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1

Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern hardwood forest  

E-print Network

Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern inorganic nitrogen losses from soil during the following growing season. Decreased nitrogen retention the effects of soil freezing on root uptake and leaching of inorganic nitrogen simultaneously. Snow removal

Templer, Pamela

2

Regional donor nerves in the reinnervation of brachial plexus palsy due to upper spinal roots avulsion.  

PubMed

The prognosis for surgical treatment in cases of upper brachial plexus palsy due to spinal roots avulsion is somewhat better than in cases of total palsy. The main reasons are better possibilities for surgical reinnervation using regional donors i.e. the medial pectoral and the thoracodorsal nerves, and a shorter time span for nerve regeneration. Regional donor nerves, alone or in combination with upper intercostals and/or the spinal accessory nerve, were used in 13 cases for the reinnervation of the musculocutaneous and/or the axillary nerves. The value of the regional donors is analysed and compared with that of the spinal accessory and intercostal nerves. The value is documented throughout the results of surgical treatment with a follow-up period of at least 18 months after surgery. PMID:2573856

Samardzic, M; Joksimovic, M; Antunovic, V; Grujicic, D

1989-09-01

3

[Sciatica due to unusual causes: Tarlov cysts and nerve roots anomalies].  

PubMed

Tarlov cysts and nerve roots anomalies usually involve lumbosacral roots and are often asymptomatic. MRI has enabled recognition of many conditions that used to be missed by CT or myelography investigations performed for back and leg pain. However, even without additional compressive impingement (disc hernia, spondylolisthesis or lumbar canal stenosis) these anomalies can be responsible for sciatica, motor deficit and bladder sphincter dysfunction. Tarlov cysts are perinervous dilatations of the dorsal root ganglion. CT and especially MRI can reveal these cysts and their precise relations with the neighboring structures. Delayed filling of the cysts can be visualized on the myelogram. MRI is more sensitive than CT myelography for a positive diagnosis of nerve root anomalies, a differential diagnosis with disc hernia and classification of these anomalies. Surgical treatment is indicated for symptomatic Tarlov cysts and nerve root anomalies resistant to conservative treatment. Better outcome is observed in patients with an additional compressive impingement component. We report two cases of sciatica: one caused by Tarlov cysts diagnosed by MRI and the other by nerve root anomalies diagnosed by CT myelography. In both cases, conservative treatment was undertaken. The clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects of these disorders are discussed. PMID:18809189

Younes, M; Korbaa, W; Zrour, S; Bejia, I; Touzi, M; Bergaoui, N

2009-03-01

4

Oxygen-ozone therapy for herniated lumbar disc in patients with subacute partial motor weakness due to nerve root compression.  

PubMed

Intradiscal oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) chemonucleolysis is a well-known effective treatment for pain caused by protruding disc disease and nerve root compression due to bulging or herniated disc. The most widely used therapeutic combination is intradiscal injection of an O2-O3 mixture (chemonucleolysis), followed by periradicular injection of O2-O3, steroid and local anaesthetic to enhance the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. The treatment is designed to resolve pain and is administered to patients without motor weakness, whereas patients with acute paralysis caused by nerve root compression undergo surgery 24-48h after the onset of neurological deficit. This paper reports on the efficacy of O2-O3 chemonucleolysis associated with anti-inflammatory foraminal injection in 13 patients with low back pain and cruralgia, low back pain and sciatica and subacute partial motor weakness caused by nerve root compression unresponsive to medical treatment. All patients were managed in conjunction with our colleagues in the Neurosurgery Unit of Bellaria Hospital and the IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna. The outcomes obtained are promising: 100% patients had a resolution of motor weakness, while 84.6% had complete pain relief. Our results demonstrate that O2-O3 therapy can be considered a valid treatment option for this category of patients. PMID:25363257

Dall'Olio, Massimo; Princiotta, Ciro; Cirillo, Luigi; Budai, Caterina; de Santis, Fabio; Bartolini, Stefano; Serchi, Elena; Leonardi, Marco

2014-10-31

5

Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern hardwood forest.  

PubMed

The depth and duration of snow pack is declining in the northeastern United States as a result of warming air temperatures. Since snow insulates soil, a decreased snow pack can increase the frequency of soil freezing, which has been shown to have important biogeochemical implications. One of the most notable effects of soil freezing is increased inorganic nitrogen losses from soil during the following growing season. Decreased nitrogen retention is thought to be due to reduced root uptake, but has not yet been measured directly. We conducted a 2-year snow-removal experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA to determine the effects of soil freezing on root uptake and leaching of inorganic nitrogen simultaneously. Snow removal significantly increased the depth of maximal soil frost by 37.2 and 39.5 cm in the first and second winters, respectively (P < 0.001 in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010). As a consequence of soil freezing, root uptake of ammonium declined significantly during the first and second growing seasons after snow removal (P = 0.023 for 2009 and P = 0.005 for 2010). These observed reductions in root nitrogen uptake coincided with significant increases in soil solution concentrations of ammonium in the Oa horizon (P = 0.001 for 2009 and 2010) and nitrate in the B horizon (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 for 2009 and 2010, respectively). The excess flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the Oa horizon that was attributable to soil freezing was 7.0 and 2.8 kg N ha(-1) in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The excess flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the B horizon was lower, amounting to 1.7 and 0.7 kg N ha(-1) in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Results of this study provide direct evidence that soil freezing reduces root nitrogen uptake, demonstrating that the effects of winter climate change on root function has significant consequences for nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems. PMID:24574104

Campbell, John L; Socci, Anne M; Templer, Pamela H

2014-08-01

6

Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg?1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

2010-01-01

7

Highly luminescent material based on Alq3:Ag nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is an organic semiconductor molecule, widely used as an electron transport layer, light emitting layer in organic light-emitting diodes and a host for fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes. In this work thin films of pure and silver (Ag), cupper (Cu), terbium (Tb) doped Alq3 nanoparticles were synthesized using the physical vapor condensation method. They were fabricated on glass substrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible absorption spectra and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) properties. SEM and AFM results show spherical nanoparticles with size around 70-80 nm. These nanoparticles have almost equal sizes and a homogeneous size distribution. The maximum absorption of Alq3 nanoparticles is observed at 300 nm, while the surface plasmon resonant band of Ag doped sample appears at 450 nm. The PL emission spectra of Tb, Cu and Ag doped Alq3 nanoparticles show a single broad band at around 515 nm, which is similar to that of the pure one, but with enhanced PL intensity. The sample doped with Ag at a concentration ratio of Alq3:Ag = 1:0.8 is found to have the highest PL intensity, which is around 2 times stronger than that of the pure one. This enhancement could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag ions that might have increased the absorption and then the quantum yield. These remarkable result suggest that Alq3 nanoparticles incorporated with Ag ions might be quite useful for future nano-optoelectronic devices. PMID:23653126

Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S; Khan, Zishan H

2013-09-01

8

Plasmon-Enhanced Upconversion Fluorescence in Er3+:Ag Phosphate Glass: the Effect of Heat Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melt quenching method is used to prepare erbium-doped silver nanoparticle (NP) embedded phosphate glass. The effect of annealing on the glass on the formation of silver NPs produced by the reduction of silver (Ag+ ?Ag°) is studied. The glass samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR absorption, photoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. The absorption spectra reveal not only the peaks due to Er3+ ions, but also the surface plasmon resonance band of silver NPs located around ~442 nm. The TEM imaging shows the homogeneous distribution of silver NPs of almost spherical shape with an average diameter of ~5 nm. Upconversion luminescence spectra show two major emissions at 550 and 638 nm, originating from the 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 energy levels of the Er3+ ions, respectively. The enhancement in the luminescence intensity of both the green and red bands is found to be due to the effective local field of the silver NPs as well as the energy transfer from the nanoclusters, comprised of centers with silver ions bound to silver atoms in dimers or trimers to Er3+ ions, whereas quenching occurred due to the energy transfer from erbium ions to silver NPs (Er3+ ?Ag°).

Raja, J. Amjad; R. Sahar, M.; K. Ghoshal, S.; R. Dousti, M.; Riaz, S.; R. Samavati, A.; N. A Jamaludin, M.; Naseem, S.

2013-02-01

9

Root growth inhibition by aluminum is probably caused by cell death due to peroxidase-mediated hydrogen peroxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of aluminum on hydrogen peroxide production and peroxidase-catalyzed NADH oxidation was studied in barley roots germinated and grown between two layers of moistened filter paper. Guaiacol peroxidase activity significantly increased after 48?h and was approximately two times higher after 72?h in Al-treated roots. The oxidation of NADH was also significantly increased and, like guaiacol peroxidase activity, it

M. šimonovi?ová; J. Huttová; I. Mistrík; B. široká; L. Tamás

2004-01-01

10

Properties of a new type Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode for zinc electrowinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode was produced via composite casting. Its electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction and corrosion resistance was evaluated by anodic polarization curves and accelerated corrosion test, respectively. The microscopic morphologies of the anode section and anodic oxidation layer during accelerated corrosion test were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the composite anode (hard anodizing) displays a more compact interfacial combination and a better adhesive strength than plating tin. Compared with industrial Pb-0.3%Ag anodes, the oxygen evolution overpotentials of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) at 500 A·m-2 were lower by 57 and 14 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of Pb-0.3%Ag alloy, Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing), and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) were 13.977, 9.487, and 11.824 g·m-2·h-1, respectively, in accelerated corrosion test for 8 h at 2000 A·m-2. The anodic oxidation layer of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) is more compact than Pb-0.3%Ag alloy and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) after the test.

Yang, Hai-tao; Liu, Huan-rong; Zhang, Yong-chun; Chen, Bu-ming; Guo, Zhong-cheng; Xu, Rui-dong

2013-10-01

11

Mitigation of antagonistic effects on plant growth due to root co-colonization by dark septate endophytes and ectomycorrhiza.  

PubMed

Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are very common root colonizers of woody plant species. Ascomycetes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are the main representatives of DSE fungi in forest ecosystems. PAC and mycorrhizal fungi share the same habitat, but interactions among PAC, mycorrhizal fungi and plants are poorly understood. We compared the effects of single and dual inoculation of Norway spruce seedlings with PAC and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme on host growth, degree of mycorrhization and density of endophytic PAC biomass. Single colonization by H.?crustuliniforme or PAC significantly reduced plant biomass. Dual colonization reduced or neutralized plant growth depression caused by single fungal colonization. The degree of mycorrhization was independent on PAC colonization, and mycorrhization significantly reduced endophytic PAC biomass. Plant biomass of dually colonized plants positively correlated with PAC biomass. These results demonstrate the ability of dual inoculation of PAC and H.?crustuliniforme to neutralize plant growth depression caused by single fungal inoculation. Our explanations of enhanced plant growth in dually inoculated plants are the inhibition of PAC during root colonization by the ECM mantle and ECM-mediated access to plant growth-promoting nutrients resulting from the mineralization of the potting medium by PAC. PMID:24249297

Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

2013-12-01

12

Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.  

PubMed

Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division. PMID:22847024

Soltys, Dorota; Rudzi?ska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wi?niewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

2012-11-01

13

Highly active WO3-Ag-ZnO photocatalyst driven by day light illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WO3 loaded Ag-ZnO (WO3-Ag-ZnO) was successfully synthesized by precipitation-decomposition method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and BET surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of WO3-Ag-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) in aqueous solution using solar light. WO3-Ag-ZnO is found to be more efficient than Ag-ZnO, WO3-ZnO, Ag-WO3, WO3, commercial ZnO, bare ZnO, TiO2-P25 and TiO2 (Merck) at pH 9 for the mineralization of NBB dye. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of NBB dye have been analyzed. The mineralization of NBB has been confirmed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measurements. A degradation mechanism is proposed for the degradation of NBB under solar light. This catalyst is found to be reusable.

Subash, B.; Krishnakumar, B.; Sreedhar, B.; Swaminathan, M.; Shanthi, M.

2013-02-01

14

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ˜1.5 V. VLP is nearly independent of Al2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3-0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest Al2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25 nm of Al2O3 is ˜140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ˜3 and ˜35; it depends on Al2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes.

Hickmott, T. W.

2013-12-01

15

Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Er3+:Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites are synthesized in a new reducing glass (dielectric) matrix K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 by a single-step melt-quench technique involving selective thermochemical reduction. The UV-vis-near-infrared absorption spectra show typical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag0 nanoparticles (NPs) in addition to the distinctive absorption peaks of Er3+ ion. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction results indicate formation of Ag0 NPs

Tirtha Som; Basudeb Karmakar

2009-01-01

16

[Immunoprotective effect of a plasmid DNA vaccine pCMV-LC3-Ag85B against Mycobaterium tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Objective To construct an autophagy-targeted vaccine harboring the genes encoding Ag85B and microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3) and to explore its immunoprotection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Methods The pCMV-LC3-Ag85B plasmid was constructed and used to transfect RAW264.7 cells. The level of LC3-Ag85B was detected using Western blotting. Then, BALB/c mice were immunized with pCMV, pCMV-Ag85B and pCMV-LC3-Ag85B plasmid, respectively. In vitro, two weeks after the last immunization, the secretion of IL-2, IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-10 from Ag85B-stimulated lymphocytes was measured by ELISA. Three months after the last immunization, all mice were challenged with MTB H37Rv via the tail vein and the bacterial loads in their spleens and lungs were determined by colony formation assay. Results The LC3-Ag85B fusion protein was expressed in RAW264.7 cells that had been transfected with pCMV-LC3-Ag85B and the expression level was in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the pCMV-Ag85B treatment group, pCMV-LC3-Ag85B-immunized mice showed a significant increase of IL-2 and IFN-? levels and the lower loads of MTB in the spleens and lungs. Conclusion pCMV-LC3-Ag85B can enhance a specific Th1-predominant immunity and a superior immunoprotection against MTB, which may provide a new practical strategy for the development of improved vaccines against MTB. PMID:25374074

Hu, Dong; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Wan; Xing, Yingru; Wang, Wenyang; DU, Zhaohong; Yiu, Qi; Zhang, Li; Chen, Liping; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Rongbo

2014-11-01

17

Electromigration of Sn37Pb and Sn3Ag1.5Cu\\/Sn3Ag0.5Cu composite flip-chip solder bumps with Ti\\/Ni(V)\\/Cu under bump metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine electromigration fatigue reliability and morphological patterns of Sn–37Pb and Sn–3Ag–1.5Cu\\/Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu composite solder bumps in a flip–chip package assembly with Ti\\/Ni(V)\\/Cu UBM. The flip–chip test vehicle was subjected to test conditions of five combinations of applied electric currents and ambient temperatures, namely, 0.4A\\/150°C, 0.5A\\/150°C, 0.6A\\/125°C, 0.6A\\/135°C, and 0.6A\\/150°C. The electrothermal coupling analysis was employed to investigate the current crowding

Yi-Shao Lai; Kuo-Ming Chen; Chin-Li Kao; Chiu-Wen Lee; Ying-Ta Chiu

2007-01-01

18

Arsenic-induced root growth inhibition in mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is due to oxidative stress resulting from enhanced lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) toxicity and its biochemical effects have been mostly evaluated in ferns and a few higher plants. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of As (10.0 and 50.0 ?M) on seedling growth, root anatomy, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde\\u000a and conjugated dienes), electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, root oxidizability and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Arsenic

Harminder Pal Singh; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Komal Arora

2007-01-01

19

Structures and electrical conductance of the Si,,111...-3 3-Ag surface with additional Ag adsorption at low temperatures  

E-print Network

diagram in the coverage-temperature plane for surface superstructures induced by additional Ag adsorption onto the Si 111 - 3 3-Ag surface at low temperatures is determined; a 21 21 phase below 250 K and a 6 6 Ag atoms are deposited onto the respective surfaces at room temperature RT , they are known to grow

Hasegawa, Shuji

20

Preliminary test results and thermal analysis of a 4 T Bi( 2 2 2 3 )/AgMg magnet at 27 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of double pancake coils have been wound in order to test the winding procedure and tape performance for the development of a 4 T, 50 mm inner bore diameter, Bi(2 2 2 3)/AgMg magnet operating at liquid Ne temperature. Much attention has been paid in testing different winding designs in order to reduce the performance degradation due to tape handling. All the double pancake coil samples have been tested in different field and temperature conditions. The experimental data have been used to estimate critical current degradation and the quality index n at simulated working conditions. Internal temperature distribution of the magnet, at operating current, has been calculated by means of a FEM simulation.

Ariante, M.; Cavaliere, V.; Masullo, G.; Matrone, A.; Santoro, A.; Ferdeghini, C.; Grasso, G.; Siri, A. S.; Bigoni, L.; Curcio, F.; Martini, L.

2002-08-01

21

Defective chemokine signal integration in leukocytes lacking activator of G protein signaling 3 (AGS3).  

PubMed

Activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3, gene name G-protein signaling modulator-1, Gpsm1), an accessory protein for G-protein signaling, has functional roles in the kidney and CNS. Here we show that AGS3 is expressed in spleen, thymus, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and is up-regulated upon leukocyte activation. We explored the role of AGS3 in immune cell function by characterizing chemokine receptor signaling in leukocytes from mice lacking AGS3. No obvious differences in lymphocyte subsets were observed. Interestingly, however, AGS3-null B and T lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exhibited significant chemotactic defects as well as reductions in chemokine-stimulated calcium mobilization and altered ERK and Akt activation. These studies indicate a role for AGS3 in the regulation of G-protein signaling in the immune system, providing unexpected venues for the potential development of therapeutic agents that modulate immune function by targeting these regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24573680

Branham-O'Connor, Melissa; Robichaux, William G; Zhang, Xian-Kui; Cho, Hyeseon; Kehrl, John H; Lanier, Stephen M; Blumer, Joe B

2014-04-11

22

Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 23(2013) 1356-1366 Effects of ball milling time on porous Ti-3Ag alloy and  

E-print Network

alloy and its apatite-inducing abilities Le-gan HOU1 , Li LI2 , Yu-feng ZHENG1,2 1. Center milling time (1, 2, 5 and 10 h) and sintered into porous Ti-3Ag alloys. The samples were treated treated porous Ti-3Ag alloys prepared by the powders ball milled for 10 h possess the best apatite

Zheng, Yufeng

23

Changes in root growth and relationships between plant organs and root hydraulic traits in American elm ( Ulmus americana L.) and red oak ( Quercus rubra L.) seedlings due to elevated CO 2 level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between plant organs and root hydrological traits are not well known and the question arises whether elevated\\u000a CO2 changes these relationships. This study attempted to answer this question. A pseudo-replicated experiment was conducted with\\u000a two times 24 American elm (Ulmus americana L.) and 23 and 24 red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings growing in ambient CO2 (around 360

Song Cheng

2009-01-01

24

Syntheses, structures, and electronic properties of Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6.  

PubMed

The compounds Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6 have been synthesized by the reactions of BaS, U, S, and M (= Fe or Ag) at 1223 K. These two isostructural compounds crystallize in the K4CdCl6 structure type in the trigonal system in space group D3d(6)–R3c. Both structures feature infinite ?(1)[MUS6(6–)] chains along c that are separated by Ba atoms. The ?(1)[FeUS6(6–)] chains are formed by the face-sharing of US6 trigonal prisms with FeS6 octahedra; in contrast, the ?(1)[AgUS6(6–)] chains are formed by the face-sharing of US6 octahedra with AgS6 trigonal prisms. The Ba3FeUS6 compound charge balances with 3 Ba(2+), 1 Fe(2+), 1 U4+, and 6 S(2–), whereas Ba3AgUS6 charge balances with 3 Ba(2+), 1 Ag(1+), 1 U(5+), and 6 S(2–). This structure offers a remarkable flexibility in terms of the oxidation state of the incorporated uranium depending on the oxidation state of the d-block metal. DFT calculations performed with the HSE functional have led to band gaps of 2.3 and 2.2 eV for Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6, respectively. From resistivity measurements, the Arrhenius activation energies are 0.12(1) and 0.43(1) eV for Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6, respectively. PMID:24564267

Mesbah, Adel; Malliakas, Christos D; Lebègue, Sébastien; Sarjeant, Amy A; Stojko, Wojciech; Koscielski, Lukasz A; Ibers, James A

2014-03-17

25

Nqrs Data for Ag3AsS3 [Ag3(AsS3)] (Subst. No. 0013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for Ag3AsS3 [Ag3(AsS3)] (Subst. No. 0013)

Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

26

Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for tensile, shear and compression behavior allows the consideration of the stabilization effects of root networks on steep slopes and the influence that this has on the triggering of shallow landslides.

Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

2013-03-01

27

Soil-root mechanical interactions within bundles of roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-soil mechanical interactions play an important role in strength and force redistribution in rooted soil. Recent advances in root reinforcement modeling implement detailed representation of root geometry and mechanical properties as well as root-soil mechanical interactions. Nevertheless, root-soil mechanical interactions are often considered at the single root scale ignoring interactions between neighboring roots and root bundles known to play important role in similar applications such as engineered composite material reinforcement. The objective was to quantify mechanical interactions among neighboring roots or roots network using pullout laboratory experiments and modeling. We focus on the on effects of such interactions on global pull out force of a bundle of roots via better understanding of transmission of radial stresses to soil matrix due to the friction at the interface soil-root. Additionally, we wish to predict how cumulative friction changes along a single root axis with and without branching points during the slipping out. Analytical models of fiber reinforced materials show the magnitude of bonded friction depends on three key parameters: bond modulus, maximal bond strength and difference between the Young moduli of fiber and Young moduli of matrix. Debonded friction is calculated assuming failure follows Coulomb failure that includes apparent cohesion, effective normal stress and residual root soil friction angle. We used a pullout device to measure displacement and force of individual roots and for the bundle of roots. Additionally, we monitored and detected activation of root-soil friction by six acoustic emission sensors placed on waveguide in contact with the soil matrix. Results from experiments with parallel and crossing roots demonstrated the importance of considering factors such as distance of root axis, branching points, crossing of roots and roots diameter for the behavior of bundle of roots and inclined roots during pullout. Acoustic emission measurements provided interesting insights into progressive activation of root-soil friction. These results enhance understanding of root reinforcement mechanism and enable more realistic implementation of root reinforcement modeling for stability calculation of vegetated slopes.

Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Preti, Federico; Or, Dani

2010-05-01

28

Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes  

SciTech Connect

Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12?nm and 30?nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0?eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0?eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, V{sub LP}, is ?1.5?V. V{sub LP} is nearly independent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness and of temperature and is 0.3–0.6?V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, V{sub SP}. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0?eV when the bias voltage, V{sub S} ? 7?V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing V{sub S}, for diodes with the smallest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, L{sub MX}, at a voltage, V{sub LMX}, followed by a decrease to a plateau. L{sub MX} and EL intensity at 4.0?V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness. The ratio of L{sub MX} at 295?K for a diode with 12?nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to L{sub MX} for a diode with 25?nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is ?140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ?3 and ?35; it depends on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness and V{sub S}. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes.

Hickmott, T. W. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

2013-12-21

29

Root hairs.  

PubMed

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

30

Solid-Solid Reaction Between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Alloy and Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) Metallization Pad with Various Pd(P) Thicknesses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Pd(P) thickness on the solid-solid reaction between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) at 180°C was investigated in this study. The reaction was conducted after reflow, thereby removing the Au/Pd finish before the solid-state reaction. The reaction products included (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, Ni2SnP, and Ni3P, and their growth strongly depended on the Pd(P) thickness, especially for the former phases [i.e., (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP]. As the Pd(P) thickness increased from 0 ?m, to 0.1 ?m, to 0.22 ?m, the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 exhibited a needle-like dense layer, chunk-like morphology, and discontinuous morphology, respectively. The alternative phase (Ni2SnP) behaved in a manner opposite to that of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, growing with a discontinuous morphology to a dense layer with increasing Pd(P) thickness. However, this strong dependence disappeared when the solder joints were subsequently subjected to solid-state aging. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP both became layered structures for all cases examined. A high-speed ball shear (HSBS) test was conducted to quantify the mechanical response of the interfacial microstructures. The HSBS test results showed that any initial difference in shear strength caused by the various Pd(P) thicknesses could be reduced after the solid-state aging, which is consistent with the microstructural evolution observed. The mechanical strength of the solder joints was decreased due to the presence of a bi-intermetallic structure of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5/Ni2SnP at the interface. Detailed analysis of the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP is also provided.

Ho, C. E.; Wu, W. H.; Hsu, L. H.; Lin, C. S.

2012-01-01

31

One-pot synthesis of ternary Ag2CO3/Ag/AgCl photocatalyst in natural geothermal water with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.  

PubMed

Geothermal water is a clean, cheap and renewable resource and it is widely distributed all over the world. In this work, ternary Ag2CO3/Ag/AgCl photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized via a one-pot precipitation method in natural geothermal water at room temperature, wherein the geothermal water serves as the source of chlorine and carbonate. The results suggest that the Ag/AgCl nanoparticles are anchored on the surface of Ag2CO3 and Ag2CO3/Ag/AgCl composite shows strong absorption ability in the visible light region. The evaluation of the photocatalytic activity indicates that the as-synthesized Ag2CO3/Ag/AgCl photocatalyst exhibits higher photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation than one-component (Ag2CO3), two-component (Ag/AgCl, Ag2CO3/AgCl) and the mechanical mixture of Ag2CO3 and Ag/AgCl. The trapping experiments confirmed that holes (h(+)) and (•)O2(-) were the two main active species in the photocatalytic process. Finally, a possible Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism of the charge transfer was proposed for the enhanced photocatalytic performance. This work may open up new insights into the application of cheap geothermal water resources in the word and provide new opportunities for facile fabrication of Ag/AgCl-based photocatalysts. PMID:25164388

Yao, Xiaxi; Liu, Xiaoheng

2014-09-15

32

Adsorbate-Induced Segregation in a PdAg Membrane Model System: Pd3Ag(1 1 1)  

SciTech Connect

Thin PdAg alloy membranes with 20–25% Ag are being developed for hydrogen separation technology. Despite many investigations on such membranes as well as representative experimental and theoretical model systems, unresolved issues remain concerning the effect of the alloy surface structure and composition on adsorption and vice versa. Therefore, the interaction between hydrogen, carbon monoxide or oxygen with the surface of a PdAg model alloy was studied using periodic self-consistent density functional theory (DFT-GGA) calculations. In particular, the adsorption structure, coverage dependence and possible adsorption-induced segregation phenomena were addressed using Pd3Ag(1 1 1) model surfaces with varying degrees of surface segregation. In agreement with previous experimental and theoretical investigations, we predict Ag surface termination to be energetically favorable in vacuum. The segregation of Ag is then reversed upon adsorption of H, CO or O. For these adsorbates, the binding is strongest on Pd three-fold hollow sites, and hence complete Pd termination is favored at high coverage of H or CO, while 25% Ag may remain under oxygen because of the lower O-saturation coverage. CO adsorption provides a somewhat stronger driving force for Pd segregation when compared to H, and this may have implications with respect to permeation properties of PdAg alloy surfaces. Our predictions for high coverage are particularly relevant in underlining the importance of segregation phenomena to the hydrogen transport properties of thin PdAg alloy membranes.

Svenum, I. H.; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Venvik, H. J.

2012-10-15

33

119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy investigation of Nd3Cu4Sn4, Nd3Ag4Sn4, and Ho3Cu4Sn4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd3Cu4Sn4, Nd3Ag4Sn4, and Ho3Cu4Sn4 have been studied using S119n Mössbauer spectroscopy. Contrary to recent neutron diffraction data, Nd3Cu4Sn4 shows a clear magnetic signal at 1.6 K and has an ordering temperature of 2.0(1) K. Nd3Ag4Sn4 orders at 4.8(1) K, in agreement with neutron diffraction measurements. We observe the ordering of the Ho 2d sublattice in Ho3Cu4Sn4 at 8.2(1) K but we also see some residual magnetic splitting up to 10.5(2) K, which was not previously detected by neutron scattering.

Voyer, C. J.; Ryan, D. H.; Cadogan, J. M.

2009-04-01

34

Atomic depth distribution and growth modes of Ga on Si(111)-2?3 × 2?3-Sn and ?3 × ?3-Ag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed depth distribution of composition and growth modes during Ga deposition on Si(111)-2?3 × 2?3-Sn and ?3 × ?3-Ag structures at room temperature. Applying RHEED-TRAXS (total reflection angle X-ray spectroscopy), the dependence of the X-ray (GaK, SnL, AgL, and SiK) emission on the glancing angle of the electron beam was measured. When 1 ML of Ga was deposited on the 2?3 × 2?3-Sn structure, the mixing of Ga and Sn atoms was clearly observed, and a quasi-?3 × ?3-(Sn,Ga) structure was formed. After further Ga deposition, a liquid-like film of Ga?Sn alloy was formed. When 1 ML of Ga was deposited on the ?3 × ?3-Ag surface, the structure was destroyed and a Ga layer was formed on the Si(111) surface, and Ag atoms which dissociated from the ?3 × ?3-Ag structure formed particles on the underlying Ga layer. For further deposition, a liquid-like Ga film grew, and Ag particles were buried in the Ga film without being destroyed. This alloying and separation of metals in atomic scale is discussed referring to the bulk phase diagrams of binary alloys.

Yamanaka, Toshiro; Ino, Shozo

1995-06-01

35

Root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

Masson, P. H.

1995-01-01

36

How Roots Perceive and Respond to Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses graviperception and gravitropism by plant roots. Indicates that graviperception occurs via sedimentation of amyloplasts in columella cells of the root cap and that the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots may be due to the intensity of their caps to establish a concentration gradient of inhibitor(s) sufficient to affect…

Moore, Randy

1984-01-01

37

Modeling root reinforcement using a root-failure Weibull survival function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root networks contribute to slope stability through complex interactions with soil that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamics of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slopes is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability also. Although considerable progress has been made, some important aspects of root mechanics remain neglected. In this study we address specifically the role of root-strength variability on the mechanical behavior of a root bundle. Many factors contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even within a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field data sets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the equations of the tensile force, the elasticity of the roots, and the root distribution are the most important steps. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for tensile, shear and compression behavior allows for the consideration of the stabilization effects of root networks on steep slopes and the influence that this has on the triggering of shallow landslides.

Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

2013-11-01

38

Synthesis, biophysical characterization and anti-HIV activity of d(TG3AG) Quadruplexes bearing hydrophobic tails at the 5'-end.  

PubMed

Novel conjugated G-quadruplex-forming d(TG3AG) oligonucleotides, linked to hydrophobic groups through phosphodiester bonds at 5'-end, have been synthesized as potential anti-HIV aptamers, via a fully automated, online phosphoramidite-based solid-phase strategy. Conjugated quadruplexes showed pronounced anti-HIV activity with some preference for HIV-1, with inhibitory activity invariably in the low micromolar range. The CD and DSC monitored thermal denaturation studies on the resulting quadruplexes, indicated the insertion of lipophilic residue at the 5'-end, conferring always improved stability to the quadruplex complex (203AG) quadruplexes plays an important role in the thermodynamic stabilization but a minor influence on the anti-HIV activity. Moreover, a detailed CD and DSC analyses indicate a monophasic behaviour for sequences I and V, while for ODNs (II-IV) clearly show that these quadruplex structures deviate from simple two-state melting, supporting the hypothesis that intermediate states along the dissociation pathway may exist. PMID:24433967

Romanucci, Valeria; Milardi, Danilo; Campagna, Tiziana; Gaglione, Maria; Messere, Anna; D'Urso, Alessandro; Crisafi, Emanuela; La Rosa, Carmelo; Zarrelli, Armando; Balzarini, Jan; Di Fabio, Giovanni

2014-02-01

39

Image analysis from root system pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

2009-04-01

40

Spin and orbital magnetism of coinage metal trimers (Cu{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}, Au{sub 3}): A relativistic density functional theory study  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3} and Au{sub 3} trimers using a full potential local orbital method in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. We have also shown that the non-relativistic generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional gives reliable magnetic properties in coinage metal trimers compared to experiment. In addition we have indicated that the spin-orbit coupling changes the structure and magnetic properties of gold trimer while the structure and magnetic properties of copper and silver trimers are marginally affected. A significant orbital moment of 0.21?{sub B} was found for most stable geometry of the gold trimer whereas orbital magnetism is almost quenched in the copper and silver trimers.

Afshar, Mahdi [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sargolzaei, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-11-15

41

Energies and excited-state dynamics of 1Bu+, 1Bu- and 3Ag- states of carotenoids bound to LH2 antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved pump-probe stimulated-emission and transient-absorption spectra were recorded after excitation with ˜30 fs pulses to the 1Bu+(0) and optically-forbidden diabatic levels of carotenoids, neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene having n = 9-11 double bonds, bound to LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides G1C, 2.4.1 and Rhodospirillum molischianum. The low-energy shift of stimulated emission from the covalent 1Bu-(0) and 3Ag-(0) levels slightly larger than that from the ionic 1Bu+(0) state suggests the polarization, whereas more efficient triplet generation suggests the twisting of the conjugated chain in Cars bound to the LH2 complexes, when compared to Cars free in solution.

Christiana, Rebecca; Miki, Takeshi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Aoyagi, Shiho; Koyama, Yasushi; Limantara, Leenawaty

2009-10-01

42

Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing undergroundâmore than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

43

MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode in organic photovoltaic cells: Influence of the presence of a CuI buffer layer between the anode and the electron donor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoO3/Ag/MoO3 (MAM) multilayer structures (layers thickness 20 nm/10 nm/35 nm) are used as anode in CuPc/C60/Alq3/Al organic photovoltaic cells. The averaged transmittance (400 nm-800 nm) of these MoO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer structures is 70% ± 2% and their sheet resistance is 3.5 ± 1.0 ?/sq. When these multilayer structures are used as anode, the power conversion efficiency of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3/CuPc/C60/Alq3/Al cells is around 1%, this efficiency is increased of 50% when a thin CuI film (3 nm) is introduced at the interface between the anode and the organic film. This improvement is attributed to the templating effect of CuI on the CuPc molecules.

Makha, M.; Cattin, L.; Lare, Y.; Barkat, L.; Morsli, M.; Addou, M.; Khelil, A.; Bernède, J. C.

2012-12-01

44

Root-gel interactions and the root waving behavior of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis roots grown on inclined agarose gels exhibit a sinusoidal growth pattern known as root waving. While root waving has been attributed to both intrinsic factors (e.g. circumnutation) and growth responses to external signals such as gravity, the potential for physical interactions between the root and its substrate to influence the development of this complex phenotype has been generally ignored. Using a rotating stage microscope and time-lapse digital imaging, we show that (1) root tip mobility is impeded by the gel surface, (2) this impedance causes root tip deflections by amplifying curvature in the elongation zone in a way that is distinctly nontropic, and (3) root tip impedance is augmented by normal gravitropic pressure applied by the root tip against the gel surface. Thus, both lateral corrective bending near the root apex and root tip impedance could be due to different vector components of the same graviresponse. Furthermore, we speculate that coupling between root twisting and bending is a mechanical effect resulting from root tip impedance. PMID:15247406

Thompson, Matthew V; Holbrook, N Michele

2004-07-01

45

Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode.  

PubMed

We report a new semitransparent inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) with a structure of glass/FTO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag/MoO3. Because high-temperature annealing which decreased the conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) must be handled in the process of preparation of nanocrystalline titanium oxide (nc-TiO2), we replace glass/ITO with a glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to improve the device performance. The experimental results show that the replacing FTO substrate enhances light transmittance between 400 and 600 nm and does not change sheet resistance after annealing treatment. The dependence of device performances on resistivity, light transmittance, and thickness of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 film was investigated. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for FTO substrate inverted PSCs, which showed about 75% increase compared to our previously reported ITO substrate device at different thicknesses of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode films illuminated from the FTO side (bottom side) and about 150% increase illuminated from the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 side (top side). PMID:25332693

Li, Fumin; Chen, Chong; Tan, Furui; Li, Chunxi; Yue, Gentian; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Weifeng

2014-01-01

46

Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode  

PubMed Central

We report a new semitransparent inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) with a structure of glass/FTO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag/MoO3. Because high-temperature annealing which decreased the conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) must be handled in the process of preparation of nanocrystalline titanium oxide (nc-TiO2), we replace glass/ITO with a glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to improve the device performance. The experimental results show that the replacing FTO substrate enhances light transmittance between 400 and 600 nm and does not change sheet resistance after annealing treatment. The dependence of device performances on resistivity, light transmittance, and thickness of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 film was investigated. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for FTO substrate inverted PSCs, which showed about 75% increase compared to our previously reported ITO substrate device at different thicknesses of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode films illuminated from the FTO side (bottom side) and about 150% increase illuminated from the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 side (top side). PMID:25332693

2014-01-01

47

Detection of tree roots and determination of root diameters by ground penetrating radar under optimal conditions.  

PubMed

A tree's root system accounts for between 10 and 65% of its total biomass, yet our understanding of the factors that cause this proportion to vary is limited because of the difficulty encountered when studying tree root systems. There is a need to develop new sampling and measuring techniques for tree root systems. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) offers the potential for direct nondestructive measurements of tree root biomass and root distributions to be made. We tested the ability of GPR, with 500 MHz, 800 MHz and 1 GHz antennas, to detect tree roots and determine root size by burying roots in a 32 m3 pit containing damp sand. Within this test bed, tree roots were buried in two configurations: (1) roots of various diameters (1-10 cm) were buried at a single depth (50 cm); and (2) roots of similar diameter (about 5 cm) were buried at various depths (15-155 cm). Radar antennas were drawn along transects perpendicular to the buried roots. Radar profile normalization, filtration and migration were undertaken based on standard algorithms. All antennas produced characteristic reflection hyperbolas on the radar profiles allowing visual identification of most root locations. The 800 MHz antenna resulted in the clearest radar profiles. An unsupervised, maximum-convexity migration algorithm was used to focus information contained in the hyperbolas back to a point. This resulted in a significant gain in clarity with roots appearing as discrete shapes, thereby reducing confusion due to overlapping of hyperbolas when many roots are detected. More importantly, parameters extracted from the resultant waveform through the center of a root correlated well with root diameter for the 500 MHz antenna, but not for the other two antennas. A multiple regression model based on the extracted parameters was calibrated on half of the data (R2 = 0.89) and produced good predictions when tested on the remaining data. Root diameters were predicted with a root mean squared error of 0.6 cm, allowing detection and quantification of roots as small as 1 cm in diameter. An advantage of this processing technique is that it produces results independently of signal strength. These waveform parameters represent a major advance in the processing of GPR profiles for estimating root diameters. We conclude that enhanced data analysis routines combined with improvements in GPR hardware design could make GPR a valuable tool for studying tree root systems. PMID:15465695

Barton, Craig V M; Montagu, Kelvin D

2004-12-01

48

A statistical approach to root system classification  

PubMed Central

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

49

Influence of Palladium Thickness on the Soldering Reactions Between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) Surface Finish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides a comparison of the influence of Pd(P) thickness on reactions during soldering with the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy. Soldering was carried out in an infrared-enhanced conventional reflow oven, and a multiple reflow test method (up to ten cycles) was performed. With increasing Pd(P) thickness, the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 grew more slowly at the solder/Ni(P) interface, while the Ni2SnP/Ni3P bilayer became predominant after the first reflow. These three intermetallics, i.e., (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, Ni2SnP, and Ni3P, gradually coarsened as the number of reflow cycles increased. Furthermore, an additional (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 layer appeared between (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP, especially for the case of a thicker Pd(P) layer (0.2 ?m). The attachment of the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 to the Ni2SnP, however, was fairly poor, and a series of microcracks formed along the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4/Ni2SnP interface. To quantify the mechanical response of the interfacial microstructures, shear testing was conducted at two different shear speeds (0.0007 m/s and 2 m/s). The results indicated that the interfacial strength and the Pd(P) thickness were strongly correlated.

Wu, W. H.; Lin, C. S.; Huang, S. H.; Ho, C. E.

2010-11-01

50

Discrete square root smoothing.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic techniques applied in the square root least squares and square root filtering solutions are applied to the smoothing problem. Both conventional and square root solutions are obtained by computing the filtered solutions, then modifying the results to include the effect of all measurements. A comparison of computation requirements indicates that the square root information smoother (SRIS) is more efficient than conventional solutions in a large class of fixed interval smoothing problems.

Kaminski, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

51

WHY ROOTING FAILS.  

SciTech Connect

I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

CREUTZ,M.

2007-07-30

52

Seeking roots and tracing lineages: constructing a framework of reference for roots and genealogical tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel for the purpose of seeking roots, or roots tourism, is understood to be focused on the descendants of a diaspora living in contemporary multicultural societies and travelling to ancestral homelands in search of identity and belongingness. It is an almost negligible niche segment of heritage tourism due to an obscure amalgam of contextual concepts. The primary purpose of this

Gregory Higginbotham

2012-01-01

53

Root Biomass of Individual Species, and Root Size Characteristics After Five Years of CO 2 Enrichment on Native Shortgrass Steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information from field studies investigating the responses of roots to increasing atmospheric CO2 is limited and somewhat inconsistent, due partly to the difficulty in studying root systems in situ. In this report, we present standing root biomass of species and root length and diameter after five years of CO2 enrichment (?720 ?mol mol?1) in large (16 m2 ground area) open-top chambers placed over

D. R. LeCain; J. A. Morgan; D. G. Milchunas; A. R. Mosier; J. A. Nelson; D. P. Smith

2006-01-01

54

Fabrication and characterization of WO3/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

The dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer is suitable for a transparent electrode because of its high-optical and high-electrical properties; however, it is fabricated by an expensive and inefficient multistep vacuum process. We present a WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). This WAW multilayer not only has high transmittance and low resistance but also can be easily and rapidly fabricated. We devised a novel method to deposit a thin WO3 layer by a solution process in an air environment. A tungstic acid solution was prepared from an aqueous solution of Na2WO4 and then converted to WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a thermal treatment. Thin WO3 NP layers form WAW multilayer with a thermal-evaporated Ag layer, and they improve the transmittance of the WAW multilayer because of its high transmittance and refractive index. Moreover, the surface of the WO3 layer is homogeneous and flat with low roughness because of the WO3 NP generation from the tungstic acid solution without aggregation. We performed optical simulation and experiments, and the optimized WAW multilayer had a high transmittance of 85% with a sheet resistance of 4 ?/sq. Finally, PLEDs based on the WAW multilayer anode achieved a maximum luminance of 35,550 cd/m2 at 8 V, and this result implies that the solution-processed WAW multilayer is appropriate for use as a transparent anode in PLEDs. PMID:22587669

Jeon, Kangmin; Youn, Hongseok; Kim, Seongbeom; Shin, Seongbeom; Yang, Minyang

2012-01-01

55

Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve the issue and give valuable insight for the next generation of VEGGIE.

Subbiah, Arun M.

2013-01-01

56

Why fine tree roots are stronger than thicker roots: The role of cellulose and lignin in relation to slope stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant roots help to reinforce the soil, increase slope stability and decrease water erosion. Root tensile strength plays an important role in soil reinforcement and slope stabilization. The relationship between tensile strength and internal chemical composition of roots is unknown due to limited studies. Thus, it is difficult to determine why root tensile strength tends to decrease with increasing root diameter. In this study, biomechanical and biochemical tests were performed on the roots of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) to determine the relationships among tensile strength and the contents of the main chemical composition: cellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin in the roots with different diameters. Our results confirmed that the tensile strength of Chinese pine roots decreased with increasing root diameter, and this relationship might be a power function. The chemical contents of the roots and root diameter were also related to each other with significant power regression. With increasing root diameter, the cellulose content and alpha-cellulose content increased, but the lignin content decreased. In addition, the lignin content exhibited a significantly positive relationship with tensile strength. Furthermore, the ratios of lignin/cellulose and lignin/alpha-cellulose decreased with increasing root diameter following significant power regressions, and they also demonstrated a positive relationship with tensile strength. Taken together, these results may be useful for studies on root tensile strength, soil reinforcement and slope stability.

Zhang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Li-Hua; Jiang, Jing

2014-02-01

57

Lateral Root Initiation or the Birth of a New Meristem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching happens through the formation of new meristems out of a limited number of pericycle cells inside the parent\\u000a root. As opposed to shoot branching, the study of lateral root formation has been complicated due to its internal nature,\\u000a and a lot of questions remain unanswered. However, due to the availability of new molecular tools and more complete genomic

Ive De Smet; Steffen Vanneste; Dirk Inzé; Tom Beeckman

2006-01-01

58

Natural variation of root traits: from development to nutrient uptake.  

PubMed

The root system has a crucial role for plant growth and productivity. Due to the challenges of heterogeneous soil environments, diverse environmental signals are integrated into root developmental decisions. While root growth and growth responses are genetically determined, there is substantial natural variation for these traits. Studying the genetic basis of the natural variation of root growth traits can not only shed light on their evolution and ecological relevance but also can be used to map the genes and their alleles responsible for the regulation of these traits. Analysis of root phenotypes has revealed growth strategies and root growth responses to a variety of environmental stimuli, as well as the extent of natural variation of a variety of root traits including ion content, cellular properties, and root system architectures. Linkage and association mapping approaches have uncovered causal genes underlying the variation of these traits. PMID:25104725

Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

59

Irrational Square Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

Misiurewicz, Michal

2013-01-01

60

ROOT Statistical Software  

E-print Network

Advanced mathematical and statistical computational methods are required by the LHC experiments for analyzing their data. Some of these methods are provided by the ROOT project, a C++ Object Oriented framework for large scale data handling applications. We review the current mathematical and statistical classes present in ROOT, emphasizing the recent developments.

Moneta, Lorenzo; Brun, R; Kreshuk, Anna

2008-01-01

61

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT  

E-print Network

. Armillaria root rot usually becomes apparent when indigenous forests are cleared for afforestation to the fact that indigenous forests are uncommon and few plantations have been established on stands where unsuccessful. It has been found that infection centres apparently disappear after a number of pine rotations

62

Root nutrient foraging.  

PubMed

During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

Giehl, Ricardo F H; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2014-10-01

63

Root hydrotropism: an update.  

PubMed

While water shortage remains the single-most important factor influencing world agriculture, there are very few studies on how plants grow in response to water potential, i.e., hydrotropism. Terrestrial plant roots dwell in the soil, and their ability to grow and explore underground requires many sensors for stimuli such as gravity, humidity gradients, light, mechanical stimulations, temperature, and oxygen. To date, extremely limited information is available on the components of such sensors; however, all of these stimuli are sensed in the root cap. Directional growth of roots is controlled by gravity, which is fixed in direction and intensity. However, other environmental factors, such as water potential gradients, which fluctuate in time, space, direction, and intensity, can act as a signal for modifying the direction of root growth accordingly. Hydrotropism may help roots to obtain water from the soil and at the same time may participate in the establishment of the root system. Current genetic analysis of hydrotropism in Arabidopsis has offered new players, mainly AHR1, NHR1, MIZ1, and MIZ2, which seem to modulate how root caps sense and choose to respond hydrotropically as opposed to other tropic responses. Here we review the mechanism(s) by which these genes and the plant hormones abscisic acid and cytokinins coordinate hydrotropism to counteract the tropic responses to gravitational field, light or touch stimuli. The biological consequence of hydrotropism is also discussed in relation to water stress avoidance. PMID:23258371

Cassab, Gladys I; Eapen, Delfeena; Campos, María Eugenia

2013-01-01

64

Developmental anatomy and branching of roots of four Zeylanidium species (podostemaceae), with implications for evolution of foliose roots.  

PubMed

Podostemaceae have markedly specialized and diverse roots that are adapted to extreme habitats, such as seasonally submerged or exposed rocks in waterfalls and rapids. This paper describes the developmental anatomy of roots of four species of Zeylanidium, with emphasis on the unusual association between root branching and root-borne adventitious shoots. In Z. subulatum and Z. lichenoides with subcylindrical or ribbon-like roots, the apical meristem distal (exterior) to a shoot that is initiated within the meristem area reduces and loses meristematic activity. This results in a splitting into two meristems that separate the parental root and lateral root (anisotomous dichotomy). In Z. olivaceum with lobed foliose roots, shoots are initiated in the innermost zone of the marginal meristem, and similar, but delayed, meristem reduction usually occurs, producing a parenchyma exterior to shoots located between root lobes. In some extreme cases, due to meristem recovery, root lobing does not occur, so the margin is entire. In Z. maheshwarii with foliose roots, shoots are initiated proximal to the marginal meristem and there is no shoot-root lobe association. Results suggest that during evolution from subcylindrical or ribbon-like roots to foliose roots, reduction of meristem exterior to a shoot was delayed and then arrested as a result of inward shifting of the sites of shoot initiation. The evolutionary reappearance of a protective tissue or root cap in Z. olivaceum and Z. maheshwarii in the Zeylanidium clade is implied, taking into account the reported molecular phylogeny and root-cap development in Hydrobryum. PMID:12451029

Hiyama, Y; Tsukamoto, I; Imaichi, R; Kato, M

2002-12-01

65

Developmental Anatomy and Branching of Roots of Four Zeylanidium Species (Podostemaceae), with Implications for Evolution of Foliose Roots  

PubMed Central

Podostemaceae have markedly specialized and diverse roots that are adapted to extreme habitats, such as seasonally submerged or exposed rocks in waterfalls and rapids. This paper describes the developmental anatomy of roots of four species of Zeylanidium, with emphasis on the unusual association between root branching and root?borne adventitious shoots. In Z. subulatum and Z. lichenoides with subcylindrical or ribbon?like roots, the apical meristem distal (exterior) to a shoot that is initiated within the meristem area reduces and loses meristematic activity. This results in a splitting into two meristems that separate the parental root and lateral root (anisotomous dichotomy). In Z. olivaceum with lobed foliose roots, shoots are initiated in the innermost zone of the marginal meristem, and similar, but delayed, meristem reduction usually occurs, producing a parenchyma exterior to shoots located between root lobes. In some extreme cases, due to meristem recovery, root lobing does not occur, so the margin is entire. In Z. maheshwarii with foliose roots, shoots are initiated proximal to the marginal meristem and there is no shoot–root lobe association. Results suggest that during evolution from subcylindrical or ribbon?like roots to foliose roots, reduction of meristem exterior to a shoot was delayed and then arrested as a result of inward shifting of the sites of shoot initiation. The evolutionary reappearance of a protective tissue or root cap in Z. olivaceum and Z. maheshwarii in the Zeylanidium clade is implied, taking into account the reported molecular phylogeny and root?cap development in Hydrobryum. PMID:12451029

HIYAMA, Y.; TSUKAMOTO, I.; IMAICHI, R.; KATO, M.

2002-01-01

66

Electrical properties of solid solutions in the Na/sub 2/O x 6Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Ag/sub 2/O x 6Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system  

SciTech Connect

A four-probe ac method over a wide frequency range was used to study the resistivity in ceramic samples of solid solutions of Na/sub 2/O x 6Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Ag/sub 2/O x 6Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. It was found that the change in the conductivity for a transition from sodium b-alumina to silver b-alumina is characterized by the existence of a polyalkali effect.

Barkovskii, A.I.; Volkova, N.F.; Kaul', A.R.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.

1987-04-01

67

Roots and Extremal Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In computational physics very often roots and local extrema of a function have to be determined. In one dimension bisection is a very robust but rather inefficient root finding method. If a good starting point close to the root is available and the function is smooth enough, the Newton-Raphson method converges much faster. Special strategies are necessary to find roots of not so well behaved functions or higher order roots. The combination of bisection and interpolation as by the methods of Dekker, Brent and more recently Chandrupatla provides generally applicable algorithms. In multidimensions Quasi-Newton methods are a good choice. Whereas local extrema can be found as the roots of the gradient, at least in principle, direct optimization can be more efficient. In one dimension the ternary search method or Brent's more efficient golden section search method can be used. In multidimensions the class of direction set search methods is very popular which includes the methods of steepest descent and conjugate gradients, the Newton-Raphson method and, if calculation of the full Hessian matrix is too expensive, the Quasi-Newton methods.

Scherer, Philipp O. J.

68

Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA  

PubMed Central

The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

2009-01-01

69

Seasonal Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in Strawberry Roots.  

PubMed

Strawberry roots were sampled through the year to determine the populations and distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Three strawberry root types were sampled-structural roots; feeder roots without secondary tissues; and suberized, black perennial roots. Both lesion and root-knot nematodes primarily infected feeder roots from structural roots or healthy perennial roots. Few nematodes were recovered from soil, diseased roots, or suberized roots. Lesion nematode recovery was correlated with healthy roots. In both 1997 and 1998, P. penetrans populations peaked about day 150 (end of May) and then declined. The decline in numbers corresponded to changes in total strawberry root weight and root type distribution. The loss of nematode habitat resulted from loss of roots due to disease and the transition from structural to suberized perennial roots. Meloidogyne hapla juvenile recovery peaked around 170 days (mid June) in 1997 and at 85, 147, 229, and 308 days (late March, late May, mid August, and early November, respectively) in 1998. There appear to be at least four generations per year of M. hapla in Connecticut. Diagnostic samples from an established strawberry bed may be most reliable and useful when they include feeder roots taken in late May. PMID:19265965

Lamindia, J A

2002-12-01

70

Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature of plants was -12‰, enabling us to differentiate between root-derived C and native SOM-C respiration. We found that the relative abundance of fine, medium and coarse roots were significantly different among cultivars. Root systems of Alamo, Kanlow and Cave-in-Rock were characterized by a large abundance of coarse-, relative to fine roots, whereas Carthage, Forestburg and Blackwell had a large abundance of fine, relative to coarse roots. Fine roots had a 28% lower C:N ratio than medium and coarse roots. These differences led to different root decomposition rates. We conclude that root architecture should be taken into account when predicting root decomposition rates; enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of root decomposition will improve model predictions of C input to soil organic matter.

de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

2010-12-01

71

A method for obtaining the relationship between the amount of DNA and the fine root weight from mixtures of fine roots and soil particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root biomass can be estimated from the quantity of DNA of a target plant extracted from fine root samples using regression analysis. However, the application of this method to fine root samples mixed with soil particles (mixed samples) is difficult due to the high DNA adsorption capacity of some clay minerals. Our aim in this study was to clarify

Shin Ugawa; Muneyoshi Yamaguchi; Satoru Miura; Shinji Kaneko

2012-01-01

72

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

73

Developmental Changes in Peanut Root Structure during Root Growth and Root-structure Modification by Nodulation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Basic information about the root and root nodule structure of leguminous crop plants is incomplete, with many aspects remaining unresolved. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) forms root nodules in a unique process. Structures of various peanut root types were studied with emphasis on insufficiently characterized lateral roots, changes in roots during their ontogenesis and root modification by nodule formation. Methods Peanut plants were grown in the field, in vermiculite or in filter paper. The taproot, first-order and second-order lateral roots and root nodules were analysed using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy with hand sections and resin sections. Key Results Three root categories were recognized. The primary seminal root was thick, exhibiting early and intensive secondary thickening mainly on its base. It was tetrarch and contained broad pith. First-order lateral roots were long and thin, with limited secondary thickening; they contained no pith. Particularly different were second- and higher-order lateral roots, which were anatomically simple and thin, with little or no secondary growth. Unusual wall ingrowths were visible in the cells of the central part of the cortex in the first-order and second-order lateral roots. The nodule body was formed at the junction of the primary and lateral roots by the activity of proliferating cells derived originally from the pericycle. Conclusions Two morphologically and anatomically distinct types of lateral roots were recognized: long, first-order lateral roots, forming the skeleton of the root system, and thin and short second- and higher-order lateral roots, with an incomplete second state of endodermal development, which might be classified as peanut ‘feeder roots’. Formation of root nodules at the base of the lateral roots was the result of proliferating cell divisions derived originally from the pericycle. PMID:18256023

Tajima, Ryosuke; Abe, Jun; Lee, O. New; Morita, Shigenori; Lux, Alexander

2008-01-01

74

The RootChip: An Integrated Microfluidic Chip for Plant Science[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Studying development and physiology of growing roots is challenging due to limitations regarding cellular and subcellular analysis under controlled environmental conditions. We describe a microfluidic chip platform, called RootChip, that integrates live-cell imaging of growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with rapid modulation of environmental conditions. The RootChip has separate chambers for individual regulation of the microenvironment of multiple roots from multiple seedlings in parallel. We demonstrate the utility of The RootChip by monitoring time-resolved growth and cytosolic sugar levels at subcellular resolution in plants by a genetically encoded fluorescence sensor for glucose and galactose. The RootChip can be modified for use with roots from other plant species by adapting the chamber geometry and facilitates the systematic analysis of root growth and metabolism from multiple seedlings, paving the way for large-scale phenotyping of root metabolism and signaling. PMID:22186371

Grossmann, Guido; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Sit, Rene V.; Quake, Stephen R.; Meier, Matthias

2011-01-01

75

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

76

Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

1999-01-01

77

Phosphate starvation of maize inhibits lateral root formation and alters gene expression in the lateral root primordium zone  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Maize (Zea mays) is an important human food, animal feed and energy crop throughout the world, and enormous quantities of phosphate fertilizer are required for maize cultivation. Thus, it is important to improve the efficiency of the use of phosphate fertilizer for maize. Results In this study, we analyzed the maize root response to phosphate starvation and performed a transcriptomic analysis of the 1.0-1.5?cm lateral root primordium zone. In the growth of plants, the root-to-shoot ratio (R/L) was reduced in both low-phosphate (LP) and sufficient-phosphate (SP) solutions, but the ratio (R/L) exhibited by the plants in the LP solution was higher than that of the SP plants. The growth of primary roots was slightly promoted after 6?days of phosphate starvation, whereas the numbers of lateral roots and lateral root primordia were significantly reduced, and these differences were increased when associated with the stress caused by phosphate starvation. Among the results of a transcriptomic analysis of the maize lateral root primordium zone, there were two highlights: 1) auxin signaling participated in the response and the modification of root morphology under low-phosphate conditions, which may occur via local concentration changes due to the biosynthesis and transport of auxin, and LOB domain proteins may be an intermediary between auxin signaling and root morphology; and 2) the observed retardation of lateral root development was the result of co-regulation of DNA replication, transcription, protein synthesis and degradation and cell growth. Conclusions These results indicated that maize roots show a different growth pattern than Arabidopsis under low-phosphate conditions, as the latter species has been observed to halt primary root growth when the root tip comes into contact with low-phosphate media. Moreover, our findings enrich our understanding of plant responses to phosphate deficits and of root morphogenesis in maize. PMID:22704465

2012-01-01

78

Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength and modulus with the inclusion of root diameter improving predictions further. Laser sectioning of maize (Zea mays) roots demonstrate the damage caused during biomechanical testing and help explain potential reasons for poor relationships between diameter and strength due to stress localisation within the stele. Furthermore, changes in biomechanical root properties associated with age maybe as a result of lignin deposition but this remains to be established.

Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

2014-05-01

79

Geoperception in primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae). III. A model to explain the differential georesponsiveness of primary and lateral roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Half-tipped primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris bend toward the side of the root on which the intact half tip remains. Therefore, tips of lateral and primary roots produce growth effectors capable of inducing gravicurvature. The asymmetrical placement of a tip of a lateral root onto a detipped primary root results in the root bending toward the side of the root onto which the tip was placed. That is, the lesser graviresponsiveness of lateral roots as compared with primary roots is not due to the inability of their caps to produce growth inhibitors. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of primary roots is positively correlated with the presence of columella tissues that are 3.8 times longer, 1.7 times wider, and 10.5 times more voluminous than the columellas of lateral roots. We propose that the lack of graviresponsiveness exhibited by lateral roots is due to the fact that they (i) produce smaller amounts of the inhibitor than primary (i.e., strongly graviresponsive) roots and (ii) are unable to redistribute the inhibitor so as to be able to create a concentration gradient sufficient to induce a pronounced gravitropic response.

Ransom, J. S.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

80

Side-Branching Statistics of Plant Root Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies exist that characterise plant root architecture by calculating the fractal dimension of the root network, but few studies quantify the branching characteristics of the root network. This paper examines the Tokunaga side-branching statistics for the root systems of four plants--Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris), Lucern (Medicago sativa), Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and White Clover (Trifolium michelianum)--and compares the resulting statistics to those calculated by similar means (by other authors) for the Kentucky and Powder River drainage basins and several Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) models. The plant root networks studied all contained similar numbers of different order roots, but the side-branching statistics differed, offering one explanation for the differing visual appearance of the branching root networks. The White Clover plant had similar Tokunaga branching statistics to the drainage networks and DLA models. This may be due to the dichotomous root structure of the White Clover plant, which produces a network that is much more similar in appearance to the two drainage networks and DLA models than the other three plants, which had herringbone root. All of the root networks, drainage basins, and DLA models had branching networks that could be quantified well to very well by Tokunaga side-branching statistics. For many years, engineers have avoided implementation of stabilisation schemes involving vegetation, due to the inherent problems involved in the quantification of their dynamic and complex root structures. The use of Tokunaga statistics as a simplifying measure of root branching characteristics, may aid in this aspect, as well as others, such as the modelling of nutrient or water uptake.

Pollen, N.; Malamud, B.

2001-12-01

81

Understanding the Impact of Root Morphology on Overturning Mechanisms: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used in recent years to simulate overturning processes in trees. This study aimed at using FEM to determine the role of individual roots in tree anchorage with regard to different rooting patterns, and to estimate stress distribution in the soil and roots during overturning. Methods The FEM was used to carry out 2-D simulations of tree uprooting in saturated soft clay and loamy sand-like soil. The anchorage model consisted of a root system embedded in a soil block. Two root patterns were used and individual roots removed to determine their contribution to anchorage. Key Results In clay-like soil the size of the root–soil plate formed during overturning was defined by the longest roots. Consequently, all other roots localized within this plate had no influence on anchorage strength. In sand-like soil, removing individual root elements altered anchorage resistance. This result was due to a modification of the shape and size of the root–soil plate, as well as the location of the rotation axis. The tap root and deeper roots had more influence on overturning resistance in sand-like soil compared with clay-like soil. Mechanical stresses were higher in the most superficial roots and also in leeward roots in sand-like soil. The relative difference in stresses between the upper and lower sides of lateral roots was sensitive to root insertion angle. Assuming that root eccentricity is a response to mechanical stresses, these results explain why eccentricity differs depending on root architecture. Conclusions A simple 2-D Finite Element model was developed to better understand the mechanisms involved during tree overturning. It has been shown how root system morphology and soil mechanical properties can modify the shape of the root plate slip surface as well as the position of the rotation axis, which are major components of tree anchorage. PMID:17942593

Fourcaud, Thierry; Ji, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Stokes, Alexia

2008-01-01

82

Vertical root fracture: prevalence, etiology, and diagnosis.  

PubMed

A vertical root fracture (VRF) is a frustrating complication that may occur following root canal treatment, and in almost every case leads to the extraction of the affected tooth. This type of fracture is usually diagnosed by secondary symptoms that develop some time after primary treatment, often when prosthodontic restoration has already been completed. The fracture line itself is often not directly visible, and therefore clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms indicate the diagnosis indirectly. Knowledge of the condition and pathogenesis of VRF is required in order to avoid hopeless trials of periodontal and/or endodontic therapy. Several etiologic factors are discussed that make teeth susceptible to VRF, such as the loss of substance due to restorative and endodontic therapy and stress factors associated with root canal debridement, and filling. PMID:23757466

Haueisen, Helga; Gärtner, Kathrin; Kaiser, Lea; Trohorsch, Dominik; Heidemann, Detlef

2013-07-01

83

The Roots of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

2002-01-01

84

Lotka's Roots under Rescalings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mathematical theory of stable populations, when the net maternity function is scaled by a constant divisor, changing its level without changing its shape, the rates of attrition of transient waves in the age structure of the population as it converges toward stability are altered. The attrition rates are specified by the real parts of the complex roots of

Kenneth W. Wachter

1984-01-01

85

Root Canal Irrigants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

Matthias Zehnder

2006-01-01

86

PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

87

Great Plains Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

Frey, Jennifer

2001-01-01

88

Unit Root Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent criticism of unit root tests concerns the poor power and size properties that many such tests exhibit. However, during the past decade or so intensive research has been conducted to alleviate these problems and great advances have been made. The present paper provides a selective survey of recent contributions to improve upon both the size and power of

Niels Haldrup; Michael Jansson

89

Broad compatibility in fungal root symbioses.  

PubMed

Plants associate with a wide range of beneficial fungi in their roots which facilitate plant mineral nutrient uptake in exchange for carbohydrates and other organic metabolites. These associations play a key role in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and are widely believed to have promoted the evolution of land plants. To establish compatibility with their host, root-associated fungi have evolved diverse colonization strategies with distinct morphological, functional and genomic specializations as well as different degrees of interdependence. They include obligate biotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), and facultative biotrophic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) interactions but are not restricted to these well-characterized symbioses. There is growing evidence that root endophytic associations, which due to their inconspicuous nature have been often overlooked, can be of mutualistic nature and represent important players in natural and managed environments. Recent research into the biology and genomics of root associations revealed fascinating insight into the phenotypic and trophic plasticity of these fungi and underlined genomic traits associated with biotrophy and saprotrophy. In this review we will consider the commonalities and differences of AM and ECM associations and contrast them with root endophytes. PMID:24929298

Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Langen, Gregor

2014-08-01

90

Distribution and speciation of Mn in hydrated roots of cowpea at levels inhibiting root growth.  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of Mn is important globally due to its increased solubility in acid or waterlogged soils. Short-term (?24 h) solution culture studies with 150 µM Mn were conducted to investigate the in situ distribution and speciation of Mn in apical tissues of hydrated roots of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Red Caloona] using synchrotron-based techniques. Accumulation of Mn was rapid; exposure to 150 µM Mn for only 5 min resulting in substantial Mn accumulation in the root cap and associated mucigel. The highest tissue concentrations of Mn were in the root cap, with linear combination fitting of the data suggesting that??80% of this Mn(II) was associated with citrate. Interestingly, although the primary site of Mn toxicity is typically the shoots, concentrations of Mn in the stele of the root were not noticeably higher than in the surrounding cortical tissues in the short-term (?24 h). The data provided here from the in situ analyses of hydrated roots exposed to excess Mn are, to our knowledge, the first of this type to be reported for Mn and provide important information regarding plant responses to high Mn in the rooting environment. PMID:22892034

Kopittke, Peter M; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Wang, Peng; Donner, Erica; Webb, Richard I; Blamey, F Pax C; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Howard, Daryl L; Menzies, Neal W

2013-04-01

91

Rooting of blue honeysuckle microshoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooting of axillary shoots of two blue honeysuckle forms, Lonicera caerulea f. caerulea and L. caerulea f. edulis, was studied.\\u000a Both in vitro and ex vitro rooting procedures were used, and the effects of mineral and auxin concentrations of the rooting\\u000a media were tested. Reduced mineral nutrient concentrations of modified MS medium allowed more root elongation but did not\\u000a affect

Saila T. Karhu

1997-01-01

92

Evaluating Ecohydrological Theories of Woody Root Distribution in the Kalahari  

PubMed Central

The contribution of savannas to global carbon storage is poorly understood, in part due to lack of knowledge of the amount of belowground biomass. In these ecosystems, the coexistence of woody and herbaceous life forms is often explained on the basis of belowground interactions among roots. However, the distribution of root biomass in savannas has seldom been investigated, and the dependence of root biomass on rainfall regime remains unclear, particularly for woody plants. Here we investigate patterns of belowground woody biomass along a rainfall gradient in the Kalahari of southern Africa, a region with consistent sandy soils. We test the hypotheses that (1) the root depth increases with mean annual precipitation (root optimality and plant hydrotropism hypothesis), and (2) the root-to-shoot ratio increases with decreasing mean annual rainfall (functional equilibrium hypothesis). Both hypotheses have been previously assessed for herbaceous vegetation using global root data sets. Our data do not support these hypotheses for the case of woody plants in savannas. We find that in the Kalahari, the root profiles of woody plants do not become deeper with increasing mean annual precipitation, whereas the root-to-shoot ratios decrease along a gradient of increasing aridity. PMID:22470506

Bhattachan, Abinash; Tatlhego, Mokganedi; Dintwe, Kebonye; O'Donnell, Frances; Caylor, Kelly K.; Okin, Gregory S.; Perrot, Danielle O.; Ringrose, Susan; D'Odorico, Paolo

2012-01-01

93

Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

Koltai, Hinanit

2012-07-01

94

Lesson 24: Roots and Radicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exponential notation for Nth roots and radicals is introduced. A short discussion about Nth roots and irrational numbers follows before symbolic manipulation of fractional exponents and solving equations is presented. Power functions and solving radical equations are presented before the lesson concludes with roots of negative numbers.

2011-01-01

95

Gamma-Ray Irradiation Resistance of Silver Doped GeS2-Ga2S3-AgI Chalcohalide Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, series of silver doped Ge-Ga-S-AgI chalcohalide glasses have been prepared and their optical transmission spectra are compared before and after ?-ray irradiation at different doses. The differential transmission spectra of the irradiated samples with and without Ag doping have been compared to characterize the ?-ray irradiation induced red-shift of electronic absorption and formation of color centers. Ag doping plays an important role in increasing ?-ray irradiation resistance of the chalcohalide glasses due to its specific effect on the valence band and the network structure of glasses.

Zhou, Y.; Shen, W.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.; Chen, G.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.

2014-06-01

96

Gamma-ray irradiation resistance of silver doped GeS2-Ga2S3-AgI chalcohalide glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, series of silver doped Ge-Ga-S-AgI chalcohalide glasses have been prepared and their optical transmission spectra are compared before and after ?-ray irradiation at different doses. The differential transmission spectra of the irradiated samples with and without Ag doping have been compared to characterize the ?-ray irradiation induced red-shift of electronic absorption and formation of color centers. Ag doping plays an important role in increasing ?-ray irradiation resistance of the chalcohalide glasses due to its specific effect on the valence band and the network structure of glasses.

Shen, W.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Ren, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, G.

2014-06-01

97

Springback in root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1989-01-01

98

Mathematica with ROOT  

E-print Network

We present an open-source Mathematica importer for CERN ROOT files. Taking advantage of Mathematica's import/export plug-in mechanism, the importer offers a simple, unified interface that cleanly wraps around its MathLink-based core that links the ROOT libraries with Mathematica. Among other tests for accuracy and efficiency, the importer has also been tested on a large (~5 Gbyte) file structure, D3PD, used by the ATLAS experiment for offline analysis without problems. In addition to describing the installation and usage of the importer, we discuss how the importer may be further improved and customized. A link to the package can be found at: http://library.wolfram.com/infocenter/Articles/7793/ and a related presentation is at: http://cd-docdb.fnal.gov/cgi-bin/DisplayMeeting?conferenceid=522

Ken Hsieh; Thomas G. Throwe; Sebastian White

2011-02-24

99

Cotton Root-rot.  

E-print Network

excelsa, Pinus sylvestri.s, Strobw, P. Laricio, Larix Europoea, Acer platanoides. Fagus. This disease manifests itself by the blackening of the roots and rootlets. The Cotylcdons have a spotted appearance. Warm and moist weather causes the fungus... is a case of symbiosis, and Kamien- ski holds that symbiosis cannot be applied to all the ~Kycorhiza forms described by Frank; that in case of Carpinzn Betulus and Pinus Sylvestris the niycelium of the fungns causes hyper- trophy of the tissues. Dr...

Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

1889-01-01

100

iRootHair: a comprehensive root hair genomics database.  

PubMed

The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

2013-01-01

101

Roots Engage in Underground Chemical Warfare  

NSF Publications Database

... plant roots secrete a wide variety of compounds that affect other nearby roots, as well as insects ... from Arabidopsis roots kill a wide range of bacteria, confirming that roots are not always ...

102

Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

Day, Frank P., Jr.

1994-01-01

103

Philosophical Roots of Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

Ivanovic, M.

2008-10-01

104

Microtubules in root hairs.  

PubMed

The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

1985-06-01

105

Matching roots to their environment  

PubMed Central

Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future. PMID:23821619

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

2013-01-01

106

RootNav: navigating images of complex root architectures.  

PubMed

We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist's satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav's core representation. PMID:23766367

Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony

2013-08-01

107

Disentangling root responses to climate change in a semiarid grassland.  

PubMed

Future ecosystem properties of grasslands will be driven largely by belowground biomass responses to climate change, which are challenging to understand due to experimental and technical constraints. We used a multi-faceted approach to explore single and combined impacts of elevated CO2 and warming on root carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a temperate, semiarid, native grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment. To investigate the indirect, moisture mediated effects of elevated CO2, we included an irrigation treatment. We assessed root standing mass, morphology, residence time and seasonal appearance/disappearance of community-aggregated roots, as well as mass and N losses during decomposition of two dominant grass species (a C3 and a C4). In contrast to what is common in mesic grasslands, greater root standing mass under elevated CO2 resulted from increased production, unmatched by disappearance. Elevated CO2 plus warming produced roots that were longer, thinner and had greater surface area, which, together with greater standing biomass, could potentially alter root function and dynamics. Decomposition increased under environmental conditions generated by elevated CO2, but not those generated by warming, likely due to soil desiccation with warming. Elevated CO2, particularly under warming, slowed N release from C4-but not C3-roots, and consequently could indirectly affect N availability through treatment effects on species composition. Elevated CO2 and warming effects on root morphology and decomposition could offset increased C inputs from greater root biomass, thereby limiting future net C accrual in this semiarid grassland. PMID:24643718

Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; LeCain, Dan; Morgan, Jack A; Blumenthal, Dana; Waldron, Sarah; Pendall, Elise

2014-06-01

108

A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential  

PubMed Central

Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

1981-01-01

109

Water Transport across Maize Roots 1  

PubMed Central

A double pressure probe technique was used to measure simultaneously water flows and hydraulic parameters of individual cells and of excised roots of young seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.) in osmotic experiments. By following initial flows of water at the cell and root level and by estimating the profiles of driving forces (water potentials) across the root, the hydraulic conductivity of individual cell layers was evaluated. Since the hydraulic conductivity of the cell-to-cell path was determined separately, the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall material could be evaluated as well (Lpcw = 0.3 to 6.10?9 per meter per second per megapascal). Although, for radial water flow across the cortex and rhizodermis, the apoplasmic path was predominant, the contribution of the hydraulic conductance of the cell-to-cell path to the overall conductance increased significantly from the first layer of the cortex toward the inner layers from 2% to 23%. This change was mainly due to an increase of the hydraulic conductivity of the cell membranes which was Lp = 1.9.10?7 per meter per second per megapascal in the first layer and Lp = 14 to 9.10?7 per meter per second per megapascal in the inner layers of the cortex. The hydraulic conductivity of entire roots depended on whether hydrostatic or osmotic forces were used to induce water flows. Hydrostatic Lpr was 1.2 to 2.3.10?7 per meter per second per megapascal and osmotic Lpr = 1.6 to 2.8.10?8 per meter per second per megapascal. The apparent reflection coefficients of root cells (?s) of nonpermeating solutes (KCI, PEG 6000) decreased from values close to unity in the rhizodermis to about 0.7 to 0.8 in the cortex. In all cases, however, ?s was significantly larger than the reflection coefficient of entire roots (?sr). For KCI and PEG 6000, ?sr was 0.53 and 0.64, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of a composite membrane model of the root. PMID:16667970

Zhu, Guo Li; Steudle, Ernst

1991-01-01

110

A novel bioassay using root re-growth in Lemna.  

PubMed

A new phytotoxicity test method based on root elongation of three Lemna species (Lemna gibba, L. minor, and L. paucicostata) has been developed. Tests with aquatic plants have, typically, favored measurements on fronds (e.g. frond number, area, biomass) rather than on roots, due, in part, to issues associated with handling fragile roots and the time-consuming procedures of selecting roots with identical root lengths. The present method differs in that roots were excised prior to exposure with subsequent measurements on newly developed roots. Results show that there were species-specific difference in sensitivity to the five metals tested (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg), with Ag being the most toxic (EC50=5.3-37.6 ?gL(-1)) to all three species, and Cr the least toxic for L. gibba and L. minor (1148.3 and 341.8 ?gL(-1), respectively) and Cu for L. paucicostata (470.4 ?gL(-1)). Direct comparisons were made with measurements of frond area, which were found to be less sensitive. More generally, root re-growth was shown to reflect the toxic responses of all three Lemna species to these five important metals. The root growth bioassay differs from three internationally standardized methods (ISO, OCED and US EPA) in that it is completed in 48 h, the required volume of test solutions is only 3 ml and non-axenic plants are used. Our results show that the Lemna root method is a simple, rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and precise bioassay to assess the toxic risks of metals and has practical application for monitoring municipal and industrial waste waters where metals are common constituents. PMID:23917640

Park, Areum; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

2013-09-15

111

Density of the continental roots: Compositional and thermal contributions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The origin and evolution of cratonic roots has been debated for many years. Precambrian cratons are underlain by cold lithospheric roots that are chemically depleted. Thermal and petrologic data indicate that Archean roots are colder and more chemically depleted than Proterozoic roots. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the degree of depletion in a lithospheric root depends mostly on its age. Here we test this hypothesis using gravity, thermal, petrologic, and seismic data to quantify differences in the density of cratonic roots globally. In the first step in our analysis we use a global crustal model to remove the crustal contribution to the observed gravity. The result is the mantle gravity anomaly field, which varies over cratonic areas from -100 to +100 mGal. Positive mantle gravity anomalies are observed for cratons in the northern hemisphere: the Baltic shield, East European Platform, and the Siberian Platform. Negative anomalies are observed over cratons in the southern hemisphere: Western Australia, South America, the Indian shield, and Southern Africa. This indicates that there are significant differences in the density of cratonic roots, even for those of similar age. Root density depends on temperature and chemical depletion. In order to separate these effects we apply a lithospheric temperature correction using thermal estimates from a combination of geothermal modeling and global seismic tomography models. Gravity anomalies induced by temperature variations in the uppermost mantle range from -200 to +300 mGal, with the strongest negative anomalies associated with mid-ocean ridges and the strongest positive anomalies associated with cratons. After correcting for thermal effects, we obtain a map of density variations due to lithospheric compositional variations. These maps indicate that the average density decrease due to the chemical depletion within cratonic roots varies from 1.1% to 1.5%, assuming the chemical boundary layer has the same thickness as the thermal boundary layer. The maximal values of the density drop are in the range 1.7-2.5%, and correspond to the Archean portion of each craton. Temperatures within cratonic roots vary strongly, and our analysis indicates that density variations in the roots due to temperature are larger than the variations due to chemical differences. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Kaban, M.K.; Schwintzer, P.; Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.

2003-01-01

112

Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.  

PubMed

Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable ability. PMID:23889531

Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

2014-04-01

113

Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from the root in this soil was significantly reduced. The experiments demonstrated that mucilage increased the hydraulic conductance of the root-soil continuum and facilitated the extraction of water from dry soils. The increase in conductivity resulted from the higher water content of the soil near the roots. Mucilage has a lower surface tension than pure water and a higher viscosity, resulting in a slower penetration of mucilage into the soil. After mucilage was placed into the soil, it did not spread into the bulk soil, but it remained near the roots, maintaining the rhizosphere wetter and more conductive than the bulk soil. However, as mucilage dried, it turned water repellent and reduced the back flow of water from the root to soil. We hypothesize that mucilage exudation is a plant strategy to locally and temporally facilitate water uptake from dry soils. After drying, mucilage becomes water repellent and may limit the local uptake of water after irrigation. On the other hand, mucilage water repellency may as well be a strategy to reduce water loss from roots to dry soils.

Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

2014-05-01

114

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classroo

Wandersee, James; Clary, Renee

2010-02-01

115

Theon's Ladder for Any Root  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theon's ladder is an ancient algorithm for calculating rational approximations for the square root of 2. It features two columns of integers (called a ladder), in which the ratio of the two numbers in each row is an approximation to the square root of 2. It is remarkable for its simplicity. This algorithm can easily be generalized to find rational…

Osler, Thomas J.; Wright, Marcus; Orchard, Michael

2005-01-01

116

Gut and Root Microbiota Commonalities  

PubMed Central

Animal guts and plant roots have absorption roles for nutrient uptake and converge in harboring large, complex, and dynamic groups of microbes that participate in degradation or modification of nutrients and other substances. Gut and root bacteria regulate host gene expression, provide metabolic capabilities, essential nutrients, and protection against pathogens, and seem to share evolutionary trends. PMID:23104406

Ramirez-Puebla, Shamayim T.; Servin-Garciduenas, Luis E.; Jimenez-Marin, Berenice; Bolanos, Luis M.; Rosenblueth, Monica; Martinez, Julio; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeno-Orrillo, Ernesto

2013-01-01

117

Project Work on Plant Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of investigating plant root growth developed for research purposes can be adopted for student use. Investigations of the effect of water table level and of ethylene concentration are described, and techniques of measuring root growth are explained. (Author/ML)

Devonald, V. G.

1986-01-01

118

Response of millet and sorghum to a varying water supply around the primary and nodal roots  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cereals have two root systems. The primary system originates from the embryo when the seed germinates and can support the plant until it produces grain. The nodal system can emerge from stem nodes throughout the plant's life; its value for yield is unclear and depends on the environment. The aim of this study was to test the role of nodal roots of sorghum and millet in plant growth in response to variation in soil moisture. Sorghum and millet were chosen as both are adapted to dry conditions. Methods Sorghum and millet were grown in a split-pot system that allowed the primary and nodal roots to be watered separately. Key Results When primary and nodal roots were watered (12 % soil water content; SWC), millet nodal roots were seven times longer than those of sorghum and six times longer than millet plants in dry treatments, mainly from an 8-fold increase in branch root length. When soil was allowed to dry in both compartments, millet nodal roots responded and grew 20 % longer branch roots than in the well-watered control. Sorghum nodal roots were unchanged. When only primary roots received water, nodal roots of both species emerged and elongated into extremely dry soil (0·6–1·5 % SWC), possibly with phloem-delivered water from the primary roots in the moist inner pot. Nodal roots were thick, short, branchless and vertical, indicating a tropism that was more pronounced in millet. Total nodal root length increased in both species when the dry soil was covered with plastic, suggesting that stubble retention or leaf mulching could facilitate nodal roots reaching deeper moist layers in dry climates. Greater nodal root length in millet than in sorghum was associated with increased shoot biomass, water uptake and water use efficiency (shoot mass per water). Millet had a more plastic response than sorghum to moisture around the nodal roots due to (1) faster growth and progression through ontogeny for earlier nodal root branch length and (2) partitioning to nodal root length from primary roots, independent of shoot size. Conclusions Nodal and primary roots have distinct responses to soil moisture that depend on species. They can be selected independently in a breeding programme to shape root architecture. A rapid rate of plant development and enhanced responsiveness to local moisture may be traits that favour nodal roots and water use efficiency at no cost to shoot growth. PMID:23749473

Rostamza, M.; Richards, R. A.; Watt, M.

2013-01-01

119

Vetiver Root System : Search for the Ideotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver roots have a tufted vertically growing root structure. The roots are one of the most important organizational systems that make vetiver a miracle grass for its multifarious applications in soil and water conservation, soil health, and raw material for vetiver root handicrafts, environmental and perfumery products. A lot of diversity is found in vetiver root system in nature, and

Seshu Lavania

120

Parameterizing complex root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However they suffer from a lack of information in important parameters, especially distribution of root hydraulic properties. In this paper we explore the role that arrangement of root hydraulic properties and root system topology play for modelled uptake dynamics. We apply microscopic models of single root structures to investigate the mechanisms shaping uptake dynamics and demonstrate the effects in a complex three dimensional root water uptake model. We introduce two efficiency indices, for (a) overall plant resistance and (b) water stress and show that an appropriate arrangement of root hydraulic properties can increase modelled efficiency of root water uptake in single roots, branched roots and entire root systems. The average uptake depth of the complete root system was not influenced by parameterization. However, other factors such as evolution of collar potential, which is related to the plant resistance, root bleeding and redistribution patterns were strongly affected by the parameterization. Root systems are more efficient when they are assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (short young) roots and transport (longer mature) roots. Results become similar, as soon as this composition is accounted for to some degree (between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). Overall resistance to root water uptake was decreased up to 40% and total transpiration was increased up to 25% in these composed root systems, compared to homogenous root systems. Also, one parameterization (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which was accompanied by lowest efficiency. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component of complex three dimensional uptake models. Efficiency measures together with information on critical xylem potentials may be useful in parameterizing root property distribution.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

2014-01-01

121

Gravisensing in roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode of gravisensing in higher plants is not yet elucidated. Although, it is generally accepted that the amyloplasts (statoliths) in the root cap cells (statocytes) are responsible for susception of gravity. However, the hypothesis that the whole protoplast acts as gravisusceptor cannot be dismissed. The nature of the sensor that is able to transduce and amplify the mechanical energy into a biochemical factor is even more controversial. Several cell structures could potentially serve as gravireceptors: the endoplasmic reticulum, the actin network, the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton associated with this membrane. The nature of the gravisusceptors and gravisensors is discussed by taking into account the characteristics of the gravitropic reaction with respect to the presentation time, the threshold acceleration, the reciprocity rule, the deviation from the sine rule, the movement of the amyloplasts, the pre-inversion effect, the response of starch free and intermediate mutants and the effects of cytochalasin treatment. From this analysis, it can be concluded that both the amyloplasts and the protoplast could be the gravisusceptors, the former being more efficient than the latter since they can focus pressure on limited areas. The receptor should be located in the plasma membrane and could be a stretch-activated ion channel.

Perbal, G.

1999-01-01

122

Contribution of relative growth rate to root foraging by annual and perennial grasses from California oak woodlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants forage for nutrients by increasing their root length density (RLD) in nutrient-rich soil microsites through root morphological changes resulting in increased root biomass density (RBD), specific root length (SRL), or branching frequency (BF). It is commonly accepted that fast-growing species will forage more than slow-growing species. However, foraging responses may be due solely to differences in relative growth rates

Zachary T. Aanderud; Caroline S. Bledsoe; James H. Richards

2003-01-01

123

Amyloplast Distribution Directs a Root Gravitropic Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. As it is known, roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector, stems - with negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction opposite to a gravitational vector. According to the Nemec’s and Haberlandt’s starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in diameter of 1.5 - 3 ? in average, which appear to act as gravity sensors and fulfill a statolythic function in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes, sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell, while a nucleus is in the proximal one. There are reasonable data that confirm the amyloplasts-statoliths participation in gravity perception: 1) correlation between the statoliths localization and the site of gravity sensing, 2) significant redistribution (sedimentation) of amyloplasts in statocytes under gravistimulation in comparison with other cell organelles, 3) root decreased ability to react on gravity under starch removal from amyloplasts, 4) starchless Arabidopsis thaliana mutants are agravitropic, 5) amyloplasts-statoliths do not sediment in the absence of the gravitational vector and are in different parts or more concentrated in the center of statocytes. Plant tropisms have been intensively studied for many decades and continue to be investigated. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which plants do so is still not clearly explained and many questions on gravisensing and graviresponse remain unanswered. Even accepted hypotheses are now being questioned and recent data are critically evaluated. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence with regard to the participation of calcium ions and cytoskeletal elements in these processes is therefore substantial but still circumstantial and requires new experimental data. Using a new model - weak combined magnetic fields (CMFs), which elicit a variety of responses in plants, growth rate and fresh weight, seed germination, Ca2+ concentration, membrane permeability, with a frequency resonance to cyclotron frequency of calcium ions, we firstly showed that a root positive gravitropic reaction changes on a negative one. In this case, the paradoxical displacement of amylopasts-statoliths to the upper longitudinal cell wall of statocytes occurred in the direction opposite to a gravitational vector. Displacement of amyloplasts, which contain the abundance of free Ca2+ in the stroma, was accompanied with Ca2+ redistribution in the same direction in the cytosol and increasing around amyloplasts in comparison with the state magnetic field. In the elongation zone, calcium ions accumulated in the upper site of a gravistimulated root unlike a positive gravitropic reaction, and a root is bending in the same direction in which amyloplasts are displacing. It seems that a root gravitropic reaction, if it began, occurs by an usual physiological way resulting in root bending with an opposite sign. It is of a special interest that a root is bending to the same direction with displacing of amyloplasts: in positive gravitropism - downwards, in negative gravitropism - upwards. Peculiarities of calcium ion redistribution in statocytes under gravistimulation in such combined magnetic field are a new additional evidence of a Ca2+ ion significant role in gravitropism. Thus, our data support the starch-statolith hypothesis but also pose the question as to which forces displace amyloplasts against the gravity vector? We hope that these data will stimulate new research to better understand the mechanisms of plant graviperception and graviresponse. Gravistimulation of a root in the CMF with the frequency resonance to the cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions is an effective model for future

Kordyum, Elizabeth

124

Effects of Pd(P) Thickness on the Microstructural Evolution Between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Ni(P)/Pd(P)/Au Surface Finish During the Reflow Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural evolution between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder and Ni(P)/Pd(P)/Au finish during the reflow process was investigated for various Pd(P) thicknesses (0 ?m to 0.6 ?m). The reflow process was carried out in a belt-conveying reflow oven with peak temperature of 260°C. In the early stages of the reflow process, the Pd(P) layer either dissolved or spalled in the form of (Pd,Ni)Sn4 into the molten solder, leaving behind an Ni2SnP/Ni3P bilayer on the Ni(P) layer. From the dissolution of the spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn4 particles during the reflow process, the solubility of Pd in the molten SAC305 solder in the reflow process was estimated to be 0.18 wt.% to 0.25 wt.%. Regardless of the ratio of solder volume to pad opening size, the Ni2SnP layer that formed in the early stage of reflow had a significant influence on the subsequent formation and growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 at the solder interface. As the Ni2SnP layer became thicker with increasing Pd(P) thickness, the formation of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 became increasingly sluggish and occurred only at locations where the Ni2SnP layer was locally thin or discontinuous, leading to a discontinuous morphology of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. This was attributed to the Ni2SnP layer that became an increasingly effective barrier to Ni diffusion with increasing thickness. Based on the experimental results, this study suggests detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of the Pd(P) thickness on the morphology and growth of the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formed during the reflow process.

Chung, Bo-Mook; Baek, Yong-Ho; Choi, Jaeho; Huh, Joo-Youl

2012-12-01

125

Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development  

PubMed Central

Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR induction. PMID:25324849

Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sebastien; Geelen, Danny

2014-01-01

126

Root hairs improve root penetration, root-soil contact, and phosphorus acquisition in soils of different strength.  

PubMed

Root hairs are a key trait for improving the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. However, it is not known whether root hairs provide significant advantage for plant growth under combined soil stresses, particularly under conditions that are known to restrict root hair initiation or elongation (e.g. compacted or high-strength soils). To investigate this, the root growth and P uptake of root hair genotypes of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (i.e. genotypes with and without root hairs), were assessed under combinations of P deficiency and high soil strength. Genotypes with root hairs were found to have an advantage for root penetration into high-strength layers relative to root hairless genotypes. In P-deficient soils, despite a 20% reduction in root hair length under high-strength conditions, genotypes with root hairs were also found to have an advantage for P uptake. However, in fertilized soils, root hairs conferred an advantage for P uptake in low-strength soil but not in high-strength soil. Improved root-soil contact, coupled with an increased supply of P to the root, may decrease the value of root hairs for P acquisition in high-strength, high-P soils. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that root hairs are a valuable trait for plant growth and nutrient acquisition under combined soil stresses. Selecting plants with superior root hair traits is important for improving P uptake efficiency and hence the sustainability of agricultural systems. PMID:23861547

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Young, Iain M; Hallett, Paul D; White, Philip J; George, Timothy S

2013-09-01

127

Suppression of Root Pathogens of Tomato by Rhizobia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mineral Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root diseases caused by root-rotting fungi and root-knot nematodes are a serious problem in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production throughout the world. Due to constraints in use of synthetic pesticides, alternate methods for disease management including biocontrol and cultural practices are being sought out. The effect of rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium japonicum), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth–promoting bacterium (PGPR), and mineral fertilizers

Gulnaz Parveen; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Mohammad Athar

2008-01-01

128

Root Absorption and Xylem Translocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: Herbicides must be absorbed into plants inorder to be effective. Plant roots and below ground shoots have fewbarriers to herbicide absorption; however, interactions with soilparticles and soil organic matter have significant impacts on theamount of herbicide available for plant absorption. Plant roots andbelow ground shoots (hypocotyls or coleoptiles) are lipophilic bynature and do not have thick, waxy cuticles like leaves. Lipophilic andhydrophilic herbicides reach the root surface by bulk transport in soilwater; however, there are a few examples of herbicides that reach theroot as a vapor or gas. Soil-applied herbicides can translocate to theshoot or remain in the root system. Soil-applied herbicides translocateto the shoot in the xylem and tend to accumulate in mature leaves thattranspire the most water. The lipophilic/hydrophilic nature of theherbicide will determine if the herbicide translocates to the shoot.Absorption and translocation of phloem-mobile herbicides will bediscussed in another lesson.

129

Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

130

Breakage of transgenic tobacco roots for monoclonal antibody release in an ultra-scale down shearing device.  

PubMed

Transgenic tobacco roots offer a potential alternative to leaves for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. A possible method for extraction of MAbs from roots is by homogenization, breaking the roots into fragments to release the antibody. This process was assessed by shearing 10?mm root sections ("roots") in a 24?mL ultra-scale down shearing device, including an impeller with serrated blade edges, intended to mimic the action of a large-scale homogenizer. Size distributions of the remaining intact roots and root fragments were obtained as a function of shearing time. The data suggest that about 36% of the roots could not be broken under the prevailing conditions and, beyond these unbreakable roots, the fragmentation was approximately first order with respect to intact root number. It was postulated that root breakage in such a high shearing device was due to root-impeller collisions and the particle size data suggest that roots colliding with the impeller were completely fragmented into debris particles of the order of 0.1?mm in length. IgG release normalized to release by grinding appeared to lag behind the number of roots that had fragmented, suggesting that a process of leakage followed fragmentation in the ultra-scale down shearing device. PMID:23860965

Hassan, Sally; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ma, Julian; Thomas, Colin

2014-01-01

131

Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of arabidopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation.

Mullen, J. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

2003-05-01

132

Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mullen, J. L.; Hangarter, R. P.; Kiss, J. Z. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

133

Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). The average collar potential was cut to half and unstressed transpiration increased by up to 25% in composed root systems, compared to homogenous ones. Also, the least efficient root system (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which seemed to be an artifact of the parameterization. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component for efficient root systems that needs to be accounted for in complex three-dimensional root water uptake models.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

2014-10-01

134

Systemic ozone effects on root hydraulic properties in pima cotton  

SciTech Connect

Ambient ozone concentrations have become problematic even in rural, agricultural areas such as the San Joaquin Valley of California. Pima cotton (cv. S6) has been shown to be relatively sensitive to ozone air pollution, at levels occurring in this production area. In this semi-arid area acquisition of water and nutrients may limit yield and biological productivity. Therefore maximal proliferation, exploration, and efficiency of root systems is desirable. Hydraulic conductance provides a parameter to characterize the efficiency of roots and shoots and their interaction. The authors have used a variety of transpiration and pressure vessel techniques to document ozone-induced reduction of root hydraulic conductance in cotton. They hypothesized that these effects are caused by reduced carbohydrate supply due to reduction of photosynthetic capacity of the shoot associated with direct oxidant damage to foliage. However, the authors simulated this reduced photosynthetic capacity by continuously removing leaf area to match that of ozone treated plants. This resulted in a reduction of whole plant biomass similar to ozone-treated plants, but a root/shoot biomass ratio and root hydraulic properties similar to control plants and contrasting with ozone-treated plants. Thus leaf removal did not simulate effects of ozone on root hydraulic properties. A systematic effect of ozone on whole plant function is indicated, perhaps mediated by direct effects on carbohydrate translocation throughout the plant.

Grantz, D.A.; Yang, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); [Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

135

Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.  

PubMed

Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

2014-01-01

136

Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging  

PubMed Central

Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

2014-01-01

137

Triacontagonal coordinates for the E(8) root system  

E-print Network

This note gives an explicit formula for the elements of the E(8) root system. The formula is triacontagonally symmetric in that one may clearly see an action by the cyclic group with 30 elements. The existence of such a formula is due to the fact that the Coxeter number of E(8) is 30.

David A. Richter

2007-04-24

138

A biophysical model for water movement in roots: Root exudation and root pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbreviations: CeX: the osmotic concentration of the xylem exudate (osmolm 3), Cex(px): CeX as a function of root pressure px (osmol m-3). ci: the osmotic concentration in the symplast (osmol m-3), Cs(x): the osmotic concentration of absorbable solute in the canal at x (osmolm-3), Cs(x, px): C~(x) as a function of root pressure (osmolm 3), C~V: the average of Cs(x)

Kiyoshi Katou; Takehide Taura; Muneyoshi Furumoto

1988-01-01

139

Characterization of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

Root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) nematodes infect all important crop species, and the annual economic loss due to these pathogens exceeds $90 billion. We screened the worldwide accession collection with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla, soybean cyst nematode (SCN-Heterodera glycines), sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN-Heterodera schachtii) and clover cyst nematode (CLCN-Heterodera trifolii), revealing resistant and susceptible accessions. In the over 100 accessions evaluated, we observed a range of responses to the root-knot nematode species, and a non-host response was observed for SCN and SBCN infection. However, variation was observed with respect to infection by CLCN. While many cultivars including Jemalong A17 were resistant to H. trifolii, cultivar Paraggio was highly susceptible. Identification of M. truncatula as a host for root-knot nematodes and H. trifolii and the differential host response to both RKN and CLCN provide the opportunity to genetically and molecularly characterize genes involved in plant-nematode interaction. Accession DZA045, obtained from an Algerian population, was resistant to all three root-knot nematode species and was used for further studies. The mechanism of resistance in DZA045 appears different from Mi-mediated root-knot nematode resistance in tomato. Temporal analysis of nematode infection showed that there is no difference in nematode penetration between the resistant and susceptible accessions, and no hypersensitive response was observed in the resistant accession even several days after infection. However, less than 5% of the nematode population completed the life cycle as females in the resistant accession. The remainder emigrated from the roots, developed as males, or died inside the roots as undeveloped larvae. Genetic analyses carried out by crossing DZA045 with a susceptible French accession, F83005, suggest that one gene controls resistance in DZA045. PMID:19259519

Dhandaydham, Murali; Charles, Lauren; Zhu, Hongyan; Starr, James L; Huguet, Thierry; Cook, Douglas R; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Opperman, Charles

2008-03-01

140

Effects of root diameter and root nitrogen concentration on in situ root respiration among different seasons and tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of root respiration is a prerequisite for a better understanding of ecosystem carbon budget and carbon allocation.\\u000a However, there are not many relevant data in the literature on direct measurements of in situ root respiration by root chamber\\u000a method. Furthermore, few studies have been focused on the effects of root diameter (D\\u000a r) and root nitrogen concentration (N\\u000a r)

Dima Chen; Lixia Zhou; Xingquan Rao; Yongbiao Lin; Shenglei Fu

2010-01-01

141

COUPLING FINE ROOT DYNAMICS WITH ECOSYSTEM CARBON CYCLING IN BLACK SPRUCE FORESTS OF INTERIOR ALASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root processes play a prominent role in the carbon and nutrient cycling of boreal ecosystems due to the high proportion of biomass allocated belowground and the rapid decomposition of fine roots relative to aboveground tissues. To examine these issues in detail, major components of ecosystem carbon flux were studied in three mature black spruce forests in interior Alaska, where

Roger W. Ruess; Ronald L. Hendrick; Andrew J. Burton; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Bjartmar Sveinbjornssön; Michael F. Allen; Gregory E. Maurer

2003-01-01

142

Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals  

PubMed Central

Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

2014-01-01

143

The impact of New Labour's modernisation agenda on the English grass-roots football workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1990s, the grass-roots sporting workforce in England has been subjected to increasing policy intervention, primarily due to Government desire to use the private and voluntary sector to deliver a range of political objectives. English grass-roots football is arguably the most important site for this policy delivery given its huge popularity – providing the largest numbers of volunteers

Jim Lusted; Jimmy OGorman

2010-01-01

144

Alfalfa Root Rot.  

E-print Network

thought due to the pre- sence of an "alkali" in the soil, but its continued growth on the same land, showing widening circles of disease with each succeeding year, mould indicate at once a fungus trouble. Mr. W. H. Farley, whose lettera we select... shov that fungus must attack the healthy plants for some time before there are any visible signs ofdisease and for an area much larger than the small circle seemingly affected-or that the disease is not at all checked by plowing. As a matter of fact...

Curtis, Geo. W.

1892-01-01

145

Root plasticity in Mediterranean herbaceous species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root plasticity has been largely studied on herbaceous species of north European temperate flora and is defined as the ratio between root depth in dry soils and root depth in wet soils. In summer dry habitats such as Mediterranean environments, the soil water deficit is a common feature to which root systems of plant species should adapt to improve their

M. De Lillis; F. Manes; F. Tufaro

2005-01-01

146

Biotechnological Induction of Rooting in Arbutus menziesii  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work tests the ability of the bacterium hairy-root (Agrobacterium rhizogenes) to induce the formation of adventitious roots on Pacific mad- rone (Arbutus menziesii) stems and cuttings. Madrone stems 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age are innoculated at different seasons of the year and tested for the production of adventitious roots. Successful rooting of stems with endogenously produced

Barbara Selemon; Toby Bradshaw

147

The bHLH transcription factor SPATULA regulates root growth by controlling the size of the root meristem  

PubMed Central

Background The Arabidopsis thaliana gene SPATULA (SPT), encoding a bHLH transcription factor, was originally identified for its role in pistil development. SPT is necessary for the growth and development of all carpel margin tissues including the style, stigma, septum and transmitting tract. Since then, it has been shown to have pleiotropic roles during development, including restricting the meristematic region of the leaf primordia and cotyledon expansion. Although SPT is expressed in roots, its role in this organ has not been investigated. Results An analysis of embryo and root development showed that loss of SPT function causes an increase in quiescent center size in both the embryonic and postembryonic stem cell niches. In addition, root meristem size is larger due to increased division, which leads to a longer primary root. spt mutants exhibit other pleiotropic developmental phenotypes, including more flowers, shorter internodes and an extended flowering period. Genetic and molecular analysis suggests that SPT regulates cell proliferation in parallel to gibberellic acid as well as affecting auxin accumulation or transport. Conclusions Our data suggest that SPT functions in growth control throughout sporophytic growth of Arabidopsis, but is not necessary for cell fate decisions except during carpel development. SPT functions independently of gibberellic acid during root development, but may play a role in regulating auxin transport or accumulation. Our data suggests that SPT plays a role in control of root growth, similar to its roles in above ground tissues. PMID:23280064

2013-01-01

148

Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.  

PubMed

To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants should be created in the upper part of the cover layer, namely a sufficient amount of plant nutrients. However, to define such a condition is difficult since different plant species have different requirements. PMID:17253002

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-12-01

149

Moving Waves of Bacterial Populations and Total Organic Carbon along Roots of Wheat.  

PubMed

> Abstract To determine if spatial variation in soluble carbon sources along the root coincides with different trophic groups of bacteria, copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria were enumerated from bulk soil and rhizosphere samples at 2 cm intervals along wheat roots 2, 3, and 4 weeks after planting. There was a moderate rhizosphere effect in one experiment with soil rich in fresh plant debris, and a very pronounced rhizosphere effect in the second experiment with soil low in organic matter. We obtained wavelike patterns of both trophic groups of bacteria as well as water-soluble total organic carbon (TOC) along the whole root length (60 or 90 cm). TOC concentrations were maximal at the root tip and base and minimal in the middle part of the roots. Oscillations in populations of copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria had two maxima close to the root tip and at the root base, or three maxima close to the tip, in the middle section, and at the root base. The location and pattern of the waves in bacterial populations changed progressively from week to week and was not consistently correlated with TOC concentrations or the location of lateral root formation. Thus, the traditional view that patterns in bacterial numbers along the root directly reflect patterns in exudation and rhizodeposition from several fixed sources along the root may not be true. We attributed the observed wavelike patterns in bacterial populations to bacterial growth and death cycles (due to autolysis or grazing by predators). Considering the root tip as a moving nutrient source, temporal oscillations in bacterial populations at any location where the root tip passed would result in moving waves along the root. This change in concept about bacterial populations in the rhizosphere could have significant implications for plant growth promotion and bioremediation. PMID:9929400

Semenov; van Bruggen AHC; Zelenev

1999-02-01

150

Genetic Dissection of Root Formation in Maize (Zea mays) Reveals Root?type Specific Developmental Programmes  

PubMed Central

• Background Maize (Zea mays) forms a complex root system comprising embryonic and post?embryonic roots. The embryonically formed root system is made up of the primary root and a variable number of seminal roots. Later in development the post?embryonic shoot?borne root system becomes dominant and is responsible together with its lateral roots for the major portion of water and nutrient uptake. Although the anatomical structure of the different root?types is very similar they are initiated from different tissues during embryonic and post?embryonic development. Recently, a number of mutants specifically affected in maize root development have been identified. These mutants indicate that various root?type specific developmental programmes are involved in the establishment of the maize root stock. • Scope This review summarizes these genetic data in the context of the maize root morphology and anatomy and gives an outlook on possible perspectives of the molecular analysis of maize root formation. PMID:14980975

HOCHHOLDINGER, FRANK; WOLL, KATRIN; SAUER, MICHAELA; DEMBINSKY, DIANA

2004-01-01

151

Root status and future developments  

SciTech Connect

In this talk the authors review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present their plans for future developments. The additions and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templates and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, they intend to continue the development of PROOF and its interfacing with GRID environments. They plan on providing an interface between Geant3, Geant4 and Fluka and the new geometry package. The ROOT-GUI classes will finally be available on Windows and they plan to release a GUI inspector and builder. In the last year, ROOT has drawn the endorsement of additional experiments and institutions. It is now officially supported by CERN and used as key I/O component by the LCG project.

Rene Brun et al.

2003-10-01

152

Evidence of differences between the communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing galls and roots of Prunus persica infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens. PMID:21984233

Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

2011-12-01

153

Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: "codominance" of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

2013-01-01

154

Changes in the risk of fine-root mortality with age: a case study in peach, Prunus persica (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that younger roots are more vulnerable to mortality than older roots. We analyzed minirhizotron data using a mixed-age, proportional hazards regression approach to determine whether the risk of mortality (or "hazard") was higher for younger roots than for older roots in a West Virginia peach orchard. While root age apparently had a strong effect on the hazard when considered alone, this effect was largely due to different rates of mortality among roots of different orders, diameters, and depths. Roots with dependent laterals (higher order roots) had a lower hazard than first-order roots in 1996 and 1997. Greater root diameter was also associated with a decreased hazard in both 1996 and 1997. In both years, there was a significant decrease in the hazard with depth. When considered alone, age appeared to be a strong predictor of risk: a 1-d increase in initial root age was associated with a 1.26-2.62% decrease in the hazard. However, when diameter, order, and depth were incorporated into the model, the effect of root age disappeared or was greatly reduced. Baseline hazard function plots revealed that the timing of high-risk periods was generally related to seasonal factors rather than individual root age. PMID:21669714

Wells, Christina E; Glenn, D Michael; Eissenstat, David M

2002-01-01

155

Cache Complexity and Multicore Implementation for Univariate Real Root Isolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present parallel algorithms with optimal cache complexity for the kernel routine of many real root isolation algorithms, namely the Taylor shift by 1. We then report on multicore implementation for isolating the real roots of univariate polynomials with integer coefficients based on a classical algorithm due to Vincent, Collins and Akritas. For processing some well-known benchmark examples with sufficiently large size, our software tool reaches linear speedup on an 8-core machine. In addition, we show that our software is able to fully utilize the many cores and the memory space of a 32-core machine to tackle large problems that are out of reach for a desktop implementation.

Chen, Changbo; Moreno Maza, Marc; Xie, Yuzhen

2012-02-01

156

Substantive due process after Gonzales v. Carhart.  

PubMed

This Article begins in Part I with a doctrinal evaluation of the status of Washington v. Glucksberg ten years after that decision was handed down. Discussion begins with consideration of the Roberts Court's recent decision in Gonzales v. Carhart and then turns to the subject of Justice Kennedy's views in particular on substantive due process. In Part II, the Article goes on to consider whether the Glucksberg test for substantive due process decision making is correct in light of the original meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Article concludes in Parts II and III that Glucksberg is right to confine substantive due process rights recognition to recognition only of those rights that are deeply rooted in history and tradition. PMID:18595213

Calabresi, Steven G

2008-06-01

157

Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.  

PubMed

Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. PMID:23252740

Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2013-03-01

158

Efficient hydraulic properties of root systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem root water uptake (RWU) is paramount for parameterizing hydrological models. With the increase in computational power it is possible to calculate RWU explicitly up to the single plant scale using physical models. However, application of these models for increasing our understanding of ecosystem root water uptake is hindered by the deficit in knowledge about the detailed hydraulic parameter distribution within root systems. However, those physical models may help us to identify efficient parameterizations and to describe the influence of these hydraulic parameters on RWU profiles. In this research, we investigated the combined influence of root hydraulic parameters and different root topologies on shaping efficient root water uptake. First, we use a conceptual model of simple branching structures to understand the influence of branching location and transitions in root hydraulic properties on the RWU patterns in typical sub root structures. Second, we apply a physical model called "aRoot" to test our conclusions on complex root system architectures of single plants. aRoot calculates the distribution of xylem potential within arbitrary root geometries to satisfy a given water demand depending on the available water in the soil. Redistribution of water within the bulk soil is calculated using the Richards equation. We analyzed results using a measure of uptake efficiency, which describes the effort necessary for transpiration. Simulations with the conceptual model showed that total transpiration in sub root structures is independent of root hydraulic properties over a wide range of hydraulic parameters. On the other hand efficiency of root water uptake depends crucially on distribution hydraulic parameters in line with root topology. At the same time, these parameters shape strongly the distribution of RWU along the roots, and its evolution in time, thus leading to variable individual root water uptake profiles. Calculating RWU of three dimensional root architectures unveiled that the same effects can be observed at the single plant scale. Total transpiration is almost independent of root hydraulic properties. On the other hand, the arrangement of hydraulic properties significantly influences RWU efficiency. Furthermore the vertical root water uptake profiles are governed by the different root properties. They result from two combined re-distribution patterns over time: One within a rooting branch similar to the results mentioned above, and a second one between the different rooting branches within the root system. This leads to complex vertical uptake profiles, which cannot be predicted from a combination of root abundance and soil moisture, and depend strongly on the individual morphology.

Bechmann, Marcel; Schneider, Christoph; Carminati, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Anke

2013-04-01

159

When Outgroups Fail; Phylogenomics of Rooting the Emerging Pathogen, Coxiella burnetii  

PubMed Central

Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the LCA can be used as proxy outgroups to root diverse phylogenies. Here, we describe a genome-wide expansion of this technique that can be used to solve problems at the other end of the evolutionary scale: where ingroup individuals are all very closely related to each other, but the next closest relative is very distant. We used shared orthologous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 whole genome sequences of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in humans, to create a robust, but unrooted phylogeny. To maximize the number of characters informative about the rooting, we searched entire genomes for polymorphic duplicated regions where orthologs of each paralog could be identified so that the paralogs could be used to root the tree. Recent radiations, such as those of emerging pathogens, often pose rooting challenges due to a lack of ingroup variation and large genomic differences with known outgroups. Using a phylogenomic approach, we created a robust, rooted phylogeny for C. burnetii. [Coxiella burnetii; paralog SNPs; pathogen evolution; phylogeny; recent radiation; root; rooting using duplicated genes.] PMID:23736103

Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie M.; Sahl, Jason W.; Schaack, Sarah; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Matthew W.; Priestley, Rachael A.; Champion, Mia D.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S.; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Samuel, James E.; Massung, Robert F.; Keim, Paul

2013-01-01

160

TIME FOR COFFEE controls root meristem size by changes in auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Roots play important roles in plant survival and productivity as they not only anchor the plants in the soil but are also the primary organ for the uptake of nutrients from the outside. The growth and development of roots depend on the specification and maintenance of the root meristem. Here, we report a previously unknown role of TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) in controlling root meristem size in Arabidopsis. The results showed that loss of function of TIC reduced root meristem length and cell number by decreasing the competence of meristematic cells to divide. This was due to the repressed expression of PIN genes for decreased acropetal auxin transport in tic-2, leading to low auxin accumulation in the roots responsible for reduced root meristem, which was verified by exogenous application of indole-3-acetic acid. Downregulated expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, key transcription factors in mediating the patterning of the root stem cell niche, was also assayed in tic-2. Similar results were obtained with tic-2 and wild-type plants at either dawn or dusk. We also suggested that the MYC2-mediated jasmonic acid signalling pathway may not be involved in the regulation of TIC in controlling the root meristem. Taken together, these results suggest that TIC functions in an auxin–PLTs loop for maintenance of post-embryonic root meristem. PMID:24277277

Lu, Ying-Tang

2014-01-01

161

When outgroups fail; phylogenomics of rooting the emerging pathogen, Coxiella burnetii.  

PubMed

Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the LCA can be used as proxy outgroups to root diverse phylogenies. Here, we describe a genome-wide expansion of this technique that can be used to solve problems at the other end of the evolutionary scale: where ingroup individuals are all very closely related to each other, but the next closest relative is very distant. We used shared orthologous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 whole genome sequences of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in humans, to create a robust, but unrooted phylogeny. To maximize the number of characters informative about the rooting, we searched entire genomes for polymorphic duplicated regions where orthologs of each paralog could be identified so that the paralogs could be used to root the tree. Recent radiations, such as those of emerging pathogens, often pose rooting challenges due to a lack of ingroup variation and large genomic differences with known outgroups. Using a phylogenomic approach, we created a robust, rooted phylogeny for C. burnetii. [Coxiella burnetii; paralog SNPs; pathogen evolution; phylogeny; recent radiation; root; rooting using duplicated genes.]. PMID:23736103

Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie M; Sahl, Jason W; Schaack, Sarah; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; O'Neill, Matthew W; Priestley, Rachael A; Champion, Mia D; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S; Kersh, Gilbert J; Samuel, James E; Massung, Robert F; Keim, Paul

2013-09-01

162

Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

163

A method to separate plant roots from soil and analyze root surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the effects of soil management practices on crop production requires knowledge of these effects on plant roots.\\u000a Much time is required to wash plant roots from soil and separate the living plant roots from organic debris and previous years’\\u000a roots. We developed a root washer that can accommodate relatively large soil samples for washing. The root washer has

J. G. Benjamin; D. C. Nielsen

2004-01-01

164

STIMULATING ROOT REGENERATION OF LANDSCAPE-SIZE RED OAK WITH AUXIN ROOT SPRAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprays of 3000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), applied to freshly cut roots of 250-300 cm tall red oaks (Quercus rubra L) dug by tree spade, increased the number of roots regenerated from medium (5-1 5 mm) and large (15-25 mm) diameter roots. IBA stimulated more new roots than NAA on large roots only. As root diameter

Glen P. Lumis

165

A weak combined magnetic field changes root gravitropism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. According to the starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell. The polar arrangement of organelles is maintained by means of the cytoskeleton. On the Kholodny-Went's, theory the root bending is provided by the polar movement of auxin from a root cap to the elongation zone. It is also known that gravistimulation initiates a rapid Ca2+ redistribution in a root apex. Calcium ions modify an activity of many cytoskeletal proteins and clustering of calcium channels may be directed by actin microfilaments. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence with regard to the participation of cytoskeletal elements and calcium ions in these processes is therefore substantial but still circumstantial and requires new experimental data. Roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector. It was first shown by us that roots change the direction of a gravitropic reaction under gravistimulation in the weak combined magnetic field with a frequency of 32 Hz. 2-3-day old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in moist chambers, which are placed in ?-metal shields. Inside ? -metal shields, combined magnetic fields have been created. Experiments were performed in darkness at temperature 20±10C. Measurements of the magnitude of magnetic fields were carried out with a flux-gate magnetometer. Cress roots reveal negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the opposite direction to a gravitational vector, during 2 h of gravistimulation and then roots begin to grow more or less parallel to the Earth's surface, i.e. they reveal plagiotropism. Since such combined magnetic field is adjusted to the cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions, these observations demonstrate the participation of calcium ions in root gravitropism. Cyclotron frequency of Ca2+ ions is the formal frequency of ion rotation in the static magnetic field. Simultaneous applying the altering magnetic field with the same frequency can provoke auto-oscillation in the system and consequently change the rate and/or the direction of Ca2+ ion flow in a root under gravistimulation. The data of light, electron, and confocal laser microscopy and kinetics of a gravitropic reaction, which have been obtained on such the new original model, are discussed in the light of current concepts of root gravitropism.

Kordyum, E. L.; Bogatina, N. I.; Kalinina, Ja. M.; Sheykina, N. V.

166

The Global Biogeography of Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in global plant biogeography have almost exclusively analyzed re- lationships of abiotic and biotic factors with the distribution and structure of vegetation aboveground. The goal of this study was to extend such analyses to the belowground structure of vegetation by determining the biotic and abiotic factors that influence vertical root distributions in the soil, including soil, climate, and plant

H. Jochen Schenk; Robert B. Jackson

2002-01-01

167

Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

2011-01-01

168

Squares, Diagonals, and Square Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students measure the sides of many squares and their diagonals, then consider the ratio of diagonal length to side length. They can note that in all cases the ratio hovers near 1.4 or the square root of 2. The very complete lesson plan contains handouts, questions for discussion, and problems for applying the new learning.

Johnston, Christopher

2000-01-01

169

Cutting the Roots of Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

Koziey, Paul W.

1996-01-01

170

Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the computed root tensile strength both vertically and spatially. Root cohesion varies significantly with the type of land use and the depth of soil. The computation showed that a maximum root reinforcement of 40 kPa was available in the first 30 cm of soil while exponentially decreased with depth to just about 3 kPa at 3 m depth. Mixed crops land use unit had the maximum root cohesion while fallow land, degraded forest and young rubber plantation had the lowest root reinforcement. These are the upper limits of root reinforcement that the vegetation can provide. When the soil is saturated, the bond between soil and roots reduces and thus the applicable root reinforcement is limited by the root pullout strength. Root reinforcement estimated from pullout strength vs diameter relationships was significantly lower than those estimated from tensile strength vs diameter relationships.

Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

2010-05-01

171

Interaction of opposed climate forcings due to afforestation over Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural vegetation is a dynamic component of the climate system, which plays a key role in determination of weather and climate. Forests, due to their higher leaf area, larger roughness length, lower albedo and deeper roots compared to other vegetated surfaces affect the exchange of water- energy- and momentum with the atmosphere. Thus climatic feedbacks of forest cover change can

Borbala Galos; Daniela Jacob

2010-01-01

172

Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while the length of the root system stabilized between 30 and 40 days. Root growth was more intense in the first two layers (0 to 0.4 m depth) of soil profile, which presented more than 80% of the total root length after the stabilization.

Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

2013-04-01

173

Modelling Root Systems Using Oriented Density Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root architectural models are essential tools to understand how plants access and utilize soil resources during their development. However, root architectural models use complex geometrical descriptions of the root system and this has limitations to model interactions with the soil. This paper presents the development of continuous models based on the concept of oriented density distribution function. The growth of the root system is built as a hierarchical system of partial differential equations (PDEs) that incorporate single root growth parameters such as elongation rate, gravitropism and branching rate which appear explicitly as coefficients of the PDE. Acquisition and transport of nutrients are then modelled by extending Darcy's law to oriented density distribution functions. This framework was applied to build a model of the growth and water uptake of barley root system. This study shows that simplified and computer effective continuous models of the root system development can be constructed. Such models will allow application of root growth models at field scale.

Dupuy, Lionel X.

2011-09-01

174

Healthy Roots By: Shelly Van Landingham, Forester  

E-print Network

(tree food) produced by the leaves. About 85% of a tree's roots are within the top 18 inches of the soil the trunk two to three times the height of the tree! Figure 1: Area of Root Distribution vs. Crown

175

Name ___KEY_______________ Due Date: __________________  

E-print Network

Name ___KEY_______________ Due Date: __________________ GEOL 106 Writing #1 ­ Intro & Overview 1 with interstellar (between star) dust that came from a supernovae star explosion, briefly explain how we think our solar system formed. Following the Big Bang, some first generation stars became supernovae, spreading

Kirby, Carl S.

176

An L-system model for root system mycorrhization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral phosphate fertilisers are a non-renewable resource; rock phosphate reserves are estimated to be depleted in 50 to 100 years. In order to prevent a severe phosphate crisis in the 21st century, there is a need to decrease agricultural inputs such as P fertilisers by making use of plant mechanisms that increase P acquisition efficiency. Most plants establish mycorrhizal symbiosis as an adaptation to increase/economize their P acquisition from the soil. However, there is a great functional diversity in P acquisition mechanisms among different fungal species that colonize the roots (Thonar et al. 2011), and the composition of mycorrhizal community is known to depend strongly on agricultural management practices. Thus, the agroecosystem management may substantially affect the mycorrhizal functioning and also the use of P fertilizers. To date, it is still difficult to quantify the potential input savings for the agricultural crops through manipulation of their symbiotic microbiome, mainly due to lack of mechanistic understanding of P uptake dynamics by the fungal hyphae. In a first attempt, Schnepf et al. (2008b) have used mathematical modelling to show on the single root scale how different fungal growth pattern influence root P uptake. However, their approach was limited by the fact that it was restricted to the scale of a single root. The goal of this work is to advance the dynamic, three-dimensional root architecture model of Leitner et al. (2010) to include root system infection with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and growth of external mycelium. The root system infection model assumes that there is an average probability of infection (primary infection), that the probability of infection of a new root segment immediately adjacent to an existing infection is much higher than the average (secondary infection), that infected root segments have entry points that are the link between internal and external mycelium, that only uninfected root segments are susceptible (since new infection can only be detected in previously uninfected root) and that there is a maximum percentage of overall root system infection. Growth of external mycelium is based on the model of Schnepf et al. (2008a) but translated into L-system form. Different hypotheses about the effect of inoculum position (dispersed vs. localized) and about root system infection mechanisms can be tested with this model. This will help to quantify the role of the complex geometric structure of external mycelia in plant P acquisition and to gain mechanistic insights into whole-plant processes affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis. Literature Leitner, D., Klepsch, S., Bodner, G., Schnepf, A., 2010a. A dynamic root system growth model based on L-Systems. Plant Soil 332, 177-192. Schnepf, A., Roose, T., Schweiger, P., 2008a. Growth model for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J R Soc Interface 5, 773-784. Schnepf, A., Roose, T., Schweiger, P., 2008b. Impact of growth and uptake patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant phosphorus uptake - a modelling study. Plant Soil 312, 85-99. Thonar C, Schnepf A, Frossard E, Roose T, Jansa J (2011) Traits related to differences in function among three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 339: 231-245. Acknowledgements This research was partly supported by the Austrian Science Fund FWF (Grant No.: V220-N13) and by an APART fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences at the Computational Science Center, University of Vienna (to D.L.).

Schnepf, Andrea; Schweiger, Peter; Jansa, Jan; Leitner, Daniel

2014-05-01

177

Internal hydraulic redistribution prevents the loss of root conductivity during drought.  

PubMed

Shrubs of the Great Basin desert in Utah are subjected to a prolonged summer drought with the potential consequence of reduced water transport capability of the xylem due to drought-induced cavitation. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is the passive movement of water from deep to shallow soil through plant roots. Hydraulic redistribution can increase water availability in shallow soil and ameliorate drought stress, providing better soil and root water status, which could affect shallow root conductivity (Ks) and native root embolism. We tested this hypothesis in an Artemisia tridentata Nutt. mono-specific stand grown in a common garden in Utah. We enhanced HR artificially by applying a once a week deep-irrigation treatment increasing the water potential gradient between deep and shallow soil layers. Plants that were deep-watered had less negative water potentials and greater stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than non-watered control plants. After irrigation with labeled water (?D), xylem water in stems and shallow roots of watered shrubs was enriched with respect to control shrubs, a clear indication of deep water uptake and HR. Shallow root conductivity was threefold greater and shrubs experienced lower native embolism when deep-watered. We found clear evidence of water transfer between deep and shallow roots through internal HR that delayed depletion of shallow soil water content, maintained Ks and prevented root embolism. Overall, our results show a positive effect of HR on root water transport capacity in otherwise dry soil, with important implications for plant water status. PMID:24436338

Prieto, Iván; Ryel, Ronald J

2014-01-01

178

Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: A modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the potential for inter-specific differences in root aeration to determine wetland plant distribution in nature. We compared aeration in species that differ in the type of sediment and depth of water they colonize. Differences in root anatomy, structure and physiology were applied to aeration models that predicted the maximum possible aerobic lengths and development of anoxic zones in primary adventitious roots. Differences in anatomy and metabolism that provided higher axial fluxes of oxygen allowed deeper root growth in species that favour more reducing sediments and deeper water. Modelling identified factors that affected growth in anoxic soils through their effects on aeration. These included lateral root formation, which occurred at the expense of extension of the primary root because of the additional respiratory demand they imposed, reducing oxygen fluxes to the tip and stele, and the development of stelar anoxia. However, changes in sediment oxygen demand had little detectable effect on aeration in the primary roots due to their low wall permeability and high surface impedance, but appeared to reduce internal oxygen availability by accelerating loss from laterals. The development of pressurized convective gas flow in shoots and rhizomes was also found to be important in assisting root aeration, as it maintained higher basal oxygen concentrations at the rhizome-root junctions in species growing into deep water. (C) 2000 Annals of Botany Company.

Sorrell, B.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.; Woods, R.A.

2000-01-01

179

Soil moisture depletion under simulated drought in the Amazon: impacts on deep root uptake.  

PubMed

*Deep root water uptake in tropical Amazonian forests has been a major discovery during the last 15 yr. However, the effects of extended droughts, which may increase with climate change, on deep soil moisture utilization remain uncertain. *The current study utilized a 1999-2005 record of volumetric water content (VWC) under a throughfall exclusion experiment to calibrate a one-dimensional model of the hydrologic system to estimate VWC, and to quantify the rate of root uptake through 11.5 m of soil. *Simulations with root uptake compensation had a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 11% at 0-40 cm and < 5% at 350-1150 cm. The simulated contribution of deep root uptake under the control was c. 20% of water demand from 250 to 550 cm and c. 10% from 550 to 1150 cm. Furthermore, in years 2 (2001) and 3 (2002) of throughfall exclusion, deep root uptake increased as soil moisture was available but then declined to near zero in deep layers in 2003 and 2004. *Deep root uptake was limited despite high VWC (i.e. > 0.30 cm(3) cm(-3)). This limitation may partly be attributable to high residual water contents (theta(r)) in these high-clay (70-90%) soils or due to high soil-to-root resistance. The ability of deep roots and soils to contribute increasing amounts of water with extended drought will be limited. PMID:20659251

Markewitz, Daniel; Devine, Scott; Davidson, Eric A; Brando, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel C

2010-08-01

180

Coarse root distribution of a semi-arid oak savanna estimated with ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North California enjoys wet and mild winters, but experiences extreme hot, dry summer conditions, with occasional drought years. Despite the severity of summer conditions, blue oaks are winter-deciduous. We hypothesized that the binary nature of water availability would be reflected in blue oak root architecture. Our objective was to understand how the form of the root system facilitates ecosystem functioning. To do this, we sought to characterize the structure of the root system, and survey coarse root distribution with ground penetrating radar (GPR), due to its advantages in covering large areas rapidly and non-destructively. Because GPR remains a relatively new technology for examining root distribution, an ancillary objective was to test this methodology, and help facilitate its application more broadly. A third objective was to test the potential for upscaling coarse root biomass by developing allometric relations based on LIDAR measurements of above ground canopy structure. We surveyed six 8x8 m locations with trees varying in size, age and clumping (i.e. isolated trees vs. tree clusters). GPR signals were transformed to root biomass by calibrating them against excavated roots. Toward this goal, we positioned two rectangles of size 60x100 cm in each of the grids, excavated and sieved soil to harvest roots. Our results indicate that coarse roots occupy the full soil profile, and that root biomass of old large trees peaks just above the bedrock. As opposed to other semi-arid regions, where trees often develop extensive shallow coarse lateral roots, in order to exploit the entire wet-soil medium, we found that coarse root density decreased with distance from the bole, and dropped sharply at a distance of 2 m. We upscaled root biomass to stand-scale (2.8±0.4 kg m-2) based on LiDAR analysis of the relative abundance of each tree configuration. We argue that the deep and narrow root structure we observed reflects the ecohydrology of oaks in this ecosystem, because extensive lateral roots would not be beneficial during the growing season (water is sufficiently abundant), nor during the summer season (soil water is highly limited). Our research has shown that the combination of resource availability, which is primarily water in this ecosystem, and plant demand, are portrayed in the form of the root system.

Raz-Yaseef, N.; Koteen, L. E.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2012-12-01

181

Tracking soil structural changes during root growth with sequential X-Ray CT scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop productivity is highly dependent on a good supply of water and nutrients. With increasing demand for food and variable water regimes due to climate change, it is important to get a better understanding on the processes involved in water and nutrient uptake by roots. Changes in soil structure affect water and nutrient availabilities for plants. It is known that roots change their environment during growth but little is known on how soil structural properties change as roots penetrate soils. More detailed information on root growth induced changes in the rhizosphere will help us to model water and nutrient uptake by plants. The objective of this study was to measure directly how soil structure changes in close proximity to the root as a seedling root penetrates through the soil. 3D volumetric images of maize root growth during six hours were obtained using X-ray microtomography at a resolution of 21 ?m. Roots were grown in soils of two different compaction levels (50 kPa and 200 kPa uniaxial load) and matric potentials (10 kPa and 100 kPa). Changes in porosity, pore connectivity and root-soil contact were determined from 2D cross sections for each time step. The 2D cross sections were chosen at 4 different positions in the sample, and each section was divided into sections of 64 voxels (1.3 mm2) to determine changes in porosity and connectivity with distance from the root. Soil movement caused by root growth was quantified from 2D cross sections at different positions along the sample using Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Changes in soil structure during root growth were observed. Porosity in close proximity to the root decreased whereas root-soil contact increased with time. The PIV showed a radial deformation of the soil. Greatest deformation was found close to the root. Some aggregates fractured during root growth whereas others were pushed into the pore space. These data on the changes in soil structure will help us to predict water and nutrient availability for plants. They are also a useful first step in a better understanding of root growth mechanisms and how they overcome physical constraints imposed by soils.

Schmidt, Sonja; Bengough, Glyn; Hallett, Paul

2014-05-01

182

Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to quantify the upper limit of the root cohesion at the stand level in combination with land use maps. This is an indispensable component in the evaluation of slope stability in the region.

Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

2009-04-01

183

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone alters root growth and root processes by first reducing photosynthesis and altering foliar metabolic pathways. The alteration in foliar metabolism is reflected in lowered carbohydrate levels in the roots. This can reduce key metabolic processes such as mineral uptake and sy...

184

Root Cap and the Perception of Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING investigations into the fine structure of apical meristems under the electron microscope, one of us (S. G.) discovered that it was possible, in maize and barley, to detach the intact root cap cleanly from the rest of the root tip. This is shown in Fig. 1. The roots of grasses are characterized by having a discrete cap meristem and,

B. E. Juniper; Suzanne Groves; BRURIA LANDAU-SCHACHAR; L. J. AUDUS

1966-01-01

185

Eight nerve, root nucleus Dolores E. Lpez  

E-print Network

of the CRNs #12;Motoneurons Cochlear Root Neurons PnC Muscles Auditory Startle reflex Cochlear Root Neurons of the CRNs explain its role in the ASR #12;AUDITORY STARTLE REFLEX Sudden and loud sounds (> 90 dB) Rapid. · They can be immunostained and visualized with the protein calbindin Cochlear Root Neurons - Characteristics

Oliver, Douglas L.

186

Root Cause Analysis: Methods and Mindsets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is intended for use in training operations personnel and others involved in scram analysis at nuclear power plants in the techniques of root cause analysis. Four lessons are included. The first lesson provides an overview of the goals and benefits of the root cause analysis method. Root cause analysis techniques are covered…

Kluch, Jacob H.

187

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases  

E-print Network

. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world thanFOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley Diseases caused by root rots figure prominently amongst the most-studied pathologies of forest trees

California at Berkeley, University of

188

The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge. PMID:23755059

Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

2013-01-01

189

Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. seedlings in relation to root anatomy and radial oxygen loss.  

PubMed

The effects of Si on growth, the anatomy of the roots, radial oxygen loss (ROL) and Fe/Mn plaque on the root surface were investigated in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. seedlings under Cd stress. Si prompted the growth of seedlings and reduced the Cd concentration in the root, stem and leaf of A. marina. Si prompted the development of the apoplastic barrier in the roots, which may be related to the reduction of Cd uptake. The higher amount of ROL and Mn plaque on the root surface due to Si were also related to the promotion of Cd tolerance in A. marina seedlings. Therefore, it is concluded that the alteration of the anatomy of the roots, the increase of ROL and Mn plaque of A. marina seedlings play an important role in alleviation of Cd toxicity due to Si. PMID:24095049

Zhang, Qiong; Yan, Chongling; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Wang, Wenyun; Du, Jingna; Duan, Hanhui

2013-11-15

190

Photosensitivity due to thiazides.  

PubMed

Thiazides are widely used diuretics that first became available in the 1950s. The first reports of photosensitivity reactions to thiazides were published shortly after the introduction of these drugs, but few cases have been described since. We review all the cases of photosensitivity due to thiazides published up to December 2011. We found 62 cases, 33 in women and 29 in men. The most common presentation was eczematous lesions in a photodistributed pattern, and the most common causative agent was hydrochlorothiazide. The results of photobiological studies were published in only some of the cases reviewed. In most cases, phototesting revealed an abnormal response to UV-A alone or to both UV-A and UV-B. In some cases, the results of phototesting were normal and only photopatch testing yielded abnormal results. Diagnosis of photosensitivity due to thiazides requires a high degree of suspicion. Ideally, diagnosis should be confirmed by a photobiological study. PMID:23664250

Gómez-Bernal, S; Alvarez-Pérez, A; Rodríguez-Pazos, L; Gutiérrez-González, E; Rodríguez-Granados, M T; Toribio, J

2014-05-01

191

Archimedes' calculations of square roots  

E-print Network

We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

Davies, E B

2011-01-01

192

Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root1 initiation2  

E-print Network

1 Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root1 initiation2 Running title: Co-regulation of root gravitropism and branching by auxin3 transport4 Lucas, M.1,2 , Godin, C.2 and root5 gravitropism, two processes that are regulated by auxin, are co-regulated in6 Arabidopsis. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Development of extracellular electric pattern around Lepidium roots: its possible role in root growth and gravitropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using a vibrating probe technique, four distinct electric patterns around growing cress roots were observed. The growth rate of the root with a particular one of them was apparently faster than that with the others. No direct correlation between the intensity of electric field and the root growth rate could be found. When gravistimulation was applied to the root,

Akira Iwabuchi; Masafumi Yano; Hiroshi Shimizu

1989-01-01

194

Hydraulic lift: water efflux from upper roots improves effectiveness of water uptake by deep roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterated water absorbed by deep roots of Artemisia tridentata appeared in the stem water of neighboring Agropyron desertorum tussocks. This supports the hypothesis that water absorbed by deep roots in moist soil moves through the roots, is released in the upper soil profile at night, and is stored there until it is resorbed by roots the following day. This phenomenon

M. M. Caldwell; J. H. Richards

1989-01-01

195

The pattern of secondary root formation in curving roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gravitational stimulus was used to induce the curvature of the main root of Arabidopsis thaliana. The number of secondary roots increased on the convex side and decreased on the concave side of any curved main root axes in comparison with straight roots used as the control. The same phenomenon was observed with the curved main roots of plants grown on a clinostat and of mutant plants exhibiting random root orientation. The data suggest that the pattern of lateral root formation is associated with curvature but is independent of the environmental stimuli used to induce curvature.

Fortin, M. C.; Pierce, F. J.; Poff, K. L.

1989-01-01

196

Linking root morphology, longevity and function to root branch order: a case study in three shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching order supports a powerful approach to understanding complex root systems; however, how the pattern of root\\u000a morphological characteristics, tissue carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and root lifespan are related to anatomical\\u000a features of variable root orders for mature shrubs (?19 years old) in sandy habitats is still unclear. In this study, these\\u000a relationships were investigated for three typical

Gang Huang; Xue-yong Zhao; Ha-lin Zhao; Ying-xin Huang; Xiao-an Zuo

2010-01-01

197

Shoot regeneration capacity from roots and transgenic hairy roots of tomato cultivars and wild related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organogenetic competence of roots and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots of twelve Lycopersicon genotypes was investigated. Both roots and hairy roots of L. peruvianum, L. chilense, L. hirsutum and two L. peruvianum-derived genotypes regenerated shoots after 2–4 weeks of incubation on zeatin-contained medium. Anatomical analysis showed\\u000a that shoot regeneration in roots could be direct or indirect, depending on the genotype

Lázaro E. P. Peres; Patrícia G. Morgante; Cláudia Vecchi; Jane E. Kraus; Marie-Anne van Sluys

2001-01-01

198

Induction of branch roots by cutting method in t Hyoscyamus niger root culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root tips of Hyoscyamus niger were cultivated on agar or in liquid medium, and patterns of elongation and branching were investigated.\\u000a The elongation of roots compared to branching, particularly tertiary root branching, was more effective in liquid medium than\\u000a on agar medium. The number (0.06 per cm) of tertiary roots which branched out from secondary roots was far less than

Seung Han Woo; Jong Moon Park; Ji-Won Yang

1997-01-01

199

Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedling Roots with the High-Throughput Image Analysis Tool ARIA (Automatic Root Image Analysis)  

PubMed Central

The maize root system is crucial for plant establishment as well as water and nutrient uptake. There is substantial genetic and phenotypic variation for root architecture, which gives opportunity for selection. Root traits, however, have not been used as selection criterion mainly due to the difficulty in measuring them, as well as their quantitative mode of inheritance. Seedling root traits offer an opportunity to study multiple individuals and to enable repeated measurements per year as compared to adult root phenotyping. We developed a new software framework to capture various traits from a single image of seedling roots. This framework is based on the mathematical notion of converting images of roots into an equivalent graph. This allows automated querying of multiple traits simply as graph operations. This framework is furthermore extendable to 3D tomography image data. In order to evaluate this tool, a subset of the 384 inbred lines from the Ames panel, for which extensive genotype by sequencing data are available, was investigated. A genome wide association study was applied to this panel for two traits, Total Root Length and Total Surface Area, captured from seedling root images from WinRhizo Pro 9.0 and the current framework (called ARIA) for comparison using 135,311 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The trait Total Root Length was found to have significant SNPs in similar regions of the genome when analyzed by both programs. This high-throughput trait capture software system allows for large phenotyping experiments and can help to establish relationships between developmental stages between seedling and adult traits in the future. PMID:25251072

Pace, Jordon; Lee, Nigel; Naik, Hsiang Sing; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Lubberstedt, Thomas

2014-01-01

200

Rescue Surgery 19 Years after Composite Root and Hemiarch Replacement  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old male patient with Marfan's syndrome was referred to our clinic due to acute chest pain. His medical history contains complex surgery for type A aortic dissection 19 years ago including composite root replacement using a mechanical aortic valve. Immediate computed tomography indicated perforation at the distal ascending aortic anastomosis plus complete avulsion of both coronary ostia. The patient underwent successful rescue surgery with ascending aortic and arch replacement using a modified Cabrol technique. PMID:23662240

Seeburger, Joerg; Etz, Christian D.; Sauer, Matthias; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W.

2013-01-01

201

Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios. PMID:22408186

Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

202

Hydrogenase in actinorhizal root nodules and root nodule homogenates.  

PubMed

Hydrogenases were measured in intact actinorhizal root nodules and from disrupted nodules of Alnus glutinosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus rubra, and Myrica pensylvanica. Whole nodules took up H2 in an O2-dependent reaction. Endophyte preparations oxidized H2 through the oxyhydrogen reaction, but rates were enhanced when hydrogen uptake was coupled to artificial electron acceptors. Oxygen inhibited artifical acceptor-dependent H2 uptake. The hydrogenase system from M. pensylvanica had a different pattern of coupling to various electron acceptors than the hydrogenase systems from the alders; only the bayberry system evolved H2 from reduced viologen dyes. PMID:6989799

Benson, D R; Arp, D J; Burris, R H

1980-04-01

203

Indirect Methods Produce Higher Estimates of Fine Root Production and Turnover Rates than Direct Methods  

PubMed Central

The production and turnover of fine roots play substantial roles in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the disparity among the estimates of both production and turnover, particularly due to technical limitations, has been debated for several decades. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare published estimates of fine root production and turnover rates derived from different methods at the same sites and at the same sampling time. On average, the estimates of fine root production and turnover rates were 87% and 124% higher, respectively, by indirect methods than by direct methods. The substantially higher fine root production and turnover estimated by indirect methods, on which most global carbon models are based, indicate the necessity of re-assessing the global carbon model predictions for atmospheric carbon sequestration in soils as a result of the production and turnover of fine roots. PMID:23166603

Yuan, Z. Y.; Chen, Han Y. H.

2012-01-01

204

The detrimental effects of salinity on rooting of coleus cuttings and their alleviation with gypsum  

E-print Network

dry weight and length. High concentrations of NaNO&, NaZS04, and NaC1 inhibited root number more than high concentrations of KCl and KNO&. The effect of NaC1 on root dry weight and length were due to ionic toxicities and/or increased osmotic... not affect root number. High concentrat1ons of NaCl, NaNO&, and Na&SO& 1nhibi ted root number 1nd1cati ng that Cl was not the inhibi- tory ion. KCl did not 1nhib1t root number at high concentrations, whereas, NaC1 did. Th1s ind1cates that Na+ was the cause...

Janssen, Antonius Hendrick

2012-06-07

205

Effect of pH and zinc stress on micropore system of rye roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After zinc stress the total micropore volume decreased remarkably while the average micropore radius increased remarkably for the rye roots. Pore size distribution functions of the roots after the additional zinc application showed the decrease of the small micropore fraction from ca 2 to 10 nm and the increase of the large micropore from ca 22 to 50 nm. The root surface pores were fractal. After the stress pore fractal dimension increased. The changes of the microporosity observed in the roots surface can be related to the high content of zinc in the cell wall and/or due to the shortage of Ca+2 the intercellular spaces particularly in the tissues of seminal cortex of the studied roots might have grown.

Szatanik-Kloc, A.

2012-07-01

206

Phytotoxic cyanamide affects maize (Zea mays) root growth and root tip function: from structure to gene expression.  

PubMed

Cyanamide (CA) is a phytotoxic compound produced by four Fabaceae species: hairy vetch, bird vetch, purple vetch and black locust. Its toxicity is due to complex activity that involves the modification of both cellular structures and physiological processes. To date, CA has been investigated mainly in dicot plants. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of CA in the restriction of the root growth of maize (Zea mays), representing the monocot species. CA (3mM) reduced the number of border cells in the root tips of maize seedlings and degraded their protoplasts. However, CA did not induce any significant changes in the organelle structure of other root cells, apart from increased vacuolization. CA toxicity was also demonstrated by its effect on cell cycle activity, endoreduplication intensity, and modifications of cyclins CycA2, CycD2, and histone HisH3 gene expression. In contrast, the arrangement of microtubules was not altered by CA. Treatment of maize seedlings with CA did not completely arrest mitotic activity, although the frequency of dividing cells was reduced. Furthermore, prolonged CA treatment increased the proportion of endopolyploid cells in the root tip. Cytological malformations were accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress in root cells, which manifested as enhanced accumulation of H2O2. Exposure of maize seedlings to CA resulted in an increased concentration of auxin and stimulated ethylene emission. Taken together, these findings suggested that the inhibition of root growth by CA may be a consequence of stress-induced morphogenic responses. PMID:24709147

Soltys, Dorota; Rudzi?ska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Szajko, Katarzyna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

207

Wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work on wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Ethiopia is reviewed. The five important wilt\\/root rot diseases in Ethiopia are wilt, dry root rot, wet root rot, black root rot and collar rot, which are caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, R. solani, F. solani and Sclerotium rolfsii respectively. Of these, dry root

S. P. S. Beniwal; S. Ahmed; D. Gorfu

1992-01-01

208

ROOT GROWTH: HOMOGENIZATION IN DOMAINS WITH TIME DEPENDENT PARTIAL PERFORATIONS  

E-print Network

distributed cylindrical roots. The growth direction of the root is dictated by gravity, therefore fixed a macroscopic model for the root growth, in presence of many roots. We assume that the roots are planted an effective model for the root growth and for the nutrient concentration when tends to zero. The motivation

Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH)

209

miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

The root system is crucial for acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Analyses with promoter-GUS fusions suggested that the mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that over-express the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of six growth-regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79-like target genes, as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and more efficient colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396 over-expressing roots correlated with a reduction in cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants. PMID:23566016

Bazin, Jérémie; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Sorin, Céline; Palatnik, Javier; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

2013-06-01

210

Root cause analysis guidance document  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 5000.3A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,'' requires the investigation and reporting of occurrences (including the performance of root cause analysis) and the selection, implementation, and follow-up of corrective actions. The level of effort expended should be based on the significance attached to the occurrence. Most off-normal occurrences need only a scaled-down effort while most emergency occurrences should be investigated using on or more of the formal analytical models. A discussion of methodologies, instructions, and worksheets in this document guides the analysis of occurrences as specified by DOE Order 5000.3A.

Not Available

1992-02-01

211

The root cap and control of root elongation in Zea mays L. seedlings exposed to white light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-induced inhibition of the elongation of primary roots of Zea mays seedlings is dependent upon the perception of light by the root cap. Separate exposure of detached root caps and roots from which root caps have been removed (i.e. decapped roots) to white light or darkness has shown that the elongation of a dark-exposed root to which a light-exposed root

Henry Wilkins; R. L. Wain

1974-01-01

212

Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.  

PubMed

Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology. PMID:24128849

Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

2013-09-01

213

Nitrate and glutamate sensing by plant roots.  

PubMed

The architecture of a root system plays a major role in determining how efficiently a plant can capture water and nutrients from the soil. Growth occurs at the root tips and the process of exploring the soil volume depends on the behaviour of large numbers of individual root tips at different orders of branching. Each root tip is equipped with a battery of sensory mechanisms that enable it to respond to a range of environmental signals, including nutrients, water potential, light, gravity and touch. We have previously identified a MADS (MCM1, agamous, deficiens and SRF) box gene (ANR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana that is involved in modulating the rate of lateral root growth in response to changes in the external NO(3)(-) supply. Transgenic plants have been generated in which a constitutively expressed ANR1 protein can be post-translationally activated by treatment with dexamethasone (DEX). When roots of these lines are treated with DEX, lateral root growth is markedly stimulated but there is no effect on primary root growth, suggesting that one or more components of the regulatory pathway that operate in conjunction with ANR1 in lateral roots may be absent in the primary root tip. We have recently observed some very specific effects of low concentrations of glutamate on root growth, resulting in significant changes in root architecture. Experimental evidence suggests that this response involves the sensing of extracellular glutamate by root tip cells. We are currently investigating the possible role of plant ionotropic glutamate receptors in this sensory mechanism. PMID:15667327

Filleur, S; Walch-Liu, P; Gan, Y; Forde, B G

2005-02-01

214

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis of aluminum ion stress in barley roots. [Hordeum vulgare  

SciTech Connect

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyze root surface changes when Dayton barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Al tolerant) and Kearney barley (Al sensitive) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution in the presence and absence of 37.0 micromolar Al. The electron spectra from root surfaces contained strong lines in order of decreasing intensity from organic forms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and weak lines due to inorganic elements in the form of anions and cations on the surface. The surface composition of root tips from Kearney was C, 65.6%; 0, 26.8%; N, 4.4% and tips from Dayton was C, 72.7%; O, 23.6%; N, 1.9%, grown in the absence of aluminum. Electron lines characteristic of nitrate, potassium, chloride, phosphate were also present in the spectra from those roots. Dayton roots grown in the presence of 37.0 micromolar aluminum contained 2.1% aluminum while Kearney contained 1.3% aluminum. The ratio of aluminum to phosphate was close to 1.0. Dayton roots usually contained twice as much aluminum phosphate in the surface region as Kearney. Dayton may be less susceptible to Al toxic effects by accumulation of aluminum phosphate on the root surface which then acts as a barrier to the transport of aluminum into the interior of the roots.

Millard, M.M.; Foy, C.D.; Coradetti, C.A.; Reinsel, M.D. (Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1990-06-01

215

Hydrotropism in pea roots in a porous-tube water delivery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orientation of root growth on earth and under microgravity conditions can possibly be controlled by hydrotropism--growth toward a moisture source in the absence of or reduced gravitropism. A porous-tube water delivery system being used for plant growth studies is appropriate for testing this hypothesis since roots can be grown aeroponically in this system. When the roots of the agravitropic mutant pea ageotropum (Pisum sativum L.) were placed vertically in air of 91% relative humidity and 2 to 3 mm from the water-saturated porous tube placed horizontally, the roots responded hydrotropically and grew in a continuous arch along the circular surface of the tube. By contrast, normal gravitropic roots of Alaska' pea initially showed a slight transient curvature toward the tube and then resumed vertical downward growth due to gravitropism. Thus, in microgravity, normal gravitropic roots could respond to a moisture gradient as strongly as the agravitropic roots used in this study. Hydrotropism should be considered a significant factor responsible for orientation of root growth in microgravity.

Takahashi, H.; Brown, C. S.; Dreschel, T. W.; Scott, T. K.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

216

The role of root system architecture and root hairs in promoting anchorage against uprooting forces in Allium cepa and root mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role played by lateral roots and root hairs in promoting plant anchorage, and specifically resist- ance to vertical uprooting forces has been deter- mined experimentally. Two species were studied, Allium cepa (onion) which has a particularly simple root system and two mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, one without root hairs (rhd 2-1) and another with reduced lateral root branching (axr

Peter H. J. Bailey; J. D. Currey; A. H. Fitter

2002-01-01

217

Entomophthoromycosis due to Conidiobolus.  

PubMed

Entomophthoromycosis due to Conidiobolus coronatus is a granulomatous infection characterized by lesions that originate in the inferior turbinate, spread through ostia and foramina to involve the facial and subcutaneous tissues and paranasal sinuses. The majority of the cases have been described from areas of tropical rainforest in West Africa, agricultural and outdoor workers (aged 20-60 years) being the ones most frequently affected. The fungus is common in soil and decaying vegetation. Infection probably occurs by implantation of the spores of the fungus in nasal mucosa. C. incongruus is a rare agent of the disease, so far known only from two cases with lesions involving the pericardium, mediastinum, lungs, liver, oesophagus and jejunum. C. coronatus is known to cause a clinically similar disease in horses, mules, a dolphin and a chimpanzee. A characteristic histological feature is the presence of thin-walled, broad, often septate hyphae or hyphal fragments with a thick eosinophilic sheath, frequently phagocytosed within giant cells. The fungus is known to produce in vitro several enzymes, e.g., elastase, esterase, collagenase and lipase, which have a possible role in pathogenicity. A concentrated brain heart infusion culture filtrate antigen is useful for immunodiagnosis. Several drugs e.g., potassium iodide, cotrimoxazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole and itraconazole have been tried with varying success. Investigations on the immunology of disease and the role of proteases and lipases in the pathogenesis of infection is an important area of further research. PMID:1397203

Gugnani, H C

1992-05-01

218

Linking carbon supply to root cell-wall chemistry and mechanics at high altitudes in Abies georgei  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The mobile carbon supply to different compartments of a tree is affected by climate, but its impact on cell-wall chemistry and mechanics remains unknown. To understand better the variability in root growth and biomechanics in mountain forests subjected to substrate mass movement, we investigated root chemical and mechanical properties of mature Abies georgei var. smithii (Smith fir) growing at different elevations on the Tibet–Qinghai Plateau. Methods Thin and fine roots (0·1–4·0 mm in diameter) were sampled at three different elevations (3480, 3900 and 4330 m, the last corresponding to the treeline). Tensile resistance of roots of different diameter classes was measured along with holocellulose and non-structural carbon (NSC) content. Key Results The mean force necessary to break roots in tension decreased significantly with increasing altitude and was attributed to a decrease in holocellulose content. Holocellulose was significantly lower in roots at the treeline (29·5 ± 1·3 %) compared with those at 3480 m (39·1 ± 1·0 %). Roots also differed significantly in NSC, with 35·6 ± 4·1 mg g?1 dry mass of mean total soluble sugars in roots at 3480 m and 18·8 ± 2·1 mg g?1 dry mass in roots at the treeline. Conclusions Root mechanical resistance, holocellulose and NSC content all decreased with increasing altitude. Holocellulose is made up principally of cellulose, the biosynthesis of which depends largely on NSC supply. Plants synthesize cellulose when conditions are optimal and NSC is not limiting. Thus, cellulose synthesis in the thin and fine roots measured in our study is probably not a priority in mature trees growing at very high altitudes, where climatic factors will be limiting for growth. Root NSC stocks at the treeline may be depleted through over-demand for carbon supply due to increased fine root production or winter root growth. PMID:21186240

Genet, Marie; Li, Mingcai; Luo, Tianxiang; Fourcaud, Thierry; Clement-Vidal, Anne; Stokes, Alexia

2011-01-01

219

Thermotropism by primary roots of maize  

SciTech Connect

Sensing in the roots of higher plants has long been recognized to be restricted mainly to gravitropism and thigmotropism. However, root responses to temperature gradients have not been extensively studied. We have designed experiments under controlled conditions to test if and how root direction of maize can be altered by thermal gradients perpendicular to the gravity vector. Primary roots of maize grown on agar plates exhibit positive thermotropism (curvature toward the warmer temperature) when exposed to gradients of 0.5 to 4.2{degree}C cm{sup {minus}1}. The extent of thermotropism depends on the temperature gradient and the temperature at which the root is placed within the gradient. The curvature cannot be accounted for by differential growth as a direct effect of temperature on each side of the root.

Fortin, M.-C.; Poff, K.L. (MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (USA))

1990-05-01

220

Cell death after dorsal root injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated uridine triphosphate nick end-labelling (TUNEL) immunohistochemistry have been used to assess cell death in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or spinal cord 1, 2 or 14 days after multiple lumbar dorsal root rhizotomy or dorsal root avulsion injury in adult rats. Neither injury induced significant cell death in the DRG compared to sham-operated

Daniel J. Chew; Veronica H. L. Leinster; Mathuri Sakthithasan; Lesley G. Robson; Thomas Carlstedt; Peter J. Shortland

2008-01-01

221

Root-knot Nematodes and Giant Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Of all the economically important plant parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) are amongst the most widespread, the best recognized and most widely studied. This is partly because infected roots\\u000a develop galls where the nematodes feed, which with severe infection give roots a ‘knotted’ appearance. They have a remarkably\\u000a wide host range, and are ubiquitous especially in tropical and sub-tropical

Michael G. K. Jones; Derek B. Goto

222

Root Doctors as Providers of Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Physicians in primary care recognize that as many as 65 percent of the patients seen in their offices are there for psychological reasons. In any southern town with a moderate population of blacks, there are at least two “root doctors.” These root doctors have mastered the power of autosuggestion and are treating these patients with various forms of medication and psychological counseling. This paper updates the practicing physician on root doctors who practice primary care. PMID:6887277

Stitt, Van J.

1983-01-01

223

Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEcologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and

Maya Ofek; Yitzhak Hadar; Dror Minz

2012-01-01

224

Mechanized instrumentation of root canals oscillating systems.  

PubMed

Cleaning and shaping are important steps in the root canal treatment. Despite the technological advances in endodontics, K and Hedstroen files are still widely used. In an attempt to be more effective in preparing the root canals, faster and more cutting efficient kinematic, alloys and design alternatives utilizing mechanically oscillating or rotary files are proposed. Even with all these technological innovating alternatives, the preparation of root canals remains a challenge. PMID:23579914

Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Puente, Carlos Garcia; Jaime, Alejandro; Jent, Carol

2013-01-01

225

Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing Problem  

E-print Network

Given a graph and a root, the Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing (MBRTP) problem aims at finding K rooted-trees that span the largest subset of vertices, when each vertex has a limited outdegree. This problem is motivated by peer-to-peer streaming overlays in under-provisioned systems. We prove that the MBRTP problem is NP-complete. We present two polynomial-time algorithms that computes an optimal solution on complete graphs and trees respectively.

Kerivin, Herve; Simon, Gwendal; Zhou, Fen

2011-01-01

226

Water Transport in Maize Roots 1  

PubMed Central

A root pressure probe has been used to measure the root pressure (Pr) exerted by excised main roots of young maize plants (Zea Mays L.). Defined gradients of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure could be set up between root xylem and medium to induce radial water flows across the root cylinder in both directions. The hydraulic conductivity of the root (Lpr) was evaluated from root pressure relaxations. When permeating solutes were added to the medium, biphasic root pressure relaxations were observed with water and solute phases and root pressure minima (maxima) which allowed the estimation of permeability (PSr) and reflection coefficients (?sr) of roots. Reflection coefficients were: ethanol, 0.27; mannitol, 0.74; sucrose, 0.54; PEG 1000, 0.82; NaCl, 0.64; KNO3, 0.67, and permeability coefficients (in 10?8 meters per second): ethanol, 4.7; sucrose, 1.6; and NaCl, 5.7. Lpr was very different for osmotic and hydrostatic gradients. For hydrostatic gradients Lpr was 1·10?7 meters per second per megapascal, whereas in osmotic experiments the hydraulic conductivity was found to be an order of magnitude lower. For hydrostatic gradients, the exosmotic Lpr was about 15% larger than the endosmotic, whereas in osmotic experiments the polarity in the water movement was reversed. These results either suggest effects of unstirred layers at the osmotic barrier in the root, an asymmetrical barrier, and/or mechanical effects. Measurements of the hydraulic conductivity of individual root cortex cells revealed an Lp similar to Lpr (hydrostatic). It is concluded that, in the presence of external hydrostatic gradients, water moves primarily in the apoplast, whereas in the presence of osmotic gradients this component is much smaller in relation to the cell-to-cell component (symplasmic plus transcellular transport). PMID:16665588

Steudle, Ernst; Oren, Ram; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

1987-01-01

227

Cluster Roots: A Curiosity in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster roots are an adaptation for nutrient acquisition from nutrient-poor soils. They develop on root systems of a range\\u000a of species belonging to a number of different families (e.g., Proteaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae) and are\\u000a also found on root systems of some crop species (e.g., albus, Macadamia integrifoliaandCucurbita pepo). Their morphology is variable but typically, large numbers of determinate

Michael W. Shane; Hans Lambers

2005-01-01

228

Root-to-Root Travel of the Beneficial Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†  

PubMed Central

The root-to-root travel of the beneficial bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on wheat and soybean roots in agar, sand, and light-textured soil was monitored. We used a motile wild-type (Mot+) strain and a motility-deficient (Mot-) strain which was derived from the wild-type strain. The colonization levels of inoculated roots were similar for the two strains. Mot+ cells moved from inoculated roots (either natural or artificial roots in agar, sand, or light-textured soil) to noninoculated roots, where they formed a band-type colonization composed of bacterial aggregates encircling a limited part of the root, regardless of the plant species. The Mot- strain did not move toward noninoculated roots of either plant species and usually stayed at the inoculation site and root tips. The effect of attractants and repellents was the primary factor governing the motility of Mot+ cells in the presence of adequate water. We propose that interroot travel of A. brasilense is an essential preliminary step in the root-bacterium recognition mechanism. Bacterial motility might have a general role in getting Azospirillum cells to the site where firmer attachment favors colonization of the root system. Azospirillum travel toward plants is a nonspecific active process which is not directly dependent on nutrient deficiency but is a consequence of a nonspecific bacterial chemotaxis, influenced by the balance between attractants and possibly repellents leaked by the root. PMID:16349297

Bashan, Yoav; Holguin, Gina

1994-01-01

229

Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

1999-01-01

230

Genotypic recognition and spatial responses by rice roots  

PubMed Central

Root system growth and development is highly plastic and is influenced by the surrounding environment. Roots frequently grow in heterogeneous environments that include interactions from neighboring plants and physical impediments in the rhizosphere. To investigate how planting density and physical objects affect root system growth, we grew rice in a transparent gel system in close proximity with another plant or a physical object. Root systems were imaged and reconstructed in three dimensions. Root–root interaction strength was calculated using quantitative metrics that characterize the extent to which the reconstructed root systems overlap each other. Surprisingly, we found the overlap of root systems of the same genotype was significantly higher than that of root systems of different genotypes. Root systems of the same genotype tended to grow toward each other but those of different genotypes appeared to avoid each other. Shoot separation experiments excluded the possibility of aerial interactions, suggesting root communication. Staggered plantings indicated that interactions likely occur at root tips in close proximity. Recognition of obstacles also occurred through root tips, but through physical contact in a size-dependent manner. These results indicate that root systems use two different forms of communication to recognize objects and alter root architecture: root-root recognition, possibly mediated through root exudates, and root-object recognition mediated by physical contact at the root tips. This finding suggests that root tips act as local sensors that integrate rhizosphere information into global root architectural changes. PMID:23362379

Fang, Suqin; Clark, Randy T.; Zheng, Ying; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Weitz, Joshua S.; Kochian, Leon V.; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Liao, Hong; Benfey, Philip N.

2013-01-01

231

Transcriptional Networks in Root Cell Fate Specification  

PubMed Central

Summary Cell fate in the Arabidopsis root is determined by positional information mediated by plant hormones and interpreted by transcriptional networks. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the regulatory networks that control cell fate within the root meristem, and in the interplay of these networks with phytohormones. Recent work describing the importance of chromatin organization in tissue patterning is also highlighted. A new, high resolution root expression map detailing the transciptome of nearly all cell types in the Arabidopsis root across developmental timepoints will provide a framework for understanding these networks. PMID:18973837

Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Benfey, Philip N.

2009-01-01

232

Take-All Root Rot of Turfgrass  

E-print Network

the growing season, Take-all Root Rot of Turfgrass Joseph P. Krausz* L-5170 4-05 *Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology, The Texas A&M University System. Characteristic infection pads (hypho - podia) of the take-all root rot fungus... the growing season, Take-all Root Rot of Turfgrass Joseph P. Krausz* L-5170 4-05 *Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology, The Texas A&M University System. Characteristic infection pads (hypho - podia) of the take-all root rot fungus...

Krausz, Joseph P.

2005-04-21

233

Simple analytical model of evapotranspiration in the presence of roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation of water out of a soil involves complicated and well-debated mechanisms. When plant roots are added into the soil, water transfer between the soil and the outside environment is even more complicated. Indeed, plants provide an additional process of water transfer. Water is pumped by the roots, channeled to the leaf surface, and released into the surrounding air by a process called transpiration. Prediction of the evapotranspiration of water over time in the presence of roots helps keep track of the amount of water that remains in the soil. Using a controlled visual setup of a two-dimensional model soil consisting of monodisperse glass beads, we perform experiments on actual roots grown under different relative humidity conditions. We record the total water mass loss in the medium and the position of the evaporating front that forms within the medium. We then develop a simple analytical model that predicts the position of the evaporating front as a function of time as well as the total amount of water that is lost from the medium due to the combined effects of evaporation and transpiration. The model is based on fundamental principles of evaporation fluxes and includes empirical assumptions on the quantity of open stomata in the leaves, where water transpiration occurs. Comparison between the model and experimental results shows excellent prediction of the position of the evaporating front as well as the total mass loss from evapotranspiration in the presence of roots. The model also provides a way to predict the lifetime of a plant.

Cejas, Cesare M.; Hough, L. A.; Castaing, Jean-Christophe; Frétigny, Christian; Dreyfus, Rémi

2014-10-01

234

OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

235

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-05-02

236

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

237

First permanent molar root development arrest associated with compound odontoma.  

PubMed

Trauma or infection to the primary tooth may have deleterious effects on the underlying developing tooth buds. Anatomically the root apices of primary teeth are in close proximity to the developing permanent tooth buds; hence spread of infection originating from pulp necrosis of primary tooth may not only affect the underlying tooth bud but may also affect the adjacent tooth buds. The extent of malformation depends on the developmental stage of tooth or the age of patient. Presented here is a rare case of complete arrest of maxillary first permanent molar root growth due to spread of periapical infection originating from second primary molar leading to failure of its eruption and finally extraction. Histopathlogical analysis revealed compound odontoma associated with maxillary first permanent molar. PMID:23832997

Gunda, Sachin A; Patil, Anil; Varekar, Aniruddha

2013-01-01

238

Environmental effects on the maturation of the endodermis and multiseriate exodermis of Iris germanica roots  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Most studies of exodermal structure and function have involved species with a uniseriate exodermis. To extend this work, the development and apoplastic permeability of Iris germanica roots with a multiseriate exodermis (MEX) were investigated. The effects of different growth conditions on MEX maturation were also tested. In addition, the exodermises of eight Iris species were observed to determine if their mature anatomy correlated with habitat. Methods Plants were grown in soil, hydroponics (with and without a humid air gap) or aeroponics. Roots were sectioned and stained with various dyes to detect MEX development from the root apical meristem, Casparian bands, suberin lamellae and tertiary wall thickenings. Apoplastic permeability was tested using dye (berberine) and ionic (ferric) tracers. Key Results The root apical meristem was open and MEX development non-uniform. In soil-grown roots, the exodermis started maturing (i.e. Casparian bands and suberin lamellae were deposited) 10 mm from the tip, and two layers had matured by 70 mm. In both hydro- and aeroponically grown roots, exodermal maturation was delayed. However, in areas of roots exposed to an air gap in the hydroponic system, MEX maturation was accelerated. In contrast, maturation of the endodermis was not influenced by the growth conditions. The mature MEX had an atypical Casparian band that was continuous around the root circumference. The MEX prevented the influx and efflux of berberine, but had variable resistance to ferric ions due to their toxic effects. Iris species living in well-drained soils developed a MEX, but species in water-saturated substrates had a uniseriate exodermis and aerenchyma. Conclusions MEX maturation was influenced by the roots' growth medium. The MEX matures very close to the root tip in soil, but much further from the tip in hydro- and aeroponic culture. The air gap accelerated maturation of the second exodermal layer. In Iris, the type of exodermis was correlated with natural habitat suggesting that a MEX may be advantageous for drought tolerance. PMID:19151041

Meyer, Chris J.; Seago, James L.; Peterson, Carol A.

2009-01-01

239

Variations of fine root diameter with root order in Manchurian ash and Dahurian larch plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root lifespan and turnover play an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Fine\\u000a roots are typically defined as less than 1 or 2 mm in diameter. However, when categorizing roots by this diameter size, the\\u000a position of an individual root on the complex lateral branching pattern has often been ignored, and our knowledge about

Xiangrong Wang; Zhengquan Wang; Youzhi Han; Jiacun Gu; Dali Guo; Li Mei

2007-01-01

240

Chemical root pruning and its effects on water relations and root morphology of photinia  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL ROOT PRUNING AND ITS EFFECTS ON WATER RELATIONS AND ROOT MORPHOLOGY OF PHOT1IVIA A Thesis by DIPTISH RAMESH VARTAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering CHEMICAL ROOT PRUNING AND ITS EFFECTS ON WATER RELATIONS AND ROOT MORPHOLOGY OF PHOTJIVIA A Thesis by DIPTISH RAMESH VARTAK Submitted to Texas A&M University...

Vartak, Diptish Ramesh

2012-06-07

241

Root functioning in tropical high-elevation forests: Environmental vs. biological control of root water absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowered temperatures may reduce the root water uptake of tropical trees at high elevations through several mechanisms; however, field studies to test their relevance are lacking. We measured sap flux density (J) in small-diameter tree roots across a 2000-m elevation transect in a tropical mountain forest for quantifying the effects of temperature (Ta), VPD and soil moisture (?) on root

Sophie Graefe; Christoph Leuschner; Heinz Coners; Dietrich Hertel

2011-01-01

242

EFFECTS OF HEDGING ON MATURATION IN LOBLOLLY PINE: ROOTING CAPACITY AND ROOT FORMATION  

E-print Network

and clonal forestry systems are reviewed. Three quantitative rooting experiments were conductedi EFFECTS OF HEDGING ON MATURATION IN LOBLOLLY PINE: ROOTING CAPACITY AND ROOT FORMATION By Andreas State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry Syracuse, New York January

Hamann, Andreas

243

The Root and Root Canal Morphology of the Human Mandibular First Premolar: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive literature review of the root and root canal morphology of the mandibular first premolar. Published studies citing the anatomy and morphology of mandibular premolars report data for over 6,700 teeth. These studies were divided into anatomical studies reporting number of roots, number of canals, and apical morphology. Variations because of

Blaine M. Cleghorn; William H. Christie; Cecilia C. S. Dong

2007-01-01

244

Enhanced Phenanthrene Biodegradation in Soil by Slender Oat Root Exudates and Root Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

mineralization enhancement of 23% compared with ace- tate-fed controls (Burken and Schnoor, 1996). Parathion To investigate the mechanisms by which slender oat (Avena barbata mineralization was also stimulated in soils amended with Pott ex Link) enhances phenanthrene biodegradation, we analyzed the impacts of root exudates and root debris on phenanthrene biodeg- root exudates, but greater stimulation resulted from the radation

Ryan K. Miya; Mary K. Firestone

2001-01-01

245

Root water uptake model based on water potential gradient with water redistribution via roots: application to coniferous forest site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple macroscopic vertically distributed plant root water uptake (RWU) model based on traditional water-potential-gradient formulation (Vogel et al., 2013), in which the uptake rates are directly proportional to the potential gradient and indirectly proportional to the local soil and root resistances to water flow, was tested. This RWU modeling approach was implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation and used to simulate soil water distribution changes during a vegetation season at a forest site located in a temperate humid climate of central Europe. The main objectives were to test the ability of the presented RWU model to simulate the observed soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, and to examine the differences between empirical and more physically-based RWU modeling approaches (accommodated in the same soil water flow model). The tested RWU model was capable of simulating both the compensatory root water uptake, in situations when reduced uptake from dry layers was compensated for by increased uptake from wetter layers, and the root-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil water, contributing to more natural soil moisture distribution throughout the root zone. Comparison of the model results with the sap flow observed reveals some limitations related to the quasi-steady-state assumption for the plant xylem and zero transpiration rates prescribed during nights and precipitation. This stated, the model seems to simulate adequately both the regular nightly hydraulic redistribution, due to reduced night transpiration, and the episodic daytime hydraulic redistribution during wet canopy events. The model results were compared to simulations produced using the semi-empirical RWU model of Feddes. Based on both an improved agreement between the observed and simulated soil water pressure responses to daily variations of transpiration, and a more realistic seasonal distribution of the transpiration rate reduction, we concluded that the physically based root water uptake model with negative RWU rates enabled substantially better approximation of the soil water extraction by spruce trees under moderate water scarcity. Vogel T., M. Dohnal, J. Dusek, J. Votrubova, and M. Tesar. 2013. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake in a forest stand involving root-mediated soil-water redistribution. Vadose Zone Journal, accepted.

Votrubova, Jana; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir; Tesar, Miroslav

2013-04-01

246

Gravitropism and Autotropism in Cress Roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall purpose of this experiment was to study how cress roots respond to a withdrawal of a gravity stimulus i.e. when and how much the roots straighten (autotropism) after curving (gravitropism). This question was studied both in extensive ground-based research and in microgravity on BioRack.

Sack, Fred D.

1998-01-01

247

ADVANCING FINE ROOT RESEARCH WITH MINIRHIZOTRONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, it is clear from the literature that there is still wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhi...

248

Compounds from the roots of Jasminum sambac.  

PubMed

Four new compounds (+)-jasminoids A, B, C, and D, together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the roots of Jasminum sambac. Their structures were identified using spectroscopic methods. This study provides a better understanding to the chemical composition of J. sambac roots that have been thought to be one ingredient of an ancient prescription 'Ma-Fei-San'. PMID:23134371

Zeng, Lin-Hong; Hu, Min; Yan, Yong-Ming; Lu, Qing; Cheng, Yong-Xian

2012-01-01

249

ACETOGENIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are adapted to being rooted in reduced, anoxic sediments with high rates of sulfate reduction. During the day, an oxygen gradient is generated around the roots, becoming anoxic at night. Thus, obligate anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere have to tolerate elevated oxy...

250

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether

T. C. Hales; C. R. Ford; T. Hwang; J. M. Vose; L. E. Band

2009-01-01

251

Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes unit root tests for dynamic heterogeneous panels based on the mean of individual unit root statistics. In particular it proposes a standardized t-bar test statistic based on the (augmented) Dickey–Fuller statistics averaged across the groups. Under a general setting this statistic is shown to converge in probability to a standard normal variate sequentially with T (the time

Kyung So Im; M. Hashem Pesaran; Yongcheol Shin

2003-01-01

252

Root Kits - An Operating Systems Viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root Kits are tool boxes containing a collection of highly skilled tools for attacking computer systems. Their algorithms and databases contain professional knowledge about methods and mecha- nisms for completely automated attacks both over a network as well as from within a system. Root kits attack by maneuvering a system into executing a script with supervisor privileges. Once having g~ned

Winfried E. Kfihnhauser

253

Root Kits: an operating systems viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root Kits are tool boxes containing a collection of highly skilled tools for attacking computer systems. Their algorithms and databases contain professional knowledge about methods and mechanisms for completely automated attacks both over a network as well as from within a system. Root kits attack by maneuvering a system into executing a script with supervisor privileges. Once having gained full

Winfried E. Kfihnhauser

2004-01-01

254

Square Root SAM Simultaneous Localization and Mapping  

E-print Network

Square Root SAM Simultaneous Localization and Mapping via Square Root Information Smoothing Frank Solving the SLAM problem is one way to enable a robot to explore, map, and navigate in a previously of these methods as an alternative to EKF-based approaches. 1 Introduction The problem of simultaneous localization

Leonard, John J.

255

Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

1984-01-01

256

Plant root research: the past, the present and the future  

PubMed Central

This special issue is dedicated to root biologists past and present who have been exploring all aspects of root structure and function with an extensive publication record going over 100 years. The content of the Special Issue on Root Biology covers a wide scale of contributions, spanning interactions of roots with microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the anatomy of root cells and tissues, the subcellular components of root cells, and aspects of metal accumulation and stresses on root function and structure. We have organized the papers into three topic categories: (1) root ecology, interactions with microbes, root architecture and the rhizosphere; (2) experimental root biology, root structure and physiology; and (3) applications of new technology to study root biology. Finally, we will speculate on root research for the future. PMID:22966495

Lux, Alexander; Rost, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

257

Branching out in roots: uncovering form, function, and regulation.  

PubMed

Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

Atkinson, Jonathan A; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J

2014-10-01

258

Gene for a protein capable of enhancing lateral root formation.  

PubMed

Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in hairy roots caused by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes has provided insights into the regulation of lateral root formation. A hairy root preferential cDNA, HR7, has been cloned from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus niger. HR7 encodes a novel protein partially homologous to a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and is expressed exclusively in the primordium and base of lateral roots in hairy roots. Overexpression of HR7 in transgenic roots of H. niger dramatically enhances the frequency of lateral root formation. The results of this study indicate that expression of HR7 plays a critical role in initiating lateral root formation. PMID:10356981

Mikami, Y; Horiike, G; Kuroyanagi, M; Noguchi, H; Shimizu, M; Niwa, Y; Kobayashi, H

1999-05-14

259

GiA Roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture  

PubMed Central

Background Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. Results We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically for the high-throughput analysis of root system images. GiA Roots includes user-assisted algorithms to distinguish root from background and a fully automated pipeline that extracts dozens of root system phenotypes. Quantitative information on each phenotype, along with intermediate steps for full reproducibility, is returned to the end-user for downstream analysis. GiA Roots has a GUI front end and a command-line interface for interweaving the software into large-scale workflows. GiA Roots can also be extended to estimate novel phenotypes specified by the end-user. Conclusions We demonstrate the use of GiA Roots on a set of 2393 images of rice roots representing 12 genotypes from the species Oryza sativa. We validate trait measurements against prior analyses of this image set that demonstrated that RSA traits are likely heritable and associated with genotypic differences. Moreover, we demonstrate that GiA Roots is extensible and an end-user can add functionality so that GiA Roots can estimate novel RSA traits. In summary, we show that the software can function as an efficient tool as part of a workflow to move from large numbers of root images to downstream analysis. PMID:22834569

2012-01-01

260

Both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora rosea and Frankia increase root system branching and reduce root hair frequency in Alnus glutinosa.  

PubMed

Alnus glutinosa is an important pioneer species that forms effective symbioses with Frankia and ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). There is evidence that Frankia and AMF interact and the focus of this study was to investigate how interactions affected root system and root hair development. A. glutinosa seedlings were grown in pots in soil pre-inoculated with the AMF Gigaspora rosea. Seedlings were inoculated with Frankia either immediately on transfer to AMF-inoculated pots (day 0) on day 15 or on day 30 following AMF inoculation so the effect of timing of inoculation on interactions could be determined. Seedlings were harvested in batches at intervals of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after the commencement of each treatment. Both G. rosea and Frankia increased root branching and effects were greater when both were present. By contrast, both G. rosea and Frankia decreased root hair numbers markedly. Effects on root hair development were not a consequence of phosphorous, as P levels were not changed significantly in seedlings colonised by G. rosea or nodulated by Frankia. Effects are not due to differences in root system size but conceivably could offset some of the carbon costs incurred by the symbioses. PMID:19690898

Orfanoudakis, Michail; Wheeler, Christopher T; Hooker, John E

2010-02-01

261

Long-term control of root growth  

DOEpatents

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

1992-05-26

262

Effect of lead on root growth  

PubMed Central

Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

2013-01-01

263

How roots perceive and respond to gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graviperception by plant roots is believed to occur via the sedimentation of amyloplasts in columella cells of the root cap. This physical stimulus results in an accumulation of calcium on the lower side of the cap, which in turn induces gravicurvature. In this paper we present a model for root gravitropism integrating gravity-induced changes in electrical potential, cytochemical localization of calcium in cells of gravistimulated roots, and the interdependence of calcium and auxin movement. Key features of the model are that 1) gravity-induced redistribution of calcium is an early event in the transduction mechanism, and 2) apoplastic movement of calcium through the root-cap mucilage may be an important component of the pathway for calcium movement.

Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.

1986-01-01

264

Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics  

PubMed Central

The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots (LRs) are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation. Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how LRs and thereby root system architecture is established and developed. PMID:24421783

Cuesta, Candela; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Benkova, Eva

2013-01-01

265

Long-term control of root growth  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

1992-05-26

266

The origin and early evolution of roots.  

PubMed

Geological sites of exceptional fossil preservation are becoming a focus of research on root evolution because they retain edaphic and ecological context, and the remains of plant soft tissues are preserved in some. New information is emerging on the origins of rooting systems, their interactions with fungi, and their nature and diversity in the earliest forest ecosystems. Remarkably well-preserved fossils prove that mycorrhizal symbionts were diverse in simple rhizoid-based systems. Roots evolved in a piecemeal fashion and independently in several major clades through the Devonian Period (416 to 360 million years ago), rapidly extending functionality and complexity. Evidence from extinct arborescent clades indicates that polar auxin transport was recruited independently in several to regulate wood and root development. The broader impact of root evolution on the geochemical carbon cycle is a developing area and one in which the interests of the plant physiologist intersect with those of the geochemist. PMID:25187527

Kenrick, Paul; Strullu-Derrien, Christine

2014-10-01

267

Root gravitropism: a complex response to a simple stimulus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots avoid depleting their immediate environment of essential nutrients by continuous growth. Root growth is directed by environmental cues, including gravity. Gravity sensing occurs mainly in the columella cells of the root cap. Upon reorientation within the gravity field, the root-cap amyloplasts sediment, generating a physiological signal that promotes the development of a curvature at the root elongation zones. Recent

Elizabeth Rosen; Rujin Chen; Patrick H Masson

1999-01-01

268

Mechanical properties of tree roots for soil reinforcement models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from forestry has shown that part of the forest floor bearing capacity is delivered by tree roots. The beneficial effect however varies and diminishes with increasing number of vehicle passes. Roots potential for reinforcing the soil is known to depend among others on root mechanical properties, distribution, morphology, etc. Rooting intensity and root patterns of forest trees are complicated,

P. Cofie

2001-01-01

269

Bud Initiation in Excised Roots of Linaria vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

VEGETATIVE reproduction in Linaria vulgaris is effected by the formation of root-buds at the junction of the parent and some of the lateral roots. Up to four buds may be formed in the superficial layers of the lateral root within the cortex of the parent root1 (Fig. 1), though parent and lateral root tissues are often not separately recognizable in

W. A. Charlton

1965-01-01

270

Reconcilable differences: a joint calibration of fine-root turnover times with radiocarbon and minirhizotrons.  

PubMed

We used bomb-radiocarbon and raw minirhizotron lifetimes of fine roots (< 0.5 mm in diameter) in the organic layer of Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southern Sweden to test if different models are able to reconcile the apparently contradicting turnover time estimates from both techniques. We present a framework based on survival functions that is able to jointly model bomb-radiocarbon and minirhizotron data. At the same time we integrate prior knowledge about biases of both techniques - the classification of dead roots in minirhizotrons and the use of carbon reserves to grow new roots. Two-pool models, either in parallel or in serial setting, were able to reconcile the bomb-radiocarbon and minirhizotron data. These models yielded a mean residence time of 3.80 ± 0.16 yr (mean ± SD). On average 60 ± 2% of fine roots turned over within 0.75 ± 0.10 yr, while the rest was turning over within 8.4 ± 0.2 yr. Bomb-radiocarbon and minirhizotron data alone give a biased estimate of fine-root turnover. The two-pool models allow a mechanistic interpretation for the coexistence of fast- and slow-cycling roots - suberization and branching for the serial-two-pool model and branching due to ectomycorrhizal fungi-root interactions for the parallel-two-pool model. PMID:25196967

Ahrens, Bernhard; Hansson, Karna; Solly, Emily F; Schrumpf, Marion

2014-12-01

271

Image-Based High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Crop Roots1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Current plant phenotyping technologies to characterize agriculturally relevant traits have been primarily developed for use in laboratory and/or greenhouse conditions. In the case of root architectural traits, this limits phenotyping efforts, largely, to young plants grown in specialized containers and growth media. Hence, novel approaches are required to characterize mature root systems of older plants grown under actual soil conditions in the field. Imaging methods able to address the challenges associated with characterizing mature root systems are rare due, in part, to the greater complexity of mature root systems, including the larger size, overlap, and diversity of root components. Our imaging solution combines a field-imaging protocol and algorithmic approach to analyze mature root systems grown in the field. Via two case studies, we demonstrate how image analysis can be utilized to estimate localized root traits that reliably capture heritable architectural diversity as well as environmentally induced architectural variation of both monocot and dicot plants. In the first study, we show that our algorithms and traits (including 13 novel traits inaccessible to manual estimation) can differentiate nine maize (Zea mays) genotypes 8 weeks after planting. The second study focuses on a diversity panel of 188 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to identify which traits are sufficient to differentiate genotypes even when comparing plants whose harvesting date differs up to 14 d. Overall, we find that automatically derived traits can increase both the speed and reproducibility of the trait estimation pipeline under field conditions. PMID:25187526

Bucksch, Alexander; Burridge, James; York, Larry M.; Das, Abhiram; Nord, Eric; Weitz, Joshua S.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

272

In situ speciation and distribution of toxic selenium in hydrated roots of cowpea.  

PubMed

The speciation and spatial distribution of selenium (Se) in hydrated plant tissues is not well understood. Using synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (two-dimensional scanning [and associated mathematical model] and computed tomography), the speciation and distribution of toxic Se were examined within hydrated roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) exposed to either 20 µM selenite or selenate. Based upon bulk solution concentrations, selenate was 9-fold more toxic to the roots than selenite, most likely due to increased accumulation of organoselenium (e.g. selenomethionine) in selenate-treated roots. Specifically, uptake of selenate (probably by sulfate transporters) occurred at a much higher rate than for selenite (apparently by both passive diffusion and phosphate transporters), with bulk root tissue Se concentrations approximately 18-fold higher in the selenate treatment. Although the proportion of Se converted to organic forms was higher for selenite (100%) than for selenate (26%), the absolute concentration of organoselenium was actually approximately 5-fold higher for selenate-treated roots. In addition, the longitudinal and radial distribution of Se in roots differed markedly: the highest tissue concentrations were in the endodermis and cortex approximately 4 mm or more behind the apex when exposed to selenate but in the meristem (approximately 1 mm from the apex) when exposed to selenite. The examination of the distribution and speciation of Se in hydrated roots provides valuable data in understanding Se uptake, transport, and toxicity. PMID:23835408

Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David J; Howard, Daryl L; Glover, Chris J; James, Simon; Kappen, Peter; Johannessen, Bernt; Kopittke, Peter M

2013-09-01

273

Image-based high-throughput field phenotyping of crop roots.  

PubMed

Current plant phenotyping technologies to characterize agriculturally relevant traits have been primarily developed for use in laboratory and/or greenhouse conditions. In the case of root architectural traits, this limits phenotyping efforts, largely, to young plants grown in specialized containers and growth media. Hence, novel approaches are required to characterize mature root systems of older plants grown under actual soil conditions in the field. Imaging methods able to address the challenges associated with characterizing mature root systems are rare due, in part, to the greater complexity of mature root systems, including the larger size, overlap, and diversity of root components. Our imaging solution combines a field-imaging protocol and algorithmic approach to analyze mature root systems grown in the field. Via two case studies, we demonstrate how image analysis can be utilized to estimate localized root traits that reliably capture heritable architectural diversity as well as environmentally induced architectural variation of both monocot and dicot plants. In the first study, we show that our algorithms and traits (including 13 novel traits inaccessible to manual estimation) can differentiate nine maize (Zea mays) genotypes 8 weeks after planting. The second study focuses on a diversity panel of 188 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to identify which traits are sufficient to differentiate genotypes even when comparing plants whose harvesting date differs up to 14 d. Overall, we find that automatically derived traits can increase both the speed and reproducibility of the trait estimation pipeline under field conditions. PMID:25187526

Bucksch, Alexander; Burridge, James; York, Larry M; Das, Abhiram; Nord, Eric; Weitz, Joshua S; Lynch, Jonathan P

2014-10-01

274

Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

Belyavskaya, N.

275

Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, p<0.0001). This decline in offset with increasing temperature may reflect greater year-round coupling between air and soil temperature in warm biomes. Growth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

2013-12-01

276

An in situ approach to detect tree root ecology: linking ground-penetrating radar imaging to isotope-derived water acquisition zones  

PubMed Central

Tree root distribution and activity are determinants of belowground competition. However, studying root response to environmental and management conditions remains logistically challenging. Methodologically, nondestructive in situ tree root ecology analysis has lagged. In this study, we tested a nondestructive approach to determine tree coarse root architecture and function of a perennial tree crop, Theobroma cacao L., at two edaphically contrasting sites (sandstone and phyllite–granite derived soils) in Ghana, West Africa. We detected coarse root vertical distribution using ground-penetrating radar and root activity via soil water acquisition using isotopic matching of ?18O plant and soil signatures. Coarse roots were detected to a depth of 50 cm, however, intraspecifc coarse root vertical distribution was modified by edaphic conditions. Soil ?18O isotopic signature declined with depth, providing conditions for plant–soil ?18O isotopic matching. This pattern held only under sandstone conditions where water acquisition zones were identifiably narrow in the 10–20 cm depth but broader under phyllite–granite conditions, presumably due to resource patchiness. Detected coarse root count by depth and measured fine root density were strongly correlated as were detected coarse root count and identified water acquisition zones, thus validating root detection capability of ground-penetrating radar, but exclusively on sandstone soils. This approach was able to characterize trends between intraspecific root architecture and edaphic-dependent resource availability, however, limited by site conditions. This study successfully demonstrates a new approach for in situ root studies that moves beyond invasive point sampling to nondestructive detection of root architecture and function. We discuss the transfer of such an approach to answer root ecology questions in various tree-based landscapes. PMID:23762519

Isaac, Marney E; Anglaaere, Luke C N

2013-01-01

277

iRootHair: A Comprehensive Root Hair Genomics Database1[W  

PubMed Central

The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

2013-01-01

278

Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics.  

PubMed

The C-shaped root canal constitutes an unusual root morphology that can be found primarily in mandibular second permanent molars. Due to the complexity of their structure, C-shaped root canal systems may complicate endodontic interventions. A thorough understanding of root canal morphology is therefore imperative for proper diagnosis and successful treatment. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding C-shaped roots and root canals, from basic morphology to advanced endodontic procedures. To this end, a systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PLoS and BioMed Central databases, and many rarely cited articles were included. Furthermore, four interactive 3D models of extracted teeth are introduced that will allow for a better understanding of the complex C-shaped root canal morphology. In addition, the present publication includes an embedded best-practice video showing an exemplary root canal procedure on a tooth with a pronounced C-shaped root canal. The survey of this unusual structure concludes with a number of suggestions concerning future research efforts. PMID:24483229

Kato, A; Ziegler, A; Higuchi, N; Nakata, K; Nakamura, H; Ohno, N

2014-11-01

279

Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange.  

PubMed

To test direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability, perspex pots separated by 37-?m nylon mesh in the middle were used to form root-free hyphae and root/hyphae chambers, where trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were colonized by Funneliformis mosseae or Paraglomus occultum in the root/hyphae chamber. Both fungal species induced significantly higher plant growth, root total length, easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) and total GRSP (T-GRSP), and mean weight diameter (an aggregate stability indicator). The Pearson correlation showed that root colonization or soil hyphal length significantly positively correlated with EE-GRSP, difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), T-GRSP, and water-stable aggregates in 2.00-4.00, 0.50-1.00, and 0.25-0.50 mm size fractions. The path analysis indicated that in the root/hyphae chamber, aggregate stability derived from a direct effect of root colonization, EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP. Meanwhile, the direct effect was stronger by EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP than by mycorrhizal colonization. In the root-free hyphae chamber, mycorrhizal-mediated aggregate stability was due to total effect but not direct effect of soil hyphal length, EE-GRSP and T-GRSP. Our results suggest that GRSP among these tested factors may be the primary contributor to aggregate stability in the citrus rhizosphere. PMID:25059396

Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Cao, Ming-Qin; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-hua

2014-01-01

280

Root growth inhibition by NH4 in Arabidopsis is mediated  

E-print Network

produce lat- erals along the length of the primary root (Deak & Malamy 2005); hence, the developing root a rudimentary embryonic root, and most growth and differentiation is post-embryonic (Deak & Malamy 2005). During

Kronzucker, Herbert J.

281

76 FR 51430 - Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Revocation of Registration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drug Enforcement Administration Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Revocation of Registration...issued an Order to Show Cause to Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Registrant), of American...Registration BR9610571, issued to Roots Pharmaceuticals, Inc., be, and it hereby...

2011-08-18

282

Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche. PMID:22808103

Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

2012-01-01

283

Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

Meniscal root tears, less common than meniscal body tears and frequently unrecognized, are a subset of meniscal injuries that often result in significant knee joint disorders. The meniscus root attachment aids meniscal function by securing the meniscus in place and allowing for optimal shock-absorbing function in the knee. With root tears, meniscal extrusion often occurs, and the transmission of circumferential hoop stresses is impaired. This alters knee biomechanics and kinematics and significantly increases tibiofemoral contact pressure. In recent years, meniscal root tears, which by definition include direct avulsions off the tibial plateau or radial tears adjacent to the root itself, have attracted attention because of concerns that significant meniscal extrusion dramatically inhibits normal meniscal function, leading to a condition biomechanically similar to a total meniscectomy. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and treatment; fortunately, these processes have been vastly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. PMID:24623276

Bhatia, Sanjeev; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; LaPrade, Robert F

2014-12-01

284

Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.  

PubMed

Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ?2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots. PMID:24831831

Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

2014-08-01

285

Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

2011-10-01

286

Photosynthesis of Root Chloroplasts Developed in Arabidopsis Lines Overexpressing GOLDEN2-LIKE Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

In plants, genes involved in photosynthesis are encoded separately in nuclei and plastids, and tight cooperation between these two genomes is therefore required for the development of functional chloroplasts. Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are involved in chloroplast development, directly targeting photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes for up-regulation. Although overexpression of GLKs leads to chloroplast development in non-photosynthetic organs, the mechanisms of coordination between the nuclear gene expression influenced by GLKs and the photosynthetic processes inside chloroplasts are largely unknown. To elucidate the impact of GLK-induced expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes on the construction of photosynthetic systems, chloroplast morphology and photosynthetic characteristics in greenish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing GLKs were compared with those in wild-type roots and leaves. Overexpression of GLKs caused up-regulation of not only their direct targets but also non-target nuclear and plastid genes, leading to global induction of chloroplast biogenesis in the root. Large antennae relative to reaction centers were observed in wild-type roots and were further enhanced by GLK overexpression due to the increased expression of target genes associated with peripheral light-harvesting antennae. Photochemical efficiency was lower in the root chloroplasts than in leaf chloroplasts, suggesting that the imbalance in the photosynthetic machinery decreases the efficiency of light utilization in root chloroplasts. Despite the low photochemical efficiency, root photosynthesis contributed to carbon assimilation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, GLK overexpression increased CO2 fixation and promoted phototrophic performance of the root, showing the potential of root photosynthesis to improve effective carbon utilization in plants. PMID:23749810

Kobayashi, Koichi; Sasaki, Daichi; Noguchi, Ko; Fujinuma, Daiki; Komatsu, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Masami; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sugimoto, Keiko; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Wada, Hajime; Masuda, Tatsuru

2013-01-01

287

Transcriptional profile of maize roots under acid soil growth  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the most important yield-limiting factors of many crops worldwide. The primary symptom of Al toxicity syndrome is the inhibition of root growth leading to poor water and nutrient absorption. Al tolerance has been extensively studied using hydroponic experiments. However, unlike soil conditions, this method does not address all of the components that are necessary for proper root growth and development. In the present study, we grew two maize genotypes with contrasting tolerance to Al in soil containing toxic levels of Al and then compared their transcriptomic responses. Results When grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al, the Al-sensitive genotype (S1587-17) showed greater root growth inhibition, more Al accumulation and more callose deposition in root tips than did the tolerant genotype (Cat100-6). Transcriptome profiling showed a higher number of genes differentially expressed in S1587-17 grown in acid soil, probably due to secondary effects of Al toxicity. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of organic acids, which are frequently associated with an Al tolerance response, were not differentially regulated in both genotypes after acid soil exposure. However, genes related to the biosynthesis of auxin, ethylene and lignin were up-regulated in the Al-sensitive genotype, indicating that these pathways might be associated with root growth inhibition. By comparing the two maize lines, we were able to discover genes up-regulated only in the Al-tolerant line that also presented higher absolute levels than those observed in the Al-sensitive line. These genes encoded a lipase hydrolase, a retinol dehydrogenase, a glycine-rich protein, a member of the WRKY transcriptional family and two unknown proteins. Conclusions This work provides the first characterization of the physiological and transcriptional responses of maize roots when grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al. The transcriptome profiles highlighted several pathways that are related to Al toxicity and tolerance during growth in acid soil. We found several genes that were not found in previous studies using hydroponic experiments, increasing our understanding of plant responses to acid soil. The use of two germplasms with markedly different Al tolerances allowed the identification of genes that are a valuable tool for assessing the mechanisms of Al tolerance in maize in acid soil. PMID:20828383

2010-01-01

288

Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.  

PubMed

Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity of the auxins. Additionally to the environmental control of adventitious root formation, we also investigated the spatial and temporal aspects of stem-based adventitious root organogenesis. To determine the cells involved in de novo root initiation on the adult stems, we adopted scanning electron microscopy, which allows the visualization of the auxin responsive stem tissue. Using this technique, direct (without callus interface) and indirect (with intermediate callus phase) organogenesis was readily distinguished. The described micro-stem segment system is also suitable for other non-woody species and it is a valuable tool to perform fast evaluations of different treatments to study adventitious root induction. PMID:23299674

Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

2013-01-01

289

BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

290

Due: Sep 1 Due: Sep 1 Due: Sep 30 Due: Sep 30 Normal Unit Tuition Student Student  

E-print Network

May 1, 2013-Apr 30, 2014 Per term 17,235.00$ 34,470.00$ 100.00$ 1,044.39$ 648.00$ 36,262.39$ PriorDue: Sep 1 Due: Sep 1 Due: Sep 30 Due: Sep 30 Normal Unit Tuition Student Student Units Fee 2014-15 Assistance Levy Activity Fees UHIP (Note 1) (Note 3) (Note 4) (Note 7) After May 1, 2014 30 1,067.66$ 32

Abolmaesumi, Purang

291

Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.  

PubMed

The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root. PMID:24927545

Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

2014-06-24

292

Alkylguanidine inhibition of ion absorption in oat roots.  

PubMed

The effect of various alkylguanidines on ion absorption and energy metabolism in oat (Avena sativa cv. Goodfield) roots has been investigated. Of several alkylguanidines tested, octylguanidine was the most effective inhibitor of both K(+) and Cl(-) absorption by excised roots. At 225 mum octylguanidine, the transport of both ions was inhibited within 60 seconds and to a similar extent. Octylguanidine inhibited mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (ATPase). The plasma membrane ATPase was also inhibited if the membranes were diluted and pretreated with Triton X-100.Concentrations of octylguanidine giving half-maximal inhibition of K(+) influx, mitochondrial ATPase, oxidative phosphorylation, and plasma membrane ATPase were 50, 50, 100, and 275 mum, respectively. With increasing chain length, alkylguanidines (225 mum) became progressively more inhibitory to K(+) absorption and to the mitochondrial ATPase. Shorter chain guanidines slightly inhibited the plasma membrane ATPase, however, these compounds produced a slight stimulation in oxidative phosphorylation.Conditions of Triton treatment that were important in the elimination of permeability barriers of plasma membrane vesicles to ATP, Mg(2+), KCl, and octylguanidine were: concentration of Triton during pretreatment and in the assay media, concentrations of sucrose and plasma membrane during Triton treatment, and temperature of Triton treatment.Inhibition by octylguanidine of K(+) and Cl(-) absorption by excised oat roots may be due to an inhibition of either the plasma membrane ATPase or mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The isolated plasma membrane did not appear to be permeable to octylguanidine since the plasma membrane ATPase was inhibited only after treating the membrane with Triton. This result indicates that the primary site of action of octylguanidine in excised root is more likely to be the plasma membrane ATPase than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:16660414

Gomez-Lepe, B; Hodges, T K

1978-06-01

293

Alkylguanidine Inhibition of Ion Absorption in Oat Roots 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of various alkylguanidines on ion absorption and energy metabolism in oat (Avena sativa cv. Goodfield) roots has been investigated. Of several alkylguanidines tested, octylguanidine was the most effective inhibitor of both K+ and Cl? absorption by excised roots. At 225 ?m octylguanidine, the transport of both ions was inhibited within 60 seconds and to a similar extent. Octylguanidine inhibited mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial adenosine 5?-triphosphatase (ATPase). The plasma membrane ATPase was also inhibited if the membranes were diluted and pretreated with Triton X-100. Concentrations of octylguanidine giving half-maximal inhibition of K+ influx, mitochondrial ATPase, oxidative phosphorylation, and plasma membrane ATPase were 50, 50, 100, and 275 ?m, respectively. With increasing chain length, alkylguanidines (225 ?m) became progressively more inhibitory to K+ absorption and to the mitochondrial ATPase. Shorter chain guanidines slightly inhibited the plasma membrane ATPase, however, these compounds produced a slight stimulation in oxidative phosphorylation. Conditions of Triton treatment that were important in the elimination of permeability barriers of plasma membrane vesicles to ATP, Mg2+, KCl, and octylguanidine were: concentration of Triton during pretreatment and in the assay media, concentrations of sucrose and plasma membrane during Triton treatment, and temperature of Triton treatment. Inhibition by octylguanidine of K+ and Cl? absorption by excised oat roots may be due to an inhibition of either the plasma membrane ATPase or mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The isolated plasma membrane did not appear to be permeable to octylguanidine since the plasma membrane ATPase was inhibited only after treating the membrane with Triton. This result indicates that the primary site of action of octylguanidine in excised root is more likely to be the plasma membrane ATPase than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:16660414

Gomez-Lepe, Beatriz; Hodges, Thomas K.

1978-01-01

294

Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors  

SciTech Connect

In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

1984-11-01

295

Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

1983-01-01

296

Auxin metabolism in the root apical meristem.  

PubMed

Within the root meristem of flowering plants is a group of mitotically inactive cells designated the quiescent center (QC). Recent work links the quiescent state to high levels of the growth regulator auxin that accumulates in the QC via polar transport. This in turn results in elevated levels of the enzyme ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), resulting in a reduction of ascorbic acid (AA) within the QC and mitotic quiescence. We present evidence for additional interactions between auxin, AAO, and AA, and report that, in vitro, AAO oxidatively decarboxylates auxin, suggesting a mechanism for regulating auxin levels within the QC. We also report that oxidative decarboxylation occurs at the root tip and that an intact root cap must be present for this metabolic event to occur. Finally, we consider how interaction between auxin and AAO may influence root development by regulating the formation of the QC. PMID:10712557

Kerk, N M; Jiang, K; Feldman, L J

2000-03-01

297

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

298

Roots of the identity operator and optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fresnel diffraction and lens transformations can be combined to implement optical transformations corresponding to operators that are roots of the identity operator I . Since their nature remains invariant under unitary transformations, new roots can be obtained by Fresnel diffraction. A correspondence is established with ray matrices in periodic lens systems with unit magnification. Consecutive powers of particular roots of I form groups from which the projectors can be obtained by means of optical discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's), conveniently performed by networks of beam splitters and mirrors. One can then obtain additional roots of I from the projectors by reassigning eigenvalues among them, which is done by introducing suitable phase shifts, and reusing the DFT network backward.

Marhic, M. E.

1995-07-01

299

Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

Evans, Michael L.

1993-01-01

300

[Measurement of mesiodistal root angulation for panoramic images and the effect of buccolingual root angulation].  

PubMed

Panoramic images were taken from an anatomically correct phantom with three different buccolingual angulations for each tooth (Original, 10 degrees buccal root torque, and 10 degrees lingual root torque). The true mesiodistal angulation of each tooth was determined with a three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine. Each tooth had at least one angle measurement that was statistically different from the other mesiodistal angles with different buccolingual orientations. Roots with buccal root orientations were projected more distally than they were in reality; and the roots lingually positioned were projected more mesially. The canine and premolars in both arches were most affected and the phenomenon was more pronounced in the maxilla than the mandible. Buccolingual orientation changes did not affect the root angulation expression on the incisor area. PMID:20303900

Garcia-Figueroa, Mariano A; Raboud, Donald W; Lam, Ernest W; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W

2009-03-01

301

Euphorbia escula L. Root and Root Bud Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels at Three Phenologic Stages.  

PubMed

Endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels of Euphorbia esula L. primary root and root buds were examined at three phenologic stages. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using (13)C(6)[benzene ring]-indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, were used to measure root bud free and bound IAA levels in vegetative, full flower, and post-flower plants. Highest levels of free IAA (103 nanograms per gram fresh weight) were found in root buds during full flower. Esterified and amide IAA increased significantly in root buds of full flower and post-flower plants, but were not detectable in root buds of vegetative plants. Primary rootfree IAA was highest in vegetative and full flower plants (34.5 nanograms per gram fresh weight) and decreased by 50% in post-flower plants. PMID:16665432

Nissen, S J; Foley, M E

1987-06-01

302

Biochemical Composition Suggests Different Roles of Leaf Litter and Fine Roots in Soil Carbon Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter is a major source of soil organic carbon (C). This litter is not homogenous, but instead primarily composed of fine root and leaf litter that adapted to different physiological functions. These unique functions suggest that root and leaf litter likely have different biochemical traits, and thus different decomposition patterns. However, few studies have compared their substrate quality and contributions to soil C. Also, much less attention has been given to fine roots although they can represent a substantial litter production. Here we hypothesize that 1) leaf litter and fine roots have different substrate quality as they are highly different in biochemical composition; 2) the biochemical composition of leaf litter and fine roots responds differently to the simulated nitrogen (N) deposition. To test these hypotheses, we collected leaf litter and fine roots of Acer saccharum (the dominant species in the northern temperate ecosystems we studied) in both ambient and N addition treatment plots at four sites of Michigan N deposition gradient study. We quantified ten biochemical components thought to be important on decomposition. Strikingly, we found a consistently three-fold higher lignin concentration in fine roots than that in leaf litter (P< 0.01). On average, lignin concentration of fine roots was 45.4±0.3% while that of leaf litter was 13.5±0.2%. Lignin has been considered highly recalcitrant and hypothesized as the major precursor of humus substance. Condensed tannin (CT) concentration in fine roots (13.13±0.51%) was also substantially higher than that in leaf litter (P< 0.01, 4.63±0.42 %). Tissue CT can inhibit litter decay by both precipitating proteins and by having antimicrobial properties. In contrast, fine roots exhibited lower concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), soluble phenolics, and holocellulose (hemicelluloses & cellulose) than leaf litter (P< 0.01). These components are considered more easily accessible, and may stimulate the decay of lignin by providing required energy. Therefore, fine roots of Acer saccharum have a relatively recalcitrant nature based on their distinct biochemical composition, suggesting fine roots may be the major driver of soil carbon formation in the ecosystems we studied. Litter type and N addition had significant interactions on lignin, holocellulose, and NSC (P< 0.05), indicating these traits of different litter types respond differently to N addition. In leaf litter, the concentrations of lignin, NSC, and bound CT were affected by N addition (P< 0.05). By contrast, N addition only reduced the soluble protein concentration in fine roots (P< 0.05). Hence, substrate quality of leaf litter and fine roots responds differently to the simulated N deposition, and may eventually lead to different responses in decomposition pattern. This is one of few studies comparing the detailed biochemical profile of leaf litter and fine roots in a dominant tree species. Different biochemical traits of fine roots and leaf litter may reflect the different specializations for their physiological functions. This work highlights the importance of fine root in the soil carbon formation due to its recalcitrant nature, and emphasizes the necessity of differentiating the responses of leaf litter and fine root decompositions to environmental changes when modeling biogeochemical cycles.

Xia, M.; Pregitzer, K. S.; Talhelm, A. F.

2012-12-01

303

Capillary-Effect Root-Environment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capillary-effect root-environment system (CERES) is experimental apparatus for growing plants in nutrient solutions. Solution circulated at slight tension in cavity filled with plastic screen and covered by porous plastic membrane. By adsorptive attraction, root draws solution through membrane. Conceived for use in microgravity of space, also finds terrestrial application in germinating seedlings, because it protects them from extremes of temperature, moisture, and soil pH and from overexposure to fertilizers and herbicides.

Wright, Bruce D.

1991-01-01

304

Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the Nymphaeales are strongly structurally associated with the monocots, especially the Acorales. PMID:23299993

Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

2013-01-01

305

Aortic root dilation after the Ross procedure.  

PubMed

This study evaluated changes in neoaortic root geometry in patients who underwent the Ross procedure. Serial postoperative echocardiographic measurements of the neoaortic root indexed to the square root of body surface area (centimeters divided by meters) were obtained from 30 patients (age range 3.1 to 31.4 years) and compared with paired preoperative and immediate postoperative values. Normal aortic root diameter Z scores were derived from root dimensions obtained from 217 healthy controls. Compared with preoperative values, an immediate stretch of the neoaortic versus pulmonary root (annulus and sinuses of valsalva) was observed at a mean follow-up period of 1 week. Additional aortic annular dilation from baseline prehospital discharge values was observed at 2 to 12 months (baseline vs follow-up annulus Z score: 1.4 vs 2.6, p <0.01, n = 16) and at 16 to 33 months follow-up (0.8 vs 2.0, p <0.05, n = 12). In a similar fashion, there was additional enlargement of the aortic sinus from its stretched state at hospital discharge at 2 to 12 months (baseline vs follow-up sinus Z score: 2.0 vs 3.3, p <0.01, n = 17) and at 16 to 33 months (1.7 vs 3.0, p <0.01, n = 13). There were no differences in root size between 2 to 12 and 16 to 33 months after surgery. There was a decrease in left ventricular size with no alteration in blood pressure or degree of aortic valve regurgitation. Thus, aortic root dilation occurs up to the first year after the Ross procedure but does not appear to progress beyond this time. PMID:10190409

Tantengco, M V; Humes, R A; Clapp, S K; Lobdell, K W; Walters, H L; Hakimi, M; Epstein, M L

1999-03-15

306

The Cytoskeleton and Root Growth Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The roots of many plant species develop complex growth behaviors when germinated on hard surfaces, and scientists have learned\\u000a to use this experimental set-up to study the structure and dynamics of cytoskeletal arrays. Our knowledge of the elements\\u000a that lead to anisotropic cell expansion in rapidly elongating cells has increased by finding mutants with altered root growth\\u000a behavior as well

Laura M. Vaughn; Katherine L. Baldwin; Gengxiang Jia; Julian C. Verdonk; Allison K. Strohm; Patrick H. Masson

307

Effects and mechanisms of the combined pollution of lanthanum and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings.  

PubMed

Rare earth pollution and acid rain pollution are both important environmental issues worldwide. In regions which simultaneously occur, the combined pollution of rare earth and acid rain becomes a new environmental issue, and the relevant research is rarely reported. Accordingly, we investigated the combined effects and mechanisms of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings. The combined pollution of low-concentration La(3+) and acid rain exerted deleterious effects on the phenotype and growth of roots, which were aggravated by the combined pollution of high-concentration La(3+) and acid rain. The deleterious effects of the combined pollution were stronger than those of single La(3+) or acid rain pollution. These stronger deleterious effects on the root phenotype and growth of roots were due to the increased disturbance of absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients in roots. PMID:23726884

Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

2013-09-01

308

Root size and shoot\\/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment of a plant shoot can affect its root size and the shoot\\/root biomass ratio. Photoperiodic influence on shoot\\/root ratios of first?year biennial sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) plants was related to phytochrome measurement of day length and its regulation of photosynthate partitioning to favor successful completion of the life cycle. Short photoperiods alternated with long, uninterrupted nights resulted

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt

1992-01-01

309

Sequential rooting media and rooting capacity of Sequoiadendron giganteum in vitro. Peroxidase activity as a marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rooting capacities of tips of seedling, juvenile and mature shoots of Sequoiadendron giganteum were compared on different rooting media (inductive and expressive media) after passage on an elongating medium. None of the cuttings rooted when continuously kept on medium containing the auxin NAA and vitamin D2. Peroxidase activity of all those cuttings on NAA+D2 first increased during the 7–9

J. Y. Berthon; N. Boyer; Th. Gaspar

1987-01-01

310

Attractiveness of CO 2 released by root respiration fades on the background of root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are endangered at their roots by soil-dwelling rhizophagous insects. These below-ground living herbivores may orient to the source of carbon dioxide (CO2), an ubiquitous volatile released by respiring plant roots. Here, we studied the interaction of CO2 and other plant root-derived chemical stimuli with regard to the chemical orientation of the polyphagous larvae of Melolontha melolontha L. (Scarabaeidae). A

Andreas Reinecke; Frank Müller; Monika Hilker

2008-01-01

311

Modeling vegetation rooting strategies on a hillslope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manner in which water and energy is partitioned and redistributed along a hillslope is the result of complex coupled ecohydrological interactions between the climatic, soils, topography and vegetation operating over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Distributed process based modeling creates a framework through which the interaction of vegetation with the subtle differences in the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture that arise under localized abiotic conditions along a hillslope can be simulated and examined. One deficiency in the current dynamic vegetation models is the one sided manner in which vegetation responds to soil moisture dynamics. Above ground, vegetation is given the freedom to dynamically evolve through alterations in fractional vegetation cover and/or canopy height and density; however below ground rooting profiles are simplistically represented and often held constant in time and space. The need to better represent the belowground role of vegetation through dynamic rooting strategies is fundamental in capturing the magnitude and timing of water and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and land surface. In order to allow vegetation to adapt to gradients in soil moisture a dynamic rooting scheme was incorporated into tRIBS+VEGGIE (a physically based distributed ecohydrological model). The dynamic rooting scheme allows vegetation the freedom to adapt their rooting depth and distribution in response abiotic conditions in a way that more closely mimics observed plant behavior. The incorporation of this belowground plasticity results in vegetation employing a suite of rooting strategies based on soil texture, climatic conditions and location on the hillslope.

Sivandran, G.; Bras, R. L.

2011-12-01

312

Roots of Dehn twists about separating curves  

E-print Network

Let $C$ be a curve in a closed orientable surface $F$ of genus $g \\geq 2$ that separates $F$ into subsurfaces $\\widetilde {F_i}$ of genera $g_i$, for $i = 1,2$. We study the set of roots in $\\Mod(F)$ of the Dehn twist $t_C$ about $C$. All roots arise from pairs of $C_{n_i}$-actions on the $\\widetilde{F_i}$, where $n=\\lcm(n_1,n_2)$ is the degree of the root, that satisfy a certain compatibility condition. The $C_{n_i}$ actions are of a kind that we call nestled actions, and we classify them using tuples that we call data sets. The compatibility condition can be expressed by a simple formula, allowing a classification of all roots of $t_C$ by compatible pairs of data sets. We use these data set pairs to classify all roots for $g = 2$ and $g = 3$. We show that there is always a root of degree at least $2g^2+2g$, while $n \\leq 4g^2+2g$. We also give some additional applications.

Rajeevsarathy, Kashyap

2011-01-01

313

Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome  

PubMed Central

Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities. PMID:22859206

Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

2014-01-01

314

Competing neighbors: light perception and root function.  

PubMed

Plant responses to competition have often been described as passive consequences of reduced resource availability. However, plants have mechanisms to forage for favorable conditions and anticipate competition scenarios. Despite the progresses made in understanding the role of light signaling in modulating plant-plant interactions, little is known about how plants use and integrate information gathered by their photoreceptors aboveground to regulate performance belowground. Given that the phytochrome family of photoreceptors plays a key role in the acquisition of information about the proximity of neighbors and canopy cover, it is tempting to speculate that changes in the red:far-red (R:FR) ratio perceived by aboveground plant parts have important implications shaping plant behavior belowground. Exploring data from published experiments, we assess the neglected role of light signaling in the control of root function. The available evidence indicates that plant exposure to low R:FR ratios affects root growth and morphology, root exudate profiles, and interactions with beneficial soil microorganisms. Although dependent on species identity, signals perceived aboveground are likely to affect root-to-root interactions. Root systems could also be guided to deploy new growth predominantly in open areas by light signals perceived by the shoots. Studying interactions between above- and belowground plant-plant signaling is expected to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of plant competition. PMID:24894371

Gundel, Pedro E; Pierik, Ronald; Mommer, Liesje; Ballaré, Carlos L

2014-09-01

315

Vertical root fractures and their management  

PubMed Central

Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

2014-01-01

316

Astroculture™ Root Metabolism and Cytochemical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture™ plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure

Porterfield, D. M.; Barta, D. J.; Ming, D. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Musgrave, M. E.

317

Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato–crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5–2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

Zuo, Yuanmei

2014-01-01

318

Natural H+ Currents Traverse Growing Roots and Root Hairs of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1  

PubMed Central

With the aid of an extracellular vibrating electrode, natural electric fields were detected and measured in the medium near growing roots and root hairs of barley seedlings. An exploration of these fields indicates that both the root as a whole, as well as individual root hairs, drive large steady currents through themselves. Current consistently enters both the main elongation zone of the root as well as the growing tips of elongating root hairs; it leaves the surface of the root beneath the root hairs. These currents enter with a density of about 2 microamperes per square centimeter, leave with a density of about 0.5 to 1 microampere per square centimeter, and total about 30 nanoamperes. Responses of the natural fields to changes in the ionic composition of the medium as well as observations of the pH pattern in the medium near the roots (made with bromocresol purple) together indicate that much of the current consists of hydrogen ions. Altogether, H+ ions seem to leak into growing cells or cell parts and to be pumped out of nongrowing ones. Images PMID:16661000

Weisenseel, Manfred H.; Dorn, Alfred; Jaffe, Lionel F.

1979-01-01

319

Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity.  

PubMed

The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked. PMID:25271266

Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

2014-11-01

320

RootNav: Navigating Images of Complex Root Architectures1[C][W  

PubMed Central

We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist’s satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav’s core representation. PMID:23766367

Pound, Michael P.; French, Andrew P.; Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Pridmore, Tony

2013-01-01

321

Inhibitory Action of Auxin on Root Elongation Not Mediated by Ethylene  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) on elongation growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling roots were investigated in relation to the effects of these compounds on ethylene production by the root tips. When added to the growth solution both compounds caused a progressively increasing inhibition of growth within the concentration range of 0.01 to 1 micromolar. However, only ACC increased ethylene production in root tips excised from the treated seedlings after 24 hours. High auxin concentrations caused a transitory increase of ethylene production during a few hours in the beginning of the treatment period, but even in 1 micromolar IAA this increase was too low to have any appreciable effect on growth. ACC, but not IAA, caused growth curvatures, typical of ethylene treatment, in the root tips. IAA caused conspicuous swelling of the root tips while ACC did not. Cobalt and silver ions reversed the growth inhibitory effects induced by ACC but did not counteract the inhibition of elongation or swelling caused by IAA. The growth effects caused by the ACC treatments were obviously due to ethylene production. We found no evidence to indicate that the growth inhibition or swelling caused by IAA is mediated by ethylene. It is concluded that the inhibitory action of IAA on root growth is caused by this auxin per se. PMID:16667017

Eliasson, Lennart; Bertell, Gertrud; Bolander, Eva

1989-01-01

322

Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

2003-05-01

323

Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

2003-01-01

324

[FTIR spectroscopic characterization of chromium-induced changes in root cell wall of plants].  

PubMed

Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Chromium mainly accumulates in root in plants, and the change in compounds of the root cell wall have a close relation with the Cr accumulation. Compared with the other identification methods, the identification of the Chinese traditional and herbal drugs using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with OMNI collector is simple and convenient, fast and accurate. In the present paper, the spectra of cell wall of Cr-treated root and control of Eichhornia crassipes and Alternanthera philoxeroides were determined. Absorption peaks were identified to the corresponding functional groups and half-quantitative analysis was also used. The results showed that a significant shift of -OH absorption peaks can be seen when comparing the FTIR spectra of control and Cr-treated plants, and the absorbency of -OH and COO- groups went up in E. crassipes root cell wall while droped in A. philoxeroides root cell wall. It is suggested that -OH and COO groups were referred in binding Cr6+ in aqueous solutions, and this may be included in the mechanism of Cr accumulation in E. crassipes roots. Therefore, FTIR spectrometry could be widely used to monitor changes in chemical composition of plant parts under stresses and environmental restoration. PMID:18720803

Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Peng; Li, Dan-Ting; Xu, Gen-Di; Jiang, Min-Jiao

2008-05-01

325

Simplifying the decision matrix for estimating fine root production by the sequential soil coring approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequential soil coring is a commonly used approach to measure seasonal root biomass and necromass, from which root production can be estimated by maximum-minimum, sum of changes, compartment-flow model, and/or decision matrix methods. Among these methods, decision matrix is the most frequently used. However, the decision matrix, often underestimating fine root production, is frequently misused in research due to inadequate documentation of its underlying logic. In this paper, we reviewed the decision matrix method and provided mathematical logic for the development of the matrix, by which not only root production but also mortality and decomposition rates can be calculated. To ease its use for large datasets, we developed simplified equations to facilitate computation of root production, mortality and decomposition to be used in MS Excel or R. We also presented results from calculations by an example using empirical data from boreal forests to show proper calculations of root production, mortality and decomposition. The simplified decision matrix presented here shall promote its application in ecology, especially for large datasets.

Yuan, Z. Y.; Chen, Han Y. H.

2013-04-01

326

On the use of antibiotics to reduce rhizoplane microbial populations in root physiology and ecology investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No straightforward method exists for separating the proportion of ion exchange and respiration due to rhizoplane microbial organisms from that of root ion exchange and respiration. We examined several antibiotics that might be used for the temporary elimination of rhizoplane bacteria from hydroponically grown wheat roots (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10). Each antibiotic was tested for herbicidal activity and plate counts were used to enumerate bacteria and evaluate antibiotic kinetics. Only lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) did not reduce wheat growth rates. Aminoglycosides, the pyrimidine trimethoprim, colistin and rifampicin reduced growth rates substantially. Antibiotics acted slowly, with maximum reductions in rhizoplane bacteria occurring after more than 48 h of exposure. Combinations of nonphytotoxic antibiotics reduced platable rhizoplane bacteria by as much as 98%; however, this was generally a reduction from about 10(9) to 10(6) colony forming units per gram of dry root mass, so that many viable bacteria remained on root surfaces. We present evidence which suggests that insufficient bacterial biomass exists on root surfaces of nonstressed plants grown under well-aerated conditions to quantitatively interfere with root nitrogen absorption measurements.

Smart, D. R.; Ferro, A.; Ritchie, K.; Bugbee, B. G.

1995-01-01

327

Tomato root transcriptome response to a nitrogen-enriched soil patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N), the primary limiting factor for plant growth and yield in agriculture, has a patchy distribution in soils due to fertilizer application or decomposing organic matter. Studies in solution culture over-simplify the complex soil environment where microbial competition and spatial and temporal heterogeneity challenge roots' ability to acquire adequate amounts of nutrients required for plant growth. In this

Daniel R Ruzicka; Felipe H Barrios-Masias; Natasha T Hausmann; Louise E Jackson; Daniel P Schachtman

2010-01-01

328

Roots regulate ion transport in the rhizosphere to counteract reduced mobility in dry soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion of ions in the soil depends on soil moisture content. In a dry soil, transport of nutrients towards the root and the concomitant uptake could be reduced. However, pot and field experiments showed that this is not always the case. The objective of this paper was to investigate possible mechanisms of plants to counteract reduced nutrient supply due to

Horst Liebersbach; Bernd Steingrobe; Norbert Claassen

2004-01-01

329

Do Interest Rates Follow Unit-Root Processes? Evidence from Cross-Maturity Treasury Bill Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely reported in the literature that interest rates follow integrated processes. Many empirical studies have, in fact, taken this result as a maintained hypothesis. This article demonstrates that the failure to reject the hypothesis that interest rates contain a unit root may be due to the severe power problem of standard test procedures in small samples. We analyze

YANGRU Wu; HUA Zhang

1997-01-01

330

Deciduous and evergreen trees differ in juvenile biomass allometries because of differences in allocation to root storage  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Biomass partitioning for resource conservation might affect plant allometry, accounting for a substantial amount of unexplained variation in existing plant allometry models. One means of resource conservation is through direct allocation to storage in particular organs. In this study, storage allocation and biomass allometry of deciduous and evergreen tree species from seasonal environments were considered. It was expected that deciduous species would have greater allocation to storage in roots to support leaf regrowth in subsequent growing seasons, and consequently have lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning, than evergreen species. It was further expected that changes to root carbohydrate storage and biomass allometry under different soil nutrient supply conditions would be greater for deciduous species than for evergreen species. Methods Root carbohydrate storage and organ biomass allometries were compared for juveniles of 20 savanna tree species of different leaf habit (nine evergreen, 11 deciduous) grown in two nutrient treatments for periods of 5 and 20 weeks (total dry mass of individual plants ranged from 0·003 to 258·724 g). Key Results Deciduous species had greater root non-structural carbohydrate than evergreen species, and lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning than evergreen species. Across species, leaf to stem scaling was positively related, and stem to root scaling was negatively related to root carbohydrate concentration. Under lower nutrient supply, trees displayed increased partitioning to non-structural carbohydrate, and to roots and leaves over stems with increasing plant size, but this change did not differ between leaf habits. Conclusions Substantial unexplained variation in biomass allometry of woody species may be related to selection for resource conservation against environmental stresses, such as resource seasonality. Further differences in plant allometry could arise due to selection for different types of biomass allocation in response to different environmental stressors (e.g. fire vs. herbivory). PMID:23877001

Tomlinson, Kyle W.; van Langevelde, Frank; Ward, David; Bongers, Frans; da Silva, Dulce Alves; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Bie, Steven; Sterck, Frank J.

2013-01-01

331

Root growth and metal uptake in four grasses grown on zinc-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Depth and area of rooting are important to long-term survival of plants on metal-contaminated, steep-slope soils. We evaluated shoot and root growth and metal uptake of four cool-season grasses grown on a high-Zn soil in a greenhouse. A mixture of biosolids, fly ash, and burnt lime was placed either directly over a Zn-contaminated soil or over a clean, fine-grained topsoil and then the Zn-contaminated soil; the control was the clean topsoil. The grasses were 'Reliant' hard fescue (Festuca brevipila R. Tracey), 'Oahe' intermediate wheatgrass [Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski subsp. intermedia], 'Ruebens' Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa L.), and 'K-31' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Root growth in the clean soil and biosolids corresponded to the characteristic rooting ability of each species, while rooting into the Zn-contaminated soil was related to the species' tolerance to Zn. While wheatgrass and tall fescue had the strongest root growth in the surface layers (0-5 cm) of clean soil or biosolids, wheatgrass roots were at least two times more dense than those of the other grasses in the second layer (5-27 cm) of Zn-contaminated soil. When grown over Zn-contaminated soil in the second layer, hard fescue (with 422 mg/kg Zn) was the only species not to have phytotoxic levels of Zn in shoots; tall fescue had the highest Zn uptake (1553 mg/kg). Thus, the best long-term survivors in high-Zn soils should be wheatgrass, due to its ability to root deeply into Zn-contaminated soils, and hard fescue, with its ability to effectively exclude toxic Zn uptake. PMID:12809284

Palazzo, Antonio J; Cary, Timothy J; Hardy, Susan E; Lee, C Richard

2003-01-01

332

A Simple Analytical Model of Evaporation in the Presence of Roots  

E-print Network

Root systems can influence the dynamics of evapotranspiration of water out of a porous medium. The coupling of evapotranspiration remains a key aspect affecting overall root behavior. Predicting the evapotranspiration curve in the presence of roots helps keep track of the amount of water that remains in the porous medium. Using a controlled visual set-up of a 2D model soil system consisting of monodisperse glass beads, we first perform experiments on actual roots grown in partially saturated systems under different relative humidity conditions. We record parameters such as the total mass loss in the medium and the resulting position of the receding fronts and use these experimental results to develop a simple analytical model that predicts the position of the evaporating front as a function of time as well as the total amount of water that is lost from the medium due to the combined effects of evaporation and transpiration. The model is based on fundamental principles of evaporation flux and includes empirical assumptions on the quantity of stoma in the leaves and the transition time between regime 1 and regime 2. The model also underscores the importance of a much prolonged root life as long as the root is exposed to a partially saturated zone composed of a mixture of air and water. Comparison between the model and experimental results shows good prediction of the position of the evaporating front as well as the total mass loss from evapotranspiration in the presence of real root systems. These results provide additional understanding of both complex evaporation phenomenon and its influence on root mechanisms.

Cesare M. Cejas; Larry Hough; Jean-Christophe Castaing; Christian Fretigny; Remi Dreyfus

2014-06-17

333

Effects of Nutrient Heterogeneity and Competition on Root Architecture of Spruce Seedlings: Implications for an Essential Feature of Root Foraging  

PubMed Central

Background We have limited understanding of root foraging responses when plants were simultaneously exposed to nutrient heterogeneity and competition, and our goal was to determine whether and how plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors in root foraging processes. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was conducted in split-containers, wherein half of the roots of spruce (Picea asperata) seedlings were subjected to intraspecific root competition (the vegetated half), while the other half experienced no competition (the non-vegetated half). Experimental treatments included fertilization in the vegetated half (FV), the non-vegetated half (FNV), and both compartments (F), as well as no fertilization (NF). The root architecture indicators consisted of the number of root tips over the root surface (RTRS), the length percentage of diameter-based fine root subclasses to total fine root (SRLP), and the length percentage of each root order to total fine root (ROLP). The target plants used novel root foraging behaviors under different combinations of neighboring plant and localized fertilization. In addition, the significant increase in the RTRS of 0–0.2 mm fine roots after fertilization of the vegetated half alone and its significant decrease in fertilizer was applied throughout the plant clearly showed that plant root foraging behavior was regulated by local responses coupled with systemic control mechanisms. Conclusions/Significance We measured the root foraging ability for woody plants by means of root architecture indicators constructed by the roots possessing essential nutrient uptake ability (i.e., the first three root orders), and provided new evidence that plants integrate multiple forms of environmental information, such as nutrient status and neighboring competitors, in a non-additive manner during the root foraging process. The interplay between the responses of individual root modules (repetitive root units) to localized environmental signals and the systemic control of these responses may well account for the non-additive features of the root foraging process. PMID:23762405

Nan, Hongwei; Liu, Qing; Chen, Jinsong; Cheng, Xinying; Yin, Huajun; Yin, Chunying; Zhao, Chunzhang

2013-01-01

334

ALTERAÇÕES NA QUALIDADE DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADAS Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) minimally processed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from

Andreia Alves; Rogério Luis Cansian; Giane Stuart; Eunice Valduga

335

Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative

Márcia R de Almeida; Carolina M Ruedell; Felipe K Ricachenevsky; Raul A Sperotto; Giancarlo Pasquali; Arthur G Fett-Neto

2010-01-01

336

Filter strip as a method of choice for apoplastic fluid extraction from maize roots.  

PubMed

Apoplastic fluid was extracted from maize (Zea mays L.) roots using two procedures: collection from the surface of intact plant roots by filter paper strips (AF) or vacuum infiltration and/or centrifugation from excised root segments (AWF). The content of cytoplasmic marker (glucose-6-phosphate, G-6-P) and antioxidative components (enzymes, organic acids, phenolics, sugars, ROS) were compared in the extracts. The results obtained demonstrate that AF was completely free of G-6-P, as opposed to AWF where the cytoplasmic constituent was detected even at mildest centrifugation (200×g). Isoelectric focusing of POD and SOD shows the presence of cytoplasmic isoforms in AWF, and HPLC of sugars and phenolics a much more complex composition of AWF, due to cytoplasmic contamination. Organic acid composition differed in the two extracts, much higher concentrations of malic acid being registered in AF, while oxalic acid due to intracellular contamination being present only in AWF. EPR spectroscopy of DEPMPO spin trap in the extracts showed persistent generation of hydroxyl radical adduct in AF. The results obtained argue in favor of the filter strip method for the root apoplastic fluid extraction, avoiding the problems of cytoplasmic contamination and dilution and enabling concentration measurements in minute regions of the root. PMID:24767115

Dragiši? Maksimovi?, Jelena J; Zivanovi?, Branka D; Maksimovi?, Vuk M; Mojovi?, Miloš D; Nikolic, Miroslav T; Vu?ini?, Zeljko B

2014-06-01

337

Live microscopy analysis of endosomes and vesicles in tip-growing root hairs.  

PubMed

Tip growth is one of the most preferable models in the study of plant cell polarity; cell wall deposition is restricted mainly to a certain area of the cell, and cell expansion at this specific area leads to the development of tubular outgrowth. Tip-growing root hairs are well-established systems for such studies, because their lateral position within the root makes them easily accessible for experimental approaches and microscopic observations. Fundamental structural and molecular processes driving tip growth are exocytosis, endocytosis, and all aspects of vesicular and endosomal dynamic trafficking, as related to targeted membrane flow. Study of vesicles and endosomes in living root hairs, however, is rather difficult, due to their small size and due to the resolution limits of conventional light microscopes. Here we present noninvasive approaches for visualizing vesicular and endosomal compartments in the tip of growing root hairs using electronic light microscopy, contrast-enhanced video light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). These methods allow utilizing the maximum resolution of the light microscope. Together with protocols for appropriate preparation of living plant samples, the described methods should help improve our understanding on how tiny vesicles and endosomes support the process of tip growth in root hairs. PMID:25117273

Ove?ka, Miroslav; Lichtscheidl, Irene; Samaj, Jozef

2014-01-01

338

microRNA profiling of root tissues and root forming explant cultures in Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

Plant root architecture is regulated by the initiation and modulation of cell division in regions containing pluripotent stem cells known as meristems. In roots, meristems are formed early in embryogenesis, in the case of the root apical meristem (RAM), and during organogenesis at the site of lateral root or, in legumes, nodule formation. Root meristems can also be generated in vitro from leaf explants cultures supplemented with auxin. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as regulators of many key biological functions in plants including root development. To identify key miRNAs involved in root meristem formation in Medicago truncatula, we used deep sequencing to compare miRNA populations. Comparisons were made between: (1) the root tip (RT), containing the RAM and the elongation zone (EZ) tissue and (2) root forming callus (RFC) and non-root forming callus (NRFC). We identified 83 previously reported miRNAs, 24 new to M. truncatula, in 44 families. For the first time in M. truncatula, members of conserved miRNA families miR165, miR181 and miR397 were found. Bioinformatic analysis identified 38 potential novel miRNAs. Selected miRNAs and targets were validated using Taqman miRNA assays and 5' RACE. Many miRNAs were differentially expressed between tissues, particularly RFC and NRFC. Target prediction revealed a number of miRNAs to target genes previously shown to be differentially expressed between RT and EZ or RFC and NRFC and important in root development. Additionally, we predict the miRNA/target relationships for miR397 and miR160 to be conserved in M. truncatula. Amongst the predictions, were AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 10, targeted by miR160 and a LACCASE-like gene, targeted by miR397, both are miRNA/target pairings conserved in other species. PMID:23572382

Eyles, Rodney P; Williams, Philip H; Ohms, Stephen J; Weiller, Georg F; Ogilvie, Huw A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

2013-07-01

339

Comparative root morphology of some pasture grasses and clovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root systems of three clovers and five pasture grasses grown in sand culture during summer and in soil during winter were examined at two stages of growth.There were large differences in shoot\\/root ratio between harvests, but no consistent differences among species. In general grasses had longer, thinner, more finely branched roots than clovers, but had similar root surface areas per

P. S. Evans

1977-01-01

340

Seasonal soil–water availability influences snakeweed root dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested a hypothesis that variable precipitation may induce altered rooting patterns. A nursery study was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the effect of seasonally variable soil moisture on the rooting pattern of shallow-rooted shrub broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae Britt and Rusby). Plants irrigated during the spring–summer, but grown under rainout shelters in the winter (S) produced more roots

Changgui Wan; Ibrahim Yilmaz; Ronald E. Sosebee

2002-01-01

341

The dynamic interplay between roots and soil moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although water uptake by roots in the soil has been investigated in numerous studies, it is still not clear which is the main factor controlling the uptake, especially under non-uniform soil moisture distribution or intermediately wet soil. Root activity or root compensation factors are frequently used to adjust 1-D root water uptake models to observations. However, they are fitting parameters,

Sarah Garre; Jan Vanderborght; Mathieu Javaux; Harry Vereecken

2010-01-01

342

Fine Root Architecture of Nine North American Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine roots of trees are concentrated on lateral branches that arise from perennial roots. They are important in the acquisition of water and essential nutrients, and at the ecosystem level, they make a significant contribution to biogeochemical cycling. Fine roots have often been studied according to arbitrary size classes, e.g., all roots less than 1 or 2 mm in

Kurt S. Pregitzer; Jared L. DeForest; Andrew J. Burton; Michael F. Allen; Roger W. Ruess; Ronald L. Hendrick

2002-01-01

343

ROOTBOX FOR QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATIONS ON INTACT ENTIRE ROOT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A rootbox is described which allows observation of an intact, entire root system. oots are sandwiched against a plexiglass surface by a nylon mesh that is impermeable to roots, but permeable to water and nutrients. o quantify root growth non-destructively, roots of different size...

344

Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hairs are presumably important in the acquisition of immobile soil resources such as phosphorus. The density and length of root hairs vary substantially within and between species, and are highly regulated by soil phosphorus availability, which suggests that at high nutrient availability, root hairs may have a neutral or negative impact on fitness. We used a root-hairless mutant of

Terence R. Bates; Jonathan P. Lynch

2001-01-01

345

Production of scopolamine by normal root culture of Hyoscyamus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal root of Hyoscyamus niger was cultivated in various nutrient conditions to optimize root growth and scopolamine production. Nitrate or phosphate concentration had little effect on root growth, while the low levels of nitrate or phosphate enhanced specific scopolamine content by 44% and 39%, respectively. Glucose or fructose was not adequate for the root culture as a carbon source, while

Seung Han Woo; Jong Moon Park; Ji-Won Yang

1995-01-01

346

Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of

Edward C. Cocking

2003-01-01

347

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

348

How can science education foster students' rooting?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to prevent (further) uprooting and efforts to promote rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the earth as ground, and potential consequences for teaching science in a rooted manner. However, the argumentation raises a number of questions which I try to answer. My argumentation rests on Husserl's critique of science and the "ontological reversal", an ontological position where abstract models from science are considered as more real than the everyday reality itself, where abstract, often mathematical, models are taken to be the real causes behind everyday experiences. In this paper, measures towards an "ontological re-reversal" are discussed by drawing on experiences from phenomenon-based science education. I argue that perhaps the most direct and productive way of promoting rooting in science class is by intentionally cultivating the competencies of sensing and aesthetic experience. An aesthetic experience is defined as a precognitive, sensuous experience, an experience that is opened up for through sensuous perception. Conditions for rooting in science education is discussed against three challenges: Restoring the value of aesthetic experience, allowing time for open inquiry and coping with curriculum. Finally, I raise the question whether dimensions like "reality" or "nature" are self-evident for students. In the era of constructivism, with its focus on cognition and knowledge building, the inquiry process itself has become more important than the object of inquiry. I argue that as educators of science teachers we have to emphasize more explicitly "the nature of nature" as a field of exploration.

Østergaard, Edvin

2014-06-01

349

Anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of moringa oleifera lam.  

PubMed

The alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera possessed significant dose -depen-dent anti-ulcer activity in experimentally induced acute gastric ulcers with aspirin, the anti-ulcer effect of the alkali preparation of the root seems to be more pronounced than that of the fresh leaf juice. Te anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root could be due to its content of alkaloids or its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22556845

Ruckmani, K; Kavimani, S; Jayakar, B; Anandan, R

1998-01-01

350

Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17–75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. Results All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. Conclusions The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length reduction was found in every patient. On average, 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. PMID:23941626

2013-01-01

351

Integration and Improvement of Geophysical Root Biomass Measurements for Determining Carbon Credits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon trading schemes fundamentally rely on accurate subsurface carbon quantification in order for governing bodies to grant carbon credits inclusive of root biomass (What is Carbon Credit. 2013). Root biomass makes up a large chunk of the subsurface carbon and is difficult, labor intensive, and costly to measure. This paper stitches together the latest geophysical root measurement techniques into site-dependent recommendations for technique combinations and modifications that maximize large-scale root biomass measurement accuracy and efficiency. "Accuracy" is maximized when actual root biomass is closest to measured root biomass. "Efficiency" is maximized when time, labor, and cost of measurement is minimized. Several combinations have emerged which satisfy both criteria under different site conditions. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and/or electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow for large tracts of land to be surveyed under appropriate conditions. Among other characteristics, GPR does best with detecting coarse roots in dry soil. ERT does best in detecting roots in moist soils, but is especially limited by electrode configuration (Mancuso, S. 2012). Integration of these two technologies into a baseline protocol based on site-specific characteristics, especially soil moisture and plants species heterogeneity, will drastically theoretically increase efficiency and accuracy of root biomass measurements. Modifications of current measurement protocols using these existing techniques will also theoretically lead to drastic improvements in both accuracy and efficiency. These modifications, such as efficient 3D imaging by adding an identical electrode array perpendicular to the first array used in the Pulled Array Continuous Electrical Profiling (PACEP) technique for ERT, should allow for more widespread application of these techniques for understanding root biomass. Where whole-site measurement is not feasible either due to financial, equipment, or physical limitations, measurements from randomly selected plots must be assumed representative of the entire system and scaled up. This scaling introduces error roughly inversely proportional to the number and size of plots measured. References Mancuso, S. (2012). Measuring roots: An updated approach Springer. What is carbon credit. (2013). Retrieved 7/20, 2013, from http://carbontradexchange.com/knowledge/what-is-carbon-credit

Boitet, J. I.

2013-12-01

352

Increased Zinc Tolerance in Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Is Not Due to Increased Production of Phytochelatins.  

PubMed Central

The concentration of acid-soluble thiols other than reduced glutathione (SH - GSH) increases in the roots of zinc-sensitive and zinc-tolerant Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke after exposure to zinc for 1 to 3 d. The concentration of SH - GSH in the roots is higher in the sensitive plants than in the tolerant ones, both at equal external zinc concentrations and at zinc concentrations causing the same level of root-length growth inhibition. High performance liquid chromatography analyses show that the increase in the concentration of SH - GSH is not only due to the production of phytochelatins, but is also due to an increase in the concentration of cysteine and the production of nonidentified thiols. The cysteine concentration increases equally in the roots of sensitive and tolerant plants. The accumulation of phytochelatins is higher in the roots of the sensitive plants, whereas the chain length distribution of phytochelatins is the same in sensitive and tolerant plants. It is concluded that increased zinc tolerance in S. vulgaris is not due to increased production of phytochelatins. PMID:12232023

Harmens, H.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Bookum, WMT.; Verkleij, JAC.

1993-01-01

353

Induction of hairy roots in Gmelina arborea Roxb. and production of verbascoside in hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling tissues of Gmelina arborea, a medicinally important tree species, were infected with wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATTCC 15834, which led to the induction of hairy roots from 32% of the explants. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB specific primers, and subsequently, by Southern analysis of the PCR products. Six transformed clones of hairy

Shrutika Dhakulkar; T. R. Ganapathi; Sujata Bhargava; V. A. Bapat

2005-01-01

354

Update on Root Chemical Defenses In Defense of Roots: A Research Agenda for Studying  

E-print Network

biology, namely, the chemistry of plant defense against belowground herbivores. Focusing on secondaryUpdate on Root Chemical Defenses In Defense of Roots: A Research Agenda for Studying Plant (Bezemer and van Dam, 2005). When attacked by herbivores, plants defend themselves through a continuum

Agrawal, Anurag

355

ROOT FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE: A FRAMEWORK FOR MODELLING THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ROOTS AND SOIL  

E-print Network

biological activity and associated processes are concentrated in the soil located around living plant roots of soil life forms, plants play a dominant role in the regulation of many soil processes. In this paper consider how the response of root systems to their environment affects resource acquisition by plants

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

RIPPE, Marilia Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

2014-01-01

357

Identification of coniferous fine roots to species using ribosomal PCR products of pooled root samples  

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Question/Methods To inform an individual-based forest stand model emphasizing belowground competition, we explored the potential of using the relative abundances of ribosomal PCR products from pooled and milled roots, to allocate total root biomass to each of the thre...

358

The SHORT-ROOT Gene Controls Radial Patterning of the Arabidopsis Root through Radial Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric cell divisions play an important role in the establishment and propagation of the cellular pattern of plant tissues. The SHORT-ROOT (SHR) gene is required for the asymmetric cell division responsible for formation of ground tissue (endodermis and cortex) as well as specification of endodermis in the Arabidopsis root. We show that SHR encodes a putative transcription factor with homology

Yrjo Helariutta; Hidehiro Fukaki; Joanna Wysocka-Diller; Keiji Nakajima; Jee Jung; Giovanni Sena; Marie-Theres Hauser; Philip N. Benfey

2000-01-01

359

Enhanced phenanthrene biodegradation in soil by slender oat root exudates and root debris.  

PubMed

To investigate the mechanisms by which slender oat (Avena barbata Pott ex Link) enhances phenanthrene biodegradation, we analyzed the impacts of root exudates and root debris on phenanthrene biodegradation and degrader community dynamics. Accelerated phenanthrene biodegradation rates occurred in soils amended with slender oat root exudates as well as combined root debris + root exudate as compared with unamended controls. Root exudates significantly enhanced phenanthrene biodegradation in rhizosphere soils, either by increasing contaminant bioavailability and/or increasing microbial population size and activity. A modified most probable number (MPN) method was used to determine quantitative shifts in heterotrophic and phenanthrene degrader communities. During the first 4 to 6 d of treatment, heterotrophic populations increased in all amended soils. Both root debris-amended and exudate-amended soil then maintained larger phenanthrene degrader populations than in control soils later in the experiment after much of the phenanthrene had been utilized. Thus, root amendments had a greater impact over time on phenanthrene degraders than heterotrophs resulting in selective maintenance of degrader populations in amended soils compared with controls. PMID:11789996

Miya, R K; Firestone, M K

2001-01-01

360

Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology  

PubMed Central

Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because -omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e., uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes), the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments. To fully study their biology, we have recently optimized procedures in obtaining root hair cell samples. We culture the plants using an ultrasound aeroponic system maximizing root hair cell density on the entire root systems and allowing the homogeneous treatment of the root system. We then isolate the root hair cells in liquid nitrogen. Isolated root hair yields could be up to 800 to 1000~mg of plant cells from 60 root systems. Using soybean as a model, the purity of the root hair was assessed by comparing the expression level of genes previously identified as soybean root hair specific between preparations of isolated root hair cells and stripped roots, roots devoid in root hairs. Enlarging our tests to include other plant species, our results support the isolation of large quantities of highly purified root hair cells which is compatible with a systems biology approach. PMID:24324480

Qiao, Zhenzhen; Libault, Marc

2013-01-01

361

Imaging tree root systems in situ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions of global energy use in this century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This represents a serious environmental problem and contributes significantly to greenhouse gases that affect global warming. Terrestrial ecosystems are a huge natural biological scrubber for CO2 currently sequestering, directly from the atmosphere, about 25% (approximately 2 GtC) of the 7.4 Gt of anthropogenic carbon emitted annually into the atmosphere. The major carbon pathways into soil are through plant litter and roots. Presently, there are no means by which root morphology, distribution, and mass can be measured without serious sampling artifacts that alter these properties. The current methods are destructive and labor intensive. Preliminary results using a high frequency, 1.5 Ghz, impulse Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for nondestructive imaging of tree root systems in situ are presented. The 3D reconstructed image is used to assess root morphology and dimensions. The constraints, limitations, and potential solutions for using GPR for tree root systems imaging and analysis are discussed.

Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, George; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; McGuigan, Michael

2000-04-01

362

Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.  

PubMed

Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

2015-01-01

363

The importance of root gravitropism for inter-root competition and phosphorus acquisition efficiency: results from a geometric simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed that low soil phosphorus availability alters the gravitropic response of basal roots in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), resulting in a shallower root system. In this study we use a geometric model to test the hypotheses that a shallower\\u000a root system is a positive adaptive response to low soil P availability by (1) concentrating root foraging in

Zhenyang Ge; Gerardo Rubio; Jonathan P Lynch

2000-01-01

364

Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

2014-01-01

365

The integration of whole-root and cellular hydraulic conductivities in cereal roots.  

PubMed

The hydraulic conductivities of excised whole root systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Atou) and of single excised roots of wheat and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Passat) were measured using an osmotically induced back-flow technique. Ninety minutes after excision the values for single excised roots ranged from 1.6·10(-8) to 5.5·10(-8) m·s(-1)·MPa(-1) in wheat and from 0.9·10(-8) to 4.8·10(-8) m·s(-1)·MPa(-1) in maize. The main source of variation was a decrease in the value as root length increased. The hydraulic conductivities of whole root systems, but not of single excised roots, were smaller 15 h after excision. This was not caused by occlusion of the xylem at the cut end of the coleoptile. The hydraulic conductivities of epidermal, cortical and endodermal cells were measured using a pressure probe. Epidermal and cortical cells of both wheat and maize roots gave mean values of 1.2·10(-7) m·s(-1)·MPa(-1) but in endodermal cells (measured only in wheat) the mean value was 0.5·10(-7) m·s(-1)·MPa(-1). The cellular hydraulic conductivities were used to calculate the root hydraulic conductivities expected if water flow across the root was via transcellular (vacuole-to-vacuole), apoplasmic or symplasmic pathways. The results indicate that, in freshly excised roots, the bulk of water flow is unlikely to be via the transcellular pathway. This is in contrast to our previous conclusion (H. Jones, A.D. Tomos, R.A. Leigh and R.G. Wyn Jones 1983, Planta 158, 230-236) which was based on results obtained with whole root systems of wheat measured 14-15 h after excision and which probably gave artefactually low values for root hydraulic conductivity. It is now concluded that, near the root tip, water flow could be through a symplasmic pathway in which the only substantial resistances to water flow are provided by the outer epidermal and the inner endodermal plasma membranes. Further from the tip, the measured hydraulic conductivities of the roots are consistent with flow either through the symplasmic or apoplasmic pathways. PMID:24221410

Jones, H; Leigh, R A; Wyn Jones, R G; Tomos, A D

1988-04-01

366

Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 ?T) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

Belyavskaya, N. A.

2004-01-01

367

Origin and development of the root cap in rice.  

PubMed

The tip of the root is covered by a thimble-shaped root cap that is the site of perception and transduction for many environmental stimuli. Until now, little was known about how the root cap of rice (Oryza sativa) develops and functions to regulate the adaptive behavior of the root. To address this, we examined the formation of the rice root cap during embryogenesis and characterized the anatomy and structure of the rice radicle root cap. We further investigated the role of the quiescent center in the de novo origin of the root cap. At the molecular level, we found that shoot-derived auxin was absolutely needed to trigger root cap regeneration when the quiescent center was removed. Our time-course analysis of transcriptomic dynamics during the early phases of root cap regeneration indicated that changes in auxin signaling and appropriate levels of cytokinin are critical for root cap regeneration after the removal of the root cap. Moreover, we identified 152 genes that produce root cap-specific transcripts in the rice root tip. These findings together offer, to our knowledge, new mechanistic insights into the cellular and molecular events inherent in the formation and development of the root cap in rice and provide a basis for future research on the developmental and physiological function of the root cap of monocot crops. PMID:24958716

Wang, Likai; Chu, Huangwei; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Juan; Li, Jintao; Qiao, Yang; Fu, Yanru; Mou, Tongmin; Chen, Chunli; Xu, Jian

2014-10-01

368

Effect of medications for root canal treatment on bonding to root canal dentin.  

PubMed

Use of resin-based restorative materials recently has become widely accepted for treatment of endodontically treated teeth. However, some solutions routinely used during endodontic treatment procedures may have an effect on bond strengths of adhesive materials to root canal dentin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various medications on microtensile bond strength to root canal dentin. Fourteen extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. The crowns and the pulp tissues were removed. The root canals were then instrumented and widened to the same size. The teeth were randomly divided into seven groups of two teeth each. The root canal dentin walls of the roots were treated with 5% sodium hypochloride (NaOCI), 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the combination of H2O2 and NaOCl, or 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate for 60 s; or calcium hydroxide or formocresol for 24 h. The teeth in control group were irrigated with water. The root canals were obturated using C&B Metabond. After 24 h of storage in distilled water, serial 1-mm-thick cross-sections were cut, and approximately 12 samples were obtained from each group. Microtensile bond strengths to root canal dentin were then measured by using an Instron machine. The data were recorded and expressed as MPa. The results indicated that NaOCI, H2O2, or a combination of NaOCl and H2O2 treatment decreased bond strength to root canal dentin significantly (p < 0.05). The teeth treated with chlorhexidine solution showed the highest bond strength values (p < 0.05). In conclusion, chlorhexidine is an appropriate irrigant solution for root canal treatment before adhesive post core applications. PMID:14977310

Erdemir, Ali; Ari, Hale; Güngüne?, Hakan; Belli, Sema

2004-02-01

369

Coarse root distribution of a semi-arid oak savanna estimated with ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coarse root distribution of a semi-arid oak savanna estimated with ground penetrating radar North California enjoys wet and mild winters, but experiences extreme hot, dry summer conditions, with occasional drought years. Despite the severity of summer conditions, blue oaks in this ecosystem are winter-deciduous. Water uptake from groundwater helps explain the incongruity of tree growth with soil water availability in this ecosystem. We hypothesized that the binary nature of water availability, in which water is either abundantly available or scarce, would be reflected in blue oak root architecture. The objective of this research was to understand how the form of the root system facilitates ecosystem functioning. To do this, we sought to characterize the structure of the root system, and survey coarse root distribution with ground penetrating radar (GPR), due to its advantages in covering large areas rapidly and non-destructively. Because GPR remains a relatively new technology for examining root distribution, an ancillary objective was to test this methodology, and help facilitate its application more broadly. We used a GPR Noggin1000 SmartTow (Sensors and Software Inc., Ontario, Canada) 1 GHz configuration. In order to best represent the diversity of tree size and age found at the field site, we surveyed six 8x8 m locations with trees varying in size, age and clumping (i.e. isolated trees vs. tree clusters). GPR raw data was processed with designated software in order to construct three-dimensional values of radar reflection intensity for each surveyed grid. Radar signals were transformed to root biomass by calibrating them against excavated roots in twelve 60x100 cm pits. Our results indicate that coarse roots occupy the full soil profile, and that root biomass of old large trees peaks just above the bedrock. As opposed to other semi-arid regions, where trees often develop extensive shallow coarse lateral roots, in order to exploit the entire wet-soil medium, we found that coarse root density decreased with distance from the bole, and dropped sharply at a distance of 2 m. We upscaled root biomass to stand-scale (2.8±0.4 kg m-2) based on LiDAR analysis of the relative abundance of each tree configuration. We argue that the deep and narrow root structure we observed reflects the ecohydrology of oaks in this ecosystem, because extensive lateral roots would not be beneficial during the growing season (water is sufficiently abundant), nor during the summer season (soil water is highly limited). Our research has shown that the combination of resource availability, which is primarily water in this ecosystem, and plant demand, are portrayed in the form of the root system. Such information is important for future assessment of ecosystem sensitivity to climate change, especially changes in groundwater recharge originating from the Sierra-Nevada snow cover.

Raz-Yaseef, N.; Koteen, L. E.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2013-05-01

370

Complex symmetric root square locus with an application to a spinning drag-free satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parameters and relations associated with optimal systems are examined, taking into account a quadratic performance index and a root square locus plot, including the characteristic roots of the optimal system and its adjoint system as a function of the cost function weights. The calculation of the locus is described and the employment of the considered relations in studies of a drag-free satellite is discussed. Attention is given to weights regarding the initial states, questions of rotating integral control, approaches for experimental verification, and the performance of various methods for the reduction of fuel consumption due to center of spin offsets.

Tashker, M. G.; Debra, D. B.

1976-01-01

371

Relationship between Shoot-rooting and Root-sprouting Abilities and the Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Reserves of Mediterranean Dwarf Shrubs  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims This study analysed the differences in nitrogen (N), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and biomass allocation to the roots and shoots of 18 species of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs with different shoot-rooting and resprouting abilities. Root N and NSC concentrations of strict root-sprouters and species resprouting from the base of the stems were also compared. Methods Soluble sugars (SS), starch and N concentrations were assessed in roots and shoots. The root : shoot ratio of each species was obtained by thorough root excavations. Cross-species analyses were complemented by phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs). Key Results Shoot-rooting species showed a preferential allocation of starch to shoots rather than roots as compared with non-shoot-rooting species. Resprouters displayed greater starch concentrations than non-sprouters in both shoots and roots. Trends were maintained after PICs analyses, but differences became weak when root-sprouters versus non-root-sprouters were compared. Within resprouters, strict root-sprouters showed greater root concentrations and a preferential allocation of starch to the roots than stem-sprouters. No differences were found in the root : shoot ratio of species with different rooting and resprouting abilities. Conclusions The shoot-rooting ability of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs seems to depend on the preferential allocation of starch and SS to shoots, though alternative C-sources such as current photosynthates may also be involved. In contrast to plants from other mediterranean areas of the world, the resprouting ability of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs is not related to a preferential allocation of N, NSC and biomass to roots. PMID:17728338

Palacio, Sara; Maestro, Melchor; Montserrat-Marti, Gabriel

2007-01-01

372

Influence of root structure on root survivorship: an analysis of 18 tree species using a minirhizotron method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root survivorship is an important aspect of root ecology and is known to be influenced by a suite of covariates. However,\\u000a the relative importance of each covariate on root survivorship is not clear. Here, we used minirhizotron-based data from 18\\u000a woody species to evaluate the relative strength of influence on root survivorship by root diameter, branch order, soil depth,

Jiacun GuShuiqiang; Shuiqiang Yu; Yue Sun; Zhengquan Wang; Dali Guo

373

Cotton Root-Rot and Its Control.  

E-print Network

and sweet potatoes, but also trees such as elms and chinaberries, and ornamental shrubs and flowers such as the privet, rose, and chrysan- themum. In the areas where it is serious, root-rot thus concerns the farmer, the truck grower, the nurseryman..., during dry weather. Eithcr of these estrcme soil-moisture conclitions ericlently is unfarorable to the fungus. With resistaiit plants s~zcli as the Turk's-cap Hibiscus and the pomegranate, the yo~~i~g plant!: become infectecl ~rith root-rot hut nre...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, (Walter Naphtali) Walter N.

1931-01-01

374

Apical organization of the roots of dicotyledons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The root apical organisation of nine species of dicotyledons belonging to some primitive and some advanced families has been\\u000a investigated.\\u000a \\u000a The structural configurations of these species fall under three types: (i) with four superimposed tiers, a common tier for\\u000a the dermatogen and the peripheral region of the root-cap—the dermocalyptrogen—hypodermis, periblem and plerome, (ii) with\\u000a three tiers of initials,

S. K. Pillai; P. Vijayalekshmi; Omana M. George

1965-01-01

375

Quantification of exudation from sorghum roots  

E-print Network

by Hartin to assess exudation from both sterile and non-sterile roots grown in soil (25, 27, 28). Data from wheat, clover, and ryegrass indicated that leachates plus root free soil contained from 2. 8-5. 7% of the total C02 (27). Later experiments on 14... wheat gave much higher values (5). From 7-18/ of the assimilated 14C was exuded in sterile and non-sterile soils respectively. Barley yielded still higher percentages of 13-25/. Differences in quantity of exudation between sterile and non-sterile...

Kennedy, Lynne Susan

2012-06-07

376

Mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Texas crops  

E-print Network

were y 1. '1 t G~t~l( ht hyhd h ypi 1 thick outer wall and thin inner membrane (Fig. 14, p. 31) . Blackberry (Rubus sp. ) Root and Soil Material The blackberry sample was collected at Stephenville, Texas. Four different spore types were found... were y 1. '1 t G~t~l( ht hyhd h ypi 1 thick outer wall and thin inner membrane (Fig. 14, p. 31) . Blackberry (Rubus sp. ) Root and Soil Material The blackberry sample was collected at Stephenville, Texas. Four different spore types were found...

Yeh, May-Wei Mavix

2012-06-07

377

Analysis of root reinforcement of vegetated riprap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riprap is a traditional engineering solution used to protect riverbanks against erosion on developed riparian corridors. However, the traditional riprap does not provide adequate fish and wildlife habitat within the riparian zone, which is normally provided by naturally vegetated stream banks. An innovative approach, which mitigates this issue and at the same time provides stream bank erosion control, is the vegetated riprap technique. This solution, which combines rocks and native vegetation in the form of live cuttings, has been designed and implemented by Terra Erosion Control Ltd for the past 7 years. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the vegetation, in particular the root system, on the stability of the riprap. This analysis was carried out in the late spring of 2013 on the vegetated riprap installation located along the Columbia River riverbank, adjacent to the Teck Metals Ltd. smelter in Trail, British Columbia, Canada. An excavation perpendicular to the river was performed in order to investigate the root system development within the vegetated riprap structure. This excavation exposed one of the Salix bebbiana cuttings installed in 2006. The cutting was 2.3 m long and was set with an inclination of 35° with respect to the horizontal plane: the first 0.3 m was exposed, 1 m was buried within the riprap rocks (which had an average diameter of 30 cm) and the remaining 1.0 m was in the soil matrix below the rocks. The diameter of the roots growing along the cutting were measured in order to obtain the root density at various depths and tensile strength tests were carried out on the Salix bebbiana roots with diameters of up to 9 mm. The aim was to quantitatively estimate the additional cohesion given by the roots. The additional root cohesion was more effective in the deeper soil layer where the soil matrix predominates. In the upper soil layer, where the particle size is significantly higher, roots do not increase the cohesion but act as a network which ties the rocks of the riprap structure together. The uprooting resistance was also tested with a pullout test, which demonstrated that the force necessary to uproot a Salix bebianna cutting, grown in the riprap along the riverbank, was higher if compared with the same species grown in a natural environment.

Tron, Stefania; Raymond, Pierre

2014-05-01

378

Parthenolide: from plant shoots to cancer roots.  

PubMed

Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) originally purified from the shoots of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), has shown potent anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It is currently being tested in cancer clinical trials. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of parthenolide revealed key chemical properties required for biological activities and epigenetic mechanisms, and led to the derivatization of an orally bioavailable analog, dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT). Parthenolide is the first small molecule found to be selective against cancer stem cells (CSC), which it achieves by targeting specific signaling pathways and killing cancer from its roots. In this review, we highlight the exciting journey of parthenolide, from plant shoots to cancer roots. PMID:23688583

Ghantous, Akram; Sinjab, Ansam; Herceg, Zdenko; Darwiche, Nadine

2013-09-01

379

What is the Best Root Surface Treatment for Avulsed Teeth?  

PubMed Central

Dental avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic tooth injuries since it causes damage to several structures and results in avulsion of the tooth from its socket. Management protocols for avulsed teeth should include management of the pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in order to improve the long-term prognosis and survival of these teeth. The prognosis of the treatment as well as the survival of an avulsed tooth depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as the duration of the tooth’s extra-alveolar period, replantation time, the type of storage medium, PDL status and duration of splinting. Recent research has led to the development of storage media. However, there is not yet a single solution that fulfills all requirements to be considered as the ideal medium for temporary storage of avulsed teeth, and research on this field should carry on. On the other hand in case of delayed replantation, due to the great risk of tooth loss after avulsion, different root surface treatments have been proposed to prevent and delay root resorption before replantation. For this purpose, researchers have applied some different root surface treatment modalities in delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. Several protocols have been used to maintain PDL viability; some involve fluorides, steroids, sodium alendronate, enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2). Among these applications, bFGF shows promising results in the regeneration of natural tooth structures and tissues. Better understanding of mechanism of bFGF may help to improve new technologies of regeneration of tooth structures. PMID:25317212

Tuna, Elif B; Yaman, Duygu; Yamamato, Seiko

2014-01-01

380

Soil coring at multiple field environments can directly quantify variation in deep root traits to select wheat genotypes for breeding.  

PubMed

We aim to incorporate deep root traits into future wheat varieties to increase access to stored soil water during grain development, which is twice as valuable for yield as water captured at younger stages. Most root phenotyping efforts have been indirect studies in the laboratory, at young plant stages, or using indirect shoot measures. Here, soil coring to 2 m depth was used across three field environments to directly phenotype deep root traits on grain development (depth, descent rate, density, length, and distribution). Shoot phenotypes at coring included canopy temperature depression, chlorophyll reflectance, and green leaf scoring, with developmental stage, biomass, and yield. Current varieties, and genotypes with breeding histories and plant architectures expected to promote deep roots, were used to maximize identification of variation due to genetics. Variation was observed for deep root traits (e.g. 111.4-178.5cm (60%) for depth; 0.09-0.22cm/°C day (144%) for descent rate) using soil coring in the field environments. There was significant variation for root traits between sites, and variation in the relative performance of genotypes between sites. However, genotypes were identified that performed consistently well or poorly at both sites. Furthermore, high-performing genotypes were statistically superior in root traits than low-performing genotypes or commercial varieties. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between green leaf score (-0.5), CTD (0.45), and rooting depth and a positive correlation for chlorophyll reflectance (0.32). Shoot phenotypes did not predict other root traits. This study suggests that field coring can directly identify variation in deep root traits to speed up selection of genotypes for breeding programmes. PMID:24963000

Wasson, A P; Rebetzke, G J; Kirkegaard, J A; Christopher, J; Richards, R A; Watt, M

2014-11-01

381

Soil coring at multiple field environments can directly quantify variation in deep root traits to select wheat genotypes for breeding  

PubMed Central

We aim to incorporate deep root traits into future wheat varieties to increase access to stored soil water during grain development, which is twice as valuable for yield as water captured at younger stages. Most root phenotyping efforts have been indirect studies in the laboratory, at young plant stages, or using indirect shoot measures. Here, soil coring to 2 m depth was used across three field environments to directly phenotype deep root traits on grain development (depth, descent rate, density, length, and distribution). Shoot phenotypes at coring included canopy temperature depression, chlorophyll reflectance, and green leaf scoring, with developmental stage, biomass, and yield. Current varieties, and genotypes with breeding histories and plant architectures expected to promote deep roots, were used to maximize identification of variation due to genetics. Variation was observed for deep root traits (e.g. 111.4–178.5cm (60%) for depth; 0.09–0.22cm/°C day (144%) for descent rate) using soil coring in the field environments. There was significant variation for root traits between sites, and variation in the relative performance of genotypes between sites. However, genotypes were identified that performed consistently well or poorly at both sites. Furthermore, high-performing genotypes were statistically superior in root traits than low-performing genotypes or commercial varieties. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between green leaf score (–0.5), CTD (0.45), and rooting depth and a positive correlation for chlorophyll reflectance (0.32). Shoot phenotypes did not predict other root traits. This study suggests that field coring can directly identify variation in deep root traits to speed up selection of genotypes for breeding programmes. PMID:24963000

Wasson, A. P.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Christopher, J.; Richards, R. A.; Watt, M.

2014-01-01

382

The isolation of Actinomyces naeslundii from sound root surfaces and root carious lesions.  

PubMed

The isolation of Actinomyces naeslundii from sound, exposed root surfaces (n = 56) and soft and leathery root carious lesions (n = 71) was investigated. Root carious lesions were sampled after the removal of overlying plaque. Supragingival plaque or carious dentine was sampled using a sterile excavator, the samples were disaggregated and cultured on both selective and non-selective media. A. naeslundii isolates were identified to the genospecies using specific antisera. Significantly greater numbers and proportions of A. naeslundii genospecies 2 than A. naeslundii genospecies 1 were isolated from all sites sampled. There was no significant difference between the numbers and proportions of the two genospecies isolated from leathery and soft lesions. The relationship between the presence of A. naeslundii genospecies and aciduric and acidogenic organisms was investigated. Those sound exposed root surfaces from which A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and/or 2 were isolated yielded significantly lower numbers of lactobacilli and yeasts than the surfaces from which A. naeslundii were not isolated. This difference was also found in leathery lesions but not soft root carious lesions. The microflora of soft root carious lesions was found to comprise primarily gram-positive pleomorphic rods which formed 70+/-7.8% of the flora, while in plaque from exposed root surfaces and in infected dentine from leathery lesions the gram-positive pleomorphic rods represented only 35% of the flora. PMID:9544857

Brailsford, S R; Lynch, E; Beighton, D

1998-01-01

383

Optical characterization of Nd (3+):AgBr.  

PubMed

The luminescence of silver bromide crystals, doped with neodymium, was investigated over the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The emission, excitation, and absorption spectra were measured over a broad temperature range. The absolute luminescence quantum yield was estimated by comparing the luminescence with that of a neodymium-doped phosphate glass, for which the manufacturer gives a value of 0.4. The Judd-Ofelt analysis was applied to both materials, and transition rates, branching ratios, and quantum efficiencies were calculated for all the observed bands. Good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment. PMID:18264290

Bunimovich, D; Nagli, L; Katzir, A

1997-10-20

384

In the long term root-related priming can lead to carbon loss and chemical alterations in the deep subsoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent publications and reviews concern the major importance of the deep subsoil for carbon (C) storage and cycling in terrestrial environments. However, the subsoil (below A horizon) and especially the deep subsoil (> 1m) is a target not easy to study and especially the relevant processes therein. Therefore, in the current study we focussed on recent and ancient root systems extending in terrestrial sediments until 9 m depth below the present surface and more than 7 m below the present soil. We sampled rhizosphere in the direct vicinity of the roots and with increasing distance (up to 10 cm) from visible root remains, and determined the root frequency in different depths. Additionally, sedimentary material without visible root remains was sampled for each of these depth intervals, and all samples were analysed for C contents and lipid composition. Main aim of the study was to obtain information of root effects on C content and composition in the deep subsoil. The loess-paleosol sequence of Nussloch (SW Germany) with a Cambisol on its top was chosen as a key site as recent and ancient roots were easy to assess and to differentiate. Furthermore, two sites near Sopron (NW Hungary) were sampled for recent tree roots rooting deeply (at least 4 m) into loess sediment. All samples were investigated for Corg, Ccarb and extractable lipid contents and the lipid composition. The frequency of recent roots strongly decreased with depth in the Nussloch profile until zero at 2 m depth below the present soil surface as recent tree vegetation was rather young (<7 years). In comparison to this, ancient tree root remains, frequently visible as carbonate precipitates surrounding the former roots, could be observed continuously until 9 m depth with the largest frequency (~200 roots m-2) at 2-3 m depth. However, only root remains of a diameter larger than 1 mm were counted, thus highly underestimating fine root remains, which were not counted throughout the profile due to their high frequency (>>10,000 m-2). In the rhizosphere of former and recent roots, Corg tended to slightly decrease compared to reference sediment. Ccarb contents revealed in some depths slight changes in the rhizosphere. Especially the precipitates surrounding the former roots were strongly enriched in Ccarb although the investigated sediments were rich in carbonate (20-40 mass-%). Taking into account the rhizolith frequency (only of the carbonate precipitates >1 mm), the bulk density, the carbon concentrations and the estimated extension of the rhizosphere, a decrease of more than 1 kg C m-2 was determined in the rhizosphere by comparison to root-free loess. The C loss was mainly related to the more depth intervals with densely occurring large root remains (>20 m-2) at a depth of less than 5 m, whereas in larger depth intervals with a lower frequency of root remains C contents slightly increased in the rhizosphere. Despite the high C storage in deep subsoil, root related processes might alter the chemical composition in the subsoil and can result in C loss in the long term.

Wiesenberg, Guido; Gocke, Martina

2013-04-01

385

Allometry of root branching and its relationship to root morphological and functional traits in three range grasses.  

PubMed

The study of proportional relationships between size, shape, and function of part of or the whole organism is traditionally known as allometry. Examination of correlative changes in the size of interbranch distances (IBDs) at different root orders may help to identify root branching rules. Root morphological and functional characteristics in three range grasses {bluebunch wheatgrass [Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Löve], crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.×A. cristatum (L.) Gaert.], and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)} were examined in response to a soil nutrient gradient. Interbranch distances along the main root axis and the first-order laterals as well as other morphological and allocation root traits were determined. A model of nutrient diffusivity parameterized with root length and root diameter for the three grasses was used to estimate root functional properties (exploitation efficiency and exploitation potential). The results showed a significant negative allometric relationship between the main root axis and first-order lateral IBD (P ? 0.05), but only for bluebunch wheatgrass. The main root axis IBD was positively related to the number and length of roots, estimated exploitation efficiency of second-order roots, and specific root length, and was negatively related to estimated exploitation potential of first-order roots. Conversely, crested wheatgrass and cheatgrass, which rely mainly on root proliferation responses, exhibited fewer allometric relationships. Thus, the results suggested that species such as bluebunch wheatgrass, which display slow root growth and architectural root plasticity rather than opportunistic root proliferation and rapid growth, exhibit correlative allometry between the main axis IBD and morphological, allocation, and functional traits of roots. PMID:21868398

Arredondo, J Tulio; Johnson, Douglas A

2011-11-01

386

Allometry of root branching and its relationship to root morphological and functional traits in three range grasses  

PubMed Central

The study of proportional relationships between size, shape, and function of part of or the whole organism is traditionally known as allometry. Examination of correlative changes in the size of interbranch distances (IBDs) at different root orders may help to identify root branching rules. Root morphological and functional characteristics in three range grasses {bluebunch wheatgrass [Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Löve], crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.×A. cristatum (L.) Gaert.], and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)} were examined in response to a soil nutrient gradient. Interbranch distances along the main root axis and the first-order laterals as well as other morphological and allocation root traits were determined. A model of nutrient diffusivity parameterized with root length and root diameter for the three grasses was used to estimate root functional properties (exploitation efficiency and exploitation potential). The results showed a significant negative allometric relationship between the main root axis and first-order lateral IBD (P ?0.05), but only for bluebunch wheatgrass. The main root axis IBD was positively related to the number and length of roots, estimated exploitation efficiency of second-order roots, and specific root length, and was negatively related to estimated exploitation potential of first-order roots. Conversely, crested wheatgrass and cheatgrass, which rely mainly on root proliferation responses, exhibited fewer allometric relationships. Thus, the results suggested that species such as bluebunch wheatgrass, which display slow root growth and architectural root plasticity rather than opportunistic root proliferation and rapid growth, exhibit correlative allometry between the main axis IBD and morphological, allocation, and functional traits of roots. PMID:21868398

Arredondo, J. Tulio; Johnson, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

387

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

388

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-04-01

389

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphael; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

390

The improved Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assay for clastogenicity of environmental pollutants.  

PubMed

The meristematic mitotic cells of plant roots are appropriate and efficient cytogenetic materials for the detection of clastogenicity of environmental pollutants, especially for in situ monitoring of water contaminants. Among several cytological endpoints in these fast dividing cells, such as chromosome/chromatid aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei, the most effective and simplest indicator of cytological damage is micronucleus formation. Although the Allium cepa and Vicia faba root meristem micronucleus assays (Allium/Vicia root MCN) have been used in clastogenicity studies about 12 times by various authors in the last 25 years, there is no report on the comparison of the efficiency of these two plant systems and in different cell populations (meristem and F1) of the root tip as well as under adequate recovery duration. In order to maximize the efficiency of these bioassays, the current study was designed to compare the Allium and the Vicia root MCN assays on the basis of chromosome length, peak sensitivity of the mitotic cells, and the regions of the root tip where the MCN are formed. The total length of the 2n complement of Allium chromosomes is 14.4 microns and the total length of the 2n complement of Vicia is 9.32 microns. The peak sensitivity determined by serial fixation at 12-h intervals after 100 R of X-irradiation is 44 h. The slope of the X-ray dose-response curve of Allium roots derived from the meristematic regions was lower than that derived from cells in the F1 region. Higher efficiency was also demonstrated when the MCN frequencies were scored from the F1 cells in both Allium and Vicia treated with formaldehyde (FA), mitomycin C (MMC), and maleic hydrazide (MH). The results indicated that scoring of MCN frequencies from the F1 cell region of the root tip was more efficient than scoring from the meristematic region. The X-ray linear regression dose-response curves were established in both Allium and Vicia cell systems and the coefficients of correlations, slope values were used to verify the reliability and efficiency of these two plant cell systems. Based on the dose-response slope value of 0.894 for Allium and 0.643 for Vicia, the Allium root MCN was a more efficient test system. The greater sensitivity of the Allium roots is probably due to the greater total length of the diploid complement and the higher number of metacentric chromosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7885371

Ma, T H; Xu, Z; Xu, C; McConnell, H; Rabago, E V; Arreola, G A; Zhang, H

1995-04-01