  

PubMed

An unprecedented diversity of high-order bromine catenates (anionic polybromides) was generated in a tetraalkylphosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquid system. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify polybromide monoanions ranging from [Br5 ](-) to [Br11 ](-) in the bulk solution, while single-crystal X-ray diffraction identified extended networks of linked [Br11 ](-) units, forming a previously unknown polymeric [Br24 ](2-) dianion. This represents the largest polybromide species identified to date. In combination with recent work, this suggests that other, higher order molecular polybromide ions might be isolated. PMID:25487061

Easton, Max E; Ward, Antony J; Hudson, Toby; Turner, Peter; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

2015-02-01

114

Room-temperature ionic liquids as electrolytes in electroanalytical determination of traces of 2-furaldehyde from oil and related wastewaters from refining processes.  

PubMed

Three different ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [EMIM][BF(4)]; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMIM][OTf]; and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [bmpyrr][NTf(2)] were studied as electrolytes in the electroanalytical quantification of 2-furaldehyde using square wave and differential pulse voltammetries. On applying a cathodic scan, a well-defined 2-electron wave was observed corresponding to the reduction of 2-furaldehyde to furfuryl alcohol. The electrochemical stability of the ionic liquids as electrolytes for analytical aspects and electrokinetic studies was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The measurements were carried out in a designed double-wall three-electrode cell, using two platinum wires as the quasi-reference and counter electrodes. Differential pulse voltammetry was found to be the most sensitive method at GCE. The detection limits of 1.4, 19.0 and 2.5 microg g(-1) were obtained for the determination of 2-furaldehyde in [EMIM][BF(4)], [BMIM][OTf] and [BMPyrr][NTf(2)], respectively. At a concentration of 50 microg g(-1), the maximum relative standard deviation (n=3) was 4.9%. The effect of water content of the ionic liquids on their potential windows and waveforms was also investigated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of 2-furaldehyde in real samples, especially in oil matrices. PMID:20188895

Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Beigi, Ali Akbar Miran; Teymouri, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Yousefali; Irandoust, Mohsen; Mehdizadeh, Ali

2010-04-15

115

Effect of temperature on the physico-chemical properties of a room temperature ionic liquid (1-Methyl-3-pentylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) with polyethylene glycol oligomer.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the effect of composition on the thermo-physical properties of the binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-pentyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [MPI][PF(6)] with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) [M(w) = 400] is presented. The excess molar volume, refractive index deviation, viscosity deviation, and surface tension deviation values were calculated from these experimental density, ?, refractive index, n, viscosity, ?, and surface tension, ?, over the whole concentration range, respectively. The excess molar volumes are negative and continue to become increasingly negative with increasing temperature; whereas the viscosity and surface tension deviation are negative and become less negative with increasing temperature. The surface thermodynamic functions, such as surface entropy, enthalpy, as well as standard molar entropy, Parachor, and molar enthalpy of vaporization for pure ionic liquid, have been derived from the temperature dependence of the surface tension values. PMID:21731460

Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chen, Bor-Kuan; Hao, Lin; Peng, Yu-Chun; Sun, I-Wen

2011-01-01

116

Ionic Liquids in Chemical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room-temperature ionic liquids are salts with a melting point close to or below room temperature. They form liquids composed in the majority of ions. This gives these materials the potential to behave very differently when they are used as solvents compared to conventional molecular liquids. The search for their application is growing in every area of analytical chemistry—electrochemistry, chromatography, electrophoresis,

Mihkel Koel

2005-01-01

117

Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins immobilised in carbon-coated nickel magnetic nanoparticle-chitosan-dimethylformamide composite films in room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins entrapped in carbon-coated nickel magnetic nanoparticle-chitosan-dimethylformamide (CNN-CS-DMF) composite films were investigated in the hydrophilic ionic liquid [bmim][BF4]. The surface morphologies of a representative set of films were characterised via scanning electron microscopy. The proteins immobilised in the composite films were shown to retain their native secondary structure using UV-vis spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the heme proteins-CNN-CS-DMF films was evaluated via cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of stable and well-defined redox peaks was observed for the heme protein films at formal potentials of -0.151 V (HRP), -0.167 V (Hb), -0.155 V (Mb) and -0.193 V (Cyt c) in [bmim][BF4]. Moreover, several electrochemical parameters of the heme proteins were calculated by nonlinear regression analysis of the square-wave voltammetry. The addition of CNN significantly enhanced not only the electron transfer of the heme proteins but also their electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H2O2. Low apparent Michaelis-Menten constants were obtained for the heme protein-CNN-CS-DMF films, demonstrating that the biosensors have a high affinity for H2O2. In addition, the resulting electrodes displayed a low detection limit and improved sensitivity for detecting H2O2, which indicates that the biocomposite film can serve as a platform for constructing new non-aqueous biosensors for real detection. PMID:23632434

Wang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Tu, Jiaojiao; Xiong, Huayu; Wang, Shengfu

2013-12-01

118

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01

119

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09

120

Surface exploration of a room-temperature ionic liquid-chitin composite film decorated with electrochemically deposited PdFeNi trimetallic alloy nanoparticles by pattern recognition: an elegant approach to developing a novel biotin biosensor.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel biosensing system for the determination of biotin (BTN) based on electrodeposition of palladium-iron-nickel (PdFeNi) trimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-chitin (Ch) composite film (PdFeNi/ChRTIL/GCE) is established. NPs have a wide range of applications in science and technology and their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we used a pattern recognition method (digital image processing, DIP) for measuring particle size distributions (PSDs) from scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images in the presence of an uneven background. Different depositions were performed by varying the number of cyclic potential scans (N) during electroreduction step. It was observed that the physicochemical properties of the deposits were correlated to the performance of the PdFeNi/ChRTIL/GCE with respect to BTN assay. The best results were obtained for eight electrodeposition cyclic scans, where small-sized particles (19.54 ± 6.27 nm) with high density (682 particles µm(-2)) were obtained. Under optimized conditions, a linear range from 2.0 to 44.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) were obtained. The PdFeNi/ChRTIL nanocomposite showed excellent compatibility, enhanced electron transfer kinetics, large electroactive surface area, and was highly sensitive, selective, and stable toward BTN determination. Finally, the PdFeNi/ChRTIL/GCE was satisfactorily applied to the determination of BTN in infant milk powder, liver, and egg yolk samples. PMID:25281100

Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C; Paimard, Giti; Skov, Thomas

2015-01-01

121

New Insight of Coordination and Extraction of Uranium(VI) with N-Donating Ligands in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids: N,N'-Diethyl-N,N'-ditolyldipicolinamide as a Case Study.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) represent a recent new class of solvents applied in liquid/liquid extraction based nuclear fuel reprocessing, whereas the related coordination chemistry and detailed extraction processes are still not well understood and remain of deep fundamental interest. The work herein provides a new insight of coordination and extraction of uranium(VI) with N-donating ligands, e.g., N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyldipicolinamide (EtpTDPA), in commonly used RTILs. Exploration of the extraction mechanism, speciation analyses of the extracted U(VI), and crystallographic studies of the interactions of EtpTDPA with U(VI) were performed, including the first structurally characterized UO2(EtpTDPA)2(NTf2) and UO2(EtpTDPA)2(PF6)2 compounds and a first case of crystallographic differentiation between the extracted U(VI) complexes in RTILs and in molecular solvents. It was found that in RTILs two EtpTDPA molecules coordinate with one U(VI) ion through the carbonyl and pyridine nitrogen moieties, while NTf2(-) and PF6(-) act as counterions. The absence of NO3(-) in the complexes is coincident with a cation-exchange extraction. In contrast, both the extracted species and extraction mechanisms are greatly different in dichloromethane, in which UO2(2+) coordinates in a neutral complex form with one EtpTDPA molecule and two NO3(-) cations. In addition, the complex formation in RTILs is independent of the cation exchange since incorporating UO2(NO3)2, EtpTDPA, and LiNTf2 or KPF6 in a solution also produces the same complex as that in RTILs, revealing the important roles of weakly coordinating anions on the coordination chemistry between U(VI) and EtpTDPA. These findings suggest that cation-exchange extraction mode for ILs-based extraction system probably originates from the supply of weakly coordinating anions from RTILs. Thus the coordination of uranium(VI) with extractants as well as the cation-exchange extraction mode may be potentially changed by varying the counterions of uranyl or introducing extra anions. PMID:25629464

Yuan, Li-Yong; Sun, Man; Mei, Lei; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Li-Rong; Gao, Zeng-Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

2015-02-16

122

Crystal structures of frozen room temperature ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF 4), hexafluoroniobate (EMImNbF 6) and hexafluorotantalate (EMImTaF 6), determined by low-temperature X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structures of three salts, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF 4), hexafluoroniobate (EMImNbF 6) and hexafluorotantalate (EMImTaF 6), all of which form room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), have been determined by low-temperature X-ray diffraction studies of their single crystals. EMImBF 4 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c with a=8.653(5) Å, b=9.285(18) Å, c=13.217(7) Å, ?=121.358(15) Å, V=906.8(19) Å, Z=4 at 100 K. EMImBF 4 exhibits a unique structure wherein EMIm cations form one-dimensional pillars facing the imidazolium ring to the next ring linked by H(methylene)⋯ ? electron interaction. The BF 4 anion also forms one-dimensional pillars along the same direction with the nearest F⋯F contact distance of 3.368(3) Å. EMImNbF 6 and EMImTaF 6 are isostructural to each other and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P222: EMImNbF 6, a=9.204(4) Å, b=9.770(15) Å, c=12.499(13) Å, V=1124(2) Å, Z=4 at 200 K; EMImTaF 6, a=9.216(5) Å, b=9.763(2) Å, c=12.502(17) Å, V=1124.9(17) Å, Z=4 at 200 K. In EMImNbF 6 and EMImTaF 6, EMIm cations also form a one-dimensional pillar structure and the hexafluorocomplex anions are located in a zig-zag arrangement along the same direction with the nearest F⋯F distance of 3.441(12) Å. This structure (Type-B(MF 6)) is different from the Type-A(MF 6) structure previously reported for EMImPF 6, EMImAsF 6 and EMImSbF 6. Hydrogen bonds in the Type-A(MF 6) (EMImPF 6 (333 K), EMImAsF 6 (326 K) and EMImSbF 6 (283 K)) crystal lattice are weaker than those in the Type-B(MF 6) (EMImNbF 6 (272 K) and EMImTaF 6 (275 K)) crystal lattice. This suggests that the strength of the hydrogen bond is not always a decisive and determining factor for the melting points of RTILs. The measurement of cell parameters for EMImBF 4 between 100 K and its melting point revealed that EMImBF 4 essentially preserves the same structure in this temperature range and increases its volume by only 4% due to the melting.

Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika; Mazej, Zoran; Benki?, Primož; Žemva, Boris

2006-10-01

123

Orientational Dynamics in a Lyotropic Room Temperature Ionic Adam L. Sturlaugson, Aaron Y. Arima, Heather E. Bailey, and Michael D. Fayer*  

E-print Network

, the first clearly observed biexponential decays in optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments on a series of 1-alkyl-3-meOrientational Dynamics in a Lyotropic Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Adam L. Sturlaugson, Aaron Y

Fayer, Michael D.

124

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOEpatents

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30

125

Excitation wavelength dependence of excited state intramolecular proton transfer reaction of 4'-N,N-diethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in room temperature ionic liquids studied by optical Kerr gate fluorescence measurement.  

PubMed

Excited state intramolecular proton transfer reactions (ESIPT) of 4'-N,N-diethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone (DEAHF) in ionic liquids have been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements at different excitation wavelengths. Steady-state measurements show the relative yield of the tautomeric form to the normal form of DEAHF decreases as excitation wavelength is increased from 380 to 450 nm. The decrease in yield is significant in ionic liquids that have cations with long alkyl chains. The extent of the decrease is correlated with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chains. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements using optical Kerr gate spectroscopy show that ESIPT rate has a strong excitation wavelength dependence. There is a large difference between the spectra at a 200 ps delay from different excitation wavelengths in each ionic liquid. The difference is pronounced in ionic liquids having a long alkyl chain. The equilibrium constant in the electronic excited state obtained at a 200 ps delay and the average reaction rate are also correlated with the alkyl chain length. Considering the results of the steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved measurements, the excitation wavelength dependence of ESIPT is explained by state selective excitation due to the difference of the solvation, and the number of alkyl chain carbon atoms is found to be a good indicator of the effect of inhomogeneity for this reaction. PMID:24088033

Suda, Kayo; Terazima, Masahide; Sato, Hirofumi; Kimura, Yoshifumi

2013-10-17

126

New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

2003-11-01

127

Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids are receiving an upsurge of interest as green solvents; primarily as replacements for conventional media in\\u000a chemical processes. This review presents an overview of the chemistry that has been developed utilising ionic liquids as either\\u000a catalyst and\\/or solvent, with particular emphasis on processes that have been taken beyond the pre-competetive laboratory\\u000a stage and represent clean industrial technology with

J. D. Holbrey; K. R. Seddon

1999-01-01

128

Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion  

E-print Network

Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

Courtney, Daniel George

2011-01-01

129

Ionic Liquids as Extraction Media for Metal Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In solvent extraction separation of metal ions, recently, many researchers have investigated possible use of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media instead of organic solvents. Ionic liquids are salts of liquid state around room temperature and can act not only as solvents but also as ion-exchangers. Therefore, the extraction mechanism of metal ions into ionic liquids is complicated. This review presents current overview and perspective on evaluation of nature of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media for metal ions.

Hirayama, Naoki

130

Electronic dephasing in nonpolar room temperature liquids: UV photon echo pulse duration dependent measurements  

E-print Network

determined by comparing the pulse duration dependent resonant enhancement of the total two pulse four wave two pulse photon echoes, in particular the competition with nonresonant signal, are discussedElectronic dephasing in nonpolar room temperature liquids: UV photon echo pulse duration dependent

Fayer, Michael D.

131

Experimental Investigation of Multilayer Insulation With Room Temperature Outside and Liquid Helium Temperature Inside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on multilayer insulation were conducted with the conditions of room temperature outside and liquid helium temperature (4.2K) inside. By varying the total number of radiation shields, heat trans fer rate and transverse layer-by-layer temperature distribution were measured. Experimental data with liquid nitrogen (77K) were also ob tained and the difference in heat transfer rate between from room tempera ture

N. Inai

1977-01-01

132

Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

133

Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

2004-10-01

134

Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia

2011-01-01

135

The use of ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) in FIB applications  

E-print Network

A new monoenergetic, high-brightness ion source can be constructed using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal with an ionic liquid, or room temperature molten salt. Ion ...

Zorzos, Anthony Nicholas

2009-01-01

136

Electrochemical Generation of Superoxide in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-print Network

More fun- damental studies on redox reaction kinetics and behavior in RTILs have been done solvents to form O2 · according to the follow- ing reaction O2 e O2 · 1 A comprehensive review- peroxide ion was unstable and thus cannot be used as a reagent in subsequent reactions. In this paper, we

Weidner, John W.

137

Optical measurements of impurities in room-temperature ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption spectra of 1-methylimidazole and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMIM][TFSI], mixtures from 0% to 20% mole fraction are reported at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. Quantitative measurement of 1-methylimidazole in [EMIM][TFSI] is reported using an isolated 1-methylimidazole absorption feature at 1520 cm-1. UV measurements reveal a 1-methylimidazole absorption feature at 270 nm and a 260 nm feature for [EMIM][TFSI]. Absorption at 280 nm is demonstrated to scale with 1-methylimidazole mole fraction in [EMIM][TFSI] and is used to measure 1-methylimidazole mole fractions. Absorption is shown to increase around 240 nm upon addition of 1-methylimidazole to [EMIM][TFSI], which preliminary time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify as an intermolecular excitation between [EMIM][TFSI] and 1-methylimidazole. We report recommendations for UV and infrared detection schemes for the quantitative detection of 1-methylimidazole in [EMIM][TFSI].

Porter, Jason M.; Dreyer, Christopher B.; Bicknase, David; Vyas, Shubham; Mark Maupin, C.; Poshusta, Joe; Martin, Jerry

2014-01-01

138

Mixtures of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Simple ionic liquids have long been held to be designer solvents, based upon the ability to independently vary their cations and anions. The formation of mixtures of ionic liquids increases this synthetic flexibility. We review the available literature of these ionic liquid mixtures to identify how their properties change and the possibility for their application. PMID:22890419

Niedermeyer, Heiko; Hallett, Jason P; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Hunt, Patricia A; Welton, Tom

2012-12-01

139

Electrochemical transistors with ionic liquids for enzymatic sensing  

E-print Network

and anions. According to the current convention, a salt melting below the normal boiling point of water and lactate. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts, which are liquid at ambient temperature at ambient temperature. The most commonly known salt, NaCl, becomes liquid above 801 o C. Under normal

Lee, Hyowon

140

Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts  

DOEpatents

Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

Li, Zaiwei (Moreno Valley, CA); Tang, Yongchun (Walnut, CA); Cheng; Jihong (Arcadia, CA)

2009-11-10

141

Coordinating chiral ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A practical synthesis of novel coordinating chiral ionic liquids with an amino alcohol structural motif was developed starting from commercially available amino alcohols. These basic chiral ionic liquids could be successfully applied as catalysts in the asymmetric alkylation of aldehydes and gave high enantioselectivities of up to 91% ee. PMID:24163003

Vasiloiu, Maria; Leder, Sonja; Gaertner, Peter; Mereiter, Kurt; Bica, Katharina

2013-12-14

142

Novel room temperature molten salt electrolyte based on LiTFSI and acetamide for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel room temperature molten salt (RTMS) electrolyte composed of lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfone)imide (LiN(SO2CF3)2, LiTFSI) and acetamide was found. Both LiTFSI and acetamide are solid at room temperature, but their mixture is a liquid at room temperature with a eutectic temperature of ?67 °C at a molar ratio of 1:4 (LiTFSI:Acetamide). The room temperature ionic conductivities of some compositions of

Yongsheng Hu; Hong Li; Xuejie Huang; Liquan Chen

2004-01-01

143

A new class of room temperature molten salts for battery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salts that are liquid at room temperature would provide a completely ionic electrolyte for rechargeable batteries without the penalty of high operating temperatures. We have discovered and characterized a new class of molten salts that are liquids considerably below room temperature. The new materials are mixtures of dialkyimidazolium chlorides and aluminum chloride. The solid-liquid phase diagram of one member of

J. S. Wilkes; J. A. Levisky; J. S. Landers; R. L. Vaughn; C. L. Hussey; D. A. Floreani; D. J. Stech

1981-01-01

144

hal-00132485,version1-21Feb2007 Liquid nitrogen to room temperature thermometry using niobium nitride thin films  

E-print Network

.bourgeois@grenoble.cnrs.fr of the two different gases is an adjustable parameter used to control the level of nitrogen doping in the film. The exact proportion of argon and nitrogen in the plasma is also controlled via a masshal-00132485,version1-21Feb2007 Liquid nitrogen to room temperature thermometry using niobium

Boyer, Edmond

145

Determination of gastrodin and vanillyl alcohol inGastrodia elata Blume by pressurized liquid extraction at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature with a laboratory- assembled system was applied for the extraction of gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alco- hol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume. The proposed system setup for this current work was simpler as no heating and backpressure regulator was required. Extraction with PLE was carried out dynamically at a flow rate of 1.5

Ming Yuan Heng; Huijing Koh; Chin Chye Teo; Choy Sin Hew

2007-01-01

146

A room-temperature processed parylene-patterned helical ionic polymer-metal composite spring actuator with selectable active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel helical ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) spring actuator. A room-temperature fabrication process is developed to selectively grow in situ nickel metal electrode on a coiled Nafion strip, which is patterned with parylene as a masking layer to delineate the inactive region. This method allows the helical spring actuator to be shaped in a near-constant temperature environment and minimizes the residual stress effect on the Nafion polymer, compared to other processes using thermal treatment. The developed process ensures that short-circuiting never occurs between the outer and inner electrodes of the actuator, and the active region can be designed via parylene patterning. The motion of the fabricated spring actuator is measured, and the maximal displacement reaches 1 mm at the endpoint of the spring under a 0.1 Hz 6 V square wave actuation. A microtensile experiment is performed for characterizing the stress and strain relation. The resulting Young’s moduli of the Nafion and fabricated IPMC strips are 183 and 227 MPa, respectively. Analysis based on Castigliano’s theorem is executed to derive equations related to the moment, force output, strain energy, and displacement of an arbitrary point of the fabricated spring actuator. Results show the produced moment, force, and strain energy of the operated spring actuator are in the level of 1.5 ?N m, 300 mN, and 20-100 ?J, respectively.

Feng, Guo-Hua; Zhan, Zhen-Hua

2014-04-01

147

Applications of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

2012-06-01

148

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01

149

Thermodynamics and cell chemistry of room temperature sodium/sulfur cells with liquid and liquid/solid electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell chemistry of sodium/sulfur cells operating at room temperature (RT-Na/S cells) is being studied electrochemically and structurally. We show by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that the cell reaction is incomplete but prove that the end members of the cell reaction (S and Na2S) form among the expected polysulfide species Na2Sx. The sulfur utilization can be improved by employing a solid electrolyte membrane (beta?-alumina) that prevents the diffusion of the soluble polysulfide species toward the sodium side. As an important finding, the Na+ conduction within the solid electrolyte phase and across the two liquid/solid interfaces results in only small overpotentials. Nevertheless the utilization of sulfur in the present RT-Na/S (475 mAh g-1) cells is lower than the theoretical value (1675 mAh g-1). One probable reason is the chemical instability of the widely used PVDF binder. Also, the thermodynamic properties of RT-Na/S cells operating at room temperature are discussed and compared with the currently much more studied RT-Li/S cells.

Wenzel, Sebastian; Metelmann, Hauke; Raiß, Christine; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-12-01

150

FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids  

SciTech Connect

DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ?6 wt% and ?50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the experiments. Overall, the combined experimental measurements and simulations indicate that hydrogen storage based on enhanced solubility in nano-confined liquids is unlikely to meet the storage densities required for practical use. Only low gravimetric capacities of < 0.5 wt% were achieved. More importantly, solvent filled scaffolds had lower volumetric capacities than corresponding empty scaffolds. Nevertheless, several of the composites measured did show significant (>~ 5x) enhanced hydrogen solubility relative to bulk solvent solubility, when the hydrogen capacity was attributed only to dissolution in the confined solvent. However, when the hydrogen capacity was compared to an empty scaffold that is known to store hydrogen by surface adsorption on the scaffold walls, including the solvent always reduced the hydrogen capacity. For the best composites, this reduction relative to an empty scaffold was ~30%; for the worst it was ~90%. The highest capacities were obtained with the largest solvent molecules and with scaffolds containing 3- dimensionally confined pore geometries. The simulations suggested that the capacity of the composites originated from hydrogen adsorption on the scaffold pore walls at sites not occupied by solvent molecules. Although liquid solvent filled the pores, not all of the adsorption sites on the pore walls were occupied due to restricted motion of the solvent molecules within the confined pore space.

VAJO, JOHN

2014-06-12

151

Determination of gastrodin and vanillyl alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized liquid extraction at room temperature.  

PubMed

Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature with a laboratory-assembled system was applied for the extraction of gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume. The proposed system setup for this current work was simpler as no heating and backpressure regulator was required. Extraction with PLE was carried out dynamically at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, at room temperature, under an applied pressure of 10-20 bars with an extraction time of 40-50 min. The extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using 20% aqueous ethanol were compared with heating under reflux using organic solvents such as methanol and ethanol/water (20:80) for different batches of medicinal plant materials. For the determination of GA and VA in G. elata Blume, the extraction efficiencies of PLE at room temperature were observed to be comparable with heating under reflux. The method precision was found to vary from 1.6 to 8.6% (RSD, n = 6) on different days. The marker compounds present in the various medicinal plant extracts were determined by gradient elution HPLC and HPLC/MS/MS. Our work demonstrated the possibility of implementation of PLE at room temperature and the advantages of minimizing the use of organic solvents in the extraction process. PMID:17625795

Ong, Eng Shi; Heng, Ming Yuan; Tan, Swee Ngin; Hong Yong, Jean Wan; Koh, Huijing; Teo, Chin Chye; Hew, Choy Sin

2007-08-01

152

Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions  

PubMed Central

We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

2013-01-01

153

VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

2007-05-29

154

Electroplating Using Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroplating is a key technology in many large-scale industrial applications such as corrosion-resistant and decorative coatings. Issues with current aqueous processes, such as toxicity of reagents and low current efficiencies, can often be overcome by using ionic liquids, and this approach has turned ionometallurgy into a fast-growing area of research. This review outlines the interactions in ionic liquids that are responsible for the advantageous properties of these solvents in electroplating. It summarizes recent research in which these properties have been analyzed or exploited and highlights fundamental issues in research and technology that need to be addressed.

Abbott, Andrew P.; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S.

2013-07-01

155

Chemical propulsion using ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Chemical propulsion generates motion by directly converting locally stored chemical energy into mechanical energy. Here, we describe chemically driven autonomous motion generated by using imidazolium-based ionic liquids on a water surface. From measurements of the driving force of a locomotor loaded with an ionic liquid and observations of convection on the water surface originating from the ionic liquid container of the locomotor, the driving mechanism of the motion is found to be due to the Marangoni effect that arises from the anisotropic distribution of ionic liquids on the water surface. The maximum driving force and the force-generation duration are determined by the surface activity of the ionic liquid and the solubility of the ionic liquid in water, respectively. Because of the special properties of ionic liquids, a chemical locomotor driven by ionic liquids is promising for realizing autonomous micromachines and nanomachines that are safe and environmentally friendly. PMID:23398242

Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Takagi, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Kunitomo; Miki, Hirobumi

2013-03-01

156

Electrically switchable multi-stable cholesteric liquid crystal based on chiral ionic liquid.  

PubMed

A multi-stable and electrically switchable cholesteric liquid crystal based on chiral ionic liquid is demonstrated. The cholesteric liquid crystal can be switched among the planar texture, focal conic texture, wide-band reflected state, and fingerprint texture by applying specific electric fields. Each of these four states exists stably for several hours without any obvious change observed at room temperature. The electro-optical properties and driving scheme of the cholesteric liquid crystal are also reported. PMID:25502999

Lu, Hongbo; Xu, Wei; Song, Zhigang; Zhang, Shanna; Qiu, Longzhen; Wang, Xianghua; Zhang, Guobing; Hu, Juntao; Lv, Guoqiang

2014-12-15

157

Magnetic microemulsions based on magnetic ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Microemulsions with magnetic properties were formed by employing a magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL) as polar phase, cyclohexane as oil, and an appropriate mixture of ionic surfactant and decanol as a cosurfactant. By means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and electric conductivity the microemulsion structure could be confirmed, where the classical structural sequence of oil-continuous-bicontinuous-polar phase continuous is observed with increasing ratio [polar phase]/[oil]. Accordingly a maximum of the structural size is observed at about equal volumes of oil and MRTIL contained. Therefore this system is structurally the same as normal microemulsions but with the magnetic properties added to it by the incorporation into the systems formulation. PMID:23060241

Klee, Andreas; Prevost, Sylvain; Kunz, Werner; Schweins, Ralf; Kiefer, Klaus; Gradzielski, Michael

2012-11-28

158

Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids  

PubMed Central

Summary Ionic liquids (ILs) incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners. PMID:24605146

Mukhlall, Joshua A; Romeo, Alicia R; Gohdo, Masao; Ramati, Sharon; Berman, Marc; Suarez, Sophia N

2014-01-01

159

Tuning ionic liquids for high gas solubility and reversible gas sorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

New 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium-based ionic liquids have been synthesized and their ability to reversibly absorb gaseous sulfur dioxide and ammonia investigated. It was found that up to 2moles of gas at 1bar could be absorbed per mole of ionic liquid at room temperature and almost completely desorbed by heating or lowering of the pressure. No change in absorbing capacity of the ionic

Jun Huang; Anders Riisager; Rolf W. Berg; Rasmus Fehrmann

2008-01-01

160

Criteria for solvate ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Certain concentrated mixtures of salts and solvents are not simply "solutions" anymore, but they may be described as "ionic liquids". In this perspective paper, we describe possible criteria for the new family of ionic liquids: "solvate" ionic liquids. This subclass of ionic liquids was originally proposed by Angell et al. in their recent review; however, their criteria remain to be debated. Concentrated mixtures of lithium salts and organic solvents are useful models for these solvate ionic liquids, and the effects of the salt concentration, types of solvents, and counter anions of the lithium salts on their structure and properties have been explored to enable contrast with traditional solutions, and to help determine whether a given mixture belongs to the solvate ionic liquid or not. PMID:24676567

Mandai, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2014-05-21

161

Low Toxic Ionic Liquids, Liquid Catanionics, and Ionic Liquid Microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future the demand of sustainable and low toxic surfactants and solvents will constantly increase. In this article, we present some new approaches to meet these requirements. Whereas ionic liquids are often based on imidazolium ions, we will show that there are also much less toxic ones, especially with choline as cation. Choline salts, even if solid at room

Werner Kunz; Eva Maurer; Regina Klein; Didier Touraud; Doris Rengstl; Agnes Harrar; Susanne Dengler; Oliver Zech

2011-01-01

162

Functional ionic liquid from biorenewable materials: synthesis and application as a catalyst in direct aldol reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new room temperature ionic liquid (IL) (2-hydroxyethyl)-trimethyl-ammonium (S)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid salt ([Choline][Pro]) has been synthesized from biorenewable and nontoxic raw materials (choline chloride and l(?)-proline) in a simple and relative green route. The IL has been demonstrated to be the efficient catalyst of the direct aldol reactions between ketones and aromatic aldehydes in water at room temperature. The aldol products

Suqin Hu; Tao Jiang; Zhaofu Zhang; Anlian Zhu; Buxing Han; Jinliang Song; Ye Xie; Wenjing Li

2007-01-01

163

Ionic liquids in confined geometries.  

PubMed

Over recent years the Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) has been used to carry out model experiments revealing structural and dynamic properties of ionic liquids confined to thin films. Understanding characteristics such as confinement induced ion layering and lubrication is of primary importance to many applications of ionic liquids, from energy devices to nanoparticle dispersion. This Perspective surveys and compares SFA results from several laboratories as well as simulations and other model experiments. A coherent picture is beginning to emerge of ionic liquids as nano-structured in pores and thin films, and possessing complex dynamic properties. The article covers structure, dynamics, and colloidal forces in confined ionic liquids; ionic liquids are revealed as a class of liquids with unique and useful confinement properties and pertinent future directions of research are highlighted. PMID:22301770

Perkin, Susan

2012-04-21

164

Preparation of Sm-doped ceria (SDC) nanowires and tubes by gas-liquid co-precipitation at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

Sm-doped cerium dioxide (SDC) with fcc structure was formed using a gas-liquid chemical co-precipitation process at room temperature. Morphology and structure of the as-prepared samples were characterized using TG, XRD, TEM, HRTEM and SAED techniques. Under our specific experimental conditions, two kinds of 1D nano-structures SDC have been mainly obtained. SDC nanowires are 0.3-1.2 {mu}m in lengths and 5-20 nm in diameters. SDC nanotubes have outer diameters in 10-40 nm with lengths up to 2 {mu}m. The as-prepared SDC shows very strong UV absorption ability and the maximum absorption peak redshifts compared with that of SDC nanoparticles.

Gu Lina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, 230039 Hefei (China)], E-mail: gln@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Meng Guangyao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China)

2008-06-03

165

Low-melting mixtures based on choline ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this article a strategy is proposed for the design of low toxic, room temperature liquid low-melting mixtures (LMMs) which are entirely composed of natural materials. From literature it is well known that, in general, deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and dicarboxylic acids are LMMs, but not liquids at room temperature, with one exception: a 1?:?1 molar mixture of malonic acid and choline chloride. Therefore, the starting point of this study was the decrease of the melting point of one of the components, namely the dicarboxylic acid, which is succinic, glutaric or adipic acid. For this purpose, one of the two protons of the acidic group was exchanged by a bulky unsymmetrical choline cation. The resulting ionic liquids (ILs) were still solid at room temperature, but have a reduced melting temperature compared to the corresponding acids. In the second step, mixtures of these ILs with choline chloride were prepared. It turned out that choline glutarate-choline chloride mixtures are liquids at room temperature at compositions containing 95-98 wt% of choline glutarate. Finally, urea was added as another hydrogen bond donor. Density, conductivity and viscosity measurements were performed for all obtained mixtures. Moreover, a Walden plot was drawn which indicates that all mixtures are liquids with fully dissociated ions moving independently. Therefore, they are considered as "good" ionic liquids and, thus, for example they can be used to exchange more toxic or less biodegradable ILs in application processes. A brief outlook containing application possibilities is given. It is demonstrated that choline dodecylsulfate is readily soluble in these mixtures, forming aggregates in the LMM at temperatures exceeding 55 °C. PMID:25242504

Rengstl, Doris; Fischer, Veronika; Kunz, Werner

2014-11-01

166

Liquid-liquid extraction of neodymium(III) by dialkylphosphate ionic liquids from acidic medium: the importance of the ionic liquid cation.  

PubMed

The ionic liquids 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate, [C6mim][DEHP], 1-hexyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate, [C6mpyr][DEHP], and tetrabutylammonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate, [N4444][DEHP], were prepared and characterized using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The extraction behavior of neodymium(iii) from nitrate medium by these ionic liquids, diluted with the room temperature ionic liquids 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C6mim][NTf2], 1-hexyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C6mpyr][NTf2], and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], was studied. The distribution ratio of neodymium(iii) was measured as a function of various parameters, such as pH, concentration of the ionic liquid extractant, nature of diluents, concentration of ionic liquid cations and nitrate anions in the aqueous phase. The extraction behavior was compared with that obtained for a solution of the molecular extractant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) in an ionic liquid diluent. The extraction of neodymium(iii) in the ionic liquids [C6mim][DEHP] and [C6mpyr][DEHP] showed markedly different extraction properties in comparison with that of the quaternary ammonium analogue [N4444][DEHP], especially concerning the pH dependence of the extraction process. These results show that the extraction process can be tuned by the selection of the ionic liquid cation. The extraction experiments also included the trivalent rare-earth ions lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), praseodymium(iii), ytterbium(iii) and yttrium(iii). Studies of the stripping behavior and the reusability of the ionic liquids were carried out, which indicate that the ionic liquids can be reused with no loss in activity. PMID:23949284

Rout, Alok; Kotlarska, Justyna; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen

2013-10-21

167

Ionic liquids as surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of self-assembling in systems containing ionic liquids (ILs) are discussed. Main attention is paid to micellization in aqueous solutions of dialkylimidazolium ILs and their mixtures with classical surfactants. Literature data are reviewed, the results obtained by the authors and co-workers are presented. Thermodynamic aspects of the studies and problems of molecular-thermodynamic modeling receive special emphasis. It is shown that the aggregation behavior of dialkylimidazolium ILs is close to that of alkyltrimethylammonium salts (cationic surfactants) though ILs have a higher ability to self-organize, especially as it concerns long-range ordering. Some aspects of ILs applications are outlined where their common features with classical surfactants and definite specificity are of value.

Smirnova, N. A.; Safonova, E. A.

2010-10-01

168

Electrochemical behavior of ferrocene in ionic liquid media.  

PubMed

Chemistry and applicability of ionic liquids (IL), - organic salts with low melting point - are in the focus of interest today. The ILs with melting point below room temperature are expected to be good solvents. Their applicability in organic synthetic work, in separation processes as well as in electrochemistry is very promising. In the work reported here the voltammetric behavior of ferrocene in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM+ PF6-) ionic liquid has been investigated. Conventional size and micro platinum and carbon electrodes were employed in CV and in chronoamperometric measurements. Karl Fischer method was used for the determination of water content of the solvent. Voltammetric measurements without addition of background electrolyte could be carried out in (BMIM+ PF6-) ionic liquid. A broad potential window could be used. Concentration dependence of the electrochemically determined diffusion coefficient of the ferrocene was observed. PMID:16650899

Nagy, Lívia; Gyetvai, Gergely; Kollár, László; Nagy, Géza

2006-11-30

169

Effect of Ionic Liquids as Mobile Phase Additives on Retention of Catecholamines in Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids or room temperature ionic liquids have been widely investigated as new solvents for catalysis in the past several years. Because of some special properties of ionic liquids, interest of using them in different chemical processes is increasing. This work reports on the use of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium salts and N-butyl-pyridinium salts as new mobile phase additives for separation of catecholamines

Wenzhu Zhang; Lijun He; Yanlong Gu; Xia Liu; Shengxiang Jiang

2003-01-01

170

An ionic liquid as a solvent for headspace single drop microextraction of chlorobenzenes from water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquid and coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography capable of quantifying trace amounts of chlorobenzenes in environmental water samples is proposed. A Plackett–Burman design for screening was carried out in order to determine the significant experimental conditions affecting the HS-SDME process (namely drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength,

Lorena Vidal; Elefteria Psillakis; Claudia E. Domini; Nuria Grané; Frank Marken; Antonio Canals

2007-01-01

171

Ionic-liquid materials for the electrochemical challenges of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids are room-temperature molten salts, composed mostly of organic ions that may undergo almost unlimited structural variations. This review covers the newest aspects of ionic liquids in applications where their ion conductivity is exploited; as electrochemical solvents for metal\\/semiconductor electrodeposition, and as batteries and fuel cells where conventional media, organic solvents (in batteries) or water (in polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells),

Michel Armand; Frank Endres; Douglas R. Macfarlane; Hiroyuki Ohno; Bruno Scrosati

2009-01-01

172

Electrokinetic Transport in Ionic Liquids  

E-print Network

A key difficulty in understanding electrokinetic transport in ionic liquids lies in the construction of an appropriate reference dynamics. The common assumption of modelling ion dynamics as a Langevin process is not warranted for solvent-free ionic liquids. The electrokinetic transport of ionic liquids obtained by coarse graining a simple exclusion process defined on a lattice is considered. The resulting dynamical equations can be written as a gradient flow with a degenerate mobility function. This form of the mobility function gives rise to charging behaviours that are different to the ones known in electrolytic solutions; the predicted behaviours agree qualitatively with the phenomenology observed in simulations.

Lee, Alpha A; Goriely, Alain

2015-01-01

173

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01

174

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27

175

Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

176

Computer simulations of ionic liquids at electrochemical interfaces C. Merlet1,2  

E-print Network

, and the few recent works in this field are also commented upon. Ionic liquids are room-temperature molten salts, com- posed mostly of organic ions for which almost unlimited structural variations are possible1 of conventional organic solvents as electrolytes in battery6 , fuel cell or supercapacitor7 devices, allowing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

178

Vibrational photon echoes in a liquid and glass: Room temperature to 10 K A. Tokmakoff, D. Zimdars, B. Sauter, R. S. Francis, A. S. Kwok, and M. D. Fayer  

E-print Network

Vibrational photon echoes in a liquid and glass: Room temperature to 10 K A. Tokmakoff, D. Zimdars, Stanford, California 94305 (Received 8 March 1994; accepted 5 May 1994) Picosecond infrared vibrational report of a room temperature infrared vibrational photon echo in a liquid. Molecular vibrations

Fayer, Michael D.

179

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A. Stern, and B. J. Berne*  

E-print Network

hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]). We compute radial distribution functions, average density, and mean with experimental data reported in the literature. 1. Introduction Ionic liquids that are air- and water with a number of organic solvents and can be used as an alternative to water for systems with more than one

Berne, Bruce J.

180

Friedel–crafts alkylation of ?-methylnaphthalene in the presence of ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkylations of ?-methylnaphthalene with long-chain alkenes (mixed C11–12 olefins) in the presence of room temperature ionic liquids and zeolite catalysts have been investigated. The influences of various parameters, such as type and dosage of catalyst, molar ratio of ?-methylnaphthalene to alkenes, reaction temperature, and reaction time were studied. The EtxNH4?xCl-AlCl3 (x = 1–3, 0.67–0.75 molar fraction of aluminum trichloride) ionic

Zhong-Kui Zhao; Wei-Hong Qiao; Zong-Shi Li; Gui-Ru Wang; Lü-Bo Cheng

2004-01-01

181

Thermophysical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low melting point salts which are often classified as ionic liquids have received significant attention from research groups and industry for a range of novel applications. Many of these require a thorough knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the pure fluids and their mixtures. Despite this need, the necessary experimental data for many properties is scarce and often inconsistent between the various sources. By using accurate data, predictive physical models can be developed which are highly useful and some would consider essential if ionic liquids are to realize their full potential. This is particularly true if one can use them to design new ionic liquids which maximize key desired attributes. Therefore there is a growing interest in the ability to predict the physical properties and behavior of ionic liquids from simple structural information either by using group contribution methods or directly from computer simulations where recent advances in computational techniques are providing insight into physical processes within these fluids. Given the importance of these properties this review will discuss the recent advances in our understanding, prediction and correlation of selected ionic liquid physical properties.

Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Gardas, Ramesh

182

Particle aggregation mechanisms in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Aggregation of sub-micron and nano-sized polystyrene latex particles was studied in room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) and in their water mixtures by time-resolved light scattering. The aggregation rates were found to vary with the IL-to-water molar ratio in a systematic way. At the water side, the aggregation rate is initially small, but increases rapidly with increasing IL content, and reaches a plateau value. This behaviour resembles simple salts, and can be rationalized by the competition of double-layer and van der Waals forces as surmised by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). At the IL side, aggregation slows down again. Two generic mechanisms could be identified to be responsible for the stabilization in ILs, namely viscous stabilization and solvation stabilization. Viscous stabilization is important in highly viscous ILs, as it originates from the slowdown of the diffusion controlled aggregation due to the hindrance of the diffusion in a viscous liquid. The solvation stabilization mechanism is system specific, but can lead to a dramatic slowdown of the aggregation rate in ILs. This mechanism is related to repulsive solvation forces that are operational in ILs due to the layering of the ILs close to the surfaces. These two stabilization mechanisms are suspected to be generic, as they both occur in different ILs, and for particles differing in surface functionalities and size. PMID:24727976

Szilagyi, Istvan; Szabo, Tamas; Desert, Anthony; Trefalt, Gregor; Oncsik, Tamas; Borkovec, Michal

2014-05-28

183

Determination of the active constituents in Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst. by ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shikonin and ?,??-dimethylacrylshikonin in Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst. were extracted by ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-based UAE) and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dried powder of A. euchroma (Royle) Johnst. was mixed with a room temperature ionic liquid [C6MIM][BF4] to form a suspension, and then the ultrasonic extraction was performed in a water bath at ambient temperature. The

Yao Xiao; Ying Wang; Shiqian Gao; Rui Zhang; Ruibing Ren; Na Li; Hanqi Zhang

2011-01-01

184

Ionic-liquid materials for the electrochemical challenges of the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquids are room-temperature molten salts, composed mostly of organic ions that may undergo almost unlimited structural variations. This review covers the newest aspects of ionic liquids in applications where their ion conductivity is exploited; as electrochemical solvents for metal/semiconductor electrodeposition, and as batteries and fuel cells where conventional media, organic solvents (in batteries) or water (in polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells), fail. Biology and biomimetic processes in ionic liquids are also discussed. In these decidedly different materials, some enzymes show activity that is not exhibited in more traditional systems, creating huge potential for bioinspired catalysis and biofuel cells. Our goal in this review is to survey the recent key developments and issues within ionic-liquid research in these areas. As well as informing materials scientists, we hope to generate interest in the wider community and encourage others to make use of ionic liquids in tackling scientific challenges.

Armand, Michel; Endres, Frank; Macfarlane, Douglas R.; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Scrosati, Bruno

2009-08-01

185

Synthesis and characterization of 5-cyanotetrazolide-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

New salts based on imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, guanidinium, and ammonium cations together with the 5-cyanotetrazolide anion [C2 N5 ](-) are reported. Depending on the nature of cation-anion interactions, characterized by XRD, the ionic liquids (ILs) have a low viscosity and are liquid at room temperature or have higher melting temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry, viscosimetry, and impedance spectroscopy display a thermal stability up to 230?°C, an electrochemical window of 4.5?V, a viscosity of 25?mPa?s at 20?°C, and an ionic conductivity of 5.4?mS?cm(-1) at 20?°C for the IL 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium 5-cyanotetrazolide [BMPyr][C2 N5 ]. On the basis of these results, the synthesized compounds are promising electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25504790

Bergholz, Timm; Oelkers, Benjamin; Huber, Benedikt; Roling, Bernhard; Sundermeyer, Jörg

2015-02-01

186

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOEpatents

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12

187

Designing Imidazole-Based Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid Monomers for Emerging Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imidazolium-based ionic liquids and ionic liquid monomers are becoming increasingly popular in a variety of areas including biphasic reaction catalysis, electromechanical actuator membranes and diluents, separation science membranes, and water purification agents. Ionic liquids first incorporated the imidazole ring in 1984 and this heterocyclic ring has emerged as the focal point of the ionic liquid field. Imidazole was targeted for

Matthew D. Green; Timothy E. Long

2009-01-01

188

Ionic Liquids from Theoretical Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical investigations of ionic liquids are reviewed. Three main cate-gories are discussed, i.e., static quantum chemical calculations (electronic structure methods), traditional molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Simple models are reviewed in brief.

Kirchner, Barbara

189

Room-Temperature-Cured Copolymers for Lithium Battery Gel Electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide-PEO copolymers (PEO signifies polyethylene oxide) that have branched rod-coil molecular structures and that can be cured into film form at room temperature have been invented for use as gel electrolytes for lithium-ion electric-power cells. These copolymers offer an alternative to previously patented branched rod-coil polyimides that have been considered for use as polymer electrolytes and that must be cured at a temperature of 200 C. In order to obtain sufficient conductivity for lithium ions in practical applications at and below room temperature, it is necessary to imbibe such a polymer with a suitable carbonate solvent or ionic liquid, but the high-temperature cure makes it impossible to incorporate and retain such a liquid within the polymer molecular framework. By eliminating the high-temperature cure, the present invention makes it possible to incorporate the required liquid.

Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.

2009-01-01

190

Anion Effects on Interfacial Absorption of Gases in Ionic Liquids. A Molecular Dynamics Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics simulations with many-body interactions were carried out to systematic study the effect of anion type, tetrafluoroborate [BF4] or hexafluorophosphate [PF6], paired with the cation 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [bmim], on the interfacial absorption of gases in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The potentials of mean force (PMF) of CO2 and H2O at 350 K were calculated across the air-liquid interfaces of

Collin D. Wick; Liem X. Dang

2011-01-01

191

Room-temperature ionic liquids: temperature dependence of gas solubility selectivity  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on bulk fluid solubility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gases in the imidazolium-based RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((emim)(Tf{sub 2}N)),1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((emim)(BF{sub 4})),1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide((hmim)(Tf{sub 2}N)), and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methyl sulfate ((mmim)(MeSO{sub 4})) as a function of temperature (25, 40, 55, and 70{sup o}C) at near-atmospheric pressures. The experimental behaviors are explained in terms of thermodynamic relationships that account for the negligible vapor pressure of the RTIL as well as the low solubilities of the gases. Results show that, as temperature increases, the solubility of CO{sub 2} decreases in all RTILs, the solubility of CH{sub 4} remains constant in (emim)(Tf{sub 2}N) and (hmim)(Tf{sub 2}N) but increases in(mmim)(MeSO{sub 4}) and (emim)(BF{sub 4}), and the solubility of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} increases. Also, the ideal solubility selectivity (ratio of pure-component solubilities) increases as temperature decreases for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} systems. Experimental values for the enthalpy and entropy of solvation are reported.

Alexia Finotello; Jason E. Bara; Dean Camper; Richard D. Noble [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

2008-05-15

192

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in ionic liquids (ILs) for their potential application in analytical chemistry continues to grow. Their usefulness can be due to favourable physicochemical properties, like the lack of vapour pressure, good thermal and chemical stability as well as very good dissolution properties regarding both organic and inorganic compounds. A specific feature of ILs is that these compounds provide strong proton

Micha? Piotr Marsza??; Roman Kaliszan

2007-01-01

193

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01

194

Solidlike coherent vibronic dynamics in a room temperature liquid: Resonant Raman and absorption spectroscopy of liquid bromine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV-visible absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of liquid bromine are presented and rigorously interpreted. The RR spectra, which show an anharmonic vibrational progression of up to 30 overtones, define the ground state potential in the range 2.05 Åliquid phase, indicating an attractive cage-molecule interaction. The excited state potentials (A', B, and C) are extracted from the absorption spectrum. The spectrum is first inverted under assumption of the classical reflection approximation, then corrected by forward simulations through quantum time correlations. The extrapolated B and C potentials are used to simulate RR spectra. Their validity is cross-checked by the interference pattern of the polarized spectra due to two-channel RR scattering. The discrepancy between calculated and observed intensities can be entirely assigned to vibrational dephasing, which is observed to follow the exponential energy gap law—dephasing rates perfectly trace the Birge-Sponer plot of the vibrational progression—suggesting that vibrational dissipation controls the decay of coherence. Despite strong intermolecular electronic interactions and vibrational energy gaps of ˜kT, vibrational coherences are long lived: Coherence times range from ?25 to ?2.4 ps between v =1 and v =25. Remarkably, the RR line shapes are skewed toward the red, indicating upchirp in frequencies that develop over a period of 400 fs. Evidently, the molecular vibrations adiabatically follow the solvent cage, which is impulsively driven into expansion during the ˜20 fs evolution on the electronically excited state. Liquid bromine retains coherence in ordered sluggish local cages with quadrupolar interactions—dynamics akin to molecules isolated in structured cryogenic rare gas solids.

Branigan, Edward T.; van Staveren, Marie N.; Apkarian, V. Ara

2010-01-01

195

Ionic liquid extraction systems utilizing ion recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquids have attracted much attention as the third liquid because they possess different properties from those of water and organic solvents. Their unique properties have encouraged us to develop liquid-liquid extraction systems using ionic liquids as extracting media. In this review, we describe metal ion and protein extractions in ionic liquid-water biphasic systems using the size recognition ability of macrocyclic compounds. Furthermore, we report the potential utility of ionic liquids as novel reaction media for biological catalysis with proteins extracted.

Shimojo, Kojiro; Goto, Masahiro

196

Surface tension of ionic liquids and ionic liquid solutions.  

PubMed

Some of the most active scientific research fronts of the past decade are centered on ionic liquids. These fluids present characteristic surface behavior and distinctive trends of their surface tension versus temperature. One way to explore and understand their unique nature is to study their surface properties. This critical review analyses most of the surface tension data reported between 2001 and 2010 (187 references). PMID:21811714

Tariq, Mohammad; Freire, Mara G; Saramago, Benilde; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N

2012-01-21

197

Synthesis, Purification and Characterization of Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis, purification and characterization of ionic liquids is reviewed. The major synthetic routes to low melting ionic salts are described in detail. The intrinsic properties of ionic liquids make purification difficult and therefore a special emphasis is placed on currently employed purification methodologies. Synthetic methods which are designed to avoid specific impurities are also discussed. For the same reasons highlighted above characterization of ionic liquids presents unique challenges; the available methods and some of the issues of their use are also reviewed.

Clare, Bronya; Sirwardana, Amal; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

198

Static and dynamic wetting behaviour of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a unique family of molecular liquids ('molten salts') that consist of a combination of bulky organic cations coupled to inorganic or organic anions. The net result of steric hindrance and strong hydrogen bonding between components results in a material that is liquid at room temperature. One can alter the properties of ionic liquids through chemical modification of anion and cation, thus tailoring the IL for a given application. One such property that can be controlled or selected is the wettability of an IL on a particular solid substrate. However, the study of wetting of ionic liquids is complicated by the care required for accurate and reproducible measurement, due to both the susceptibility of the IL properties to water content, as well as to the sensitivity of wettability measurements to the state of the solid surface. This review deals with wetting studies of ILs to date, including both static and dynamic wetting, as well as issues concerning line tension and the formation of precursor and wetting films. PMID:25103860

Delcheva, Iliana; Ralston, John; Beattie, David A; Krasowska, Marta

2014-07-18

199

Acrylate functionalized tetraalkylammonium salts with ionic liquid properties.  

PubMed

Acrylate functionalized ionic liquids based on tetraalkylammonium salts with terminal acrylates- and methylacrylates were synthesized. Melting points and ionic conductivity of twenty compounds in six groups were determined. Within one group the effect of three different counterions was investigated and discussed. The groups differ in cationic structure elements because of their functional groups such as acrylate and methacrylate, alkyl residues at the nitrogen and number of quaternary ammonium atoms within the organic cation. The effect of these cationic structure elements has been examined concerning the compiled parameters with a view to qualifying them as components for solid state electrolytes. The newly synthesized ionic liquids were characterized by NMR and FTIR analysis. The exchange of halide ions like bromide as counter ions to weakly coordinating [PF?]?, [OTf]? or [TFSI]? reduces the melting points significantly and leads to an ion conductivity of about 10?? S/cm at room temperature. In the case of the dicationic ionic liquid, an ion conductivity of about 10?³ S/cm was observed. PMID:22728356

Grothe, Dorian C; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Janietz, Silvia

2012-01-01

200

Horseradish peroxidase in ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with water insoluble phenolic compounds has been studied in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4])\\/water mixtures. The enzyme retained some catalytic activity up to 90% ionic liquid in water at 25°C only at pH values higher than 9.0. Activity steadily decreased towards neutral and acidic conditions, as judged by 4-aminoantypirin\\/phenol activity tests. Inhibition of horseradish peroxidase under

Simona Sgalla; Giancarlo Fabrizi; Sandro Cacchi; Alberto Macone; Alessandra Bonamore; Alberto Boffi

2007-01-01

201

Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry. PMID:25177864

Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

2014-01-01

202

Ionic Liquids in Biomass Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquids have been studied for their special solvent properties in a wide range of processes, including reactions involving carbohydrates such as cellulose and glucose. Biomass is a widely available and renewable resource that is likely to become an economically viable source of starting materials for chemical and fuel production, especially with the price of petroleum set to increase as supplies are diminished. Biopolymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin may be converted to useful products, either by direct functionalisation of the polymers or depolymerisation to monomers, followed by microbial or chemical conversion to useful chemicals. Major barriers to the effective conversion of biomass currently include the high crystallinity of cellulose, high reactivity of carbohydrates and lignin, insolubility of cellulose in conventional solvents, as well as heterogeneity in the native lignocellulosic materials and in lignin itself. This combination of factors often results in highly heterogeneous depolymerisation products, which make efficient separation difficult. Thus the extraction, depolymerisation and conversion of biopolymers will require novel reaction systems in order to be both economically attractive and environmentally benign. The solubility of biopolymers in ionic liquids is a major advantage of their use, allowing homogeneous reaction conditions, and this has stimulated a growing research effort in this field. This review examines current research involving the use of ionic liquids in biomass reactions, with perspectives on how it relates to green chemistry, economic viability, and conventional biomass processes.

Tan, Suzie Su Yin; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

203

Recent advances in the applications of ionic liquids in protein stability and activity: a review.  

PubMed

Room temperatures ionic liquids are considered as miraculous solvents for biological system. Due to their inimitable properties and large variety of applications, they have been widely used in enzyme catalysis and protein stability and separation. The related information present in the current review is helpful to the researchers working in the field of biotechnology and biochemistry to design or choose an ionic liquid that can serve as a noble and selective solvent for any particular enzymatic reaction, protein preservation and other protein based applications. We have extensively analyzed the methods used for studying the protein-IL interaction which is useful in providing information about structural and conformational dynamics of protein. This can be helpful to develop and understanding about the effect of ionic liquids on stability and activity of proteins. In addition, the affect of physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids, viz. hydrogen bond capacity and hydrophobicity on protein stability are discussed. PMID:24599667

Patel, Rajan; Kumari, Meena; Khan, Abbul Bashar

2014-04-01

204

Micelle-stabilized room-temperature liquid phosphorimetry of metal chelates and its application to niobium determination  

SciTech Connect

A detailed examination of 8-hydroxyquinoline and some of its derivatives as potential complexing reagents for the room-temperature phosphorescence determination of Nb(V) in micelles of different charge-type surfactants has been conducted. Enhanced fluorescence was observed in most cases. To observe analytical room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP), however, several essential requirements were identified: (1) charged micelles allowing electrostatic interaction with the oppositely charged binary complex have to be present, (2) external heavy atoms, ideally bromoform, should be added, (3) oxygen has to be expelled out of micelles, which is accomplished by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ addition. Experimental conditions, including sunlight exposure, are optimized for the formation of the phosphorescent complex niobium(V)-ferron in micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Two complexes of metal-ferron with stoichiometries of 1:1 and 1:3 are formed. The last complex constitutes the basis of a RTP method for the determination of Nb (detection limit, 4 ppb; +/-2% relative standard deviation at 500 ppb of Nb level). Therefore, the first example of the determination of a metal ion by micelle-stabilized RTP is reported along with an insight into possible mechanisms of these micellar reactions.

Sanz-Medel; A.; Garcia, P.L.M.; Garcia, M.E.D.

1987-03-01

205

COMPARISON OF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES OF HEMIN, CYTOCHROME C AND MICROPEROXIDASE-11 IN MOLECULAR SOLVENTS AND IMIDAZOLIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of ferriprotoporphyrin(IX) chloride (hemin), microperoxidase-11 (MP-11), and cytochrome c (cyt-c) to oxidize guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) was examined in the room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and the hexafluorophosphates of 1-...

206

For session on "Structure and Properties of Ionic Liquids and Molten Salts" Ionic Liquids, quasi-ionic liquids, and quasi-liquid ionics, all with high  

E-print Network

For session on "Structure and Properties of Ionic Liquids and Molten Salts and hence the support a range of battery electrochemistries[1], and (ii in solid state batteries. [1] J.S. Wilkes, Green industrial applications of ionic

Angell, C. Austen

207

Ionic Liquids and Relative Process Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquids have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their significant advantages, not only as alternative solvents but also as new materials and catalysts. Until now, most research work on ionic liquids has been at the laboratory or pilot scale. In view of the multifarious applications of ionic liquids, more new knowledge is needed and more systematic work on ionic liquids should be carried out deeply and broadly in order to meet the future needs of process design. For example, knowledge of the physicochemical properties is indispensable for the design of new ionic liquids and for the development of novel processes. The synthesis and application of ionic liquids are fundamental parts of engineering science, and the toxicity and environmental assessment of ionic liquids is critical importance for their large scale applications, especially for process design. These research aspects are closely correlated to the industrial applications of ionic liquids and to sustainable processes. However, material process design in the industrial applications of ionic liquids has hardly been implemented. Therefore, this chapter reviews several essential issues that are closely related to process design, such as the synthesis, structure-property relationships, important applications, and toxicity of ionic liquids.

Zhang, S.; Lu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Sun, J.; Han, L.; Yue, G.; Liu, X.; Cheng, W.; Li, S.

208

Electrochemical properties of novel ionic liquids for electric double layer capacitor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aliphatic quaternary ammonium salt which has a methoxyethyl group on the nitrogen atom formed an ionic liquid (room temperature molten salt) when combined with the tetrafluoroborate (BF4?) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [TFSI; (CF3SO2)2N?] anions. The limiting oxidation and reduction potentials, specific conductivity, and some other physicochemical properties of the novel ionic liquids, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEME-BF4) and DEME-TFSI have been evaluated and

Takaya Sato; Gen Masuda; Kentaro Takagi

2004-01-01

209

The role of upstream distal electrodes in mitigating electrochemical degradation of ionic liquid ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquid ion sources produce molecular ions from micro-tip emitters wetted with room-temperature molten salts. When a single ion polarity is extracted, counterions accumulate and generate electrochemical reactions that limit the source lifetime. The dynamics of double layer formation are reviewed and distal electrode contacts are introduced to resolve detrimental electrochemical decomposition effects at the micro-tip apex. By having the emitter follow the ionic liquid potential, operation can be achieved for an extended period of time with no apparent degradation of the material, indicating that electrochemistry can be curtailed and isolated to the upstream distal electrode.

Brikner, Natalya; Lozano, Paulo C.

2012-11-01

210

Aluminium corrosion in room temperature molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium corrosion in a room temperature molten salt is studied to validate the use of a new kind of electrolyte in a lithium battery. Two solvents have been compared, the room temperature molten salt ethyl-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI), and the liquid organic solvent EC/DMC containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. After confirmation of high aluminium corrosion in the liquid solvent, the results does not show the occurrence of corrosion in the room temperature molten salt.

Garcia, Béatrice; Armand, Michel

211

Aluminium corrosion in room temperature molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium corrosion in a room temperature molten salt is studied to validate the use of a new kind of electrolyte in a lithium battery. Two solvents have been compared, the room temperature molten salt ethyl-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI), and the liquid organic solvent EC\\/DMC containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. After confirmation of high aluminium corrosion in the liquid solvent, the results

Béatrice Garcia; Michel Armand

2004-01-01

212

An ionic liquid-type carbon paste electrode and its polyoxometalate-modified properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of a non-conductive organic binder with a conductive room temperature ionic liquid in fabricating carbon paste electrode has been made. This new electrode due to its enhanced conductivity presented very large current response from electroactive substrates. The novel carbon paste electrode was bulk-modified via the uniform dispersion of Keggin-type phospho polyoxomolybdate PMo12O403- (PMo12) in bulky carbons, which possessed

Hongtao Liu; Ping He; Zhiying Li; Chunyan Sun; Lihong Shi; Yang Liu; Guoyi Zhu; Jinghong Li

2005-01-01

213

The Physical Properties of Aqueous Solutions of the Ionic Liquid [BMIM][BF 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the systematic study of the effect of concentration on the physical properties of aqueous solutions of the room-temperature ionic liquid [BMIM][BF4]. The measurements of density, ?, refractive index ?n, viscosity ?, specific conductivity ? and surface tension, ?, were made over the whole concentration range. The equivalent conductance ?\\u000a m\\u000a was calculated. The observed linear variations of

Weiwei Liu; Tianyu Zhao; Yumei Zhang; Huaping Wang; Mingfang Yu

2006-01-01

214

Preparation and characterisation of high-density ionic liquids incorporating halobismuthate anions.  

PubMed

A range of ionic liquids containing dialkylimidazolium cations and halobismuthate anions ([BiBr(x)Cl(y)I(z)](-) and [Bi2Br(x)Cl(y)I(z)](-)) were synthesised by combining dialkylimidazolium halide ionic liquids with bismuth(III) halide salts. The majority were room temperature liquids, all with very high densities. The neat ionic liquids and their mixtures with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide were characterised using Densitometry, Viscometry, NMR Spectroscopy, Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ESI), Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (LSIMS), Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), to establish their speciation and suitability for high-temperature applications. PMID:24898158

Cousens, Nico E A; Taylor Kearney, Leah J; Clough, Matthew T; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Palgrave, Robert G; Perkin, Susan

2014-07-28

215

Electronic functions of solid-to-liquid interfaces of organic semiconductor crystals and ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environment of surface electrons at 'solid-to-liquid' interfaces is somewhat extreme, subjected to intense local electric fields or harsh chemical pressures that high-density ionic charge or polarization of mobile molecules create. In this proceedings, we argue functions of electronic carriers generated at the surface of organic semiconductor crystals in response to the local electric fields in the very vicinity of the interface to ionic liquid. The ionic liquids (ILs), or room temperature molten salts, are gaining considerable interest in the recent decade at the prospect of nonvolatile 'green solvents', with the development of chemically stable and nontoxic compounds. Moreover, such materials are also applied to electrolytes for lithium ion batteries and electric double-layer (EDL) capacitors. Our present solid-to-liquid interfaces of rubrene single crystals and ionic liquids work as fast-switching organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with the highest transconductance, i.e. the most efficient response of the output current to the input voltage, among the OFETs ever built.

Takeya, J.

2008-10-01

216

Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

2010-09-14

217

Enzyme catalysis with small ionic liquid quantities.  

PubMed

Enzyme catalysis with minimal ionic liquid quantities improves reaction rates, stereoselectivity and enables solvent-free processing. In particular the widely used lipases combine well with many ionic liquids. Demonstrated applications are racemate separation, esterification and glycerolysis. Minimal solvent processing is also an alternative to sluggish solvent-free catalysis. The method allows simplified down-stream processing, as only traces of ionic liquids have to be removed. PMID:21107639

Fischer, Fabian; Mutschler, Julien; Zufferey, Daniel

2011-04-01

218

Partition coefficients of organic compounds between water and imidazolium-, pyridinium-, and phosphonium-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The partition coefficients, P IL/w, of several compounds, some of them of biological and pharmacological interest, between water and room-temperature ionic liquids based on the imidazolium, pyridinium, and phosphonium cations, namely 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, N-octylpyridinium tetrafluorophosphate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium dicyanamide, were accurately measured. In this way, we extended our database of partition coefficients in room-temperature ionic liquids previously reported. We employed the solvation parameter model with different probe molecules (the training set) to elucidate the chemical interactions involved in the partition process and discussed the most relevant differences among the three types of ionic liquids. The multiparametric equations obtained with the aforementioned model were used to predict the partition coefficients for compounds (the test set) not present in the training set, most being of biological and pharmacological interest. An excellent agreement between calculated and experimental log P IL/w values was obtained. Thus, the obtained equations can be used to predict, a priori, the extraction efficiency for any compound using these ionic liquids as extraction solvents in liquid-liquid extractions. PMID:25326892

Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Reta, Mario

2014-12-01

219

Ionic liquids screening for desulfurization of natural gasoline by liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

Seventy five ionic liquids (ILs) were tested as a sequestering agent of sulfured compounds in natural gasoline (NG). Desulphurization of NG was performed by means of liquid-liquid extraction method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Experimental ILs containing imidazolium, pyridinium, and ammonium cations along with organic and inorganic anions were synthesized conventionally and under microwave and sonochemical conditions. The effect of the molecular structure of ILs on the desulfurization efficiency of NG with high sulfur content was evaluated. Analysis indicated that the anion type played a more important role than the cation on the desulphurization process. ILs based on halogen-ferrates and halogen-aluminates exhibited the highest efficiency in sulfur removal, and their efficiency is further improved when there is an excess of metallic salt in a ratio of at least 1:1.3 during the synthesis of the corresponding IL. An explanation for the ability of metallic ILs to remove sulfur-containing compounds from natural gasoline based on the ratio of the ionic charge to the atomic radius is proposed. Furthermore, a method to recover and reuse water-sensitive to halogenated precursors is described. PMID:20091120

Likhanova, Natalya V; Guzmán-Lucero, Diego; Flores, Eugenio A; García, Paloma; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A; Palomeque, Jorge; Martínez-Palou, Rafael

2010-11-01

220

From ionic liquids to supramolecular polymers.  

PubMed

Charging forward: Ionic interactions presented in a multivalent fashion in small-molecule ionic liquids lead to functional polymer-like materials (see picture) that are consistent with the formation of a supramolecular ionic network. For example, the ionic material formed from a dication consisting of two covalently linked tetraalkyl phosphonium moieties and a porphyrin tetracarboxylate has a viscosity of 10(6) Pa s at 25 degrees C. PMID:19222061

Craig, Stephen L

2009-01-01

221

Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943

Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

2013-10-01

222

New frontiers in materials science opened by ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) including ambient-temperature molten salts, which exist in the liquid state even at room temperature, have a long research history. However, their applications were once limited because ILs were considered as highly moisture-sensitive solvents that should be handled in a glove box. After the first synthesis of moisture-stable ILs in 1992, their unique physicochemical properties became known in all scientific fields. ILs are composed solely of ions and exhibit several specific liquid-like properties, e.g., some ILs enable dissolution of insoluble bio-related materials and the use as tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications under extreme physicochemical conditions. Hybridization of ILs and other materials provides quasi-solid materials, which can be used to fabricate highly functional devices. ILs are also used as reaction media for electrochemical and chemical synthesis of nanomaterials. In addition, the negligible vapor pressure of ILs allows the fabrication of electrochemical devices that are operated under ambient conditions, and many liquid-vacuum technologies, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of liquids, electron microscopy of liquids, and sputtering and physical vapor deposition onto liquids. In this article, we review recent studies on ILs that are employed as functional advanced materials, advanced mediums for materials production, and components for preparing highly functional materials. PMID:20437507

Torimoto, Tsukasa; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Ken-ichi; Kuwabata, Susumu

2010-03-19

223

Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect

Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01

224

Recent advances in the use of ionic liquids for electrochemical sensing.  

PubMed

Ionic Liquids are salts that are liquid at (or just above) room temperature. They possess several advantageous properties (e.g. high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows, low volatility, high thermal stability and good solvating ability), which make them ideal as non-volatile electrolytes in electrochemical sensors. This mini-review article describes the recent uses of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing applications (covering the last 3 years) in the context of voltammetric sensing at solid/liquid, liquid/liquid interfaces and carbon paste electrodes, as well as their use in gas sensing, ion-selective electrodes, and for detecting biological molecules, explosives and chemical warfare agents. A comment on the future direction and challenges in this field is also presented. PMID:22013585

Silvester, Debbie S

2011-12-01

225

Ionic liquid stationary phases for gas chromatography.  

PubMed

This article provides a summary of the development of ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography beginning with early work on packed columns that established details of the retention mechanism and established working methods to characterize selectivity differences compared with molecular stationary phases through the modern development of multi-centered cation and cross-linked ionic liquids for high-temperature applications in capillary gas chromatography. Since there are many reviews on ionic liquids dealing with all aspects of their chemical and physical properties, the emphasis in this article is placed on the role of gas chromatography played in the design of ionic liquids of low melting point, high thermal stability, high viscosity, and variable selectivity for separations. Ionic liquids provide unprecedented opportunities for extending the selectivity range and temperature-operating range of columns for gas chromatography, an area of separation science that has otherwise been almost stagnant for over a decade. PMID:21290604

Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

2011-04-01

226

Nonlinear polarization of ionic liquids: theory, simulations, experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) composed of large, often asymmetric, organic cations and simple or complex inorganic or organic anions do not freeze at ambient temperatures. Their rediscovery some 15 years ago is widely accepted as a ``green revolution'' in chemistry, offering an unlimited number of ``designer'' solvents for chemical and photochemical reactions, homogeneous catalysis, lubrication, and solvent-free electrolytes for energy generation and storage. As electrolytes they are non-volatile, some can sustain without decomposition up to 6 times higher voltages than aqueous electrolytes, and many are environmentally friendly. The studies of RTILs and their applications have reached a critical stage. So many of them can be synthesized - about a thousand are known already - their mixtures can further provide ``unlimited'' number of combinations! Thus, establishing some general laws that could direct the best choice of a RTIL for a given application became crucial; guidance is expected from theory and modelling. But for a physical theory, RTILs comprise a peculiar and complex class of media, the description of which lies at the frontier line of condensed matter theoretical physics: dense room temperature ionic plasmas with ``super-strong'' Coulomb correlations, which behave like glasses at short time-scale, but like viscous liquids at long-time scale. This talk will introduce RTILs to physicists and overview the current understanding of the nonlinear response of RTILs to electric field. It will focus on the theory, simulations, and experimental characterisation of the structure and nonlinear capacitance of the electrical double layer at a charged electrode. It will also discuss pros and contras of supercapacitor applications of RTILs.

Kornyshev, Alexei

2010-03-01

227

Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CHâSOâCl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClOâ⁻ anions. The liquid is in a

K. Xu; S. Zhang; C. A. Angell

1996-01-01

228

Electrochemical transistors with ionic liquids for enzymatic sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade conducting polymer electrodes have played an important role in bio-sensing and actuation. Recent developments in the field of organic electronics have made available a variety of devices that bring unique capabilities at the interface with biology. One example is organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) that are being developed for a variety of bio-sensing applications, including the detection of ions, and metabolites, such as glucose and lactate. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts, which are liquid at ambient temperature. Their nonvolatile character and thermal stability makes them an attractive alternative to conventional organic solvents. Here we report an enzymatic sensor based on an organic electro-chemical transistor with RTIL's as an integral part of its structure and as an immobilization medium for the enzyme and the mediator. Further investigation shows that these platforms can be incorporated into flexible materials such as carbon cloth and can be utilized for bio-sensing. The aim is to incorporate the overall platform in a wearable sensor to improve athlete performance with regards to training. In this manuscript an introduction to ionic liquids (ILs), IL - enzyme mixtures and a combination of these novel materials being used on OECTs are presented.

Fraser, Kevin J.; Yang, Sang Yoon; Cicoira, Fabio; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Byrne, Robert; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Khodagholy, Dion; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.; Diamond, Dermot

2011-10-01

229

Bilayer membrane permeability of ionic liquid-filled block copolymer vesicles in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The bilayer membrane permeability of block copolymer vesicles ("polymersomes") with ionic liquid interiors dispersed in water is quantified using fluorescence quenching. Poly((1,2-butadiene)-b-ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) block copolymer vesicles in water with their interiors filled with a common hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, were prepared containing a hydrophobic dye, Nile Red, by intact migration of dye-encapsulated vesicles from the ionic liquid to water at room temperature. A small quencher molecule, dichloroacetamide, was added to the aqueous solution of the dye-loaded vesicles, and the permeation of the quencher passing through the membrane into the interior was determined from the fluorescence quenching kinetics. Rapid permeation of the quencher across the nanoscale membrane was observed, consistent with the high fluidity of the liquid polybutadiene membrane. Two different PB-PEO copolymers were employed, in order to vary the thickness of the solvophobic membrane. A significant increase in membrane permeability was also observed with decreasing membrane thickness, which is tentatively attributable to differences in quencher solubility in the membranes. Quantitative migration of the vesicles from the aqueous phase back to an ionic liquid phase was achieved upon heating. These microscopically heterogeneous and thermoresponsive vesicles with permeable and robust membranes have potential as recyclable nanoreactors, in which the high viscosity and capital expense of an ionic liquid reaction medium can be mitigated, while retaining the desirable features of ionic liquids as reaction media, and facile catalyst recovery. PMID:22765509

Bai, Zhifeng; Zhao, Bin; Lodge, Timothy P

2012-07-19

230

Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); LC/OLED Research Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Process Development Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-03

231

Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes. PMID:22873132

Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

2013-04-01

232

Ionic Liquids in Analytical Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of ionic liquids (ILs) in analytical chemistry is increasing substantially every year. A decade ago there were but a handful of papers in this area of research that were considered curiosities at best. Today, those publications are recognized as seminal articles that gave rise to one of the most rapidly expanding areas of research in chemical analysis. In this review, we briefly highlight early work involving ILs and discuss the most recent advances in separations, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical chemistry. Many of the most important advances in these fields depend on the development of new, often unique ILs and multifunctional ILs. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of ILs is also essential.

Soukup-Hein, Renee J.; Warnke, Molly M.; Armstrong, Daniel W.

2009-07-01

233

Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in ionic liquids with bulky organic anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemistry of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was studied in two ionic liquids with bulky organic anions, i.e., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) diethylene glycol monomethyl ether sulfate (MDEGSO 4) and BMIM octyl sulfate (OctSO 4). BMIM-MDEGSO 4 is a liquid, while BMIM-OctSO 4 is in solid form at room temperature. Electrosynthesis of PEDOT in BMIM-MDEGSO 4 with an EDOT concentration of 0.1 M and in

Petter Danielsson; Johan Bobacka; Ari Ivaska

2004-01-01

234

Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films with ionic liquid gating  

SciTech Connect

A Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator field effect transistor is investigated by using ionic liquid as an electric double layer gating material, leading to a conductance modulation of 365% at room temperature. We discuss the role of charged impurities on the transport properties. The conductance modulation with gate bias is due to a change in the carrier concentration, whereas the temperature dependent conductance change is originated from a change in mobility. Large conductance modulation at room temperature along with the transparent optical properties makes topological insulators as an interesting (opto)electronic material.

Son, Jaesung; Banerjee, Karan; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Lee, Seoung-Ki [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jong-Hyun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-18

235

Lithium cation conducting TDI anion-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this paper we present the synthesis route and electrochemical properties of new class of ionic liquids (ILs) obtained from lithium derivate TDI (4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolium) anion. ILs synthesized by us were EMImTDI, PMImTDI and BMImTDI, i.e. TDI anion with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, where alkyl meant ethyl, propyl and butyl groups. TDI anion contains fewer fluorine atoms than LiPF6 and thanks to C-F instead of P-F bond, they are less prone to emit fluorine or hydrogen fluoride due to the rise in temperature. Use of IL results in non-flammability, which is making such electrolyte even safer for both application and environment. The thermal stability of synthesized compounds was tested by DSC and TGA and no signal of decomposition was observed up to 250 °C. The LiTDI salt was added to ILs to form complete electrolytes. The structures of tailored ILs with lithium salt were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The electrolytes showed excellent properties regarding their ionic conductivity (over 3 mS cm(-1) at room temperature after lithium salt addition), lithium cation transference number (over 0.1), low viscosity and broad electrochemical stability window. The ionic conductivity and viscosity measurements of pure ILs are reported for reference. PMID:24803282

Niedzicki, Leszek; Karpierz, Ewelina; Zawadzki, Maciej; Dranka, Maciej; Kasprzyk, Marta; Zalewska, Aldona; Marcinek, Marek; Zachara, Janusz; Doma?ska, Urszula; Wieczorek, W?adys?aw

2014-06-21

236

Cooperative effect of ionic liquid solvents in microfluidic devices for fabricating monodisperse metal nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature ionic liquids have been receiving attention as alternatives to traditional organic solvents. In particular, 1,3-dialkylimidazolium ionic liquids are attractive because their properties are easily tailored by altering the counteranion and type of alkyl chains on the imidazolium ring. Ionic liquids are finding use as dual-function solvents and stabilizing agents for nanoparticles. They are able to solvate a wide variety of species and are thought to consist of polar and non-polar domains of hydrogen bonded networks, which may be able to stabilize and even template nanoparticle growth. They have several other properties (e.g., nonflammability, nonvolatility, recyclability) that potentially make them more environmentally sound compared to some traditional organic solvents. We have developed different microfluidic architectures for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles in ionic liquid flows. The large surface area-to-volume ratio within microscale channels allows for improved heat and mass transport and more homogeneous reaction conditions, leading to monodisperse nanoparticle products. Additionally, microfluidic syntheses allow for finer control over reaction parameters compared to traditional batch reactions. Herein, we examined the combined beneficial effects of ionic liquid flows and different microfluidic systems to prepare gold and silver nanoparticles that are more monodisperse than those produced in analogous batch reactions. The compatibility of ionic liquids with inexpensive polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices makes it a unique system for the reproducible synthesis of high-quality nanoparticles.

Lazarus, Laura L.

237

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

2005-09-29

238

Unraveling the heterogeneity in N butyl-N-methylpiperidinium trifluromethanesulfonimide ionic liquid by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature ionic liquids are one of the most exciting classes of materials in the last decade. In particular piperidinium (PIP) cation based ionic liquid (IL) (such as PIP14NTf2) have found application in electrochemistry/batteries. In this Letter, 2D NMR (NOESY and HOESY) is employed for studying the interactions present between cations and anions. HOESY spectrum shows that fluorine of NTf2 unusually interacts with all proton of the cation (PIP14). Combined HOESY and NOESY indicate that NTf2 anion is distributed heterogeneously in liquid. Existence of micro heterogeneity in this important class of IL is proposed.

Tripathi, Neha; Saha, Satyen

2014-06-01

239

Ionic liquids in pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

In the past several years, ionic liquids (ILs) have been at the cutting edge of the most promising science and technology. ILs not only have found applications in classical areas of knowledge but also are important candidates to solve classical problems within several societal challenges, such as clean and efficient energy, through the development of a broad swath of energy technologies, such as advanced batteries, dye-sensitized solar cells, double-layer capacitors, actuators, fuel cells, thermo-cells, and water splitting, essentially related to highly efficient carbon capture and storage technologies and resource efficiency to date. This review focuses on the application of IL methodologies to solve critical pharmaceutical problems, in particular, the low solubility and thus bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds and the presence of polymorphs, which severely hamper the efficacy of important commercially available drugs. The development of strategies to use ILs as carriers of pharmaceutical active compounds is an extremely promising and wide avenue. Further, the synthesis of liquid salts through the discerning combination of cations and anions with several distinct pharmaceutical roles provides answers to some of today's pharmaceutical industrial challenges. PMID:24910920

Marrucho, I M; Branco, L C; Rebelo, L P N

2014-01-01

240

Use of Ionic Liquids in Rod-Coil Block Copolyimides for Improved Lithium Ion Conduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solvent-free, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to improve safety, increase design flexibility and enhance performance of rechargeable lithium batteries. Solution based electrolytes are flammable and typically incompatible with lithium metal anodes, limiting energy density. We have previously demonstrated use of polyimide rod coil block copolymers doped with lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polyimide rod blocks provide dimensional stability while the polyethylene oxide (PEO) coil portions conduct ions. Phase separation of the rods and coils in these highly branched polymers provide channels with an order of magnitude improvement in lithium conduction over polyethylene oxide itself at room temperature. In addition, the polymers have been demonstrated in coin cells to be compatible with lithium metal. For practical use at room temperature and below, however, at least an order of magnitude improvement in ion conduction is still required. The addition of nonvolatile, room temperature ionic liquids has been shown to improve the ionic conductivity of high molecular weight PEO. Herein we describe use of these molten salts to improve ionic conductivity in the rod-coil block copolymers.

Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.; Chapin, Kara; Bennett, William R.

2007-01-01

241

Effect of Embedded Pd Microstructures on the Flat-Band-Voltage Operation of Room Temperature ZnO-Based Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors  

PubMed Central

Three methods were used to fabricate ZnO-based room temperature liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors having interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures. Specifically, devices with Pd Schottky contacts were fabricated with: (1) un-doped ZnO active layers; (2) Pd-doped ZnO active layers; and (3) un-doped ZnO layers on top of Pd microstructure arrays. All ZnO films were grown on p-type Si(111) substrates by the sol-gel method. For devices incorporating a microstructure array, Pd islands were first grown on the substrate by thermal evaporation using a 100 ?m mesh shadow mask. We have estimated the sensitivity of the sensors for applied voltage from –5 to 5 V in air ambient, as well as with exposure to LPG in concentrations from 500 to 3,500 ppm at room temperature (300 K). The current-voltage characteristics were studied and parameters such as leakage current, barrier height, reach-through voltage, and flat-band voltage were extracted. We include contributions due to the barrier height dependence on the electric field and tunneling through the barrier for the studied MSM devices. The Pd-enhanced devices demonstrated a maximum gas response at flat-band voltages. The study also revealed that active layers consisting of Pd microstructure embedded ZnO films resulted in devices exhibiting greater gas-response as compared to those using Pd-doped ZnO thin films or un-doped active layers.

Ali, Ghusoon M.; Thompson, Cody V.; Jasim, Ali K.; Abdulbaqi, Isam M.; Moore, James C.

2013-01-01

242

Design and synthesis of photoactive ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Two ionic liquids with photoisomerizable p-hydroxycinnamic acid moieties were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography and DSC, and their photochemistry was studied in solution and neat conditions. Irradiation at absorption maxima led to trans-cis photoisomerization and resulted in significant reduction of melting temperatures of the ionic liquids. X-ray structures of both compounds show an intricate network of supramolecular interactions before irradiation. Physical and chemical transformations are completely reversible upon irradiation at lower wavelengths of ionic liquid solutions in acetonitrile. PMID:24787141

Avó, João; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Lima, João Carlos; Jorge Parola, A

2014-05-16

243

Influence of the ionic liquid/gas surface on ionic liquid chemistry.  

PubMed

Applications such as gas storage, gas separation, NP synthesis and supported ionic liquid phase catalysis depend upon the interaction of different species with the ionic liquid/gas surface. Consequently, these applications cannot proceed to the full extent of their potential without a profound understanding of the surface structure and properties. As a whole, this perspective contains more questions than answers, which demonstrates the current state of the field. Throughout this perspective, crucial questions are posed and a roadmap is proposed to answer these questions. A critical analysis is made of the field of ionic liquid/gas surface structure and properties, and a number of design rules are mined. The effects of ionic additives on the ionic liquid/gas surface structure are presented. A possible driving force for surface formation is discussed that has, to the best of my knowledge, not been postulated in the literature to date. This driving force suggests that for systems composed solely of ions, the rules for surface formation of dilute electrolytes do not apply. The interaction of neutral additives with the ionic liquid/gas surface is discussed. Particular attention is focussed upon H(2)O and CO(2), vital additives for many applications of ionic liquids. Correlations between ionic liquid/gas surface structure and properties, ionic liquid surfaces plus additives, and ionic liquid applications are given. PMID:22349469

Lovelock, Kevin R J

2012-04-21

244

Fragility, Stokes-Einstein violation, and correlated local excitations in a coarse-grained model of an ionic liquid  

E-print Network

Dynamics of a coarse-grained model for the room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, couched in the united-atom site representation are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamically heterogeneous behavior of the model resembles that of fragile supercooled liquids. At or close to room temperature, the model ionic liquid exhibits slow dynamics, characterized by nonexponential structural relaxation and subdiffusive behavior. The structural relaxation time, closely related to the viscosity, shows a super-Arrhenius behavior. Local excitations, defined as displacement of an ion exceeding a threshold distance, are found to be mainly responsible for structural relaxation in the alternating structure of cations and anions. As the temperature is lowered, excitations become progressively more correlated. This results in the decoupling of exchange and persistence times, reflecting a violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation.

Daun Jeong; M. Y. Choi; Hyung. J. Kim; YounJoon Jung

2010-02-03

245

Fragility, Stokes-Einstein violation, and correlated local excitations in a coarse-grained model of an ionic liquid  

E-print Network

Dynamics of a coarse-grained model for the room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, couched in the united-atom site representation are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamically heterogeneous behavior of the model resembles that of fragile supercooled liquids. At or close to room temperature, the model ionic liquid exhibits slow dynamics, characterized by nonexponential structural relaxation and subdiffusive behavior. The structural relaxation time, closely related to the viscosity, shows a super-Arrhenius behavior. Local excitations, defined as displacement of an ion exceeding a threshold distance, are found to be mainly responsible for structural relaxation in the alternating structure of cations and anions. As the temperature is lowered, excitations become progressively more correlated. This results in the decoupling of exchange and persistence times, reflecting a violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation.

Jeong, Daun; Kim, Hyung J; Jung, YounJoon; 10.1039/B921725H

2010-01-01

246

Spatial-decomposition analysis of electrical conductivity in ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The electrical conductivity of room temperature ionic liquid (IL) is investigated with molecular dynamics simulation. A trajectory of 1??s in total is analyzed for the ionic liquid [C4mim][NTf2] (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and the anion is also called TFSI or TFSA), and the ion motions are examined in direct connection to the conductivity within the framework formulated previously [K.-M. Tu, R. Ishizuka, and N. Matubayasi, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044126 (2014)]. As a transport coefficient, the computed electrical conductivity is in fair agreement with the experiment. The conductivity is then decomposed into the autocorrelation term of Nernst-Einstein form and the cross-correlation term describing the two-body motions of ions, and the cross-correlation term is further decomposed spatially to incorporate the structural insights on ion configurations into the dynamic picture. It is observed that the ion-pair contribution to the conductivity is not spatially localized and extends beyond the first coordination shell. The extent of localization of the cross-correlation effect in the conductivity is in correspondence to that of the spatial correlation represented by radial distribution function, which persists over nanometer scale. PMID:25554167

Tu, Kai-Min; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

2014-12-28

247

Spatial-decomposition analysis of electrical conductivity in ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivity of room temperature ionic liquid (IL) is investigated with molecular dynamics simulation. A trajectory of 1 ?s in total is analyzed for the ionic liquid [C4mim][NTf2] (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and the anion is also called TFSI or TFSA), and the ion motions are examined in direct connection to the conductivity within the framework formulated previously [K.-M. Tu, R. Ishizuka, and N. Matubayasi, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044126 (2014)]. As a transport coefficient, the computed electrical conductivity is in fair agreement with the experiment. The conductivity is then decomposed into the autocorrelation term of Nernst-Einstein form and the cross-correlation term describing the two-body motions of ions, and the cross-correlation term is further decomposed spatially to incorporate the structural insights on ion configurations into the dynamic picture. It is observed that the ion-pair contribution to the conductivity is not spatially localized and extends beyond the first coordination shell. The extent of localization of the cross-correlation effect in the conductivity is in correspondence to that of the spatial correlation represented by radial distribution function, which persists over nanometer scale.

Tu, Kai-Min; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

2014-12-01

248

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal  

PubMed Central

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

249

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.  

PubMed

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

250

Room TemperatureRoom Temperature Superconductivity ND'05Superconductivity ND'05  

E-print Network

Room TemperatureRoom Temperature Superconductivity ND'05Superconductivity ND'05 Probing Room Temperature SuperconductivityProbing Room Temperature Superconductivity In A Parallel, Wiser Universe #12;Room TemperatureRoom Temperature Superconductivity ND'05Superconductivity ND'05 #12;Room

Islam, M. Saif

251

Materials Named “Ionic Liquids”—History and Definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a series of materials named “ionic liquids” have attracted attention and been extensively studied in various fields of chemistry. What “ionic liquids” are, however, has not been yet standardized. This review presents the history of “ionic liquid” research and definition of the term “ionic liquid” from a viewpoint that it should be classified as a nonaqueous solvent.

Hirayama, Naoki

252

Encapsulated ionic liquids (ENILs): from continuous to discrete liquid phase.  

PubMed

Encapsulated ionic liquid (ENIL) material was developed, consisting of ionic liquid (IL) introduced into carbon submicrocapsules. ENILs contain >85% w/w of IL but discretized in submicroscopic encapsulated drops, drastically increasing the surface contact area with respect to the neat fluid. ENIL materials were here tested for gas separation processes, obtaining a drastic increase in mass transfer rate. PMID:22935733

Palomar, Jose; Lemus, Jesus; Alonso-Morales, Noelia; Bedia, Jorge; Gilarranz, Miguel A; Rodriguez, Juan J

2012-10-14

253

Lyotropic liquid crystal phases of phytantriol in a protic ionic liquid with fluorous anion.  

PubMed

The phase behaviour of phytantriol in the protic ionic liquid (PIL) 1-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate (MImOF) and four different MImOF-water compositions was investigated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), cross polarised optical microscopy (CPOM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). MImOF is a distinct protic ionic liquid in that it contains a fluorocarbon anion and a hydrocarbon cation. This leads to MImOF having an unusual liquid nanostructure, such that it contains fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and polar domains. No lyotropic liquid crystal phases were observed for phytantriol in neat MImOF. However, on addition of water, lamellar, cubic Ia3¯d and micellar phases were observed for specific MImOF-phytantriol-water compositions at room temperature, and up to 60 °C. The phase behaviour for phytantriol in the solvent mixture of 25 wt%-MImOF-75 wt%-water was the most similar to the phytantriol-water phase diagram. Only this MImOF-water composition supported the Ia3¯d cubic phase, which had a lattice parameter between 100-140 Å compared to 86-100 Å in deionised water, indicating significant swelling due to the MImOF. IR spectroscopy showed that a percentage of the water molecules were hydrogen bonded to the N-H of the MIm cation, and this water decreased the hydrogen bonding present between the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. This investigation furthers our understanding of the interaction of ionic liquids with solutes, and the important role that the different IL nanostructures can have on influencing these interactions. PMID:25177837

Shen, Yan; Greaves, Tamar L; Kennedy, Danielle F; Weerawardena, Asoka; Kirby, Nigel; Song, Gonghua; Drummond, Calum J

2014-10-21

254

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03

255

The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids  

PubMed Central

The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

Marciniak, Andrzej

2010-01-01

256

Study of thioglycosylation in ionic liquids  

PubMed Central

A novel, green chemistry, glycosylation strategy was developed based upon the use of ionic liquids. Research studies demonstrated that thiomethyl glycosides could readily be activated with methyl trifluoromethane sulfonate, using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a solvent. This green chemistry glycosylation strategy provided disaccharides with typical yields averaging 75%. The ionic liquid solvent could be readily reused for five sequential glycosylation reactions with no impact on product yield. PMID:16803635

Zhang, Jianguo; Ragauskas, Arthur

2006-01-01

257

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

258

Vesicles and reverse vesicles of an ionic liquid in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

First evidence and the mechanism of formation of closed bilayer structures by a single chain amino acid ionic liquid (IL), L-proline isopropylester laurylsulfate in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ILs, is reported. Such ionic self-assemblies are shown to be guided by fine balance of solvophobic effects and ionic arrangements via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. PMID:23917547

Rao, K Srinivasa; So, Soonyong; Kumar, Arvind

2013-09-21

259

Preparation of protic ionic liquids with minimal water content and (15)N NMR study of proton transfer.  

PubMed

Low-molecular-weight Brønsted acids and amine bases were used to reproducibly prepare very dry, high-purity room-temperature protic ionic liquids (PILs). A series of eight amine bases and six Brønsted acids were combined to produce 48 mixtures, of which 18 were liquid at room temperature. The phase transitions and thermal decomposition temperatures were determined for each mixture; whereas viscosity, density and conductivity were determined for the room-temperature liquids. By utilising (15)N NMR it was possible to distinguish between neutral and ionised amine bases (ammonia vs. ammonium-type ion), which indicated that the protic ionic liquids were completely ionised when made as a stoichiometric mixture. However, a Walden plot comparison of fluidity and molar conductivity indicated the majority of PILs had much lower conductivity than predicted by viscosity unless the base contained excess proton-donating groups. This disparity is indicative of protic ionic molecules forming neutral aggregates or non-Newtonian fluid hydrogen-bonded networks with a secondary Grotthuss proton-hopping mechanism arising from polyprotic bases. PMID:20126771

Burrell, Geoffrey L; Burgar, Iko M; Separovic, Frances; Dunlop, Noel F

2010-02-21

260

Ionic liquid processing of cellulose.  

PubMed

Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references). PMID:22266483

Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

2012-02-21

261

Thermal decomposition mechanisms of alkylimidazolium ionic liquids with cyano-functionalized anions.  

PubMed

Because of the unusually high heats of vaporization of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), volatilization of RTILs through thermal decomposition and vaporization of the decomposition products can be significant. Upon heating of cyano-functionalized anionic RTILs in vacuum, their gaseous products were detected experimentally via tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 at the Advanced Light Source. Experimental evidence for di- and trialkylimidazolium cations and cyano-functionalized anionic RTILs confirms thermal decomposition occurs primarily through two pathways: deprotonation of the cation by the anion and dealkylation of the imidazolium cation by the anion. Secondary reactions include possible cyclization of the cation and C2 substitution on the imidazolium, and their proposed reaction mechanisms are introduced here. Additional evidence supporting these mechanisms was obtained using thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and temperature-jump infrared spectroscopy. In order to predict the overall thermal stability in these ionic liquids, the ability to accurately calculate both the basicity of the anions and their nucleophilicity in the ionic liquid is critical. Both gas phase and condensed phase (generic ionic liquid (GIL) model) density functional theory calculations support the decomposition mechanisms, and the GIL model could provide a highly accurate means to determine thermal stabilities for ionic liquids in general. PMID:25381899

Chambreau, Steven D; Schenk, Adam C; Sheppard, Anna J; Yandek, Gregory R; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L; Maciejewski, John; Koh, Christine J; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R

2014-11-26

262

Electrolytes based on alkoxysilyl-functionalized ionic liquids: viscoelastic properties and conductivity.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids can be successfully used as electrolytes in electrochemical devices when they are in their quasi-solid state. Among several methods of solidification, a sol-gel process was chosen and a set of alkoxysilyl-functionalized iodide imidazolium-based ionic liquids were synthesized. The electrolytes were prepared by mixing these ionic liquids with a non-polymerisable ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPIm(+)I(-))). Iodine was dissolved in an electrolyte matrix in order to form an I3(-)/I(-) redox couple. The change of the structure from sol to gel was followed by rheological tests in order to show the effect of different rheological parameters on the gelation process. The solvolysis with glacial acetic acid and condensation were followed by rheological experiments on the samples taken from a batch, and in situ on the rheometer. The formed three-dimensional sol-gel networks of various alkoxysilyl-functionalized ionic liquids differed in their microstructures and viscoelastic properties that were correlated with conductivity. The results show that the conductivity of approximately 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature was achieved for the gels with relatively high values of elastic modulus and noticeable viscous contribution. It is shown that not only the viscosity but also the viscoelastic behavior and especially the relationship between viscous and elastic moduli (phase shift) together with the time of gelation are essential for the high conductivity of electrolytes. PMID:24955729

Slemenik Perše, L; Colovi?, M; Hajzeri, M; Orel, B; Surca Vuk, A

2014-08-14

263

Use of ionic liquids as stationary phases in hyphenated gas chromatography techniques.  

PubMed

In the past decades a consistent number of ionic liquids have been specifically synthesized and evaluated as stationary phase in gas chromatography. Ionic liquid, also defined as "molten salts", are a class of organic non-molecular solvents liquid at room temperature (RTILs) that satisfy most of the requirements of a GC stationary phase, among which a high viscosity, the possibility to tune the selectivity (by changing the cation-anion combination) and a high thermal stability. The choice of the proper stationary phase plays a key role in the improvement/optimization of a GC method, and although the use of IL as stationary phases is still not well-established, the general interest in their applications has greatly increased, thanks to their particular properties. The present contribution provides an overview on recent evaluations and applications of IL stationary phases, focusing in particular on the use of these novel tools in hyphenated GC-based techniques. PMID:22621883

Ragonese, Carla; Sciarrone, Danilo; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2012-09-14

264

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

2009-01-11

265

Study on ionic liquid [bmim]PF 6 and [hmim]PF 6 as plasticizer for PVC paste resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of room temperature ionic liquids, [bmim]PF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and [hmim]PF6 (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), were respectively used as plasticizer for PVC paste resin. The mechanical\\u000a properties, thermal and ultraviolet ray stabilities, and migration characteristics of the PVC paste resin samples were determined\\u000a by universal testing machine, TG\\/DTA, and HPLC. The results showed that the tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased,

Lin Xi Hou; Sui Wang

266

Nanostructural organization in carbon disulfide\\/ionic liquid mixtures: Molecular dynamics simulations and optical Kerr effect spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the nanostructural organization and subpicosecond intermolecular dynamics in the mixtures of CS2 and the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-pentyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl}amide ([C5mim][NTf2]) were studied as a function of concentration using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. At low CS2 concentrations (=10 mol.% CS2\\/IL), the MD simulations show aggregation of the CS2 molecules.

Peng Yang; Gregory A. Voth; Dong Xiao; Larry G. Hines; Richard A. Bartsch; Edward L. Quitevis

2011-01-01

267

Nanostructural organization in carbon disulfide?ionic liquid mixtures: Molecular dynamics simulations and optical Kerr effect spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the nanostructural organization and subpicosecond intermolecular dynamics in the mixtures of CS2 and the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-pentyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl}amide ([C5mim][NTf2]) were studied as a function of concentration using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. At low CS2 concentrations (<10 mol.% CS2?IL), the MD simulations indicate that the CS2 molecules are

Peng Yang; Gregory A. Voth; Dong Xiao; Larry G. Hines Jr; Richard A. Bartsch; Edward L. Quitevis

2011-01-01

268

Microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid for the determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples.  

PubMed

An easy, quick, and green method, microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid, was first developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in environmental water samples. 1-Ethy-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, which is a solid-state ionic liquid at room temperature, was used as extraction solvent in the present method. After microwave irradiation for 90 s, the solid-state ionic liquid was melted into liquid phase and used to finish the extraction of the analytes. The ionic liquid and sample matrix can be separated by freezing and centrifuging. Several experimental parameters, including amount of extraction solvent, microwave power and irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 2.00-400.00 ?g/L with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfaphenazole were 0.39, 0.33, 0.62, and 0.85 ?g/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of environmental water samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 75.09 to 115.78% and relative standard deviations were lower than 11.89%. PMID:25271847

Song, Ying; Wu, Lijie; Lu, Chunmei; Li, Na; Hu, Mingzhu; Wang, Ziming

2014-12-01

269

Physicochemical Properties of Imidazolium-derived Ionic Liquids with Different C-2 Substitutions  

SciTech Connect

Five room temperature ionic liquids based on C-2 substituted imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion were synthesized and their physicochemical properties: thermal property, density, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficients, and electrochemical stability were systematically investigated. The temperature dependence of both viscosity and ionic conductivities of these ionic liquids can be described by Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. Compared with the reference, 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, the introduction of functional groups at the C-2 position generally increased the viscosity and lowered the ionic conductivity. The introduction of ether group ( CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3) at the C-2 position not only enhanced the reduction stability of the ionic liquids but also exhibited the lowest solid electrolyte interfacial resistance (RSEI). On the contrary, the introduction of a cyano group ( CN) at the C-2 position not only decreased the reduction stability but also adversely increased the SEI resistance. The effect of the C-2 substitution on the reduction stability was explained by the change of the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The self-diffusion coefficients (D) of each ion were measured by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). The lithium transference number (tLi) of 0.5 M LiTFSI/IL solutions calculated from the self-diffusion coefficients was in the range of 0.04 and 0.09.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Han, Kee Sung [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01

270

Hydrogen production by water electrolysis using tetra-alkyl-ammonium-sulfonic acid ionic liquid electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triethylammonium-propanesulfonic acid tetrafluoroborate (TEA-PS·BF4) is used as an electrolyte in the water electrolysis. The electrolysis of water with this ionic conductor produces high current densities with high efficiencies, even at room temperatures. A system using TEA-PS·BF4 in an electrochemical cell with platinum electrodes has current densities (i) up to 1.77 A cm-2 and efficiencies between 93 and 99% in temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C. The activation energy observed with TEA-PS·BF4 is ca. 9.3 kJ mol-1, a low value that can be explained by the facilitation of proton transport in the organised aqueous ionic liquid media. The unexpectedly high efficiency of this system is discussed by taking into account the high conductivities associated with the Brönsted and Lewis acidity characteristics associated with these ionic conductive materials.

Fiegenbaum, Fernanda; Martini, Emilse M.; de Souza, Michèle O.; Becker, Márcia R.; de Souza, Roberto F.

2013-12-01

271

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Chiral Ionic Liquids and Investigation of their Enantiomeric Recognition Properties  

PubMed Central

We report the synthesis and characterization of amino acid ester based chiral ionic liquids, derived from L- and D-alanine tert butyl ester chloride. The synthesis was accomplished via an anion metathesis reaction between commercially available L-and D-alanine tert butyl ester chloride using a variety of counterions such as lithium bis (trifluoromethane) sulfonimide, silver nitrate, silver lactate, and silver tetrafluoroborate. Both enantiomeric forms were obtained as confirmed by bands of opposite sign in the circular dichroism spectra. The L- and D-alanine tert butyl ester bis (trifluoromethane) sulfonimide were obtained as liquids at room temperature and intriguingly exhibited the highest thermal stability (up to 263°C). In addition, the ionic liquids demonstrated enantiomeric recognition ability as evidenced by splitting of racemic Mosher's sodium salt signal using a liquid state 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The L- and D-alanine tert butyl ester chloride resulted in solid salts with nitrate, lactate, and tetrafluoroborate anions. This illustrates the previously observed tunability of ionic liquid synthesis, resulting in ionic liquids of varying properties as a function of varying the anion. PMID:18092298

BWAMBOK, DAVID K.; MARWANI, HADI M.; FERNAND, VIVIAN E.; FAKAYODE, SAYO O.; LOWRY, MARK; NEGULESCU, IOAN; STRONGIN, ROBERT M.; WARNER, ISIAH M.

2009-01-01

272

The thiocyanate anion is a primary driver of carbon dioxide capture by ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide, CO2, capture by room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is a vivid research area featuring both accomplishments and frustrations. This work employs the PM7-MD method to simulate adsorption of CO2 by 1,3-dimethylimidazolium thiocyanate at 300 K. The obtained result evidences that the thiocyanate anion plays a key role in gas capture, whereas the impact of the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation is mediocre. Decomposition of the computed wave function on the individual molecular orbitals confirms that CO2-SCN binding extends beyond just expected electrostatic interactions in the ion-molecular system and involves partial sharing of valence orbitals.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01

273

The use of new ionic liquids in two-phase catalytic hydrogenation reaction by rhodium complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIC) with sodium tetrafluoroborate or sodium hexafluorophosphate produced the room temperature-, air- and water-stable molten salts (BMI+)(BF4?) (1) and (BMI+)(PF6?) (2), respectively, in almost quantitative yield. The rhodium complexes RhCl(PPh3)3 and [Rh(cod)2][BF4] are completely soluble in these ionic liquids and they are able to catalyse the hydrogenation of cyclohexene at 10 atm and 25°C in

Paulo A. Z. Suarez; Jeane E. L. Dullius; Sandra Einloft; Roberto F. De Souza; Jairton Dupont

1996-01-01

274

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Evidence for Structural Heterogeneity in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Self-aggregation in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been a subject of intense interest in recent years. In this work, we provide new experimental evidence for chain length-dependent self-aggregation in RTILs using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In studying a homologous series of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [CnMPy][Tf2N] RTILs of varying alkyl chain length (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), biphasic rhodamine 6G solute diffusion dynamics were observed; both the fast and slow diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing alkyl chain length, with the relative contribution from slower diffusion increasing for longer-chained [CnMPy][Tf2N]. We propose that the biphasic diffusion dynamics originate from self-aggregation of the nonpolar alkyl chains in the cationic [CnMPy]+. The presence of this local liquid structuring provides important insight into the behavior of RTILs relevant to their application in photovoltaics, fuel cells, and batteries.

Guo, Jianchang [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL

2011-01-01

275

Taylor cones of ionic liquids from capillary tubes as sources of pure ions: The role of surface tension and electrical conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of Taylor cones from a wide range of ionic liquids (ILs) have been tested in vacuo in an attempt to identify what physical properties favor the purely ionic regime (PIR). This regime is well known in the case of Taylor cones of liquid metals. For nonmetallic liquids, it has been previously observed in conventional (capillary tube) electrospray sources at room temperature only for the room temperature molten salt (ionic liquid) EMI -BF4 (EMI =1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium). A large number of other ILs and their mixtures have been studied here, most of which (but not all) are unable to reach the PIR at room temperature. Based on these results and additional theoretical considerations, strong support is assembled for the notion that the PIR is favored by ILs not only of high electrical conductivity but also of high surface tension. This hypothesis is confirmed by tests with three recently synthesized ILs, EMI -GaCl4, EMI -C(CN)3, and EMI -N(CN)2, all of which combine exceptional surface tension and electrical conductivity, and all of which reach the PIR at room temperature far more readily than EMI -BF4.

Garoz, D.; Bueno, C.; Larriba, C.; Castro, S.; Romero-Sanz, I.; Fernandez de la Mora, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Saito, G.

2007-09-01

276

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30

277

Desulfurization of oxidized diesel using ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of oxidized sulfur compounds from diesel were carried out using ten types of ionic liquids consisting of different cation and anion i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium thiocyanate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, trioctylmethylammonium chloride, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium thiocyanate, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-butyl-6-methylquinolinium dicyanamide. The oxidation of diesel was successfully done using phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant and trioctylmethylammonium chloride as the phase transfer agent. The oxidation of diesel changes the sulfur compounds into sulfone which increases its polarity and enhances the ionic liquid's extraction performance. Result showed that ionic liquid [C4mquin][N(CN)2] performed the highest sulfur removal (91% at 1:5 diesel:IL ratio) compared to the others.

Wilfred, Cecilia D.; Salleh, M. Zulhaziman M.; Mutalib, M. I. Abdul

2014-10-01

278

Ionic liquids: a pathway to environmental acceptability.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids were initially proposed as replacements for conventional organic solvents; however, their chemistry has developed remarkably and offers unexpected opportunities in numerous fields, ranging from electrochemistry to biology. As a consequence of ionic liquids advancing towards potential and actual applications, a comprehensive determination of their environmental, health and safety impact is now required. This critical review aims to present an overview of the current understanding of the toxicity and environmental impact of the principal ionic liquid groups, and highlights some emerging concerns. Each cation type is considered separately, examining the significance of the biological data, and identifying the most critical questions, some yet unresolved. The need for more, and more detailed, studies is highlighted (176 references). PMID:21116514

Petkovic, Marija; Seddon, Kenneth R; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Silva Pereira, Cristina

2011-03-01

279

Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

2011-12-01

280

Vaporisation of a dicationic ionic liquid revisited.  

PubMed

The vaporization of a dicationic ionic liquid at moderate temperatures and under reduced pressures--recently studied by line-of-sight mass spectrometry--was further analyzed using an ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy technique that allows the monitoring of the different species present in the gas phase through the implementation of controlled ion-molecule reactions. The results support the view that the vapour phase of an aprotic dicationic ionic liquid is composed of neutral ion triplets (one dication attached to two anions). Molecular dynamics simulations were also performed in order to explain the magnitude of the vaporization enthalpies of dicationic ionic liquids vis-à-vis their monocationic counterparts. PMID:21058381

Vitorino, Joana; Leal, João P; Licence, Peter; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gooden, Peter N; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E; Shimizu, Karina; Rebelo, Luís P N; Canongia Lopes, José N

2010-12-01

281

Unravelling nanoconfined films of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The confinement of an ionic liquid between charged solid surfaces is treated using an exactly solvable 1D Coulomb gas model. The theory highlights the importance of two dimensionless parameters: the fugacity of the ionic liquid, and the electrostatic interaction energy of ions at closest approach, in determining how the disjoining pressure exerted on the walls depends on the geometrical confinement. Our theory reveals that thermodynamic fluctuations play a vital role in the "squeezing out" of charged layers as the confinement is increased. The model shows good qualitative agreement with previous experimental data, with all parameters independently estimated without fitting.

Lee, Alpha A.; Vella, Dominic; Perkin, Susan; Goriely, Alain

2014-09-01

282

Unravelling nanoconfined films of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The confinement of an ionic liquid between charged solid surfaces is treated using an exactly solvable 1D Coulomb gas model. The theory highlights the importance of two dimensionless parameters: the fugacity of the ionic liquid, and the electrostatic interaction energy of ions at closest approach, in determining how the disjoining pressure exerted on the walls depends on the geometrical confinement. Our theory reveals that thermodynamic fluctuations play a vital role in the "squeezing out" of charged layers as the confinement is increased. The model shows good qualitative agreement with previous experimental data, with all parameters independently estimated without fitting. PMID:25194391

Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Perkin, Susan; Goriely, Alain

2014-09-01

283

Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.  

PubMed

Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. PMID:25154312

Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

2014-09-26

284

Polyoxometalate ionic liquids as self-repairing Acid-resistant corrosion protection.  

PubMed

Corrosion is a global problem for any metallic structure or material. Herein we show how metals can easily be protected against acid corrosion using hydrophobic polyoxometalate-based ionic liquids (POM-ILs). Copper metal disks were coated with room-temperature POM-ILs composed of transition-metal functionalized Keggin anions [SiW11 O39 TM(H2 O)](n-) (TM=Cu(II) , Fe(III) ) and quaternary alkylammonium cations (Cn H2?n+1 )4 N(+) (n=7-8). The corrosion resistance against acetic acid vapors and simulated "acid rain" was significantly improved compared with commercial ionic liquids or solid polyoxometalate coatings. Mechanical damage to the POM-IL coating is self-repaired in less than one minute with full retention of the acid protection properties. The coating can easily be removed and recovered by rinsing with organic solvents. PMID:25332068

Herrmann, Sven; Kostrzewa, Monika; Wierschem, Andreas; Streb, Carsten

2014-12-01

285

Nonaqueous microemulsions based on n,n'-alkylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The ternary system composed of the ionic liquid surfactant (IL-S) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dodecylsulfate ([Bmim][DodSO4]), the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([Emim][EtSO4]), and toluene has been investigated. Three major mechanisms guiding the structure of the isotropic phase were identified by means of conductometric experiments, which have been correlated to the presence of oil-in-IL, bicontinuous, and IL-in-oil microemulsions. IL-S forms micelles in toluene, which swell by adding RTIL as to be shown by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. Therefore, it is possible to form water-free IL-in-oil reverse microemulsions ?10 nm in size as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:23679228

Rojas, Oscar; Tiersch, Brigitte; Rabe, Christian; Stehle, Ralf; Hoell, Armin; Arlt, Bastian; Koetz, Joachim

2013-06-11

286

Polymer electrolyte with ionic liquid for DSSC application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the structural and ionic conductivity properties of the polymer electrolyte PEO:KI\\/I2 doped with an ionic liquid 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium thio-cyanate (EMImSCN). Incorporation of the ionic liquid (IL) reduced the crystallinity, and enhanced the ionic conductivity. Optimized conductivity was found at 80 wt% of ionic liquid composition. This high electrical conductivity was suitable for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

Pramod K. Singh; Ki-Il Kim; Jae-Wook Lee; Hee-Woo Rhee

2006-01-01

287

Testing Fundamental Properties of Ionic Liquids for Colloid Microthruster Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program is scheduled to test a Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) on Space Technology 7 (ST7) as part of the European Space Agency's (ESA's) LISA Pathfinder Mission in late 2009. Colloid Micronewton Thrusters (CMNTs) will be used to counteract forces, mainly solar photon pressure, that could disturb gravitational reference sensors as part of the DRS. The micronewton thrusters use an ionic liquid, a room temperature molten salt, as propellant. The ionic liquid has a number of unusual properties that have a direct impact on thruster design. One of the most important issues is bubble formation before and during operation, especially during rapid pressure transitions from atmospheric to vacuum conditions. Bubbles have been observed in the feed system causing variations in propellant flow rate that can adversely affect thruster control. Bubbles in the feed system can also increase the likelihood that propellant will spray onto surfaces that can eventually lead to shorting high voltage electrodes. Two approaches, reducing the probability of bubble formation and removing bubbles with a new bubble eliminator device in the flow system, were investigated at Busek Co., Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to determine the effectiveness of both approaches. Results show that bubble formation is mainly caused by operation at low pressure and volatile contaminants in the propellant coming out of solution. A specification for the maximum tolerable level of contamination has been developed, and procedures for providing system cleanliness have been tested and implemented. The bubble eliminator device has also been tested successfully and has been implemented in recent thruster designs at Busek. This paper focuses on the propellant testing work at JPL, including testing of a breadboard level bubble eliminator device.

Anderson, John R.; Plett, Gary; Anderson, Mark; Ziemer, John

2006-01-01

288

Temperature dependence of the electrochemical behavior of LiCoO 2 in quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquid electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature significantly influences the physiochemical characteristics of trimethyl-n-hexylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (TMHA-TFSI) room temperature ionic liquid containing differing concentrations of LiTFSI salt. Electrochemical behavior of a LiCoO2 electrode in 1 M LiTFSI\\/TMHA-TFSI ionic electrolyte was investigated under different temperatures by using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A discharge capacity of 128.2 mAh\\/g and 92.1% coulombic efficiency was obtained in

Honghe Zheng; Jianhua Qin; Yang Zhao; Takeshi Abe; Zempachi Ogumi

2005-01-01

289

Ionic Liquids and New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is currently a great surge of activity in fuel cell research as laboratories across the world seek to take advantage of the high energy capacity provided by &el cells relative to those of other portable electrochemical power systems. Much of this activity is aimed at high temperature fie1 cells, and a vital component of such &el cells must be the availability of a high temperature stable proton-permeable membrane. NASA Glenn Research Center is greatly involved in developing this technology. Other approaches to the high temperature fuel cell involve the use of single- component or almost-single-component electrolytes that provide a path for protons through the cell. A heavily researched case is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, in which the electrolyte is almost pure phosphoric acid and the cathode reaction produces water directly. The phosphoric acid fie1 cell delivers an open circuit voltage of 0.9 V falling to about 0.7 V under operating conditions at 170 C. The proton transport mechanism is mainly vehicular in character according to the viscosity/conductance relation. Here we describe some Proton Transfer Ionic Liquids (PTILs) with low vapor pressure and high temperature stability that have conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems. The first requirement of an ionic liquid is that, contrary to experience with most liquids consisting of ions, it must have a melting point that is not much above room temperature. The limit commonly suggested is 100 C. PTILs constitute an interesting class of non-corrosive proton-exchange electrolyte, which can serve well in high temperature (T = 100 - 250 C) fuel cell applications. We will present cell performance data showing that the open circuit voltage output, and the performance of a simple H2(g)Pt/PTIL/Pt/O2(g) fuel cell may be superior to those of the equivalent phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cell both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200 C. My work at NASA Glenn Research Center during this summer is to develop and characterize proton exchange membranes doped with ionic liquids. The main techniques used to characterize these materials are: Impedance Spectroscopy, NMR, DSC, TGA, DMA, IR, and SEM ...

Belieres, Jean-Philippe

2004-01-01

290

Wetting study of imidazolium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a systematic contact angles study of a series of 1-alkyl, 3-methyl-imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) on well-defined polar and nonpolar monolayer surfaces supported on Si wafers. The advancing and receding contact angles of ILs were used to determine the surface energy of the monolayer surfaces using Neumann's equation-of-state and Zisman's critical surface tension approaches. In parallel, the contact angles of conventional probe fluids (molecular liquids) including water, formamide, methylene iodide, ethylene glycol, and hexadecane were determined on the same surfaces. The results obtained showed a great deal of similarity in wetting behavior of ionic vs molecular probe fluids: the contact angles of both sets of liquids followed the same patterns in accord with the surface tension of the fluid. A good agreement was found between the surface energy determined by different sets of liquids. PMID:19027916

Batchelor, Tyler; Cunder, Joe; Fadeev, Alexander Y

2009-02-15

291

1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09

292

Thermoresponsive poly(ionic liquid) hydrogels.  

PubMed

A new series of LCST ILs have been copolymerised with crosslinkers of varying length to afford the first ever thermoresponsive poly(ionic liquid)-based hydrogels. These hydrogels exhibit surprisingly broad LCST and volume transition behaviour compared to standard thermoresponsive gels and linear ILs. PMID:24064665

Zió?kowski, Bartosz; Diamond, Dermot

2013-11-11

293

Static gas-liquid interfacial direct current discharge plasmas using ionic liquid cathode  

SciTech Connect

Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we have succeeded in creating the static and stable gas (plasmas)-liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field using a direct current discharge under a low gas pressure condition. It is clarified that the ionic liquid works as a nonmetal liquid electrode, and furthermore, a secondary electron emission coefficient of the ionic liquid is larger than that of conventional metal electrodes. The plasma potential structure of the gas-liquid interfacial region, and resultant interactions between the plasma and the ionic liquid are revealed by changing a polarity of the electrode in the ionic liquid. By utilizing the ionic liquid as a cathode electrode, the positive ions in the plasma region are found to be irradiated to the ionic liquid. This ion irradiation causes physical and chemical reactions at the gas-liquid interfacial region without the vaporization of the ionic liquid.

Kaneko, T. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); CREST/JST, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Baba, K.; Hatakeyama, R. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2009-05-15

294

Ionic Liquid Catalyzed the Internal Redox Esterification Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal redox esterification of ?, ?-unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols was carried out using different ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts and reaction solvent. The basic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim]OAc) exhibited highest activity for this reaction among them. The influences of the amount of ionic liquid catalyst, and reaction time on yield of saturated ester have been investigated subsequently. The

Yinyin Yu; Li Hua; Wenwen Zhu; Yu Shi; Ting Cao; Yunxiang Qiao; Zhenshan Hou

2012-01-01

295

Ionic Liquids as Alternatives to Traditional Organic and Inorganic Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids are compared to those of traditional solvents. The behaviour of the\\u000a SN2 reaction and Diels-Alder reaction occurring in ionic liquids and common solvents is compared and contrasted. The chemistry\\u000a occurring in several common ionic liquids is also assessed.

Richard M. Pagni

296

Twin-peaks absorption spectra of excess electron in ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvated electron in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been the subject of several investigations and several reports exist on its nature and absorption spectrum. These studies concluded that the solvated electron exhibits an absorption spectrum peaking in the 1000-1400 nm region; a second absorption band peaking in the UV region has been assigned to the hole or dication radicals simultaneously formed in the system. Here we report on the fate of the excess electron in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, P14+/NTf2- using nanosecond pulse radiolysis. Scavenging experiments allowed us to record and disentangle the complex spectrum measured in P14+/NTf2-. We identified a bi-component absorption spectrum, due to the solvated electron, the absorption maxima located at 1080 nm and around 300 nm, as predicted by previous ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations for the dry excess electron. We also measured the spectra using different ionic liquids and confirmed the same feature of two absorption peaks. The present results have important implications for the characterization of solvated electrons in ionic liquids and better understanding of their structure and reactivity.

Musat, Raluca M.; Kondoh, Takafumi; Yoshida, Yoichi; Takahashi, Kenji

2014-07-01

297

Nanostructure of mixtures of protic ionic liquids and lithium salts: effect of alkyl chain length.  

PubMed

The bulk structure of mixtures of two protic ionic liquids, propylammonium nitrate and butylammonium nitrate, with a salt with a common anion, is analyzed at room temperature by means of small angle X-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study of several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, coordination numbers and velocity autocorrelation functions, demonstrates that increasing the alkyl chain length of the alkylammonium cation results in more segregated, better defined polar and apolar domains, the latter having a larger size. This increase, ascribed to the erosion of the H-bond network in the ionic liquid polar regions as salt is added, is confirmed by means of small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which show a clear linear increase of the characteristic spatial sizes of the studied protic ionic liquids with salt concentration, similar to that previously reported for ethylammonium nitrate (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014, 118, 761-770). In addition, larger ionic liquid cations lead to a lower degree of hydrogen bonding and to more sparsely packed three-dimensional structures, which are more easily perturbed by the addition of lithium salts. PMID:25609558

Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Rodríguez, Julio R; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Russina, Olga; Varela, Luis M

2015-02-01

298

Supercapacitors based on modified graphene electrodes with poly(ionic liquid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improved accessibility of the electrolyte to the surface of carbon nanomaterials is a challenge to be overcome in supercapacitors based on ionic liquid electrolytes. In this study, we report the preparation of supercapacitors based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrodes and ionic liquid as the electrolyte (specifically, 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or [MPPy][TFSI]). Two types of electrodes were compared: the RGO-based electrode and a poly(ionic liquid)-modified RGO electrode (PIL:RGO). The supercapacitor produced with the PIL:RGO electrode and [MPPy][TFSI] showed an electrochemical stability of 3 V and provided a capacitance of 71.5 F g-1 at room temperature; this capacitance is 130% higher with respect to the RGO-based supercapacitor. The decrease of the specific capacitance after 2000 cycles is only 10% for the PIL:RGO-based device. The results revealed the potential of the PIL:RGO material as an electrode for supercapacitors. This composite electrode increases the compatibility with the ionic liquid electrolyte compared to an RGO electrode, promoting an increase in the effective surface area of the electrode accessible to the electrolyte ions.

Trigueiro, João Paulo C.; Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Silva, Glaura G.

2014-06-01

299

Interfacial ionic ‘liquids’: connecting static and dynamic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e. with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time x-ray reflectivity to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene–RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion- and cation-adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (?0.15 eV).

Uysal, Ahmet; Zhou, Hua; Feng, Guang; Lee, Sang Soo; Li, Song; Cummings, Peter T.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Dai, Sheng; McDonough, John K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Fenter, Paul

2015-01-01

300

Interfacial ionic 'liquids': connecting static and dynamic structures.  

PubMed

It is well known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e. with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time x-ray reflectivity to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene-RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion- and cation-adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (?0.15 eV). PMID:25475119

Uysal, Ahmet; Zhou, Hua; Feng, Guang; Lee, Sang Soo; Li, Song; Cummings, Peter T; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Dai, Sheng; McDonough, John K; Gogotsi, Yury; Fenter, Paul

2015-01-28

301

Conventional study on novel dicationic ionic liquid inclusion with ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of the inclusion complex of ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD) with dicationic ionic liquid, 3,3'-(1,4-Phenylenebis [methylene]) bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium) di(bromide) (PhenmimBr). The inclusion complex was prepared at room temperature utilizing conventional kneading technique. Proton ((1)H) NMR and 2D ((1)H-(1)H) COSY NMR were the primary characterization tools employed to verify the formation of the inclusion complex. COSY spectra showed strong correlations between protons of imidazolium and protons of ?-CD which indicates that the imidazolium ring of PhenmimBr has entered the cavity of ?-CD. UV absorption indicated that ?-CD reacts with PhenmimBr to form a 2:1 ?-CD-PhenmimBr complex with an apparent formation constant of 2.61 × 10(5) mol&(-2) L(2). Other characterization studies such as UV, FT-IR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM studies were also used to further support the formation of the ?-CD-PhenmimBr inclusion complex. PMID:22016662

Mohamad, Sharifah; Surikumaran, Hemavathy; Raoov, Muggundha; Marimuthu, Tilagam; Chandrasekaram, Kumuthini; Subramaniam, Puvaneswary

2011-01-01

302

Molecular assembly-assisted biocatalytic reactions in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), having no measurable vapor pressure, represent an interesting class of tunable designer solvents. Due to their many unique properties, ILs have been used as attractive alternatives to environmentally harmful ordinary organic solvents in a wide range of applications including enzymatic biotransformation. Compared to conventional organic solvents, ILs offer many advantages for biocatalysis such as enhanced conversion rates, high enantioselectivity, better enzyme stability, and improved catalyst recoverability and recyclability. However, biocatalysis in ILs has not yet fully achieved its potential because many biocatalysts are insoluble in most ILs. This limitation could be overcome by the formation of nano/micrometer-sized aqueous microemulsion droplets in an IL continuous phase (referred to as water-in-IL microemulsions) stabilized by a layer of surfactants. Enzymes can be dissolved in such water droplets and protected from the unfavorable effect of ILs by the surfactant layer. In this chapter, a simple and effective method for the development of aqueous microemulsion droplets in a hydrophobic IL comprising an anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) is presented. For this approach, we have synthesized a hydrophobic IL [C(8)mim][Tf(2)N] (1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl) amide) containing a long pendant hydrocarbon chain to facilitate the dissolution of AOT molecules. A detailed description of the procedure for the potential use of this newly developed water-in-IL reverse microemulsion for biocatalysis is also included. PMID:21553181

Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Goto, Masahiro

2011-01-01

303

Interfacial Ionic Liquids: Connecting Static and Dynamic Structures  

E-print Network

It is well-known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e., with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time X-ray reflectivity (XR) to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene-RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion and cation adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (~0.15 eV).

Ahmet Uysal; Hua Zhou; Guang Feng; Sang Soo Lee; Song Li; Peter T. Cummings; Pasquale F. Fulvio; Sheng Dai; John K. McDonough; Yury Gogotsi; Paul Fenter

2014-12-06

304

Silica particle stability and settling in protic ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Silica particle suspensions of 10 wt % have been investigated in the protic ionic liquids (ILs) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN), propylammonium nitrate (PAN), and dimethylethylammonium formate (DMEAF). Static and dynamic light scattering reveal that single particles coexist in dynamic equilibrium with flocculated networks at room temperature. These types of systems are classified as weakly flocculated and are quite rare. As weakly flocculated systems generally exist only within a narrow range of conditions, the effect of temperature was probed. When temperature is increased, the thermal motion of suspended particles increases, favoring dispersion, but in ILs suspensions, heating reduces the stabilizing effect of the interfacial structure of the IL. When subjected to a small increase in temperature, particle suspensions in ILs become unstable, indicated by the absence of a peak corresponding to single particles in the light scattering data. For EAN and DMEAF, further increasing temperatures above 40 °C returns the systems to a weakly flocculated state in which thermal energy is sufficient to break particles away from aggregates. Weakly flocculated suspensions in EAN and EtAN settle more rapidly than predicted by the Stokes equation, as the particles spend a significant portion of time in large, rapidly settling flocs. Surprisingly, suspensions in PAN and DMEAF settle slower than predicted. Oscillatory rheology indicates that these suspensions are viscoelastic, due to a persistent, long-range structure in the suspension that slows settling. In aggregated systems, settling is very rapid. PMID:24450614

Smith, Jacob; Webber, Grant Bruce; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

2014-02-18

305

Molecular dynamics simulation of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. II. Transport coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic molecular dynamics study is performed to determine the dynamics and transport properties of 12 room-temperature ionic liquids family with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [amim]+ (alkyl=methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl), with counterions, PF6-, NO3-, and Cl-. The goal of the work is to provide molecular level understanding of the transport coefficients of these liquids as guidance to experimentalists on choosing anion and cation pairs to match required properties of ionic liquid solvents. In the earlier paper (Part I), we characterized the dynamics of ionic liquids and provided a detailed comparison of the diffusion coefficients for each ion using the Einstein and Green-Kubo formulas. In this second part, other transport properties of imidazolium salts are calculated, in particular, the electrical conductivity is calculated from the Nernst-Einstein and Green-Kubo formulas. The viscosity is also determined from the Stokes-Einstein relation. The results of the calculated transport coefficients are consistent with the previous computational and experimental studies of imidazolium salts. Generally, the simulations give electrical conductivity lower than experiment while the viscosity estimate is higher than experiment. Within the same cation family, the ionic liquids with the NO3- counterion have the highest electrical conductivities: ?[NO3]->?[PF6]->?[Cl]-. The [dmim][X] series, due to their symmetric cationic structure and good packing and the [bmim][X] series due to higher inductive van der Waals interactions of [bmim]+, have the highest viscosities in these ionic liquid series. Our simulations show that the major factors determining the magnitude of the self-diffusion, electrical conductivity, and viscosity are the geometric shape, ion size, and the delocalization of the ionic charge in the anion.

Kowsari, M. H.; Alavi, Saman; Ashrafizaadeh, Mahmud; Najafi, Bijan

2009-01-01

306

Effects of ionic liquids on the growth of Arthrobacter simplex and improved biodehydrogenation in an ionic liquid-containing system with immobilized cells.  

PubMed

Dehydrogenated derivatives of corticosteroids are usually more effective than their precursors in treating diseases. In this study, the toxicity of seven water-miscible ionic liquid and three organic solvents to the biocatalyst Arthrobacter simplex UR016 was tested to evaluate the possibility of biodehydrogenation from 17?-hydroxy-16?-methyl-pregna-4,9(11)-diene-3,20-dione (HMPDD) to 17?-hydroxy-16?-methyl-pregna-1,4,9(11)-triene-3,20-dione (HMPTD) in an ionic liquid-containing system. Although most tested room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) showed higher toxicities to A. simplex UR016 than organic solvents, bacterial growth was promoted in the presence of [EMIM](L)-Lac or [BMIM](L)-Lac at concentrations below 2.5 mmol/l, especially [EMIM](L)-Lac, presented the lowest toxicity to A. simplex. Following immobilization investigations, a conversion ratio of 89.9 % was achieved with a cell biomass of 10 g/l (dry cell weight/reaction mixture volume) in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified calcium alginate gel bead, a suitable matrix for cell immobilization. Further studies indicated that the conversion ratio can be improved by increasing cell loading to 60 beads per flask (containing 30 ml reaction mixture). Under optimal conditions with a [EMIM](L)-Lac content of 0.3 %, the conversion ratio reached 93.4 %, the highest value ever reported. PMID:22684411

Huang, Jin; Xie, Songlin; He, Junyao; Wang, Pu

2012-08-01

307

Employment of ionic liquid-imbibed polymer gel electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatility of organic solvent in liquid electrolyte has been tremendous obstacle for its application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we designed an ionic liquid-imbibed polymer gel electrolyte using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as solvent, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as iodine source, and amphiphilic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerol) [poly(HEMA/GR)] as a placeholder. As an amphiphilic matrix, poly(HEMA/GR) material can swell in ionic liquid electrolyte to form a stable gel, benefiting from its extraordinary absorption. The imbibed ionic liquid electrolyte is stored into interconnected poly(HEMA/GR) framework. Resultant quasi-solid-state electrolyte is honored with high ionic conductivity (14.29 mS cm-1) at room temperature and good retention. The ionic liquid-imbibed poly(HEMA/GR) gel electrolyte-based DSSC gives an overall light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 7.15%. The new concept along with easy fabrication promises the ionic liquid-imbibed gel electrolytes good alternatives in efficient DSSCs.

Li, Qinghua; Tang, Qunwei; Du, Nan; Qin, Yuancheng; Xiao, Jin; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Chu, Lei

2014-02-01

308

Solvent relaxation of a room-temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF 6 ] confined in a ternary microemulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we have reported the solvent and rotational relaxation of 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) confined in tween 20\\/([bmim][PF6]\\/water microemulsion using coumarin 153 (C-153) as probe. The most interesting feature of our experiment was that we observed\\u000a an increase in solvent relaxation time with increase in R (R = tween 20-to-[bmim][PF6] molar ratio). This is due to the fact that

Debabrata Seth; Palash Setua; Anjan Chakraborty; Nilmoni Sarkar

2007-01-01

309

CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS INCORPORATING THE IMIDAZOLIUM CATION. (R828257)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

310

Phase behavior of ionic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk properties of ionic liquid crystals are investigated using density functional theory. The liquid crystal molecules are represented by ellipsoidal particles with charges located in their center or at their tails. Attractive interactions are taken into account in terms of the Gay-Berne pair potential. Rich phase diagrams involving vapor, isotropic and nematic liquid, as well as smectic phases are found. The dependence of the phase behavior on various parameters such as the length of the particles and the location of charges on the particles is studied.

Kondrat, S.; Bier, M.; Harnau, L.

2010-05-01

311

Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: Comparison with aprotic ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stabilization energies for the formation (Eform) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G** level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The Eform for the [dema][CF3SO3] and [dmpa][CF3SO3] complexes (-95.6 and -96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF3SO3] complex (-81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl-, BF4-, TFSA- anions. The anion has contact with the N-H bond of the dema+ or dmpa+ cations in the most stable geometries of the dema+ and dmpa+ complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0-18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The Eform for the less stable geometries for the dema+ and dmpa+ complexes are close to those for the most stable etma+ complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N-H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA- anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation of the [etma][CF3SO3] ionic liquid.

Tsuzuki, Seiji; Shinoda, Wataru; Miran, Md. Shah; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2013-11-01

312

Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: comparison with aprotic ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The stabilization energies for the formation (E(form)) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G** level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The E(form) for the [dema][CF3SO3] and [dmpa][CF3SO3] complexes (-95.6 and -96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF3SO3] complex (-81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl(-), BF4(-), TFSA(-) anions. The anion has contact with the N-H bond of the dema(+) or dmpa(+) cations in the most stable geometries of the dema(+) and dmpa(+) complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0-18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The E(form) for the less stable geometries for the dema(+) and dmpa(+) complexes are close to those for the most stable etma(+) complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N-H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA(-) anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation of the [etma][CF3SO3] ionic liquid. PMID:24206313

Tsuzuki, Seiji; Shinoda, Wataru; Miran, Md Shah; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2013-11-01

313

Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: Comparison with aprotic ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The stabilization energies for the formation (E{sub form}) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G{sup **} level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The E{sub form} for the [dema][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] and [dmpa][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] complexes (?95.6 and ?96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] complex (?81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl{sup ?}, BF{sub 4}{sup ?}, TFSA{sup ?} anions. The anion has contact with the N–H bond of the dema{sup +} or dmpa{sup +} cations in the most stable geometries of the dema{sup +} and dmpa{sup +} complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0–18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The E{sub form} for the less stable geometries for the dema{sup +} and dmpa{sup +} complexes are close to those for the most stable etma{sup +} complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N–H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA{sup ?} anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation of the [etma][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] ionic liquid.

Tsuzuki, Seiji, E-mail: s.tsuzuki@aist.go.jp [Research Initiative of Computational Sciences (RICS), Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [Research Initiative of Computational Sciences (RICS), Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shinoda, Wataru [Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)] [Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Miran, Md. Shah; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

2013-11-07

314

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

SciTech Connect

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

L Tamam; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31

315

Electrochemical biosensing platform based on amino acid ionic liquid functionalized graphene for ultrasensitive biosensing applications.  

PubMed

In this study, a facile non-covalent method was developed for preparing water-soluble graphene with excellent electronic conductivity. Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) with high ionic conductivity were used for the non-covalent surface functionalization of graphene through ?-? stacking interactions. Compared to other ILs used, amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) were found to be the most effective for improving the dispersion of graphene in water phase. Electrochemical and spectroscopic results confirmed that the obtained AAIL functionalized GR can retain the excellent electronic conductivity of pristine graphene without damaging the graphene lattice. The obtained water-soluble graphene (GR-AAIL) was exemplified to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor using tyrosinase as a model enzyme, and the sensitivity (12,600 mA cm(-2) M(-1)) of GR-AAIL based biosensor was about 17 times higher than that of graphene oxide and other nanomaterial based biosensor, displaying its unprecedented high sensitivity for biosensing. The detection limit for catechol (one important environmental pollutant) reached as low as 8 nM with a response time of 3s and a linear range from 25 nM to 11,100 nM. The AAIL-GR based biosensor also demonstrated good reproducibility, repeatability, selectivity, long-term stability and high recovery for catechol detection. Amino acid ionic liquid functionalized graphene proves to be a robust and versatile electrochemical biosensing platform for fabricating biosensors with excellent performance. PMID:24997366

Lu, Xianbo; Wang, Xue; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Jiping

2014-12-15

316

Structure and Thermodynamics of Block Copolymers Doped with Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporation of ionic liquids into block copolymers is of interest for applications such as high temperature fuel cell membranes and polymer processing. These applications take advantage of ionic liquids' attractive physiochemical properties, such as low vapor pressure and high thermal stability. We investigate the structure and thermodynamics of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-PVP) block copolymers doped with an ionic liquid consisting of imidazole and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (HFTSI). Using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we demonstrate that increased ionic liquid doping leads to swelling of lamellar nanodomains in a symmetric PS-PVP block copolymer. At high ionic liquid loadings, we observe break up of the lamellar domains into hexagonally perforated lamellae. We characterize the effect of ionic liquid loading on the order-disorder transition (ODT) temperature of PS-PVP. We observe depression of the PS-PVP ODT temperature with increasing loading of the ionic liquid.

Virgili, J. M.; Balsara, N. P.; Segalman, R. A.

2008-03-01

317

Dissolution enthalpies of cellulose in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this work, interactions between cellulose and ionic liquids were studied calorimetrically and by optical microscopy. Two novel ionic liquids (1,5-Diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium propionate and N-methyl-1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium dimethyl phosphate) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-water mixtures were used as solvents. Optical microscopy served in finding the extent of dissolution and identifying the dissolution pattern of the cellulose sample. Calorimetric studies identified a peak relating to dissolution of cellulose in solvent. The transition did, however, not indicate complete dissolution, but rather dissolution inside fibre or fibrils. This method was used to study differences between four cellulose samples with different pretreatment or origins. PMID:25256460

Parviainen, Helena; Parviainen, Arno; Virtanen, Tommi; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Serimaa, Ritva; Grönqvist, Stina; Maloney, Thaddeus; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa

2014-11-26

318

Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals stabilized by ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon nanocrystals stabilized by an ionic liquid, dimethylimidazolium iodide, were synthesized by chemical reduction of\\u000a SiBr4 with metallic Na in an organic solvent, diglyme. The nanoparticles were crystalline with a diamond cubic lattice and average\\u000a size of 3.5 nm. Solid state 13C- and 29Si-NMR CP MAS spectra indicate the formation of imidazolium carbene, which ligates the Si atoms at the surface

A. Kamyshny; V. N. Zakharov; M. A. Zakharov; A. V. Yatsenko; S. V. Savilov; L. A. Aslanov; S. Magdassi

2011-01-01

319

Self-propelled chemotactic ionic liquid droplets.  

PubMed

Herein we report the chemotactic behaviour of self-propelled droplets composed solely of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P6,6,6,14][Cl]). These droplets spontaneously move along an aqueous-air boundary in the direction of chloride gradients to specific destinations due to asymmetric release of [P6,6,6,14](+) cationic surfactant from the droplet into the aqueous phase. PMID:25562698

Francis, Wayne; Fay, Cormac; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot

2015-01-27

320

Solubilities and thermophysical properties of ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the systematic study on the solubilities of 1-alkyl-3-methyl- imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (e, or bmim)(PF 6 ), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (almim)(CH 3 SO 4 ), 1-hexyloxymethyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) (C 6 H 13 OCH 2 mim)(BF 4 ), or (C 6 H 13 OCH 2 mim)((CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N) in aliphatic hydrocar- bons (heptane, octane), cyclohydrocarbons (cyclopentane,

Urszula Domanska

2005-01-01

321

Dicationic organic salts: gelators for ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Diimidazolium and dipyrrolidinium organic salts were tested for their ability to gel both organic solvents and ionic liquids. Organic salts containing 1-(1-imidazolylmethyl)-3,5-di-(3'-octylimidazolylmethyl)-benzene and 1-(N-pyrrolidylmethyl)-3,5-di-(N,N-octylpyrrolidylmethyl)-benzene cations were used. In addition to the simple bromide anion, also dianions having a naphthalene core such as 1,5- and 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate were taken into account. Gelation tests demonstrated that organic salts used were able to harden ionic liquids. The materials obtained were investigated for their thermal stability and also for electric conductivity properties using micro-DSC and dielectric spectroscopy. Furthermore, the opacity of some gel phases was monitored using UV-vis measurements. To obtain information about the gelation mechanism, gel phase formation was studied as a function of time by means of resonance light scattering investigation. Finally, the ability of materials to respond to external stimuli such as magnetic stirring or ultrasound irradiation was also analyzed. Data collected show that different relationships exist among the gelator and the ionic liquid structure, determining the properties of materials and their possible applications. PMID:25330144

D'Anna, Francesca; Rizzo, Carla; Vitale, Paola; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Noto, Renato

2014-12-14

322

A new cluster-ion-beam source for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using the electrospray of a pure ionic liquid under high vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospray characteristics were studied using a pure room-temperature molten salt (i.e., an ionic liquid) at pressures around 10 -5 Pa as well as at atmospheric pressure. The ionic liquid N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide was tested, which has negligible vapor pressure and high conductivity. During electrospray, the ionic liquid was introduced at a constant flow rate into a stainless-steel capillary (i.d. 30 ?m). It was demonstrated that stable electrosprayed currents exceeding ±1 ?? were continuously produced in both positive and negative modes. The electrosprayed currents in a high vacuum were twice those at atmospheric pressure. It was found that gas pressure rose slightly with increasing electrosprayed currents. Residual gas analysis revealed that gas component at negative mode was different from that at positive mode. Experimental results indicate that vacuum electrospray of pure ionic liquids is applicable to a massive-cluster beam source for SIMS.

Fujiwara, Yukio; Saito, Naoaki; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Nakanaga, Taisuke; Ichimura, Shingo

2010-06-01

323

The preparation of quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquid containing a cyano group and its properties in a lithium battery electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A room temperature ionic liquid consisting of N, N, N, N-cyanomethyl trimethyl ammonium (CTMA) cation and bis(trifluoromethane sulfone)imide (TFSI) anion was newly synthesized, and its electrochemical properties were investigated. This ionic liquid has a melting point of 35 °C and an order of conductivity of 10 -4 S cm -1. Lithium deposition/dissolution tests in 0.2 mol dm -3 LiTFSI/CTMATFSI electrolytes showed an improved cycle behavior compared with that of a Li electrolyte based on a tetraalkylammonium ionic liquid without a cyano group. It is suggested that such an improvement may be associated with the formation of a protective film on the lithium surface. Introducing a proper functional group is suggested to be effective to improve the interfacial properties of ionic liquid.

Egashira, Minato; Okada, Shigeto; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Dri, Diego Alejandro; Bonadies, Francesco; Scrosati, Bruno

324

Wetting and tribological properties of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A phenomenological study of the surface-wetting and tribological properties of various ionic liquids was conducted using molecular dynamics simulations. The surface-wetting capabilities of the liquids were studied by simulating the morphological transformation of an isolated liquid drop in vacuum to its equilibrium state on solid surface. The tribological properties of the liquids were probed examining their flow behaviors and viscosities in computational lubrication experiments. All liquids exhibited good surface-wetting properties, as demonstrated by the hemispherical shape of the droplets at equilibrium and the surface contact angles. Contact angles for all liquids were much lower than 90°. Lubrication experiments demonstrated a flow behavior for the liquids that depended on the magnitude of the applied shear rate. Three distinctive flow regimes were observed: Newtonian, thixotropic (non-Newtonian), and oversheared. The liquids' viscosities were determined in the Newtonian regime and agree well with experimental results and with previously reported values calculated using equilibrium simulations. The phenomenological approach implemented in this study allowed for the calculation of the transport properties of the liquids and produced values within the appropriate order of magnitude without the use of calculational artifacts. These results corroborate previous reports indicating that nonequilibrium techniques represent a more robust approach for the calculation of transport properties than do equilibrium methods based on time-correlation functions. PMID:24641326

Castejón, Henry J; Wynn, Troy J; Marcin, Zachary M

2014-04-01

325

Anharmonicity and Fragility of Protic Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercooled liquids are often characterized by their fragility which is associated with physicochemical properties. However, the origin of fragility is still controversial. Superfragile liquid, decahydroisoquinoline (DHiQ) is chosen as a parent molecule to systematically investigate the relationship between anharmonicity and fragility of supercooled liquids. Earlier study by Ueno et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116) demonstrated that the protonation of DHiQ by different Bronsted acids results in the loss of superfragility. To understand the nature of fragile liquids, we conducted inelastic/quasielastic (IE/QE) neutron scattering measurements to examine low frequency vibrational dynamics (boson peak) and the relaxation behavior of DHiQ (high fragility) and DHiQ-based ionic liquids with intermediate (formate, Fm) and low (trifluoromethansulfonimide, TFSI) fragilities. With the protonation, molecular acids will be hydrogen-deficient and the scattering will be dominated by cation, [DHiQ^+]. This strategy simplifies our interpretation in terms of understanding the fitting result from IENS/QENS spectra. By protonating DHiQ with stronger acids, large shift in low frequency vibrational modes and smaller mean square displacements were examined at temperatures higher than Tg. We illustrate how the degree of protonation and ionicity plays a role in the loss in superfragility of DHiQ.

Kim, Jenny; Angell, Austen; Ueno, Kazuhide; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Masser, Kevin

2013-03-01

326

High-performance liquid chromatography analysis methods developed for quantifying enzymatic esterification of flavonoids in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Methods using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ELSD were investigated to quantify enzymatic reactions of flavonoids with fatty acids in the presence of diverse room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). A buffered salt (preferably triethylamine-acetate) was found essential for separation of flavonoids from strongly polar RTILs, whereby RTILs were generally visible as two major peaks identified based on an ion-pairing/exchanging hypothesis. C8 and C12 stationary phases were optimal while mobile phase pH (3-7) had only a minor influence on separation. The method developed was successfully applied for primary screening of RTILs (>20), with in depth evaluation of substrates in 10 RTILs, for their evaluation as reaction media. PMID:18538777

Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

2008-07-11

327

Room temperature terahertz polariton emitter  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz (THz) range electroluminescence from intersubband polariton states is observed in the ultra strong coupling regime, where the interaction energy between the collective excitation of a dense electron gas and a photonic mode is a significant portion of the uncoupled excitation energy. The polariton's increased emission efficiency along with a parabolic electron confinement potential allows operation up to room temperature in a nonresonant pumping scheme. This observation of room temperature electroluminescence of an intersubband device in the THz range is a promising proof of concept for more powerful THz sources.

Geiser, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Castellano, Fabrizio; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2012-10-01

328

Aqueous gelation of ionic liquids: reverse thermoresponsive ion gels.  

PubMed

The aqueous gelation of a quaternary ammonium oligo(propylene oxide)-based ionic liquid yields ion gels with a reverse thermoresponsive behavior (i.e., mechanical moduli and viscosity increase with temperature) and enhanced ionic conductivities. PMID:20730172

Ribot, Josep Casamada; Guerrero-Sanchez, Carlos; Hoogenboom, Richard; Schubert, Ulrich S

2010-10-01

329

Ammonia borane hydrogen release in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The rate and extent of H(2)-release from ammonia borane (AB), a promising, high-capacity hydrogen storage material, was found to be enhanced in ionic-liquid solutions. For example, AB reactions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl) (50:50-wt %) exhibited no induction period and released 1.0 H(2)-equiv in 67 min and 2.2 H(2)-equiv in 330 min at 85 degrees C, whereas comparable solid-state AB reactions at 85 degrees C had a 180 min induction period and required 360 min to release approximately 0.8 H(2)-equiv, with the release of only another approximately 0.1 H(2)-equiv at longer times. Significant rate enhancements for the ionic-liquid mixtures were obtained with only moderate increases in temperature, with, for example, a 50:50-wt % AB/bmimCl mixture releasing 1.0 H(2)-equiv in 5 min and 2.2 H(2)-equiv in only 20 min at 110 degrees C. Increasing the AB/bmimCl ratio to 80:20 still gave enhanced H(2)-release rates compared to the solid-state, and produced a system that achieved 11.4 materials-weight percent H(2)-release. Solid-state and solution (11)B NMR studies of AB H(2)-release reactions in progress support a mechanistic pathway involving: (1) ionic-liquid promoted conversion of AB into its more reactive ionic diammoniate of diborane (DADB) form, (2) further intermolecular dehydrocoupling reactions between hydridic B-H hydrogens and protonic N-H hydrogens on DADB and/or AB to form neutral polyaminoborane polymers, and (3) polyaminoborane dehydrogenation to unsaturated cross-linked polyborazylene materials. PMID:19769390

Himmelberger, Daniel W; Alden, Laif R; Bluhm, Martin E; Sneddon, Larry G

2009-10-19

330

Maleimide-modified phosphonium ionic liquids: a template towards (multi)task-specific ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of several compounds representing a new class of multitask-specific phosphonium ionic liquids that contain a maleimide functionality is reported. The maleimide moiety of the ionic liquid (IL) is shown to undergo Michael-type additions with substrates containing either a thiol or amine moiety, thus, serving as a template to introduce wide structural diversity into the IL. Multitask-specific ILs are accessible by reaction of the maleimide with Michael donors that are capable of serving some function. As a model example to illustrate this concept, a redox active ferrocenyl thiol was incorporated and examined by cyclic voltammetry. Because the maleimide moiety is highly reactive to additions, the task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) are prepared as the furan-protected Diels-Alder maleimide. The maleimide moiety can then be liberated when required by simple heating. PMID:20572165

Tindale, Jocelyn J; Hartlen, Kurtis D; Alizadeh, Abdolhamid; Workentin, Mark S; Ragogna, Paul J

2010-08-01

331

Application of ionic liquid in liquid phase microextraction technology.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel nonmolecular solvents. Their unique properties, such as high thermal stability, tunable viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, nonflammability, and good solubility for inorganic and organic compounds, make them excellent candidates as extraction media for a range of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design can be tuned to impart the desired functionality and enhance the analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the applications of ILs in liquid phase microextraction technology, such as single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The sensitivity, linear calibration range, and detection limits for a range of target analytes in the methods were analyzed to determine the advantages of ILs in liquid phase microextraction. PMID:23002004

Han, Dandan; Tang, Baokun; Lee, Yu Ri; Row, Kyung Ho

2012-11-01

332

The effects of anion and cation substitution on the ultrafast solvent dynamics of ionic liquids: A time-resolved optical Kerr-effect spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafast solvent dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids have been investigated by optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES) by studying the effects of cation and anion substitution on the low frequency librational modes. The spectra of two series of imidazolium salts are presented. The first series is based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salts [bmim]+ containing the anions trifluoromethanesulfate [TfO]-, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [Tf2N]-, and

Gerard Giraud; Charles M. Gordon; Ian R. Dunkin; Klaas Wynne

2003-01-01

333

The effects of anion and cation substitution on the ultrafast solvent dynamics of ionic liquids: A time-resolved optical Kerr-effect spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafast solvent dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids have been investigated by optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES) by studying the effects of cation and anion substitution on the low frequency librational modes. The spectra of two series of imidazolium salts are presented. The first series is based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salts [bmim]+ containing the anions trifluoromethanesulfate [TfO]?,bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [Tf2N]?, and hexafluorophosphate

Gerard Giraud; Charles M. Gordon; Ian R. Dunkin; Klaas Wynne

2003-01-01

334

Effect of the structure of imidazolium cations in [BF 4] ?-type ionic liquids on direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase in Nafion films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Nafion films at glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated in three [BF4]?-type room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) to understand the structural effect of imidazolium cations. The three ILs are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Hmim][BF4]). A small amount of water in the three ILs is indispensable for

Lu Lu; Xirong Huang; Yinbo Qu

2011-01-01

335

[Determination of thermodynamic parameters for ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethansulfonate by inverse gas chromatography].  

PubMed

The thermodynamic parameters of ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethansulfonate ([HMIM] OTF) were investigated by inverse gas chromatography in the temperature range of 343.15-373.15 K. Eighteen probe solvents were used to calculate the molar enthalpy of sorption, molar enthalpy of mixing at infinite dilution, molar enthalpy of vaporization and the mass fraction activity coefficients. Furthermore, Flory-Huggins interaction parameters, the solubility parameter of the ionic liquid were calculated to judge the interactions between [HMIM] OTF and the 18 probes solvents. The results showed that among the selected solvents, n-C6-9, tetrahydrofuran, diethyl ether, cyclohexane and benzene are the poor solvents for [HMIM] OTF, while dichloromethane, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, methyl acetate, toluene and methanol are the favorite solvents for [HMIM] OTF. In addition, the solubility parameter of [HMIM] OTF at room temperature (298.15 K), which was obtained by linear extrapolation method, was 20.74 (J/cm3)0.5. This study could be used as a reference to the application and research of the ionic liquids. PMID:24822452

Deng, Lishuang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhengfang; Tang, Jun

2014-02-01

336

Pressure effect on vibrational frequency and dephasing of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra in the range of the totally symmetric stretching mode of the [PF6]- anion, ?s(PF6), have been measured for 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids [CnC1im][PF6], for n = 4, 6, and 8, as a function of pressure at room temperature. The ionic liquids [C6C1im][PF6] and [C8C1im][PF6] remain in an amorphous phase up to 3.5 GPa, in contrast to [C4C1im][PF6], which crystallizes above ˜0.5 GPa. Equations of state based either on a group contribution model or Carnahan-Starling-van der Waals model have been used to estimate the densities of the ionic liquids at high pressures. The shifts of the vibrational frequency of ?s(PF6) with density observed in [C6C1im][PF6] and in [C8C1im][PF6] have been calculated by a hard-sphere model of a pseudo-diatomic solute under short-range repulsive interactions with the neighboring particles. The stochastic model of Kubo for vibrational dephasing has been used to obtain the amplitude of vibrational frequency fluctuation, ???2?, and the relaxation time of frequency fluctuation, ?c, as a function of density by Raman band shape analysis of the ?s(PF6) mode of [C6C1im][PF6] and [C8C1im][PF6].

Pison, L.; Costa Gomes, M. F.; Pádua, A. A. H.; Andrault, D.; Norman, S.; Hardacre, C.; Ribeiro, M. C. C.

2013-08-01

337

Probing thermal interactions of ionic liquids with dimethyl sulfoxide.  

PubMed

Interactions between ionic liquids and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are probed by isothermal titration calorimetry. The excess partial molar enthalpies of ionic liquids H(IL)(E) in DMSO are discussed in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The specific interaction theory originally developed by Pitzer is used to analyze the apparent molar enthalpy ?(L) of ionic liquids in DMSO with the help of ion-interaction parameters. Furthermore, quantitative information on solvent reorganization and clathrate formation is obtained and interpreted. PMID:22344773

Rai, Gitanjali; Kumar, Anil

2012-05-14

338

Mandelate racemase activity in ionic liquids: scopes and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids (IL) offer new possibilities for solvent engineering for biocatalytic reactions. The deracemization of (±)-mandelic acid using a lipase-mandelate racemase two-enzyme system was used to investigate the scopes and limitations of ionic liquids as new reaction media for a dynamic resolution approach. Mandelate racemase [EC 5.1.2.2] from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 was observed to be active in ionic liquids

Nicole Kaftzik; Wolfgang Kroutil; Kurt Faber; Udo Kragl

2004-01-01

339

Electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquid nanoscale films.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in tribology is finding the way for an in situ control of friction without changing the lubricant. One of the ways for such control is via the application of electric fields. In this respect a promising new class of lubricants is ionic liquids, which are solvent-free electrolytes, and their properties should be most strongly affected by applied voltage. Based on a minimal physical model, our study elucidates the connection between the voltage effect on the structure of the ionic liquid layers and their lubricating properties. It reveals two mechanisms of variation of the friction force with the surface charge density, consistent with recent AFM measurements, namely via the (i) charge effect on normal and in-plane ordering in the film and (ii) swapping between anion and cation layers at the surfaces. We formulate conditions that would warrant low friction coefficients and prevent wear by resisting "squeezing-out" of the liquid under compression. These results give a background for controllable variation of friction. PMID:25572127

Fajardo, O Y; Bresme, F; Kornyshev, A A; Urbakh, M

2015-01-01

340

Electrotunable Lubricity with Ionic Liquid Nanoscale Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main challenges in tribology is finding the way for an in situ control of friction without changing the lubricant. One of the ways for such control is via the application of electric fields. In this respect a promising new class of lubricants is ionic liquids, which are solvent-free electrolytes, and their properties should be most strongly affected by applied voltage. Based on a minimal physical model, our study elucidates the connection between the voltage effect on the structure of the ionic liquid layers and their lubricating properties. It reveals two mechanisms of variation of the friction force with the surface charge density, consistent with recent AFM measurements, namely via the (i) charge effect on normal and in-plane ordering in the film and (ii) swapping between anion and cation layers at the surfaces. We formulate conditions that would warrant low friction coefficients and prevent wear by resisting ``squeezing-out'' of the liquid under compression. These results give a background for controllable variation of friction.

Fajardo, O. Y.; Bresme, F.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Urbakh, M.

2015-01-01

341

High vacuum distillation of ionic liquids and separation of ionic liquid mixtures.  

PubMed

The vaporisation of ionic liquids has been investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) distillation. 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] (n = 2, 8), have been distilled at UHV and T > 500 K in a specially designed still. The distillation process yielded spectroscopically pure ionic liquid distillates with complete removal of volatile impurities such as water, argon and 1-methylimidazole. Such UHV distillation offers a method of obtaining high purity ionic liquids for analytical applications. The vapour phase of the ionic liquid mixtures [C(2)C(1)Im](0.05)[C(8)C(1)Im](0.95)[Tf(2)N] and [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N][EtSO(4)] has been analysed by TPD using line-of-sight mass spectrometry (LOSMS). The vapour phase consisted of all possible combinations of neutral ion pairs (NIPs) from the liquid mixture. Neither mixture showed evidence of decomposition during TPD, and the [C(2)C(1)Im](0.05)[C(8)C(1)Im](0.95)[Tf(2)N] mixture was shown to obey Raoult's law. Based on the TPD results, fractional distillations were attempted for [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N](2) and [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N][EtSO(4)] mixtures. The distillate from [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N](2) was enhanced in the more volatile [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] components, but the [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N][EtSO(4)] mixture underwent significant decomposition. The similarities and differences between UHV TPD, and high vacuum distillation, of ionic liquids, are discussed. Design parameters are outlined for a high vacuum ionic liquid still that will minimise decomposition and maximise separation of ILs of differing volatility. PMID:20145842

Taylor, Alasdair W; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Deyko, Alexey; Licence, Peter; Jones, Robert G

2010-02-28

342

Room temperature electrodeposition of molybdenum sulfide for catalytic and photoluminescence applications.  

PubMed

An elegant method for the electrodeposition of MoS2 thin films using room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) as an electrolyte was developed. Simple molecular precursors of Mo and S were added in different concentrations to tune the composition and deposition process. The electrodeposition of MoS2 was confirmed with both Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Analysis showed that the electrodeposited MoS2 films form a flower shape morphology with edge active sites that promote the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Furthermore, this technique enables selective tuning of the film thickness and demonstrates high photoluminescence activity with a decrease in the number of layers. PMID:23962095

Murugesan, Sankaran; Akkineni, Arunkumar; Chou, Brendan P; Glaz, Micah S; Vanden Bout, David A; Stevenson, Keith J

2013-09-24

343

Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid  

DOEpatents

A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2013-05-28

344

Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion Triazolide Ionic Liquids - A New Class of Ionic Liquid Anion Accessed by the Huisgen Cycloaddition Reaction  

SciTech Connect

The triazole core is a highly versatile heterocyclic ring which can be accessed easily with the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition reaction. Herein we present the preparation of ionic liquids that incorporate a 1,2,3-triazolide anion. These ionic liquids were prepared by a facile procedure utilizing a base-labile pivaloylmethyl group at the 1-position, which can act as precursors to 1H- 4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole. These triazoles were then subsequently converted into ionic liquids after deprotonation using an appropriate ionic liquid cation hydroxide. The densities and thermal decompositions of these ionic liquids were measured. These novel ionic liquids have potential applications in gas separations and in metal-free catalysis.

Thompson, Robert L.; Damodaran, Krishnan; Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid

2013-06-01

345

Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.  

PubMed

The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol?%) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases. PMID:25145759

Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Wong, Yuewen; Lim, Kok Hwa; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Lee, Jong-Min

2014-11-10

346

Source of heavy molecular ions based on Taylor cones of ionic liquids operating in the pure ion evaporation regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The full spray emitted by Taylor cones of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI+BF4-) held in a vacuum is investigated at room temperature by time of flight mass spectrometry. The current is composed mainly of ions under most conditions studied, but contains a small component of nanometer drops that tends to dominate the emitted mass flow. Exceptionally, drop ejection vanishes close to the smallest flow rate at which the Taylor cone is steady. The present discovery of a stable strictly ionic regime in Taylor cones of substances other than liquid metals owes much to earlier observations with sulfuric acid, where most but not all the current was ionic. Most striking is the fact that this purely ionic regime is obtained at an electrical conductivity K of only 1.3 S/m, much smaller than that of sulfuric acid, and smaller than that at which formamide electrolytes with K>2 S/m do still emit substantial drop currents. The ion emission includes primarily the dimer (EMI-BF4)EMI+, accompanied by fair currents of the monomer EMI+ and the trimer ions. The modest spread of ion energies observed and considerable currents attained (0.6 ?A) suggests the use of this and other ionic liquids as ion beam sources with a much wider range of mass/charge and chemical compositions than previously available. The present data provide a direct proof of the reality of the often doubted mechanism of ion evaporation from liquid surfaces.

Romero-Sanz, I.; Bocanegra, R.; Fernandez de la Mora, J.; Gamero-Castaño, M.

2003-09-01

347

Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

2012-02-01

348

Room temperature molten salt batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) xerogels are good host materials for alkali metal ion insertion and could lead to new alkali metal ion batteries, using Li+, Na+, or Mg 2+ and a room temperature molten salt electrolyte. Studies of V2O5 xerogels as cathodes in melts made by mixing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC) and aluminum chloride are underway. The electrochemical characteristics of V2O5 xerogels

Jian Xie; Thomas L. Riechel

1999-01-01

349

On the dynamic response of externally wetted ionic liquid ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrostatic extraction of nearly monochromatic solvated ions from externally wetted emitters is possible in the case of some ionic liquids or room temperature molten salts. These compact devices are similar to liquid metal ion sources but positive or negative ion beams can be obtained simply by selecting the appropriate polarity for the power supply. dc operation on a single polarity over relatively long periods of time induces electrochemical degradation of the liquid-metal system making voltage alternation at frequencies of the order of 1 Hz necessary to sustain chemical neutrality. This periodic interruption forces a non-steady state behaviour. In particular, the ion current onset is delayed from a square-shaped voltage input signal by a few milliseconds for tungsten metal emitters wetted with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, setting the upper bound for the alternation frequency at about 75 Hz. The dependences of these delays on absolute applied voltages are experimentally explored for this compound, suggesting that viscous drag is the main factor determining the dynamic response.

Lozano, Paulo; Martínez-Sánchez, Manuel

2005-07-01

350

Self-assembling array of magnetoelectrostatic jets from the surface of a superparamagnetic ionic liquid.  

PubMed

Electrospray is a versatile technology used, for example, to ionize biomolecules for mass spectrometry, create nanofibers and nanowires, and propel spacecraft in orbit. Traditionally, electrospray is achieved via microfabricated capillary needle electrodes that are used to create the fluid jets. Here we report on multiple parallel jetting instabilities realized through the application of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields to the surface of a superparamagnetic electrically conducting ionic liquid with no needle electrodes. The ionic liquid ferrofluid is synthesized by suspending magnetic nanoparticles in a room-temperature molten salt carrier liquid. Two ILFFs are reported: one based on ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and the other based on EMIM-NTf2. The ILFFs display an electrical conductivity of 0.63 S/m and a relative magnetic permeability as high as 10. When coincident electric and magnetic fields are applied to these liquids, the result is a self-assembling array of emitters that are composed entirely of the colloidal fluid. An analysis of the magnetic surface stress induced on the ILFF shows that the electric field required for transition to spray can be reduced by as much as 4.5 × 10(7) V/m compared to purely electrostatic spray. Ferrofluid mode studies in nonuniform magnetic fields show that it is feasible to realize arrays with up to 16 emitters/mm(2). PMID:25372842

King, Lyon B; Meyer, Edmond; Hopkins, Mark A; Hawkett, Brian S; Jain, Nirmesh

2014-12-01

351

Structural and electrochemical properties of succinonitrile-based gel polymer electrolytes: role of ionic liquid addition.  

PubMed

Experimental studies on the novel compositions of gel polymer electrolytes, comprised of plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN) dispersed with pyrrolidinium and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) entrapped in a host polymer poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), are reported. The gel electrolytes are in the form of free-standing films with excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical stability. The introduction of even a small content (~1 wt %) of ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf) in the PVdF-HFP/SN system (1:4 w/w) enhances the electrical conductivity by 4 orders of magnitude, that is, from ~10(-7) to ~10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The structural changes due to the entrapment of SN or SN/ILs mixtures and ion-SN-polymer interactions are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimmetry (DSC). Various physicochemical properties and fast ion conduction in the gel polymer membranes show their promising characteristics as electrolytes in different ionic devices including supercapacitors. PMID:23758408

Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S A

2013-06-20

352

Temperature-dependent structure of ionic liquids: X-ray scattering and simulations  

SciTech Connect

In this article we determine the temperature-dependent structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ionic liquid using a combination of X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. As in many other room-temperature ionic liquids three characteristic intermolecular peaks can be detected in the structure function S(q). A prepeak or first sharp diffraction peak is observed at about q = 0.42 {angstrom}{sup -1}. Long range anion-anion correlations are the most important contributors to this peak. In all systems we have studied to date, this prepeak is a signature of solvation asymmetry. The peak in S(q) near q = 0.75 {angstrom}{sup -1} is the signature of ionic alternation and arises from the charge ordered separation of ions of the same charge. The most intense diffraction peak near q = 1.37 {angstrom}{sup -1} arises from short-range separation between ions of opposite charge combined with a significant contribution from cationic carbon-carbon interactions, indicating that cationic hydrophobic tails have significant contacts.

Kashyap, Hemant K.; Santos, Cherry S.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.R.; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Margulis, Claudio J.; Castner, Jr., Edward W. (SUNJ)

2012-03-15

353

Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalates : Electroactive, 'task-specific' ionic liquids.  

SciTech Connect

The pairing of selected polyoxometalate (POM) anions with appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cations is shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids, among them an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM.'

Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. R.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; BNL; Univ. of Miami

2007-01-01

354

Application of ionic liquids in liquid chromatography and electrodriven separation.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts in the liquid state at ambient temperature, which are nonvolatile, nonflammable with high thermal stability and dissolve easily for a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. As a kind of potential green solvent, they show high efficiency and selectivity in the field of separation research, especially in instrumental analysis. Thus far, ILs have been successfully applied by many related researchers in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis as chromatographic stationary phases, mobile phase additives or electroosmotic flow modifiers. This paper provides a detailed review of these applications in the study of natural products, foods, drugs and other fine chemicals. Furthermore, the prospects of ILs in liquid chromatographic and electrodriven techniques are discussed. PMID:23833208

Huang, Yi; Yao, Shun; Song, Hang

2013-08-01

355

Hydrophobic ionic liquids based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation for lithium/seawater batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hydrophobic ionic liquids (room temperature molten salts) based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (BMI +), BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N -, were used in developing a highly efficient lithium anode system for lithium/seawater batteries. The lithium anode system was composed of lithium metal/ionic liquid/Celgard membrane. Both BMI +PF 6-and BMI +Tf 2N - maintained high apparent anodic efficiency (up to 100%) under potentiostatic polarization (at +0.5 V versus open-circuit potential (OCP)) in a 3% NaCl solution. Eventually, traces of water contaminated the ionic liquid and a bilayer film (LiH and LiOH) on the lithium surface was formed, decreasing the rate of lithium anodic reaction and hence the discharge current density. BMI +Tf 2N - prevented traces of water from reaching the lithium metal surface longer than BMI +PF 6- (60 h versus 7 h). However, BMI +PF 6- was better than BMI +Tf 2N - in keeping a constant current density (˜0.2 mA cm -2) before the traces of water contaminated the lithium surface due to the non-reactivity of BMI +PF 6- with the lithium metal that kept the bare lithium surface. During the discharge process, BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - acted as ion transport media of Li +, Cl -, OH - and H 2O, but did not react with them because of the excellent chemical stability, high conductivity, and high hydrophobicity of these two ionic liquids. Both BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - gels were tentative approaches used to delay the traces of water coming in contact with the lithium surface.

Zhang, Yancheng; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

356

Monoenergetic source of kilodalton ions from Taylor cones of ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The ionic liquid ion sources (ILISs) recently introduced by Lozano and Martinez Sanchez [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282, 415 (2005)], based on electrochemically etched tungsten tips as emitters for Taylor cones of ionic liquids (ILs), have been tested with ionic liquids [A{sup +}B{sup -}] of increasing molecular weight and viscosity. These ILs have electrical conductivities well below 1 S/m and were previously thought to be unsuitable to operate in the purely ionic regime because their Taylor cones produce mostly charged drops from conventional capillary tube sources. Strikingly, all the ILs tried on ILIS form charged beams composed exclusively of small ions and cluster ions A{sup +}(AB){sub n} or B{sup -}(AB){sub n}, with abundances generally peaking at n=1. Particularly interesting are the positive and negative ion beams produced from the room temperature molten salts 1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate (C{sub 5}MI-(C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 3}PF{sub 3}) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(pentafluoroethyl) sulfonylimide (EMI-(C{sub 2}F{sub 5}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}N). We extend to these heavier species the previous conclusions from Lozano and Martinez Sanchez on the narrow energy distributions of the ion beams. In combination with suitable ILs, this source yields nanoamphere currents of positive and negative monoenergetic molecular ions with masses exceeding 2000 amu. Potential applications are in biological secondary ion mass spectrometry, chemically assisted high-resolution ion beam etching, and electrical propulsion. Advantages of the ILISs versus similar liquid metal ion sources include the possibility to form negative as well as positive ion beams and a much wider range of ion compositions and molecular masses.

Larriba, C.; Castro, S.; Fernandez de la Mora, J.; Lozano, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8286 (United States); Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02739 (United States)

2007-04-15

357

Monoenergetic source of kilodalton ions from Taylor cones of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionic liquid ion sources (ILISs) recently introduced by Lozano and Martinez Sanchez [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282, 415 (2005)], based on electrochemically etched tungsten tips as emitters for Taylor cones of ionic liquids (ILs), have been tested with ionic liquids [A+B-] of increasing molecular weight and viscosity. These ILs have electrical conductivities well below 1S/m and were previously thought to be unsuitable to operate in the purely ionic regime because their Taylor cones produce mostly charged drops from conventional capillary tube sources. Strikingly, all the ILs tried on ILIS form charged beams composed exclusively of small ions and cluster ions A+(AB)n or B-(AB)n, with abundances generally peaking at n =1. Particularly interesting are the positive and negative ion beams produced from the room temperature molten salts 1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate (C5MI-(C2F5)3PF3) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(pentafluoroethyl) sulfonylimide (EMI-(C2F5SO3)2N). We extend to these heavier species the previous conclusions from Lozano and Martinez Sanchez on the narrow energy distributions of the ion beams. In combination with suitable ILs, this source yields nanoamphere currents of positive and negative monoenergetic molecular ions with masses exceeding 2000amu. Potential applications are in biological secondary ion mass spectrometry, chemically assisted high-resolution ion beam etching, and electrical propulsion. Advantages of the ILISs versus similar liquid metal ion sources include the possibility to form negative as well as positive ion beams and a much wider range of ion compositions and molecular masses.

Larriba, C.; Castro, S.; Fernandez de la Mora, J.; Lozano, P.

2007-04-01

358

Examination of the Potential of Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids have received increasing interest in recent years for “green” synthesis and separations because they have essentially no vapor pressure. We have begun an investigation of the potential of ionic liquids for gas separations, including the removal of carbon dioxide from stack gas generated in coal?fired power plants. In this paper, we report results from measurements of the permeance

Ruth E. Baltus; Robert M. Counce; Benjamin H. Culbertson; Huimin Luo; David W. DePaoli; Sheng Dai; Douglas C. Duckworth

2005-01-01

359

Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Ionic Liquids in Electrospray Propulsion  

E-print Network

Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Ionic Liquids in Electrospray Propulsion Nanako Takahashi, Paulo C Propulsion Nanako Takahashi, Paulo C. Lozano June 2010 SSL # 6-10 This work is based on the unaltered text of Technology. 1 #12;2 #12;Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Ionic Liquids in Electrospray Propulsion by Nanako

360

Polarity of the interface in ionic liquid in oil microemulsions.  

PubMed

Ionic liquid based microemulsions were characterized by absorption solvatochromic shifts, (1)H NMR and kinetic measurements in order to investigate the properties of the ionic liquid within the restricted geometry provided by microemulsions and the interactions of the ionic liquid with the interface. Experimental results show a significant difference between the interfaces of normal water and the new ionic liquid microemulsions. Absorption solvatochromic shift experiments and kinetic studies on the aminolysis of 4-nitrophenyl laurate by n-decylamine show that the polarity at the interface of the ionic liquid in oil microemulsions (IL/O) is higher than at the interface of water in oil microemulsions (W/O) despite the fact that the polarity of [bmim][BF(4)(-)] is lower than the polarity of water. (1)H NMR experiments showed that an increase in the ionic liquid content of the microemulsion led to an increase in the interaction between [bmim][BF(4)(-)] and TX-100. The reason for the higher polarity of the microemulsions with the ionic liquid can be explained in terms of the incorporation of higher levels of the ionic liquid at the interface of the microemulsions, as compared to water in the traditional systems. PMID:21820124

Andújar-Matalobos, María; García-Río, Luis; López-García, Susana; Rodríguez-Dafonte, Pedro

2011-11-01

361

The Hildebrand Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids—Part 2  

PubMed Central

The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. Retention data from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution were used for the calculation. From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods. PMID:21747694

Marciniak, Andrzej

2011-01-01

362

Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

2010-01-01

363

Composite carbon-based ionic liquid supercapacitor for high-current micro devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacture and performance of a composite carbon-based supercapacitor that employs a gel polymer ionic liquid electrolyte to achieve stable, long cycle life, high-current draw energy storage is discussed in this paper. This supercapacitor when cycled galvanostatically can achieve a discharge capacitance of 43.0 mF per square centimeter of substrate by leveraging the strengths of a composite electrode composition. The printed manufacturing process takes place in ambient conditions at room temperature enabling high-current, rechargeable energy storage to be built onto many substrates. Single-cell discharge power densities have reached 404 ?W/cm2 which could enable many technologies when paired with a MEMS energy harvester.

Cowell, M.; Winslow, R.; Zhang, Q.; Ju, J.; Evans, J.; Wright, P.

2014-11-01

364

Ionic liquid assisted electrospun cellulose acetate fibers for aqueous removal of triclosan.  

PubMed

The cellulose acetate (CA) membrane prepared via electrospun was innovatively utilized as fiber-adsorbent for the separation of aqueous triclson (TCS). It was found that the presence of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) in the precursor amplified electric force toward the CA-solution, thereby benefiting the formation of CA fibers. The as-spun CA fibers exhibit excellent adsorptive performance toward TCS, with fast adsorption kinetics, and the maximum adsorption capacity achieved to 797.7 mg g(-1), which established much better performance in contrast to conventional adsorbents. We proposed that the adsorption of TCS onto CA fibers was primarily facilitated by the hydrogen bonding between the abundant carbonyl, hydroxyl groups of CA surface, and the hydrogen atoms of phenol functional groups in TCS molecular. PMID:25595432

Zhang, Gong; Sun, Meng; Liu, Yang; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Li, Jinghong

2015-02-10

365

Characteristics of a charged-droplet beam generated by vacuum electrospray of an ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a cluster ion beam source for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), beam characteristics of charged droplets electrosprayed in a vacuum were investigated using a room-temperature molten salt (i.e., an ionic liquid). A target current exceeding 200 nA was produced at a capillary voltage of 1.5 kV even with a low flow rate of 0.05 ?L/min. Efficiency of beam generation varied with increasing capillary voltage and flow rate. Additionally, m/z values of emitted charged particles were investigated by a time-of-flight technique. In addition to masses and charge numbers, radii of the charged droplets were examined.

Fujiwara, Yukio; Saito, Naoaki; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Nakanaga, Taisuke; Ichimura, Shingo

2011-01-01

366

Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids improve firefly luciferase properties.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids as neoteric solvents, microwave irradiation, and alternative energy source are becoming as a solvent for many enzymatic reactions. We recently showed that the incubation of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis with various ionic liquids increased the activity and stability of luciferase. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids have been obtained by covalent bonding of ionic liquids-silane on magnetic silica nanoparticles. In the present study, the effects of [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImCl] and [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImI] were investigated on the structural properties and function of luciferase using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bioluminescence assay. Enzyme activity and structural stability increased in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids. Furthermore, the effect of ingredients which were used was not considerable on K(m) value of luciferase for adenosine-5'-triphosphate and also K(m) value for luciferin. PMID:24492953

Noori, Ali Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ghiasi, Parisa; Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar

2014-03-01

367

4-Sulfonatocalix[6]arene-induced aggregation of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The interaction of 4-sulfonatocalix[6]arene (SCX6) macrocycle with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium type of ionic liquids possessing dodecyl, tetradecyl, or hexadecyl substituent was studied in aqueous solution at 298 K. Host-guest complexation promoted the spontaneous self-assembly into nanoparticles of 7:1 ionic liquid:SCX6 stoichiometry. Positively charged and stable nanoparticles were produced in solutions of 7-200-fold excess of ionic liquid as compared to the amount of SCX6. The negatively charged nanoparticles formed in solutions having 2-7 ionic liquid:SCX6 molar ratios evolved into larger species. The stability of the nanoparticles increased with the lengthening of aliphatic chain of the ionic liquid. Cryo-TEM experiments showed dense particles generally with spherical shape and multilayered structure, which has been confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering. PMID:23691918

Wintgens, Véronique; Le Coeur, Clémence; Amiel, Catherine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Harangozó, József G; Miskolczy, Zsombor; Biczók, László

2013-06-25

368

Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water).  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of binary mixtures containing a room-temperature ionic liquid N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] with an aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane), aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), cyclohexane, thiophene, water, and 1-alcohol (1-ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol) have been determined using a dynamic method from room temperature to the boiling-point of the solvent at ambient pressure. N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] has been synthesized from N-hexyl-isoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the new compound including NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content have been done. The density and viscosity of pure ionic liquid were determined over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 348.15 K. The mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) for the binary systems {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, or water} was detected. In the systems of {IL + aromatic hydrocarbon or thiophene} an immiscibility gap with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. Complete miscibility in the liquid phase, over a whole range of ionic liquid mole fraction, was observed for the binary mixtures containing IL and an 1-alcohol. For the tested binary systems with immiscibility gap {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, thiophene, or water}, the parameters of the LLE correlation have been derived using the NRTL equation. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) experiments. PMID:22424076

Królikowska, Marta; Karpi?ska, Monika; Zawadzki, Maciej

2012-04-12

369

Designer molecular probes for phosphonium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Investigations into the extent of structuring present in phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been carried out using photochromic molecular probes. Three spiropyran derivatives containing hydroxyl (BSP-1), carboxylic acid (BSP-2) and aliphatic chain (C(14)H(29)) (BSP-3) functional groups have been analysed in a range of phosphonium based ionic liquids and their subsequent physico-chemical interactions were reported. It is believed that the functional groups locate the probe molecules into specific regions based upon the interaction of the functional groups with particular and defined regions of the ionic liquid. This structuring results in thermodynamic, kinetic and solvatochromic parameters that are not predictable from classical solvent models. BSP-1 and BSP-2 exhibit generally negative entropies of activation ranging from -50 J K(-1) mol(-1) to -90 J K(-1) mol(-1) implying relatively low solvent-solute interactions and possible anion interactions with IL polar functional groups. Higher than expected activation energies of 60 kJ mol(-1) to 100 kJ mol(-1) obtained for polar probes maybe be due to IL functional groups competing with the charged sites of the merocyanine (MC) isomer thus reducing MC stabilisation effects. Differences in thermal relaxation rate constants (2.5 x 10(-3) s(-1) in BSP-1 and 3 x 10(-4) s(-1) in BSP-2 in [P(6,6,6,14)][dbsa]) imply that while the polar probe systems are primarily located in polar/charged regions, each probe experiences slightly differing polar domains. BSP-3 entropies of activation are positive and between 30 J K(-1) mol(-1) to 66 J K(-1) mol(-1). The association of the non-polar functional group is believed to locate the spiropyran moiety in the interfacial polar and non-polar regions. The thermal relaxation of the MC form causes solvent reorientation to accommodate the molecule as it reverts to its closed form. Slow thermal relaxation rate constants were obserevd in contrast to high activation energies (5 x 10(-4) s(-1) and 111.91 kJ mol(-1) respectively, for BSP-3 in [P(6,6,6,14)][dbsa]). This may be due to steric effects arising from proposed nano-cavity formation by the alkyl chains in phosphonium based ILs. PMID:20145857

Byrne, Robert; Coleman, Simon; Gallagher, Simon; Diamond, Dermot

2010-02-28

370

Intermolecular vibrations and fast relaxations in supercooled ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Short-time dynamics of ionic liquids has been investigated by low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (4 < ? < 100 cm(-1)) within the supercooled liquid range. Raman spectra are reported for ionic liquids with the same anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and different cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium, trimethylbutylammonium, and tributylmethylammonium. It is shown that low-frequency Raman spectroscopy provides similar results as optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy, which has been used to study intermolecular vibrations in ionic liquids. The comparison of ionic liquids containing aromatic and non-aromatic cations identifies the characteristic feature in Raman spectra usually assigned to librational motion of the imidazolium ring. The strength of the fast relaxations (quasi-elastic scattering, QES) and the intermolecular vibrational contribution (boson peak) of ionic liquids with non-aromatic cations are significantly lower than imidazolium ionic liquids. A correlation length assigned to the boson peak vibrations was estimated from the frequency of the maximum of the boson peak and experimental data of sound velocity. The correlation length related to the boson peak (?19 A?) does not change with the length of the alkyl chain in imidazolium cations, in contrast to the position of the first-sharp diffraction peak observed in neutron and X-ray scattering measurements of ionic liquids. The rate of change of the QES intensity in the supercooled liquid range is compared with data of excess entropy, free volume, and mean-squared displacement recently reported for ionic liquids. The temperature dependence of the QES intensity in ionic liquids illustrates relationships between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation that have been proposed for glass-forming liquids. PMID:21721643

Ribeiro, Mauro C C

2011-06-28

371

Characterization of Conical Ionic Liquid Ion Sources for 2-D Electrospray Thruster Arrays on Porous Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission data from a new geometry of Ionic Liquid Ion Sources using porous materials are presented. Ionic liquids are molten salts at room temperature which have near zero vapour pressure. When used in electrospray thrusters, these sources provide an efficient thrust mechanism and, due to their low vapor pressure, eliminate the need for complex propellant feed systems. By emitting pure ion beams rather than mixed ion/droplet emission, small high efficiency thrusters capable of providing specific impulse levels of several thousand seconds can be realized. The latest developments of these thrusters, using conical emitters micro-fabricated from porous substrates, are presented. Porous substrates provide liquid flow over a wide range of emitted currents, accommodating steady, stable emission of ion beams. Conical type emitters, fabricated on a planar porous substrate are well suited for high density 2-D arrays as they allow for both passive propellant feed through the bulk and simplified grid alignment compared with arrays formed from multiple emitter array substrates. This paper confirms that such conical emitters can provide beam currents of 100's of nA up to several ?A with beams composed of pure ions with no charged droplets detected, as has previously been observed using alternative emitter geometries.

G. Courtney, Daniel; Lozano, Paulo

372

Bioanalytical separation and preconcentration using ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel solvents that display a number of unique properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, thermal stability (even at high temperatures), favorable viscosity, and miscibility with water and organic solvents. These properties make them attractive alternatives to environmentally unfriendly solvents that produce volatile organic compounds. In this article, a critical review of state-of-the-art developments in the use of ILs for the separation and preconcentration of bioanalytes in biological samples is presented. Special attention is paid to the determination of various organic and inorganic analytes--including contaminants (e.g., pesticides, nicotine, opioids, gold, arsenic, lead, etc.) and functional biomolecules (e.g., testosterone, vitamin B12, hemoglobin)--in urine, blood, saliva, hair, and nail samples. A brief introduction to modern microextraction techniques based on ILs, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME), is provided. A comparison of IL-based methods in terms of their limits of detection and environmental compatibilities is also made. Finally, critical issues and challenges that have arisen from the use of ILs in separation and preconcentration techniques are also discussed. PMID:23681199

Escudero, Leticia B; Castro Grijalba, Alexander; Martinis, Estefanía M; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

2013-09-01

373

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

None

2010-10-01

374

Durable Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liquids  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11

375

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin; John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-12-15

376

Microwave-assisted synthesis using ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The research and application of green chemistry principles have led to the development of cleaner processes. In this sense, during the present century an ever-growing number of studies have been published describing the use of ionic liquids (ILs) as solvents, catalysts, or templates to develop more environmentally friendly and efficient chemical transformations for their use in both academia and industry. The conjugation of ILs and microwave irradiation as a non-conventional heating source has shown evident advantages when compared to conventional synthetic procedures for the generation of fast, efficient, and environmental friendly synthetic methodologies. This review focuses on the advances in the use of ILs in organic, polymers and materials syntheses under MW irradiation conditions. PMID:19507045

Martínez-Palou, Rafael

2010-02-01

377

Biphasic liquid mixtures of ionic liquids and polyethylene glycols.  

PubMed

We have found that 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) can form immiscible liquid mixtures with some polyethylene glycols (PEGs). Binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with PEG of molecular weight 1500, 2000, or 3400 g mol(-1), or of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with PEG of molecular weight 2000 or 3400 g mol(-1), have been found to give rise to entirely liquid, stable biphasic systems over a significant temperature range (from 333.15 K to 413.15 K), while mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with PEG-1000 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with PEG-1000 and PEG-1500 are miscible. The mutual immiscibility of the IL and the PEG increases as the temperature increases. The evolution of the composition of the phases in equilibrium with the molecular weight of the PEG, or with the variation of the length of the alkyl substituent chain of the imidazolium cation of the IL, has been explored. The trends observed are explained through the complexity of interactions present within the binary system. A thermodynamic analysis of the liquid-liquid equilibrium data indicates negative values for the change of enthalpy and entropy of mixing. The potential application of these biphasic, entirely liquid systems, with low volatility and good solvation properties, for the dissolution and separation of cellulose and lignin at elevated temperature has been preliminarily explored, although only modest results have been achieved to date. PMID:19924326

Rodríguez, Héctor; Francisco, María; Rahman, Mustafizur; Sun, Ning; Rogers, Robin D

2009-12-14

378

How does lithium oxalyldifluoroborate enable the compatibility of ionic liquids and carbon-based capacitors?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) has several unique characteristics, such as high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range and the ability to form and stabilize solid electrolyte interface films on graphite surfaces. A series of binary, room-temperature, molten electrolytes composed of LiODFB and organic compounds with acylamino groups (acetamide, oxazolidinone or OZO) have been synthesized. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that Cdbnd O and N-H functional groups undergo blue or red shifts upon addition of LiODFB. The electrolytes have excellent thermal stabilities and electrochemical characteristics that allow them to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Here, we examine 1:5 molar ratio LiODFB and acetamide/OZO ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes in EDLCs. IL compatibility with two types of carbon-based electrodes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. We simulate possible structures and ion diameters for the ILs, which must be compatible with pore sizes of the carbon electrodes. Mesoporous activated carbon AC2, with a pore size similar to the ionic diameter of LiODFB-acetamide, has a specific capacitance of 154.2 Fg-1 at 20 m Ag-1. Additionally, typical capacitive and reversibility behaviors can be seen in the charge-discharge curves over 0-2 V. Finally, the EDLCs exhibit good charging/discharging performances.

Chen, Renjie; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Rong; He, Zhouying; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

2015-02-01

379

Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-supported ionogels with a high ionic liquid loading.  

PubMed

The immiscibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and ionic liquids (ILs) was overcome to create PDMS-supported IL gels (ionogels) with IL loadings of up to 80% by mass through a simple sol-gel reaction at room temperature. By stirring a mixture of a functionalized PDMS oligomer, formic acid, and an IL (or lithium-in-IL solution), a resin was formed that could be cast to create a freestanding, flexible ionogel. PDMS-supported ionogels exhibited favorable ionic conductivity (ca. 3?mS?cm(-1)) and excellent mechanical behavior (elastic modulus: ca. 60?kPa; fatigue life: >5000 cycles; mechanically stable at temperatures up to 200?°C). The activation energy of ionic conductivity was shown to be nearly identical for the ionogel and the neat IL, in contrast to ionogel systems wherein the scaffold material is miscible with the IL. This similarity indicates that IL/scaffold chemical interactions are key to the understanding of ionogel electrical performance, especially at elevated temperatures. PMID:25044479

Horowitz, Ariel I; Panzer, Matthew J

2014-09-01

380

Comparative study of bending characteristics of ionic polymer actuators containing ionic liquids for modeling actuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) that can operate in air have recently been developed by incorporating an ionic liquid in ionic polymers. To understand transduction in these composites, it is important to determine the role of the ionic liquid in the ionic polymer (Nafion®), to identify the counter cation, and to investigate the interaction of IPMCs with water vapor in the air. We used Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to analyze three Nafion® membranes, which were soaked in mixtures of water and an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIBF4), 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF4), and 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6)). The results demonstrate that only cations (EMI+ and BMI+) in the ionic liquids are taken into the Nafion® membranes as counter ions and that the water content of the membranes in air is less than ˜4% that of Nafion® swollen with water. Based on the experimental results, a transduction model is proposed for an IPMC with an ionic liquid. In this model, bending is caused by local swelling due to the volume effect of the bulky counter cations. This model can explain 30-50% of the experimentally observed bending curvature.

Kikuchi, Kunitomo; Sakamoto, Takumi; Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Asaka, Kinji

2011-04-01

381

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16

382

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19

383

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols.  

PubMed

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim(+)][Tf(2)N(-)]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim(+)][Dca(-)]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicrometer aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim(+) and Bmim(+), presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim(+)][Tf(2)N(-)] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (?0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicrometer aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally "cooler" source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources. PMID:21506546

Koh, Christine J; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L; Leone, Stephen R

2011-05-12

384

Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI.sub.2 and preferably HgI.sub.2, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected.

James, Ralph B. (5420 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Van Scyoc, III, John M. (P.O. Box 93, 65 Main St., Apt. 1, Plainfield, Cumberland County, PA 17081); Schlesinger, Tuviah E. (8 Carleton Dr., Mt. Lebanon, Allegheny County, PA 15243)

1997-06-24

385

Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material is disclosed. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI{sub 2} and preferably HgI{sub 2}, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected. 4 figs.

James, R.B.; Van Scyoc, J.M. III; Schlesinger, T.E.

1997-06-24

386

Ion jelly conductive properties using dicyanamide-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The thermal behavior and transport properties of several ion jellys (IJs), a composite that results from the combination of gelatin with an ionic liquid (IL), were investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PFG NMR). Four different ILs containing the dicyanamide anion were used: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMDCA), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIMDCA), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (BMPyrDCA), and 1-butylpyridinium dicyanamide (BPyDCA); the bulk ILs were also investigated for comparison. A glass transition was detected by DSC for all materials, ILs and IJs, allowing them to be classified as glass formers. Additionally, an increase in the glass transition temperature upon dehydration was observed with a greater extent for IJs, attributed to a greater hindrance imposed by the gelatin matrix after water removal, rendering the IL less mobile. While crystallization is observed for some ILs with negligible water content, it was never detected for any IJ upon thermal cycling, which persist always as fully amorphous materials. From DRS measurements, conductivity and diffusion coefficients for both cations (D+) and anions (D-) were extracted. D+ values obtained by DRS reveal excellent agreement with those obtained from PFG NMR direct measurements, obeying the same VFTH equation over a large temperature range (?T ? 150 K) within which D+ varies around 10 decades. At temperatures close to room temperature, the IJs exhibit D values comparable to the most hydrated (9%) ILs. The IJ derived from EMIMDCA possesses the highest conductivity and diffusion coefficient, respectively, ?10(-2) S·cm(-1) and ?10(-10) m(2)·s(-1). For BMPyrDCA the relaxational behavior was analyzed through the complex permittivity and modulus formalism allowing the assignment of the detected secondary relaxation to a Johari-Goldstein process. Besides the relevant information on the more fundamental nature providing physicochemical details on ILs behavior, new doorways are opened for practical applications by using IJ as a strategy to produce novel and stable electrolytes for different electrochemical devices. PMID:25059510

Carvalho, Tânia; Augusto, Vera; Rocha, Ângelo; Lourenço, Nuno M T; Correia, Natália T; Barreiros, Susana; Vidinha, Pedro; Cabrita, Eurico J; Dionísio, Madalena

2014-08-01

387

Thermal stability, complexing behavior, and ionic transport of polymeric gel membranes based on polymer PVdF-HFP and ionic liquid, [BMIM][BF4].  

PubMed

PVdF-HFP + IL(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; [BMIM][BF(4)]) polymeric gel membranes containing different amounts of ionic liquid have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and complex impedance spectroscopic techniques. Incorporation of IL in PVdF-HFP polymer changes different physicochemical properties such as melting temperature (T(m)), thermal stability, structural morphology, amorphicity, and ionic transport. It is shown by FTIR, TGA (also first derivative of TGA, "DTGA") that IL partly complexes with the polymer PVdF-HFP and partly remains dispersed in the matrix. The ionic conductivity of polymeric gel membranes has been found to increase with increasing concentration of IL and attains a maximum value of 1.6 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) for polymer gel membrane containing 90 wt % IL at room temperature. Interestingly, the values of conductivity of membranes with 80 and 90 wt % of IL were higher than that of pure IL (100 wt %). The polymer chain breathing model has been suggested to explain it. The variation of ionic conductivity with temperature of these gel polymeric membranes follows Arrhenius type thermally activated behavior. PMID:23167848

Shalu; Chaurasia, S K; Singh, R K; Chandra, S

2013-01-24

388

Tribological properties of Ti-doped DLC coatings under ionic liquids lubricated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, titanium doped diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings were prepared onto AISI 52100 steel substrates using medium frequency magnetic sputtering process, and were analyzed using the Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Two kinds of 1,3-dialkyl imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized and evaluated as lubricants for Ti-DLC/steel contacts at room temperature, and PFPE as comparison lubricant. The tribological properties of the ILs were investigated using a ball-on-disk type UMT reciprocating friction tester. The results indicated that the ILs have excellent friction-reducing properties, the friction coefficient kept at a relatively stable value of 0.07-0.06, which was reduced approximately by 47% compared with perfluoropolyether (PFPE). The worn surfaces of Ti-DLC coatings were observed and analyzed using a MICROXAM-3D non-contact surface profiler, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ti-DLC coatings using ionic liquids lubricating systems are considered as potential lubricating system in vacuum and space moving friction pairs.

Feng, Xin; Xia, Yanqiu

2012-01-01

389

A monolithic functional film of nanotubes/cellulose/ionic liquid for high performance supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel monolithic, pre-fabricated, fully functional film made of a nanostructured free-standing layer is presented for a new and competitive class of easy-to-assemble flexible supercapacitors whose design is in-between the all solid state and the traditional liquid electrolyte. The film is made of two vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (VANT) electrodes that store ions, embedded-in, and monolithically interspaced by a solution of microcrystalline cellulose in a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-EMIM Ac). The fine tuning of VANTs length and electrolyte/cellulose amount leads, in a sole and continuous block, to ions storage and physical separation between the electrodes without the need of the additional separator layer that is typically used in supercapacitors. Thus, physical discontinuities that can induce disturbances to ions mobility, are fully eliminated significantly reducing the equivalent series resistance and increasing the knee frequency, hence outclassing the best supercapacitors based on VANTs and non-aqueous electrolytes. The excellent electrochemical response can also be addressed to the chosen electrolyte that, not only has the advantage of leading to a significantly simpler and more affordable fabrication procedure, but has higher ionic conductivity, lower viscosity and higher ions mobility than other electrolytes capable of dissolving cellulose.

Basiricò, Lucia; Lanzara, Giulia

2014-12-01

390

Heparin-like native protein aggregate dissociation by 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids.  

PubMed

At room temperature, ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (alkyl: ethyl, butyl, hexyl and octyl) are observed to exhibit aggregate dissociation behavior of native proteins. This is similar to the well known protein aggregation inhibitor and aggregate dissociation molecule heparin. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments performed on three model proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA), ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) and immunoglobulin (IgG) revealed that on addition of ILs the fractal aggregates of proteins (apparent maximum hydrodynamic radius Rmax and fractal dimension df=1.5±0.2) dissociated into oligomers (hydrodynamic radius Rh) following an exponential decay profile with time, Rh=Rmaxexp(-kat) The dissociation constant ka has been correlated to hydrophobicity index (H-index) of the protein concerned. Thus, if the combined contributions of dissociation constant and hydration effect on secondary structure are taken into account together, [C8mim][Cl] with BSA, [C2mim][Cl] with ?-Lg and IgG, rank as the best aggregation reversal agent (ARA) amongst all other ionic liquid samples examined. The additional advantage of the used ILs over heparin is the release of mobile Cl(-) ions to the solution. This lead to the increased solution entropy, thereby, providing stability to the final dispersions. PMID:25445684

Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B

2015-02-01

391

The Influence of Silica Nanoparticles on Ionic Liquid Behavior: A Clear Difference between Adsorption and Confinement  

PubMed Central

The phase behaviors of ionic liquids (ILs) confined in nanospace and adsorbed on outer surface of nanoparticles are expected to be different from those of the bulk. Anomalous phase behaviors of room temperature ionic liquid tributylhexadecylphosphonium bromide (P44416Br) confined in ordered mesoporous silica nanoparticles with average pore size 3.7 nm and adsorbed on outer surface of the same silica nanoparticles were reported. It was revealed that the melting points (Tm) of confined and adsorbed ILs depressed significantly in comparison with the bulk one. The Tm depressions for confined and adsorbed ILs are 8 °C and 14 °C, respectively. For comparison with the phase behavior of confined P44416Br, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BmimBr) was entrapped within silica nanopores, we observed an enhancement of 50 °C in Tm under otherwise similar conditions. The XRD analysis indicates the formation of crystalline-like phase under confinement, in contrast to the amorphous phase in adsorbed IL. It was confirmed that the behavior of IL has clear difference. Moreover, the complex ?-? stacking and H-bonding do not exist in the newly proposed phosphonium-based IL in comparison with the widely studied imidazolium-based IL. The opposite change in melting point of P44416Br@SiO2 and BmimBr@SiO2 indicates that the cationic species plays an important role in the variation of melting point. PMID:24145752

Wang, Yaxing; Li, Cheng; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Guozhong

2013-01-01

392

Applications of Ionic Liquids as Electrolyte for Energy Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, our studies to apply ionic liquids (ILs) as electrolyte in energy devices such as lithium ion batteries (LIB) and H2/O2 fuel cells (FC) are reviewed. Typical ionic liquids are non-volatile and thermally stable with high ionic conductivity without any molecular solvents and thus can be expected as next generation electrolyte. It is anticipated that safety of LIB can be improved by using Li+-conducting ILs and that FC can be operated under non-humidifying conditions by using H+-conducting ILs. By our studies, we could find important characteristics of ionic liquids for applying to energy devices. For LIB application, we revealed that glyme-Li salt complexes exhibit acceptable ionic conductivity with high Li+ transference number, while for PEFC application, we found that protic ILs exhibit high electrochemical activities for fuel cell reactions. The performances of LIB and non-humidifying FC using ILs were promising for the future developments.

Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

393

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01

394

Borohydride ionic liquids and borane/ionic-liquid solutions as hypergolic fuels with superior low ignition-delay times.  

PubMed

In propellant systems, fuels of choice continue to be hydrazine and its derivatives, even though they comprise a class of acutely carcinogenic and toxic substances which exhibit rather high vapor pressures and require expensive handling procedures and costly safety precautions. Hypergolic ionic liquids tend to have low volatility and high thermal and chemical stability, and often exhibit wide liquid ranges, which could allow the use of these substances as bipropellant fuels under a variety of conditions. A new family of borohydride ionic liquids and borane-ionic-liquid solutions is described which meets nearly all of the desired important criteria for well-performing fuels. They exhibit ignition-delay times that are superior to that of any known hypergolic ionic liquid and may thus be legitimate replacements for hydrazine and its derivatives. PMID:24604814

Li, Songqing; Gao, Haixiang; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

2014-03-10

395

Double Layer in Ionic Liquids: Overscreening versus Crowding  

E-print Network

We develop a simple Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum theory of solvent-free ionic liquids and use it to predict the structure of the electrical double layer. The model captures overscreening from short-range correlations, ...

Bazant, Martin Z.

396

Robust and versatile ionic liquid microarrays achieved by microcontact printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip and miniaturized systems have gained significant popularity motivated by marked differences in material performance at the micro-to-nano-scale realm. However, to fully exploit micro-to-nano-scale chemistry, solvent volatility and lack of reproducibility need to be overcome. Here, we combine the non-volatile and versatile nature of ionic liquids with microcontact printing in an attempt to establish a facile protocol for high throughput fabrication of open microreactors and microfluidics. The micropatterned ionic liquid droplets have been demonstrated as electrochemical cells and reactors for microfabrication of metals and charge transfer complexes, substrates for immobilization of proteins and as membrane-free high-performance amperometric gas sensor arrays. The results suggest that miniaturized ionic liquid systems can be used to solve the problems of solvent volatility and slow mass transport in viscous ionic liquids in lab-on-a-chip devices, thus providing a versatile platform for a diverse number of applications.

Gunawan, Christian A.; Ge, Mengchen; Zhao, Chuan

2014-04-01

397

Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Recently, there has been an increase in research in the application of ionic liquids containing nanoparticles as lubricants due to their properties such as thermally stability, non-volatility and non-flammability. The purpose of this thesis...

Lu, Wei

2014-05-14

398

Surface modification using ionic liquid ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an ionic liquid (IL) ion source using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) and produced IL ion beams by applying a high electric field between the tip and the extractor. Time-of-flight measurements showed that small cluster and fragment ions were contained in the positive and negative ion beams. The positive and negative cluster ions were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that the composition of the deposited layers was similar to that of an IL solvent. This suggests that a cation (A+) or an anion (B-) was attached to an IL cluster (AB)n, resulting in the formation of positive cluster ions (AB)nA+ or negative cluster ions (AB)nB-, respectively. The surfaces of the IL layers deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates were flat at an atomic level for positive and negative cluster ion irradiation. Moreover, the contact angles of the deposited layers were similar to that of the IL solvent. Thus, surface modification of Si(1 0 0) substrates was successfully demonstrated with BMIM-PF6 cluster ion beams.

Takaoka, Gikan H.; Hamaguchi, Takuya; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ryuto, Hiromichi

2014-12-01

399

Density and surface tension of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

We measured the density and surface tension of 9 bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Tf(2)N](-))-based and 12 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium ([C(8)C(1)Im](+))-based ionic liquids (ILs) with the vibrating tube and the pendant drop method, respectively. This comprehensive set of ILs was chosen to probe the influence of the cations and anions on density and surface tension. When the alkyl chain length in the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] series (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) is increased, a decrease in density is observed. The surface tension initially also decreases but reaches a plateau for alkyl chain lengths greater than n = 8. Functionalizing the alkyl chains with ethylene glycol groups results in a higher density as well as a higher surface tension. For the dependence of density and surface tension on the chemical nature of the anion, relations are only found for subgroups of the studied ILs. Density and surface tension values are discussed with respect to intermolecular interactions and surface composition as determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The absence of nonvolatile surface-active contaminants was proven by ARXPS. PMID:21141903

Kolbeck, C; Lehmann, J; Lovelock, K R J; Cremer, T; Paape, N; Wasserscheid, P; Fröba, A P; Maier, F; Steinrück, H-P

2010-12-30

400

Surfactant adsorption at the surface of mixed ionic liquids and ionic liquid water mixtures.  

PubMed

Surface tensiometry and neutron reflectivity have been used to elucidate the structure of the adsorbed layer of nonionic surfactant tetraethylene glycol tetradecyl ether (C(14)E(4)) at the free surface of the ionic liquids ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN) and their binary mixtures with each other and with water. Surface tensions reveal that the critical micelle concentration (cmc) depends strongly on solvent composition. The adsorbed surfactant structure elucidated by neutron reflectivity shows that the level of solvation of the ethylene oxide groups varies for both the pure and mixed solvents. This is attributed to solvent-solvent interactions dominating solvent-surfactant interactions. PMID:22909055

Wakeham, Deborah; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

2012-09-18

401

Preparation and Application of Ionic Liquid-Modified Stationary Phases in High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquid-modified stationary phases are an important class of stationary phase. They have been shown a capability of separating various classes of compounds in HPLC. In this review, we focus on the preparation and application of ionic liquid-modified stationary phases in HPLC. First, two common theories of retention mechanism in the ionic liquid-modified stationary phases in HPLC were discussed. Then,

Jun Zhou; Wentao Bi; Kyung-Ho Row

2011-01-01

402

Preparation and Application of Ionic Liquid-Modified Stationary Phases in High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquid-modified stationary phases are an important class of stationary phase. They have been shown to have a capability of separating various classes of compounds in HPLC. In this review, we focus on the preparation and application of ionic liquid-modified stationary phases in HPLC. First, two common theories of retention mechanism in the ionic liquid-modified stationary phases in HPLC were

Wentao Bi; Jun Zhou; Kyung-Ho Row

2012-01-01

403

Ionic liquid propellants: future fuels for space propulsion.  

PubMed

Use of green propellants is a trend for future space propulsion. Hypergolic ionic liquid propellants, which are environmentally-benign while exhibiting energetic performances comparable to hydrazine, have shown great potential to meet the requirements of developing nontoxic high-performance propellant formulations for space propulsion applications. This Concept article presents a review of recent advances in the field of ionic liquid propellants. PMID:24136866

Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

2013-11-11

404

Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2012-02-07

405

Penicillin acylase catalysis in the presence of ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several ionic liquids were used as reaction media for penicillin G acylase catalysis. In all the assayed ionic liquids, [bmim]PF6 proved good media for PGA-catalyzed hydrolysis. A novel [bmim]PF6\\/water two-phase system is provided for 6-aminopenicillanic acid (APA) production, which will be more benefical than aquous batch systems used widely in industrial production of APA.

Wei-Guo Zhang; Dong-Zhi Wei; Xue-Peng Yang; Qing-Xun Song

2006-01-01

406

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the addition of an ionic liquid affects the thermodynamic self-assembly of block copolymers, and how the confinement of ionic liquids to block copolymer nanodomains affects their ion-conducting properties is essential for predictable structure-property control. The lyotropic phase behavior of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures is shown to be reminiscent of mixtures of block copolymers with selective molecular solvents. A variety of ordered microstructures corresponding to lamellae, hexagonally close-packed cylinders, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic oriented micelles are observed in a model system composed of mixtures of imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene- b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). In contrast to block copolymer/molecular solvent mixtures, the interfacial area occupied by each PS-b-P2VP chain decreases upon the addition of [Im][TFSI], indicating a considerable increase in the effective segregation strength of the PS-b-P2VP copolymer with ionic liquid addition. The relationship between membrane structure and ionic conductivity is illuminated through the development of scaling relationships that describe the ionic conductivity of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures as a function of membrane composition and temperature. It is shown that the dominant variable influencing conductivity is the overall volume fraction of ionic liquid in the mixture, which means there is incredible freedom in designing the block copolymer architecture in order to optimize the mechanical and other properties of the membrane without sacrificing conductivity. The derived scaling relationships are shown to be general for many block copolymer and ionic liquid chemistries. In certain cases, the mechanism of ion conduction in the ionic liquid is affected by block copolymer nanoconfinement. The introduction of excess neutral imidazole to [Im][TFSI] leads to enhanced proton conductivity as well as a high H+ transference number due to facilitated proton hopping between imidazole molecules. We show that there is increased proton hopping when the nonstoichiometric ionic liquid is confined to lamellar block copolymer nanodomains, which we hypothesize is due to changes in the hydrogen bond structure of the ionic liquid under confinement. This, in combination with unique ion aggregation behavior, leads to a lower activation energy for macroscopic ion transport compared to that in a corresponding homopolymer/ionic liquid mixture. Through this work, we further the understanding of the relationship between membrane composition, structure, and ion transport. The findings presented herein portend the rational design of nanostructured membranes having improved mechanical properties and conductivity.

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

407

Topological Insulators at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

Zhang, Haijun; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2010-03-25

408

Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}Cl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anions. The liquid is in a state somewhere between ionic and molecular. A new term quasi-molten salt is adopted to describe this state. A comparably conducting liquid can be made using BCL{sub 3} in place of AlCl{sub 3}. Unlike their organic counterparts based on ammonium cations (e.g., pyridinium or imidazolium) which reduce in the presence of alkali metals, this inorganic class of cation shows great stability against electrochemical reduction (ca. {minus}1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li), with the useful consequence that reversible lithium and sodium metal deposition/stripping can be supported. The electrochemical window for these quasi-salts with AlCl{sub 3} ranges up to 5.0 V, and their room temperature conductivities exceed 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. They dissolve lithium and sodium tetrachloroaluminates up to mole fraction {approximately} 0.6 at 100 C and intermediate compositions are permanently stable at ambient. The resultant lithium or sodium salt solutions exhibit electrochemical windows of 4.5--5.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li or Na{sup +}/Na and show room temperature conductivities of 10{sup {minus}3.0}--10{sup {minus}2.5} S/cm. In preliminary charge/discharge tests, the cell Li/``quasi-ionic liquid electrolyte``/Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a discharge capacity of ca. 110 mAh/(g of cathode) and sustained 80% of the initial capacity after 60 cycles, indicating that these quasi-molten salt-based electrolytes are promising candidates for alkali-metal batteries.

Xu, K.; Zhang, S.; Angell, C.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-11-01

409

Study of effective carrier lifetime and ideality factor of BPW 21 and BPW 34B photodiodes from above room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we have studied the temperature dependence of two most important characteristics of the photodiodes (BPW 21and BPW 34B), namely, the ideality factor and the carrier lifetime; both of which are found to change significantly at low temperature. The effective carrier lifetime measured by the Open Circuit Voltage Decay method (OCVD) shows a gradual increase in value from 350 K to about 250 K then sharply decreases by about thirty percent of its highest value at liquid nitrogen temperature, the trend being similar for both the devices. The dark forward current-voltage characteristics over the same temperature range yield the value of ideality factor which increases nearly by a factor of three for both the photodiodes at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The nature of variation of both the parameters has been qualitatively accounted for in terms of the recent tunneling models. The data generated for the first time for the devices and their broad theoretical understanding will help to improve design and application of the photodiodes, particularly at low temperature.

Dalapati, P.; Manik, N. B.; Basu, A. N.

2015-01-01

410

Determination of sudan dyes in red wine and fruit juice using ionic liquid-based liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) was developed for extracting sudan dyes from red wine and fruit juice. Room temperature ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent. The target analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The extraction parameters were optimized. The optimal conditions are as follows: volume of [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] 50 ?L; the extraction time 10 min; pH value of the sample solution 7.0; NaCl concentration in sample solution 5%. The extraction recoveries for the analytes in red wine and fruit samples are 86.79-108.28 and 68.54-85.66%, whereas RSDs are 1.42-5.12 and 1.43-6.19%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.428 and 1.426 ng/mL for sudan I, 0.938 and 3.127 ng/mL for sudan II, 1.334 and 4.445 ng/mL for sudan III, 1.454 and 4.846 ng/mL for sudan IV, respectively. Compared with conventional liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and ultrasonic extraction (UE), when LLME was applied, the sample amount was less (LLME: 4 mL; CLLE: 10 mL; UE: 10 mL), the extraction time was shorter (LLME: 15 min; CLLE: 110 min; UE: 50 min) and the extraction solvent amount was less (LLME: 0.05 mL IL; CLLE: 15 mL hexane; UE: 20 mL hexane). The proposed method offers a simple, rapid and efficient sample preparation for determining sudan dyes in red wine and fruit juice samples. PMID:21656676

Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ying; Yu, Wenzhi; Zhao, Tianqi; Gao, Shiqian; Kang, Mingqin; Zhang, Yupu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Yong

2011-07-01

411

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01

412

Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2012-11-06

413

Interaction of nonionic surfactants and hydrophilic ionic liquids in aqueous solutions: can short ionic liquids be more than a solvent?  

PubMed

The interaction between an ethoxylated nonionic surfactant (C(12-14)EO(8)) and three conventional hydrophilic imidazolium-based ionic liquids (bmim-octyl SO(4), bmim-methyl SO(4), and bmim-BF(4)) in aqueous solution has been investigated. In most of the reported studies where a surfactant is dissolved in an ionic liquid aqueous solution, conventional ionic liquids are merely considered to be solvents. Consequently, the resulting critical micelle concentration (cmc) is considered to be that of the surfactant. However, given that the three ionic liquids selected showed the typical shape of a surface-active compound when the surface tension was plotted against concentration, the role of these compounds as secondary surfactants and consequently the possibility of mixed-micelle formation have been investigated. Different series of experiments where a surfactant and an ionic liquid were combined in a wide range of mole ratios have been performed and treated as typical binary surfactant systems in aqueous solution. It has been found for the three surfactant/ionic liquid systems that depending on the surfactant mole fraction, ?(1), attractive or repulsive interactions in mixed-micelle formation are produced. Therefore, when we select the appropriate ?(1) these systems can be adjusted to a given application, depending on whether monomers or micelles are mainly required. PMID:22998152

Comelles, Francesc; Ribosa, Isabel; González, Juan José; Garcia, Maria Teresa

2012-10-16

414

Density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of protic alkanolammonium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids are molten salts with melting temperatures below the boiling point of water, and their qualification for applications in potential industrial processes does depend on their fundamental physical properties such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This study aims to investigate the structure-property relationship of 15 ILs that are primarily composed of alkanolammonium cations and organic acid anions. The influence of both the nature and number of alkanol substituents on the cation and the nature of the anion on the densities, viscosities and electrical conductivities at ambient and elevated temperatures are discussed. Walden rule plots are used to estimate the ionic nature of these ionic liquids, and comparison with other studies reveals that most of the investigated ionic liquids show Walden rule values similar to many non-protic ionic liquids containing imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, tetraalkylammonium, or tetraalkylphosphonium cations. Comparison of literature data reveals major disagreements in the reported properties for the investigated ionic liquids. A detailed analysis of the reported experimental procedures suggests that inappropriate drying methods can account for some of the discrepancies. Furthermore, an example for the improved presentation of experimental data in scientific literature is presented. PMID:21298175

Pinkert, André; Ang, Keng L; Marsh, Kenneth N; Pang, Shusheng

2011-03-21

415

Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products by use of ionic liquids: from discovery to understanding.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides and lanthanides by use of ionic liquids is reviewed, considering, first, phenomenological aspects, then looking more deeply at the various mechanisms. Future trends in this developing field are presented. PMID:21203752

Billard, Isabelle; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde

2011-06-01

416