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1

Direct synthesis of bimetallic Pd3Ag nanoalloys from bulk Pd3Ag alloy.  

PubMed

We report a transformative, all inorganic synthesis method of preparing supported bimetallic Pd(3)Ag alloy nanoparticles. The method involves breaking down bulk Pd(3)Ag alloy into the nanoparticles in liquid lithium, converting metallic Li to LiOH, and transferring Pd(3)Ag nanoparticles/LiOH mixture onto non-water-soluble supports, followed by leaching off the LiOH with water under ambient conditions. The size of the resulting Pd(3)Ag nanoparticles was found narrowly distributed around 2.3 nm characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). In addition, studies by X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy showed that the resulting Pd(3)Ag nanoparticles inherited similar atomic ratio and alloy structure as the starting material. The synthesized Pd(3)Ag nanoparticles exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward hydrogenation of acrolein to propanal. PMID:23186229

Lin, Chi-Kai; Lin, Yan-Gu; Wu, Tianpin; Barkholtz, Heather M; Lin, Qiyin; Wei, Haojuan; Brewe, Dale L; Miller, Jeffrey T; Liu, Di-Jia; Ren, Yang; Ito, Yasuo; Xu, Tao

2012-12-17

2

Complex antiferromagnetic order in Dy3Ag4Sn4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the complex magnetic ordering of the Dy sublattices in orthorhombic Dy3Ag4Sn4 by high-resolution neutron diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic ordering in this compound occurs over two transitions. At 16 K the Dy(2d) site orders in a doubled commensurate antiferromagnetic structure described by a propagation vector [0~\\frac {1}{2}~0] , with moments aligned along [100]. The Dy(4e) site orders incommensurately with a propagation vector [0 0.628(1) 0] and moments in the (001) plane. Below the second transition at 14 K both Dy site ordering modes are commensurate antiferromagnetic with the propagation vector [0~\\frac {1}{2}~0] and unchanged ordering directions. The 119Sn Mössbauer spectra comprise three magnetically split sextets in the area ratio 50%:25%:25% due to transferred hyperfine fields at the 119Sn nuclei from the surrounding magnetic Dy neighbours. This spectral decomposition deviates from the area ratio 50%:50% expected on the basis of the crystal structure and is in perfect agreement with the magnetic structure of Dy3Ag4Sn4 deduced from neutron diffraction data.

Perry, Laura K.; Cadogan, J. M.; Ryan, D. H.; Canepa, F.; Napoletano, M.; Mazzone, D.; Riani, P.

2006-06-01

3

Multiple scattering effects on X-ray photoelectron diffraction from Si(111) ?3 × ?3-Ag and -Sb surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of multiple scattering (MS) on X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) from Si(111)?3 × ?3-Ag and -Sb (referred to as ?3-Ag and -Sb) surfaces have been studied using a MS concentric-shell algorithm for sufficiently large clusters. Significant MS effects that cannot be reconciled by a kinematical treatment have been seen for the ?3-Ag surface, but not for the ?3-Sb surface. This indicates that previous XPD studies on the ?3-Ag surface were incomplete due to the failure of single scattering theory, and explains why prior XPD studies on this surface were not successful at first in predicting a presently widely accepted model. With a reliability factor analysis for MS simulations, we have shown that the ?3-Ag surface is formed in a honeycomb-chained-trimer model with its structural parameters consistent with those from other techniques.

Chen, X.; Abukawa, T.; Kono, S.

1996-06-01

4

Roots.  

PubMed

Many unicellular eukaryotic organisms possess complex fiber systems that organize and anchor the flagellar basal apparatus in the cell [20, 24]. In 1978 we first published the observation that one of these fiber systems, the striated flagellar root of the quadriflagellate green alga Tetraselmis subcordiformis (= Platymonas subcordiformis), is a contractile organelle [31]. We subsequently found that striated flagellar roots are composed, in part, of the Ca(2+)-binding protein centrin [30]. Since that time, centrin has been found to be a ubiquitous component of the flagellar basal apparatus, basal bodies and centrioles, and centrosomes and mitotic spindle poles of eukaryotic cells (for general reviews see [28, 34]). While we have learned a great deal about centrin from other organisms, our earliest success in understanding the biology of centrin was in large part due to the extraordinary extent to which Tetraselmis cells have elaborated their centrin-based organelles. In this paper, I will return attention to several unanswered questions concerning Tetraselmis striated flagellar root behavior and I will suggest several new directions that students may wish to pursue in order to tease fresh insights from this fascinating organism. PMID:9495031

Salisbury, J L

1998-01-01

5

Stochastic modeling of salt accumulation in the root zone due to capillary flux from brackish groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater can be a source of both water and salts in semiarid areas, and therefore, capillary pressure-induced upward water flow may cause root zone salinization. To identify which conditions result in hazardous salt concentrations in the root zone, we combined the mass balance equations for salt and water, further assuming a Poisson-distributed daily rainfall and brackish groundwater quality. For the water fluxes (leaching, capillary upflow, and evapotranspiration), we account for osmotic effects of the dissolved salt mass using Van`t Hoff's law. Root zone salinity depends on salt transport via capillary flux and on evapotranspiration, which concentrates salt in the root zone. Both a wet climate and shallow groundwater lead to wetter root zone conditions, which in combination with periodic rainfall enhances salt removal by leaching. For wet climates, root zone salinity (concentrations) increases as groundwater is more shallow (larger groundwater influence). For dry climates, salinity increases as groundwater is deeper because of a drier root zone and less leaching. For intermediate climates, opposing effects can push the salt balance either way. Root zone salinity increases almost linearly with groundwater salinity. With a simple analytical approximation, maximum concentrations can be related to the mean capillary flow rate, leaching rate, water saturation, and groundwater salinity for different soils, climates, and groundwater depths.

Shah, S. H. H.; Vervoort, R. W.; Suweis, S.; Guswa, A. J.; Rinaldo, A.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

2011-09-01

6

Effect of Ag interlayer on the optical and passivation properties of flexible and transparent Al2O3\\/Ag\\/Al2O3 multilayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the characteristics of a flexible Al2O3\\/Ag\\/Al2O3 multilayer passivation grown on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate as a function of Ag thickness. Due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects and the ductility of the Ag layer that is sandwiched between the dielectric Al2O3 layer, the flexible Al2O3\\/Ag\\/Al2O3 multilayer passivation exhibits a high transparency of 86.44% and improved

Jin-A. Jeong; Han-Ki Kim; Min-Su Yi

2008-01-01

7

Reduced filament coupling in Bi(2223)/BaZrO 3/Ag composite tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifilamentary Bi(2223)/Ag tapes often exhibit AC loss levels comparable to those measured in monofilamentary samples, which is partly due to the large coupling currents induced in the low resistive sheath material. Surrounding the individual filaments by electrically insulating barrier layers suppresses these currents and strongly reduces the coupling. We demonstrate this effect with various types of magnetic and self-field AC loss measurements on a series of Bi(2223)/BaZrO 3/Ag tapes. We also discuss the influence of barrier thickness, twist pitch length and filament arrangement on the measured losses in these composite conductors.

Dhallé, M.; Polcari, A.; Marti, F.; Witz, G.; Huang, Y. B.; Flükiger, R.; Clerc, St.; Kwasnitza, K.

1998-12-01

8

Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er3+:Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites are synthesized in a new reducing glass (dielectric) matrix K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 by a single-step melt-quench technique involving selective thermochemical reduction. The UV-vis-near-infrared absorption spectra show typical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag0 nanoparticles (NPs) in addition to the distinctive absorption peaks of Er3+ ion. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction results indicate formation of Ag0 NPs along the (200) plane direction. The transmission electron microscopic image reveals the formation of spherical, fractal, and rod-shaped Ag0 NPs having maximum size ~31 nm. The rod-shaped Ag0 NPs have aspect ratio ~2.4. The field emission scanning electron microscopic image shows development of three dimensional cornlike microstructures. Photoluminescent upconversion under excitation at 798 nm exhibit two prominent emission bands of Er3+ ions centered at 536 (green) and 645 (red) nm due to 4S3/2-->4I15/2 and 4F9/2-->4I15/2 transitions, respectively. Both the bands undergo a maximum of three- and eightfold intensity enhancement, respectively, at Ag0 concentration of 0.007 wt % (1.8×1018 atoms/cm3). Local field enhancement induced by Ag0 SPR is found to be responsible for enhancement while energy transfer from Er3+-->Ag0 and optical reabsorption due to Ag0 SPR for quenching.

Som, Tirtha; Karmakar, Basudeb

2009-01-01

9

Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern hardwood forest.  

PubMed

The depth and duration of snow pack is declining in the northeastern United States as a result of warming air temperatures. Since snow insulates soil, a decreased snow pack can increase the frequency of soil freezing, which has been shown to have important biogeochemical implications. One of the most notable effects of soil freezing is increased inorganic nitrogen losses from soil during the following growing season. Decreased nitrogen retention is thought to be due to reduced root uptake, but has not yet been measured directly. We conducted a 2-year snow-removal experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA to determine the effects of soil freezing on root uptake and leaching of inorganic nitrogen simultaneously. Snow removal significantly increased the depth of maximal soil frost by 37.2 and 39.5 cm in the first and second winters, respectively (P < 0.001 in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010). As a consequence of soil freezing, root uptake of ammonium declined significantly during the first and second growing seasons after snow removal (P = 0.023 for 2009 and P = 0.005 for 2010). These observed reductions in root nitrogen uptake coincided with significant increases in soil solution concentrations of ammonium in the Oa horizon (P = 0.001 for 2009 and 2010) and nitrate in the B horizon (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 for 2009 and 2010, respectively). The excess flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the Oa horizon that was attributable to soil freezing was 7.0 and 2.8 kg N ha(-1) in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The excess flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the B horizon was lower, amounting to 1.7 and 0.7 kg N ha(-1) in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Results of this study provide direct evidence that soil freezing reduces root nitrogen uptake, demonstrating that the effects of winter climate change on root function has significant consequences for nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems. PMID:24574104

Campbell, John L; Socci, Anne M; Templer, Pamela H

2014-08-01

10

Unoccupied Surface States on Si(111) ?3×?3 - Ag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly-metallic surface state band on Si(111)?3×?3 - Ag is mapped out using inverse photoemission, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and Si2p core level photoemission. The band spans most of the bulk band gap of Si, leaving only a very small surface band gap near the valence band maximum, which is necessary for a structure with an even number of electrons per unity cell. The findings are in qualitative agreement with first-principles calculations(S. Watanabe, M. Aono, and M. Tsukada, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8330 (1991); Y.G. Ding, C.T. Chan, and K.M. Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1454 (1991) and Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2452 (1992).). The density of surface states near the Fermi level is estimated from the doping dependence of the Fermi level pinning position at the surface, measured by photoemission from the Si2p core level. A second, prominent feature at 2.2 eV above the valence band maximum is assigned to the bulk L1 point via surface umklapp.

Viernow, J.; Petrovykh, D.; Lin, J. L.; O'Brien, W. L.; Leibsle, F. M.; Himpsel, F. J.; Men, F. K.

1997-03-01

11

Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg?1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release.

Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

2010-01-01

12

The evaluation of liquid crystal thermography in the investigation of nerve root compression due to lumbosacral lateral spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The role of liquid crystal thermography (LCT) in the investigation of nerve root compression due to lumbosacral lateral spinal stenosis was evaluated using a quantitative analysis technique. In 28 healthy volunteers, normal lower limb dermatomal asymmetry was found to follow a Gaussian distribution, with a normal range of less than 1.0 degree for the lower limbs and less than 1.9 degrees for the feet. The results of LCT from a patient group were compared with those from other investigations, with the following results: clinical assessment (107 patients), 53% agreement; myelography (60 patients), 45% agreement; computerized tomography (35 patients), 46% agreement; electromyography (27 patients), 41% agreement; and surgical findings (19 patients), 53% agreement. Each method of investigation was compared against the surgeon's final overall assessment. Clinical assessment agreed in 76%, myelography in 71%, computerized tomography in 71%, and electromyography in 70%. However, agreement could be demonstrated in only 48% of cases using LCT; therefore, it would appear that LCT is by far the least reliable of these techniques in the diagnosis of nerve root compression. PMID:3750079

Mills, G H; Davies, G K; Getty, C J; Conway, J

1986-06-01

13

Highly luminescent material based on Alq3:Ag nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is an organic semiconductor molecule, widely used as an electron transport layer, light emitting layer in organic light-emitting diodes and a host for fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes. In this work thin films of pure and silver (Ag), cupper (Cu), terbium (Tb) doped Alq3 nanoparticles were synthesized using the physical vapor condensation method. They were fabricated on glass substrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible absorption spectra and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) properties. SEM and AFM results show spherical nanoparticles with size around 70-80 nm. These nanoparticles have almost equal sizes and a homogeneous size distribution. The maximum absorption of Alq3 nanoparticles is observed at 300 nm, while the surface plasmon resonant band of Ag doped sample appears at 450 nm. The PL emission spectra of Tb, Cu and Ag doped Alq3 nanoparticles show a single broad band at around 515 nm, which is similar to that of the pure one, but with enhanced PL intensity. The sample doped with Ag at a concentration ratio of Alq3:Ag = 1:0.8 is found to have the highest PL intensity, which is around 2 times stronger than that of the pure one. This enhancement could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag ions that might have increased the absorption and then the quantum yield. These remarkable result suggest that Alq3 nanoparticles incorporated with Ag ions might be quite useful for future nano-optoelectronic devices. PMID:23653126

Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S; Khan, Zishan H

2013-09-01

14

Surface plasmon polariton enhanced electroluminescence and electron emission from electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes results in voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) curves. Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) develop simultaneously. The temperature dependence between 200 and 300 K of VCNR, EL, and EM of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. I-V curves and VCNR are slightly temperature dependent. The voltage for the onset of EL, VEL, is between ~1.3 and ~1.9 V for the range of Al2O3 thicknesses, with small temperature dependence. The density of defects in anodic Al2O3 is >1.5 × 1020 cm-3. Defect conduction bands that form from excited states of F- or F+-centers, oxygen vacancies in Al2O3, determine the value of the barrier height at the Al-Al2O3 interface, ?A, and they control EM. EM is anomalous. The threshold voltage for EM, VEM, is ~1.9 to ~2.5 V for the range of Al2O3 thicknesses, which is less than the work function of Ag, 4.6 eV. EM at 300 K is ~10-9 A. As temperature is lowered, EM drops to ~10-12 A at TD ? 290 K and recovers to ~10-9 A at TR ? 260 K. The particular values of TD and TR depend on sample preparation and Al2O3 thickness. The source of anomalous EM is electrons that tunnel through the high field region at the Al-Al2O3 interface into defect conduction bands. They gain energy and momentum by combining with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that are generated at the Al2O3-Ag interface by EL photons. EL from Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with 12 nm or 15 nm of Al2O3 is much larger than EL from diodes with thicker Al2O3 layers. The conducting channel of electroformed diodes with the thinnest Al2O3 acts as a microcavity in which the electromagnetic field due to SPPs stimulates EL from defect centers by the Purcell effect.

Hickmott, T. W.

2012-10-01

15

Plasmonics properties of trimetallic Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AuAg nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

2014-05-01

16

Properties of a new type Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode for zinc electrowinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode was produced via composite casting. Its electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction and corrosion resistance was evaluated by anodic polarization curves and accelerated corrosion test, respectively. The microscopic morphologies of the anode section and anodic oxidation layer during accelerated corrosion test were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the composite anode (hard anodizing) displays a more compact interfacial combination and a better adhesive strength than plating tin. Compared with industrial Pb-0.3%Ag anodes, the oxygen evolution overpotentials of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) at 500 A·m-2 were lower by 57 and 14 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of Pb-0.3%Ag alloy, Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing), and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) were 13.977, 9.487, and 11.824 g·m-2·h-1, respectively, in accelerated corrosion test for 8 h at 2000 A·m-2. The anodic oxidation layer of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) is more compact than Pb-0.3%Ag alloy and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) after the test.

Yang, Hai-tao; Liu, Huan-rong; Zhang, Yong-chun; Chen, Bu-ming; Guo, Zhong-cheng; Xu, Rui-dong

2013-10-01

17

Hydrogen-induced reconstruction of Si(111)-?3-Ag surface studied by TOF-ICISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural change of Si(111)-?3 × ?3-Ag surfaces caused by atomic hydrogen adsorption has been studied using low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. Computer simulations of ion scattering spectra have been carried out for various kinds of the morphology of the Ag deposit. Comparison of the simulation results with the observed change of the spectra reveals that the Ag monolayer with the ?3 × ?3-Ag structure is transformed into small Ag(111) clusters epitaxially grown on Si(111) by hydrogen adsorption at room temperature.

Kinoshita, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yasunori; Sumitomo, Koji; Shoji, Fumiya; Oura, Kenjiro; Katayama, Itsuo

18

TOF-ICISS observation of Pb growth on the Si(111)- 3× 3 - Ag surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the Pb thin film growth on Si(111)-7 × 7 and Si(111)- 3× 3 - Ag surfaces at room temperature using time-of-flight impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (TOF-ICISS). From the angle-resolved TOF spectra of the Pb film grown onto each of these two different substrates, we found that Ag atoms on the Si(111) surface promote epitaxial growth of Pb film at room temperature. The crystalline quality of Pb(111) overlayers grown on the Si(111)- 3× 3 - Ag surface is much better than that grown on the clean Si(111)-7 × 7 surface, although the growth of the Pb film on the former surface occurs by the Stranski-Krastonov (SK) growth mode as well as the growth on the latter. In the presence of the 3× 3 - Ag layer, the Pb overlayer epitaxially grows with the orientation of Pb(111)[0I] overline1]?;Si(111)[01 overline1], which is the same as for the one grown on the clean Si(111)-7 × 7 surface. Also, we have found that the coverage of the 2D Pb layer in the SK growth is 1.35 ML on the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface, while it is 1.0 ML on the Si(111)- 3× 3 - Ag surface.

Ryu, Jeong-Tak; Kui, Kouichiro; Tanaka, Yasunori; Katayama, Mitsuhiro; Oura, Kenjiro; Katayama, Itsuo

1997-04-01

19

Neutron powder diffraction determination of the magnetic structure of Gd(3)Ag(4)Sn(4).  

PubMed

Natural gadolinium is the strongest neutron-absorbing element and neutron diffraction studies of Gd-containing materials rely on the use of either enriched Gd isotopes or short neutron wavelengths where the absorption is weaker but, unfortunately, the neutron flux is also weak. We have employed a new sample-mounting technique to obtain neutron powder diffraction patterns from the intermetallic compound Gd(3)Ag(4)Sn(4) containing natural Gd, at a neutron wavelength of ? 2.37 Å where there is much greater flux. Here, we report the magnetic structure of Gd(3)Ag(4)Sn(4). The magnetic ordering temperature is 28.8(2) K. At 2.8 K the Gd(4e) sublattice is antiferromagnetically ordered along the crystal c-axis, commensurate with the crystal lattice. The Gd(2d) sublattice is also ordered along the c-axis but its magnetic structure is incommensurate with the crystal lattice. PMID:21817443

Cadogan, J M; Ryan, D H; Napoletano, M; Riani, P; Cranswick, L M D

2009-03-25

20

Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of NaHCO3Ag Nano Compound Material Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convection heat transfer enhancement is an important issue since this problem is of particular interest in the field of energy and environment. Ag nano-solution is expected not only to enhance heat transfer but also to work for deodorization and antifungal effect. An experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer characteristics for NaHCO3-Ag nano-compound material solution in a long and straight

Byung Ha Kang; Juyeong Heo; Kyung Jae Kim

2009-01-01

21

Highly active WO3-Ag-ZnO photocatalyst driven by day light illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WO3 loaded Ag-ZnO (WO3-Ag-ZnO) was successfully synthesized by precipitation-decomposition method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and BET surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of WO3-Ag-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) in aqueous solution using solar light. WO3-Ag-ZnO is found to be more efficient than Ag-ZnO, WO3-ZnO, Ag-WO3, WO3, commercial ZnO, bare ZnO, TiO2-P25 and TiO2 (Merck) at pH 9 for the mineralization of NBB dye. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of NBB dye have been analyzed. The mineralization of NBB has been confirmed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measurements. A degradation mechanism is proposed for the degradation of NBB under solar light. This catalyst is found to be reusable.

Subash, B.; Krishnakumar, B.; Sreedhar, B.; Swaminathan, M.; Shanthi, M.

2013-02-01

22

Independently controllable stacked OLEDs with high efficiency by using semitransparent Al/WO3/Ag intermediate connecting layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high efficiency organic light-emitting device (OLED) has been fabricated by using a vertical stack of two OLED units connected by Al/WO3/Ag. In the stacked OLEDs, each unit can be independently biased. It is found that the introduction of WO3 between Al and Ag enhances the electroluminescent (EL) efficiency by 3.7 cd A-1 for the top emissive unit. Meanwhile, the EL efficiency of the stacked OLED with the Al/WO3/Ag interconnecting electrode is improved by 6 cd A-1 with respect to the case of using Al/Ag as the connecting electrode. Our results indicate that Al/WO3/Ag is an excellent kind of connecting structure for the fabrication of independently controlled high efficiency stacked OLEDs.

Zhang, H. M.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Dai, Y. F.

2008-05-01

23

Fabrication and characterization of visible-light-induced photocatalyst Gd 2 O 3 \\/Ag 3 VO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gd2O3\\/Ag3VO4 photocatalysts are synthesized through the impregnation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). It is shown\\u000a that Gd3+ is dispersed on the surface of Ag3VO4 in the form of Gd2O3. The DRS analysis indicates that the ability of visible-light absorption of Gd2O3\\/Ag3VO4 catalysts is

Guangsong Sun; Hui Xu; Huaming Li; Huoming Shu; Chengtang Liu; Qi Zhang

2010-01-01

24

A role for activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3) in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3; also known as GPSM1), a member of the AGS family, plays an important anti-apoptotic role through enhancing the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). In this report, we delineate the anti-apoptotic role of AGS3 in multiple myeloma (MM). To do this, we developed a cell apoptotic model induced by doxorubicin in MM. Our data indicate that decreased expression of AGS3 is correlated with reduced levels of p-CREB in the apoptotic model. The negative role of AGS3 in cell apoptosis was further confirmed by knocking down AGS3. The microenvironment has been shown to influence tumor cell phenotype in response to chemotherapy. Since cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance remains a major obstacle for successful treatment of MM, we constructed a cell adhesion model in MM and detected the changing of AGS3 protein expression. AGS3 siRNA reversed the high rate of MM cell adhesion to either fibronectin or HS-5 cells. Consistent with the reduced adhesion rate, the cells also exhibited reduced drug resistance to doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone. Collectively, these data indicate that AGS3 may be represented as a good candidate for pursuing clinical trials in MM. Moreover, our data provide a clinical therapeutic target for MM and potentially other tumors that home and/or metastasize to the bone. PMID:24307516

Shao, Shan; Huang, Xianting; Wang, Yuchan; He, Song; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Xinghua; Yang, Xiaojing; Ding, Zongmei; Yao, Li; Huang, Yuejiao; Wang, Chun

2014-01-01

25

Defective chemokine signal integration in leukocytes lacking activator of G protein signaling 3 (AGS3).  

PubMed

Activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3, gene name G-protein signaling modulator-1, Gpsm1), an accessory protein for G-protein signaling, has functional roles in the kidney and CNS. Here we show that AGS3 is expressed in spleen, thymus, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and is up-regulated upon leukocyte activation. We explored the role of AGS3 in immune cell function by characterizing chemokine receptor signaling in leukocytes from mice lacking AGS3. No obvious differences in lymphocyte subsets were observed. Interestingly, however, AGS3-null B and T lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exhibited significant chemotactic defects as well as reductions in chemokine-stimulated calcium mobilization and altered ERK and Akt activation. These studies indicate a role for AGS3 in the regulation of G-protein signaling in the immune system, providing unexpected venues for the potential development of therapeutic agents that modulate immune function by targeting these regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24573680

Branham-O'Connor, Melissa; Robichaux, William G; Zhang, Xian-Kui; Cho, Hyeseon; Kehrl, John H; Lanier, Stephen M; Blumer, Joe B

2014-04-11

26

Refinement of the Si(111) 3 × 3-Ag structure by surface X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the Si(111) 3 × 3-Ag surface has been determined from the least-squares analysis of nine integral order and nine fractional order rod profiles observed by surface X-ray diffraction. The result is consistent with the HCT (honeycomb chained triangle) model, corresponding to the missing top layer model. Values of the structural and Debye-Waller parameters for the atoms in the top Ag layer and underneath seven Si layers have been obtained. The Ag layer is 3.05 ± 0.02 Å from the top of the intact first Si double layer of substrate. The interatomic distance of nearest-neighbour Ag atoms is 3.43 ± 0.01 Å. The substrate is heavily reconstructed up to the depth of the fourth Si layer,˜ 6.4 Å from the top Ag layer. The Si atoms of the first layer forming the trimer are displayed by - 0.10 ± 0.02 Å in the normal direction and 0.88 ± 0.03 Å in the lateral direction. The third and fourth Si layers are split into two planes in the normal direction by 0.35 ± 0.05 and 0.23 ± 0.04 Å, respectively. The values of the Debye-Waller parameters for the Ag atoms and the Si atoms of the second and one third of the third layers become apparently large compared with the values in crystals.

Takahashi, T.; Nakatani, S.

1993-02-01

27

Influence of indium addition on characteristics of Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu solder alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of indium (In) addition on solidus and liquidus temperatures, wetting time, wetting force, tensile strength, and microhardness of Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu lead-free solder alloy were investigated in this paper. Indium was added and varied from 0 to 3wt%. It is found that solidus and liquidus temperatures of the solder alloy are lowered as the In content is increased. However, In also

Kannachai Kanlayasiri; Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn; Tadashi Ariga

2009-01-01

28

Syntheses, structures, and electronic properties of Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6.  

PubMed

The compounds Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6 have been synthesized by the reactions of BaS, U, S, and M (= Fe or Ag) at 1223 K. These two isostructural compounds crystallize in the K4CdCl6 structure type in the trigonal system in space group D3d(6)–R3c. Both structures feature infinite ?(1)[MUS6(6–)] chains along c that are separated by Ba atoms. The ?(1)[FeUS6(6–)] chains are formed by the face-sharing of US6 trigonal prisms with FeS6 octahedra; in contrast, the ?(1)[AgUS6(6–)] chains are formed by the face-sharing of US6 octahedra with AgS6 trigonal prisms. The Ba3FeUS6 compound charge balances with 3 Ba(2+), 1 Fe(2+), 1 U4+, and 6 S(2–), whereas Ba3AgUS6 charge balances with 3 Ba(2+), 1 Ag(1+), 1 U(5+), and 6 S(2–). This structure offers a remarkable flexibility in terms of the oxidation state of the incorporated uranium depending on the oxidation state of the d-block metal. DFT calculations performed with the HSE functional have led to band gaps of 2.3 and 2.2 eV for Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6, respectively. From resistivity measurements, the Arrhenius activation energies are 0.12(1) and 0.43(1) eV for Ba3FeUS6 and Ba3AgUS6, respectively. PMID:24564267

Mesbah, Adel; Malliakas, Christos D; Lebègue, Sébastien; Sarjeant, Amy A; Stojko, Wojciech; Koscielski, Lukasz A; Ibers, James A

2014-03-17

29

Nqrs Data for Ag3AsS3 [Ag3(AsS3)] (Subst. No. 0013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for Ag3AsS3 [Ag3(AsS3)] (Subst. No. 0013)

Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

30

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

31

The inhibitory effect of a Platycodon root extract on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation due to a decrease in Kit expression.  

PubMed

The signaling of stem cell factor (SCF) through its receptor Kit is known to play an important role in regulating cutaneous melanogenesis. In the course of UVB-induced pigmentation, the expression of membrane-bound SCF by epidermal keratinocytes is upregulated at an early phase and subsequently activates neighboring melanocytes via their Kit receptors. In order to identify effective skin-lightening materials, we screened botanical extracts to determine their abilities to diminish Kit expression in melanocytes. A Platycodon root extract was consequently found to have a remarkable inhibitory activity on Kit expression. When the extract was applied to three-dimensional human skin substitutes in vitro and to human skin in vivo after UVB irradiation, their pigmentation was significantly reduced, confirming the substantial contribution of the suppression of SCF/Kit signaling to preventing or inhibiting melanin synthesis. These data demonstrate that a Platycodon root extract is a promising material for a skin-lightening product to improve pigmentation-related diseases. PMID:24799080

Kasamatsu, Shinya; Hachiya, Akira; Shimotoyodome, Yoshie; Kameyama, Akiyo; Miyauchi, Yuki; Higuchi, Kazuhiko; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Shibuya, Yusuke; Kitahara, Takashi

2014-07-01

32

Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw). The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root reinforcement for tensile, shear and compression behavior allows the consideration of the stabilization effects of root networks on steep slopes and the influence that this has on the triggering of shallow landslides.

Schwarz, M.; Giadrossich, F.; Cohen, D.

2013-03-01

33

Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and subsequent prevention of radionuclide transport within the environment from the closed disposal area and potential exposure to site workers and the public.

French, Sean B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christensen, Candace [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jennings, Terry L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jaros, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wykoff, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowell, Kelly J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [URS

2008-01-01

34

Normal Autophagic Activity in Macrophages from Mice Lacking G?i3, AGS3, or RGS19  

PubMed Central

In macrophages autophagy assists antigen presentation, affects cytokine release, and promotes intracellular pathogen elimination. In some cells autophagy is modulated by a signaling pathway that employs G?i3, Activator of G-protein Signaling-3 (AGS3/GPSM1), and Regulator of G-protein Signaling 19 (RGS19). As macrophages express each of these proteins, we tested their importance in regulating macrophage autophagy. We assessed LC3 processing and the formation of LC3 puncta in bone marrow derived macrophages prepared from wild type, Gnai3-/-, Gpsm1-/-, or Rgs19-/- mice following amino acid starvation or Nigericin treatment. In addition, we evaluated rapamycin-induced autophagic proteolysis rates by long-lived protein degradation assays and anti-autophagic action after rapamycin induction in wild type, Gnai3-/-, and Gpsm1-/- macrophages. In similar assays we compared macrophages treated or not with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of GPCR (G-protein couple receptor) triggered G?i nucleotide exchange. Despite previous findings, the level of basal autophagy, autophagic induction, autophagic flux, autophagic degradation and the anti-autophagic action in macrophages that lacked G?i3, AGS3, or RGS19; or had been treated with pertussis toxin, were similar to controls. These results indicate that while G?i signaling may impact autophagy in some cell types it does not in macrophages.

Vural, Ali; McQuiston, Travis J.; Blumer, Joe B.; Park, Chung; Hwang, Il-Young; Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Shi, Chong-Shan; Ma, Dzwokai Zach; Kehrl, John H.

2013-01-01

35

Soil-root mechanical interactions within bundles of roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-soil mechanical interactions play an important role in strength and force redistribution in rooted soil. Recent advances in root reinforcement modeling implement detailed representation of root geometry and mechanical properties as well as root-soil mechanical interactions. Nevertheless, root-soil mechanical interactions are often considered at the single root scale ignoring interactions between neighboring roots and root bundles known to play important role in similar applications such as engineered composite material reinforcement. The objective was to quantify mechanical interactions among neighboring roots or roots network using pullout laboratory experiments and modeling. We focus on the on effects of such interactions on global pull out force of a bundle of roots via better understanding of transmission of radial stresses to soil matrix due to the friction at the interface soil-root. Additionally, we wish to predict how cumulative friction changes along a single root axis with and without branching points during the slipping out. Analytical models of fiber reinforced materials show the magnitude of bonded friction depends on three key parameters: bond modulus, maximal bond strength and difference between the Young moduli of fiber and Young moduli of matrix. Debonded friction is calculated assuming failure follows Coulomb failure that includes apparent cohesion, effective normal stress and residual root soil friction angle. We used a pullout device to measure displacement and force of individual roots and for the bundle of roots. Additionally, we monitored and detected activation of root-soil friction by six acoustic emission sensors placed on waveguide in contact with the soil matrix. Results from experiments with parallel and crossing roots demonstrated the importance of considering factors such as distance of root axis, branching points, crossing of roots and roots diameter for the behavior of bundle of roots and inclined roots during pullout. Acoustic emission measurements provided interesting insights into progressive activation of root-soil friction. These results enhance understanding of root reinforcement mechanism and enable more realistic implementation of root reinforcement modeling for stability calculation of vegetated slopes.

Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Preti, Federico; Or, Dani

2010-05-01

36

Effects on Undercooling and Interfacial Reactions with Cu Substrates of Adding Bi and In to Sn-3Ag Solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of adding Bi and In to Sn-3Ag Pb-free solder on undercooling, interfacial reactions with Cu substrates, and the growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The amount of Sn dominates the undercooling, regardless of the amount or species of further additives. The interfacial IMC that formed in Sn-Ag-Bi-In and Sn-In-Bi solders is Cu6Sn5, while that in Sn-Ag-In solders is Cu6(Sn,In)5, since Bi enhances the solubility of In in Sn matrices. The activation energy for the growth of IMCs in Sn-Ag-Bi-In is nearly double that in Sn-Ag-In solders, because Bi in the solder promotes Cu dissolution. The bright particles that form inside the Sn-Ag-In bulk solders are the ?-phase.

Chiang, Yu-Yan; Cheng, Robbin; Wu, Albert T.

2010-11-01

37

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology.

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

38

Formation, thermal, optical and physical properties of GeS 2 –Ga 2 S 3AgCl novel chalcohalide glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel GeS2–Ga2S3AgCl chalcohalide glasses had been prepared by melt-quenching technique, and the glass-forming region was determined by XRD,\\u000a which indicated that the maximum of dissolvable AgCl was up to 65 mol%. Thermal and optical properties of the glasses were\\u000a studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Visible-IR transmission, which showed that most of GeS2–Ga2S3AgCl glasses had strong glass-forming ability and broad

Guoping Dong; Haizheng Tao; Xiudi Xiao; Changgui Lin; Xiujian Zhao

2007-01-01

39

Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster  

PubMed Central

Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

Danjon, Frederic; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Celine

2013-01-01

40

Solid-Solid Reaction Between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Alloy and Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) Metallization Pad with Various Pd(P) Thicknesses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Pd(P) thickness on the solid-solid reaction between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) at 180°C was investigated in this study. The reaction was conducted after reflow, thereby removing the Au/Pd finish before the solid-state reaction. The reaction products included (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, Ni2SnP, and Ni3P, and their growth strongly depended on the Pd(P) thickness, especially for the former phases [i.e., (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP]. As the Pd(P) thickness increased from 0 ?m, to 0.1 ?m, to 0.22 ?m, the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 exhibited a needle-like dense layer, chunk-like morphology, and discontinuous morphology, respectively. The alternative phase (Ni2SnP) behaved in a manner opposite to that of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, growing with a discontinuous morphology to a dense layer with increasing Pd(P) thickness. However, this strong dependence disappeared when the solder joints were subsequently subjected to solid-state aging. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP both became layered structures for all cases examined. A high-speed ball shear (HSBS) test was conducted to quantify the mechanical response of the interfacial microstructures. The HSBS test results showed that any initial difference in shear strength caused by the various Pd(P) thicknesses could be reduced after the solid-state aging, which is consistent with the microstructural evolution observed. The mechanical strength of the solder joints was decreased due to the presence of a bi-intermetallic structure of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5/Ni2SnP at the interface. Detailed analysis of the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and Ni2SnP is also provided.

Ho, C. E.; Wu, W. H.; Hsu, L. H.; Lin, C. S.

2012-01-01

41

Template and silica interlayer tailorable synthesis of spindle-like multilayer ?-Fe2O3/Ag/SnO2 ternary hybrid architectures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

Our study reports a novel iron oxide/noble metal/semiconductor ternary multilayer hybrid structure that was synthesized through template synthesis and layer-by-layer deposition. Three different morphologies of ?-Fe2O3/Ag/SiO2/SnO2 hybrid architectures were obtained with different thicknesses of the SiO2 interlayer which was introduced for tailoring and controlling the coupling of noble metal Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with the SnO2 semiconductor. The resulting samples were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and optical property by various analytical techniques. The as-obtained ?-Fe2O3/Ag/SiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit enhanced visible light or UV photocatalytic abilities, remarkably superior to commercial pure SnO2 products, bare ?-Fe2O3 seeds, and ?-Fe2O3/SnO2 nanocomposites. Moreover, the sample of ?-Fe2O3/Ag/SiO2/SnO2 also exhibits good chemical stability and recyclability because it has higher photocatalytic activity even after eight cycles. The origin of enhanced photocatalytic activity on the multilayer core-shell ?-Fe2O3/Ag/SiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites was primarily ascribed to the coupling between noble metal Ag and the two semiconductors Fe2O3 and SnO2, which are proven to be applied in recyclable photocatalysis. PMID:24369679

Sun, Lingling; Wu, Wei; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Juan; Hong, Mengqing; Xiao, Xiangheng; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

2014-01-22

42

Effect of indium addition on the microstructural formation and soldered interfaces of Sn-2.5Bi-1Zn-0.3Ag lead-free solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural formation and properties of Sn-2.5Bi- xIn-1Zn-0.3Ag (in wt%) alloys and the evolution of soldered interfaces on a Cu substrate were investigated. Apart from the relatively low melting point (about 195°C), which is close to that of conventional eutectic Sn-Pb solder, the investigated solder presents superior wettability, solderability, and ductility. The refined equiaxial grains enhance the mechanical properties, and the embedded bulk intermetallic compounds (IMCs) (Cu6Sn5 and Cu5Zn8) and granular Bi particles improve the joint reliability. The addition of In reduces the solubility of Zn in the ?-Sn matrix and strongly influences the separation and growth behaviors of the IMCs. The soldered interface of Sn-2.5Bi- xIn-1Zn-0.3Ag/Cu consists of Cu-Zn and Cu-Sn IMC layers.

Dong, Ming-jie; Gao, Zhi-ming; Liu, Yong-chang; Wang, Xun; Yu, Li-ming

2012-11-01

43

Thermal behavior and microstructure of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn 3Ag 0.5Cu/Cu interface after soldering and isothermal aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior and microstructure of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu/Cu interface after soldering at 250 °C for 60 s and aging at 150 °C for various times have been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pull-off testing. The DSC result shows that the solidus and liquidus temperatures of the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy are 217 and 221 °C, respectively. The melting range of the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu is 4 °C smaller than 8.5 °C for the Sn-37Pb solder alloy. The major intermetallic compounds are monoclinic ?'-Cu 6Sn 5, hexagonal ?-Cu 6Sn 5 and Ag 3Sn when aged at 150 °C for 0-300 h. When aged for 100-300 h, the morphology of Cu 6Sn 5 transforms from scallop-shaped to planar. The thickness of Cu 6Sn 5 increases from 4.1±0.4 to 7.8±0.3 ?m when aging time increases from 0 to 300 h. The maximum and minimum adhesion strengths are 12.44±0.53 and 2.22±0.46 MPa, respectively, for as-soldered and aged (150 °C for 300 h) ones.

Liu, Chih-Yao; Lai, Chien-Hong; Wang, Moo-Chin; Hon, Min-Hsiung

2006-04-01

44

In situ observation of thermomigration of Sn atoms to the hot end of 96.5Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu flip chip solder joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of thermomigration in 96.5Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu flip chip solder joints at an ambient temperature of 150 °C. We observed mass protrusion on the chip side (hot end), indicating that Sn atoms moved to the hot end, and void formation on the substrate side (cold end). The diffusion markers also moved to the substrate side, in the same direction of the vacancy flux, indicating that the latter played a dominant role during the thermomigration process. The molar heat of transport (Q*) of the Sn atoms was 3.38 kJ/mol.

Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Kao, C.-L.

2011-12-01

45

Magneto-transport of high TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3 : Ag polycrystalline composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis, (micro)structure, magneto-transport and magnetization of polycrystalline La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3:Ag x composites with x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. The temperature coefficient of resistance ( TCR) near ferromagnetic ( FM) transition is increased significantly with the addition of Ag. The FM transition temperature (T) is also increased slightly with Ag addition. Magneto-transport measurements revealed that magneto-resistance MR is found to be maximum near T. Further the increased MR of up to 60% is seen above 300 K for higher silver added samples in an applied field of 7 T. Sharp TCR is seen near T with the highest value of up to 15% for Ag(0.4) sample, which is an order of magnitude higher than the present pristine sample and the best value yet reported for any polycrystalline LCMO compound. Increased TCR, T and significant above room temperature MR of La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3:Ag x composites is explained on the basis of improved grain size and connectivity with silver addition in the matrix. Better coupled FM domains and nearly conducting grain boundaries give rise to improved physical properties of the La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3 manganites.

Awana, V. P. S.; Tripathi, Rahul; Balamurugan, S.; Kishan, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

2006-12-01

46

Image analysis from root system pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

2009-04-01

47

Extended Ane Root Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two notions of the extended ane root systems in the literature which both are introduced axiomatically. One, extended ane root system (SAERS for short), consists only of nonisotropic roots, while the other, extended ane root system (EARS for short), contains certain isotropic roots too. We show that there is a one to one correspondence between (reduced) SEARSs and

Saeid Azam

2002-01-01

48

Energies and excited-state dynamics of 1Bu+, 1Bu- and 3Ag- states of carotenoids bound to LH2 antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved pump-probe stimulated-emission and transient-absorption spectra were recorded after excitation with ˜30 fs pulses to the 1Bu+(0) and optically-forbidden diabatic levels of carotenoids, neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene having n = 9-11 double bonds, bound to LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides G1C, 2.4.1 and Rhodospirillum molischianum. The low-energy shift of stimulated emission from the covalent 1Bu-(0) and 3Ag-(0) levels slightly larger than that from the ionic 1Bu+(0) state suggests the polarization, whereas more efficient triplet generation suggests the twisting of the conjugated chain in Cars bound to the LH2 complexes, when compared to Cars free in solution.

Christiana, Rebecca; Miki, Takeshi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Aoyagi, Shiho; Koyama, Yasushi; Limantara, Leenawaty

2009-10-01

49

Electronic structure study of ultrathin Ag(111) films modified by a Si(111) substrate and \\sqrt{3}\\times \\sqrt{3}-Ag2Bi surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that the electronic structure of a Ag(111) film grown on Si(111) is markedly perturbed by the formation of a \\sqrt{3}\\times \\sqrt{3}- Ag2Bi Rashba-type surface alloy. Four spin-split surface states, with different band dispersions and energy contours, intercept and hybridize selectively with the sp-derived quantum well states of the Ag layer. Detailed two-dimensional band mapping of the system was carried out and constant energy contours at different energies result in hexagonal-, star- and flower-like distortions of the quantum well states as a result of various interactions. Further wavy-like modulations of the electronic structure of the film are found to originate from umklapp reflections of the Ag film states according to the surface periodicity.

Ogawa, M.; Sheverdyaeva, P. M.; Moras, P.; Topwal, D.; Harasawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Carbone, C.; Matsuda, I.

2012-03-01

50

Spin and orbital magnetism of coinage metal trimers (Cu{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}, Au{sub 3}): A relativistic density functional theory study  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3} and Au{sub 3} trimers using a full potential local orbital method in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. We have also shown that the non-relativistic generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional gives reliable magnetic properties in coinage metal trimers compared to experiment. In addition we have indicated that the spin-orbit coupling changes the structure and magnetic properties of gold trimer while the structure and magnetic properties of copper and silver trimers are marginally affected. A significant orbital moment of 0.21?{sub B} was found for most stable geometry of the gold trimer whereas orbital magnetism is almost quenched in the copper and silver trimers.

Afshar, Mahdi [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sargolzaei, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-11-15

51

MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode in organic photovoltaic cells: Influence of the presence of a CuI buffer layer between the anode and the electron donor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoO3/Ag/MoO3 (MAM) multilayer structures (layers thickness 20 nm/10 nm/35 nm) are used as anode in CuPc/C60/Alq3/Al organic photovoltaic cells. The averaged transmittance (400 nm-800 nm) of these MoO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer structures is 70% +/- 2% and their sheet resistance is 3.5 +/- 1.0 ?/sq. When these multilayer structures are used as anode, the power conversion efficiency of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3/CuPc/C60/Alq3/Al cells is around 1%, this efficiency is increased of 50% when a thin CuI film (3 nm) is introduced at the interface between the anode and the organic film. This improvement is attributed to the templating effect of CuI on the CuPc molecules.

Makha, M.; Cattin, L.; Lare, Y.; Barkat, L.; Morsli, M.; Addou, M.; Khelil, A.; Bernède, J. C.

2012-12-01

52

Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina.  

PubMed

The authors have critically reviewed 8 cases which have come under their observation of a lumbosciatic syndrome due to redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina. Some of the clinical and myeloradiculographic features appear to be characteristic of this rare syndrome. Surgical intervention by decompressing the nerve roots of the cauda equina offers a very favourable prognosis. PMID:6234260

Pau, A; Sehrbundt Viale, E; Turtas, S; Zirattu, G

1984-03-01

53

Transgenic hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes causes hairy root disease in plants. The neoplastic roots produced by A. rhizogenes infection is characterized by high growth rate and genetic stability. These genetically transformed root cultures can produce higher levels of secondary metabolites or amounts comparable to that of intact plants. Hairy root cultures offer promise for production of valuable secondary metabolites in many plants. The

Archana Giri; M. Lakshmi Narasu

2000-01-01

54

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether geomorphically controlled variations in ecology affect the spatial distribution of root cohesion by measuring the distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of 15 native trees in the southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, United States. Root tensile strengths from different hardwood tree species were similar and consistently higher than the only native shrub species measured (Rhododendron maximum). Roots were stronger in trees found on noses (areas of divergent topography) relative to those in hollows (unchanneled, convergent topography) coincident with the variability in cellulose content. This cellulose variability is likely related to topographic differences in soil water potential. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface, with roots in hollows being more evenly distributed in the soil column than those on noses. Trees located on noses had higher mean root cohesion than those in hollows because of a higher root tensile force. R. maximum had the shallowest, weakest roots suggesting that recent expansion of this species due to fire suppression has likely lowered the root cohesion of some hollows. Quantification of this feedback between physiologic controls on root growth and slope hydrology has allowed us to create a curvature-based model of root cohesion that is a significant improvement on current models that assume a spatially averaged value.

Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J. M.; Band, L. E.

2009-09-01

55

Root-gel interactions and the root waving behavior of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis roots grown on inclined agarose gels exhibit a sinusoidal growth pattern known as root waving. While root waving has been attributed to both intrinsic factors (e.g. circumnutation) and growth responses to external signals such as gravity, the potential for physical interactions between the root and its substrate to influence the development of this complex phenotype has been generally ignored. Using a rotating stage microscope and time-lapse digital imaging, we show that (1) root tip mobility is impeded by the gel surface, (2) this impedance causes root tip deflections by amplifying curvature in the elongation zone in a way that is distinctly nontropic, and (3) root tip impedance is augmented by normal gravitropic pressure applied by the root tip against the gel surface. Thus, both lateral corrective bending near the root apex and root tip impedance could be due to different vector components of the same graviresponse. Furthermore, we speculate that coupling between root twisting and bending is a mechanical effect resulting from root tip impedance. PMID:15247406

Thompson, Matthew V; Holbrook, N Michele

2004-07-01

56

A type A aortic dissection missed by non-cardiac gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography due to an aortic root dissection flap masquerading as an aortic valve apparatus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Though computed tomographic angiography has very high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute aortic dissection, false-negative studies can occur and secondary tests may be required to make the diagnosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man with a typical presentation for acute type A aortic dissection in whom the initial non-cardiac gated computed tomographic angiogram was negative, leading to a delay in surgical management. Transesophageal echocardiography and post hoc 3D reconstruction of the original computed tomographic scan revealed a dissection flap confined to the aortic root, immediately superior to the sinuses of Valsalva and masquerading as part of the aortic valve apparatus. Conclusion This case demonstrates that false-negative computed tomographic angiograms taken to rule out type A aortic dissection can occur and that secondary imaging tests, such as echocardiography, should be performed in cases in which the pre-test probability of aortic dissection is high. Cardiac gating of computed tomographic angiograms to exclude aortic dissection may enhance diagnostic accuracy.

2013-01-01

57

A statistical approach to root system classification  

PubMed Central

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

58

A statistical approach to root system classification.  

PubMed

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

59

Effects of High-Temperature Treatment on the Reaction Between Sn-3%Ag-0.5%Cu Solder and Sputtered Ni-V Film on Ferrite Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated a novel sputtering method for lead-free thin metal films on ferrite substrates for surface-mount inductor applications. In a surface-mounting process, the cladding of enameled wire needs to be burnt off at high temperature, which requires the devices to withstand a high-temperature reliability test at 420°C for 10 s. There are no reports that a sputtered film of thickness less than 6 ?m can withstand this test. In this work, we used Ag/Ni-7 wt.%V double metal layers for the metallization. The dissolution of Ni-7 wt.%V in Sn-3%Ag-0.5%Cu lead-free solder at various temperatures was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial reaction between the sputtered films and the solder. The intermetallic compounds are mainly (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 at 250°C; however, (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 becomes the predominant composition at 420°C. In addition, although outdiffusion of V atoms from the Ni-V layer was observed, its effect on the intermetallic compound (IMC) was insignificant. We further confirmed that the proposed metallization is able to pass the aforementioned high-temperature reliability test.

Shen, Xiaohu; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shurong; Wong, Hei; Zhou, Jian; Guo, Zhaodi; Wang, Demiao

2012-11-01

60

Fabrication and characterization of WO3/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer is suitable for a transparent electrode because of its high-optical and high-electrical properties; however, it is fabricated by an expensive and inefficient multistep vacuum process. We present a WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). This WAW multilayer not only has high transmittance and low resistance but also can be easily and rapidly fabricated. We devised a novel method to deposit a thin WO3 layer by a solution process in an air environment. A tungstic acid solution was prepared from an aqueous solution of Na2WO4 and then converted to WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a thermal treatment. Thin WO3 NP layers form WAW multilayer with a thermal-evaporated Ag layer, and they improve the transmittance of the WAW multilayer because of its high transmittance and refractive index. Moreover, the surface of the WO3 layer is homogeneous and flat with low roughness because of the WO3 NP generation from the tungstic acid solution without aggregation. We performed optical simulation and experiments, and the optimized WAW multilayer had a high transmittance of 85% with a sheet resistance of 4 ?/sq. Finally, PLEDs based on the WAW multilayer anode achieved a maximum luminance of 35,550 cd/m2 at 8 V, and this result implies that the solution-processed WAW multilayer is appropriate for use as a transparent anode in PLEDs.

Jeon, Kangmin; Youn, Hongseok; Kim, Seongbeom; Shin, Seongbeom; Yang, Minyang

2012-05-01

61

The Root Pressure Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

Marsh, A. R.

1972-01-01

62

Short root anomaly.  

PubMed

A case of generalised short root anomaly is described. All permanent teeth had abnormally short roots, associated with microdontia, hypodontia and a dens invaginatus. Members of the patient's family were similarly affected. PMID:2261278

Edwards, D M; Roberts, G J

1990-11-10

63

Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.  

PubMed

Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260). PMID:22593551

Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

2012-01-01

64

Rooting Gene Trees without Outgroups: EP Rooting  

PubMed Central

Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167–181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301–316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60–76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489–493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763–766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–260).

Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Lake, James A.

2012-01-01

65

Pressure induced silver ion displacement in La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.82}SnS{sub 7}  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The silver ion shifts with increasing pressure in the direction of the central-point of sulphur trigonal antiprism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coordination number changes from CN = 3 to CN = 6 at {approx}3 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zero-pressure bulk modulus is B{sub 0} = 61.74 GPa and the pressure derivative is B{sup Prime }{sub 0}=4.02. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No phase transition up to 4.5 GPa was detected. -- Abstract: The compounds with the general formula Ln{sub 3}MTX{sub 7} (space group P6{sub 3}) (Ln - rare-earth element, M - monovalent element (Cu, Ag), T - Si, Ge, Sn and X - S, Se) are interesting owing to the possible application in the field of ionic conductivity. In the crystal structure the face-sharing [Ag(S){sub 6}] triangular antiprisms form the channels where the Ag{sup +} ion can migrate along the crystallographic c axis. High-pressure X-ray diffraction shows that Ag{sup +} ion moves towards the central-point of [Ag(S){sub 6}] when pressure is risen. As a consequence, the coordination number of Ag{sup +} changes from CN = 3 to CN = 6 at {approx}3 GPa. The La{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.82}SnS{sub 7} has stiff structure; zero-pressure bulk modulus is B{sub 0} = 61.74 GPa and the pressure derivative is B{sup Prime }{sub 0}=4.02.

Daszkiewicz, Marek, E-mail: m.daszkiewicz@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)] [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Gulay, Lubomir D. [Department of Ecology and Protection of Environment, Volyn National University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)] [Department of Ecology and Protection of Environment, Volyn National University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)

2012-02-15

66

Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve the issue and give valuable insight for the next generation of VEGGIE.

Subbiah, Arun M.

2013-01-01

67

Exploiting Catharanthus roseus roots: Source of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catharanthus roseus is among the most important medicinal plants, mainly due to its anticancer alkaloids.Phenolics and organic acids were studied in this plant’s roots, using HPLC–MS and HPLC–UV, respectively. Neither phenolic acids nor flavonoids could be identified, but an organic acid profile composed of oxalic, cis-aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic and fumaric acids was found. Roots proved to be much richer

David M. Pereira; Joana Faria; Luís Gaspar; Federico Ferreres; Patrícia Valentão; Mariana Sottomayor; Paula B. Andrade

2010-01-01

68

Cell wall properties play an important role in the emergence of lateral root primordia from the parent root  

PubMed Central

Plants adapt to their unique soil environments by altering the number and placement of lateral roots post-embryonic. Mutants were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibit increased lateral root formation. Eight mutants were characterized in detail and were found to have increased lateral root formation due to at least three distinct mechanisms. The causal mutation in one of these mutants was found in the XEG113 gene, recently shown to be involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis. Lateral root primordia initiation is unaltered in this mutant. In contrast, synchronization of lateral root initiation demonstrated that mutation of XEG113 increases the rate at which lateral root primordia develop and emerge to form lateral roots. The effect of the XEG113 mutation was specific to the root system and had no apparent effect on shoot growth. Screening of 17 additional cell wall mutants, altering a myriad of cell wall components, revealed that many (but not all) types of cell wall defects promote lateral root formation. These results suggest that proper cell wall biosynthesis is necessary to constrain lateral root primordia emergence. While previous reports have shown that lateral root emergence is accompanied by active remodelling of cell walls overlying the primordia, this study is the first to demonstrate that alteration of the cell wall is sufficient to promote lateral root formation. Therefore, inherent cell wall properties may play a previously unappreciated role in regulation of root system architecture.

Malamy, Jocelyn E.

2014-01-01

69

The root endodermis  

PubMed Central

The root endodermis is the cylindrical boundary that separates the inner vascular tissue from the outer cortex and functions as an apoplasmic barrier for selective nutrient uptake. Recent developmental and cell biological studies have started to reveal the mechanisms by which this single cell layer serves as a key regulatory module of root growth, tissue patterning and nutrient flow, which in concert support the plant’s ability to survive in a terrestrial habitat. This review provides an overview of the key factors that contribute to the functioning of the root endodermis and discusses how this single cell layer dictates root growth and tissue patterning.

Miyashima, Shunsuke

2011-01-01

70

ROOTING GUATEMALAN AVOCADO CUTTINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A method is described which, although not considered commercially practical, proved to be very successful in rooting cuttings of Guatemalan avocado varieties. Essentially it consists of obtaining cuttings from stems, the bases of which have at no time been exposed to light or low humidity. In certain experimental work with the avocado, own rooted trees, that is trees propagated

E. F. Frolich

71

Irrational Square Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

Misiurewicz, Michal

2013-01-01

72

Seeds: Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this indepth hands-on activity, learners build a structure that allows them to observe the growth of roots and the correlation between root growth and stem extension. Because no dirt is used in this arrangement, a guiding question can be posed: What does the plant need to grow? The PDF includes activity rationale, procedure, background and follow-up discussion suggestions.

Education Development Center, Inc.

2010-01-01

73

Desirable plant root traits for protecting unstable slopes against landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trait is defined as a distinct, quantitative property of organisms, usually measured at the individual level and used comparatively across species. Plant quantitative traits are extremely important for understanding the local ecology of any site. Plant height, architecture, root depth, wood density, leaf size and leaf nitrogen concentration control ecosystem processes and define habitat for other taxa. An engineer conjecturing as to how plant traits may directly influence physical processes occurring on sloping land just needs to consider how e.g. canopy architecture and litter properties influence the partitioning of rainfall among interception loss, infiltration and runoff. Plant traits not only influence abiotic processes occurring at a site, but also the habitat for animals and invertebrates. Depending on the goal of the landslide engineer, the immediate and long-term effects of plant traits in an environment must be considered if a site is to remain viable and ecologically successful. When vegetation is considered in models of slope stability, usually the only root parameters taken into consideration are tensile strength and root area ratio. Root system spatial structure is not considered, although the length, orientation and diameter of roots are recognized as being of importance. Thick roots act like soil nails on slopes, reinforcing soil in the same way that concrete is reinforced with steel rods. The spatial position of these thick roots also has an indirect effect on soil fixation in that the location of thin and fine roots will depend on the arrangement of thick roots. Thin and fine roots act in tension during failure on slopes and if they cross the slip surface, are largely responsible for reinforcing soil on slopes. Therefore, the most important trait to consider initially is rooting depth. To stabilize a slope against a shallow landslide, roots must cross the shear surface. The number and thickness of roots in this zone will therefore largely determine slope stability. Rooting depth is species dependent when soil conditions are not limiting and the number of horizontal lateral roots borne on the vertical roots usually changes with depth. Therefore, the number and orientation of roots that the shear surface intersects will change significantly with rooting depth for the same plant, even for magnitudes of only several cm. Similarly, depending on the geometry of the root system, the angle at which a root crosses the shear surface can also have an influence on its resistance to pullout and breakage. The angle at which a root emerges from the parent root is dependent on root type, depth and species (when soil conditions are not limiting). Due to the physiology of roots, a root branch can be initiated at any point along a parent root, but not necessarily emerge fully from the parent root. These traits, along with others including size, relative growth rate, regeneration strategies, wood structure and strength will be discussed with regard to their influence on slope stability. How each of these traits is influenced by soil conditions and plantation techniques is also of extreme importance to the landslide engineer. The presence of obstacles in the soil, as well as compaction, affects root length and branching pattern. Roots of many species of woody plants on shallow soils also tend to grow along fractures deep into the underlying bedrock which allows roots to locate supplies of nutrient and water rich pockets. Rooting depths of herbaceous species in water-limited environments are highly correlated with infiltration depth, but waterlogged soils can asphyxiate tree roots, resulting in shallow root systems. The need to understand and integrate each of these traits for a species is not easy. Therefore, we suggest a hierarchy whereby traits are considered in order of importance, along with how external factors influence their expression over time.

Stokes, A.; Atger, C.; Bengough, G.; Fourcaud, T.; Sidle, R. C.

2009-04-01

74

Regulation of Arabidopsis root development by small signaling peptides  

PubMed Central

Plant root systems arise de novo from a single embryonic root. Complex and highly coordinated developmental networks are required to ensure the formation of lateral organs maximizes plant fitness. The Arabidopsis root is well-suited to dissection of regulatory and developmental networks due to its highly ordered, predictable structure. A myriad of regulatory signaling networks control the development of plant roots, from the classical hormones such as auxin and cytokinin to short-range positional signaling molecules that relay information between neighboring cells. Small signaling peptides are a growing class of regulatory molecules involved in many aspects of root development including meristem maintenance, the gravitropic response, lateral root development, and vascular formation. Here, recent findings on the roles of regulatory peptides in these aspects of root development are discussed.

Delay, Christina; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A.

2013-01-01

75

Root hydrotropism: an update.  

PubMed

While water shortage remains the single-most important factor influencing world agriculture, there are very few studies on how plants grow in response to water potential, i.e., hydrotropism. Terrestrial plant roots dwell in the soil, and their ability to grow and explore underground requires many sensors for stimuli such as gravity, humidity gradients, light, mechanical stimulations, temperature, and oxygen. To date, extremely limited information is available on the components of such sensors; however, all of these stimuli are sensed in the root cap. Directional growth of roots is controlled by gravity, which is fixed in direction and intensity. However, other environmental factors, such as water potential gradients, which fluctuate in time, space, direction, and intensity, can act as a signal for modifying the direction of root growth accordingly. Hydrotropism may help roots to obtain water from the soil and at the same time may participate in the establishment of the root system. Current genetic analysis of hydrotropism in Arabidopsis has offered new players, mainly AHR1, NHR1, MIZ1, and MIZ2, which seem to modulate how root caps sense and choose to respond hydrotropically as opposed to other tropic responses. Here we review the mechanism(s) by which these genes and the plant hormones abscisic acid and cytokinins coordinate hydrotropism to counteract the tropic responses to gravitational field, light or touch stimuli. The biological consequence of hydrotropism is also discussed in relation to water stress avoidance. PMID:23258371

Cassab, Gladys I; Eapen, Delfeena; Campos, María Eugenia

2013-01-01

76

Deep rooting conferred by DEEPER ROOTING 1 enhances rice yield in paddy fields.  

PubMed

To clarify the effect of deep rooting on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an irrigated paddy field with or without fertilizer, we used the shallow-rooting IR64 and the deep-rooting Dro1-NIL (a near-isogenic line homozygous for the Kinandang Patong allele of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) in the IR64 genetic background). Although total root length was similar in both lines, more roots were distributed within the lower soil layer of the paddy field in Dro1-NIL than in IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. At maturity, Dro1-NIL showed approximately 10% higher grain yield than IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. Higher grain yield of Dro1-NIL was mainly due to the increased 1000-kernel weight and increased percentage of ripened grains, which resulted in a higher harvest index. After heading, the uptake of nitrogen from soil and leaf nitrogen concentration were higher in Dro1-NIL than in IR64. At the mid-grain-filling stage, Dro1-NIL maintained higher cytokinin fluxes from roots to shoots than IR64. These results suggest that deep rooting by DRO1 enhances nitrogen uptake and cytokinin fluxes at late stages, resulting in better grain filling in Dro1-NIL in a paddy field in this study. PMID:24988911

Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kondo, Motohiko; Uga, Yusaku

2014-01-01

77

Deep rooting conferred by DEEPER ROOTING 1 enhances rice yield in paddy fields  

PubMed Central

To clarify the effect of deep rooting on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an irrigated paddy field with or without fertilizer, we used the shallow-rooting IR64 and the deep-rooting Dro1-NIL (a near-isogenic line homozygous for the Kinandang Patong allele of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) in the IR64 genetic background). Although total root length was similar in both lines, more roots were distributed within the lower soil layer of the paddy field in Dro1-NIL than in IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. At maturity, Dro1-NIL showed approximately 10% higher grain yield than IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. Higher grain yield of Dro1-NIL was mainly due to the increased 1000-kernel weight and increased percentage of ripened grains, which resulted in a higher harvest index. After heading, the uptake of nitrogen from soil and leaf nitrogen concentration were higher in Dro1-NIL than in IR64. At the mid-grain-filling stage, Dro1-NIL maintained higher cytokinin fluxes from roots to shoots than IR64. These results suggest that deep rooting by DRO1 enhances nitrogen uptake and cytokinin fluxes at late stages, resulting in better grain filling in Dro1-NIL in a paddy field in this study.

Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kondo, Motohiko; Uga, Yusaku

2014-01-01

78

Corn root gravitropism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravitropism is the turning or growing in a different direction of a plant in response to gravity. This corn plant's root grows downward and exhibits positive gravitropism because it is growing toward gravity's pull.

Roger P. Hangarter (Indiana University;Department of Biology)

2000-01-01

79

Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA  

PubMed Central

The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics.

Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

2009-01-01

80

Aflatoxins in ginseng roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol–water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed

Kathleen D’Ovidio; Mary Trucksess; Carol Weaver; Erin Horn; Marla Mcintosh; George Bean

2006-01-01

81

Aflatoxins in ginseng roots.  

PubMed

Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2), a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed with antibodies specific for aflatoxins. The purified extract was then derivatized with a mixture of water, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid. Aflatoxins were then separated and quantified by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of total aflatoxins at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/g added to toxin-free 4 to 5-year old dried sliced Wisconsin ginseng were 92, 77, 91 and 83% respectively; and relative standard deviations were 3.6, 8.0, 6.9 and 2.0% respectively. A total of 11 wild simulated and 12 cultivated ginseng root samples were analysed for aflatoxins. All cultivated roots were found to be free of aflatoxin contamination. Two of the wild simulated roots contained total aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) at 15.1 and 15.2 ng/g. One moldy ginseng root purchased from a grocery store was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins at 16 ng/g. PMID:16449060

D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Horn, Erin; McIntosh, Marla; Bean, George

2006-02-01

82

Resprouting from roots in four Brazilian tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprout- ing in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation

Adriana Hissae Hayashi; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

2009-01-01

83

Root-end Filling Materials Alter Fibroblast Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-end filling materials are commonly used following endodontic surgical procedures; however, their effect on adjacent soft tissues is poorly understood. We predict that, due to the differences in their chemical composition, these materials will have profoundly different effects on the survival and differentiation of fibroblasts. Many of the root-end filling materials examined were initially cytotoxic to both PDL and gingival

S. Bonson; B. G. Jeansonne; T. E. Lallier

2004-01-01

84

Arabidopsis Alcohol Dehydrogenase Expression in Both Shoots and Roots Is Conditioned by Root Growth Environment1  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. ?-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

Chung, Hwa-Jee; Ferl, Robert J.

1999-01-01

85

Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

1999-01-01

86

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

87

Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength and modulus with the inclusion of root diameter improving predictions further. Laser sectioning of maize (Zea mays) roots demonstrate the damage caused during biomechanical testing and help explain potential reasons for poor relationships between diameter and strength due to stress localisation within the stele. Furthermore, changes in biomechanical root properties associated with age maybe as a result of lignin deposition but this remains to be established.

Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

2014-05-01

88

Geoperception in primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae). III. A model to explain the differential georesponsiveness of primary and lateral roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Half-tipped primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris bend toward the side of the root on which the intact half tip remains. Therefore, tips of lateral and primary roots produce growth effectors capable of inducing gravicurvature. The asymmetrical placement of a tip of a lateral root onto a detipped primary root results in the root bending toward the side of the root onto which the tip was placed. That is, the lesser graviresponsiveness of lateral roots as compared with primary roots is not due to the inability of their caps to produce growth inhibitors. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of primary roots is positively correlated with the presence of columella tissues that are 3.8 times longer, 1.7 times wider, and 10.5 times more voluminous than the columellas of lateral roots. We propose that the lack of graviresponsiveness exhibited by lateral roots is due to the fact that they (i) produce smaller amounts of the inhibitor than primary (i.e., strongly graviresponsive) roots and (ii) are unable to redistribute the inhibitor so as to be able to create a concentration gradient sufficient to induce a pronounced gravitropic response.

Ransom, J. S.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

89

Understanding the Impact of Root Morphology on Overturning Mechanisms: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used in recent years to simulate overturning processes in trees. This study aimed at using FEM to determine the role of individual roots in tree anchorage with regard to different rooting patterns, and to estimate stress distribution in the soil and roots during overturning. Methods The FEM was used to carry out 2-D simulations of tree uprooting in saturated soft clay and loamy sand-like soil. The anchorage model consisted of a root system embedded in a soil block. Two root patterns were used and individual roots removed to determine their contribution to anchorage. Key Results In clay-like soil the size of the root–soil plate formed during overturning was defined by the longest roots. Consequently, all other roots localized within this plate had no influence on anchorage strength. In sand-like soil, removing individual root elements altered anchorage resistance. This result was due to a modification of the shape and size of the root–soil plate, as well as the location of the rotation axis. The tap root and deeper roots had more influence on overturning resistance in sand-like soil compared with clay-like soil. Mechanical stresses were higher in the most superficial roots and also in leeward roots in sand-like soil. The relative difference in stresses between the upper and lower sides of lateral roots was sensitive to root insertion angle. Assuming that root eccentricity is a response to mechanical stresses, these results explain why eccentricity differs depending on root architecture. Conclusions A simple 2-D Finite Element model was developed to better understand the mechanisms involved during tree overturning. It has been shown how root system morphology and soil mechanical properties can modify the shape of the root plate slip surface as well as the position of the rotation axis, which are major components of tree anchorage.

Fourcaud, Thierry; Ji, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Stokes, Alexia

2008-01-01

90

Resprouting from roots in four Brazilian tree species.  

PubMed

Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprouting in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation on root cuttings, and considered a man-made disturbance that isolates the root from the shoot apical dominance of three Leguminosae (Bauhinia forficata Link., Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth, and Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd) and one Rutaceae (Esenbeckia febrifuga (St. Hil.) Juss. ex Mart.). All these species resprout frequently after fire. We also attempted to induce bud formation on root systems by removing the main trunk, girdling or sectioning the shallow lateral roots from forest tree species Esenbeckia febrifuga and Hymenaea courbaril L. We identified the origin of shoot primordia and their early development by fixing the samples in Karnovsky solution, dehydrating in ethyl alcohol series and embedding in plastic resin. Serial sections were cut on a rotary microtome and stained with toluidine blue O. Permanent slides were mounted in synthetic resin. We observed different modes of bud origin on root cuttings: close to the vascular cambium (C. tomentosum), from the callus (B. forficata and E. febrifuga) and from the phloematic parenchyma proliferation (I. laurina). Fragments of B. forficata root bark were also capable of forming reparative buds from healing phellogen formed in callus in the bark's inner side. In the attempt of bud induction on root systems, Hymenaea courbaril did not respond to any of the induction tests, probably because of plant age. However, Esenbeckia febrifuga roots formed suckers when the main trunk was removed or their roots were sectioned and isolated from the original plant. We experimentally demonstrated the ability of four tree species to resprout from roots after disturbance. Our results suggest that the release of apical dominance enables root resprouting in the studied species. PMID:19928472

Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

2009-09-01

91

The anatomy of the aortic root.  

PubMed

The aortic root is the anatomical bridge between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta. It is made up of the aortic valve leaflets, which are supported by the aortic sinuses (of Valsalva), and the interleaflet triangles interposed between the basal attachments of the leaflets. As such, it possesses significant length, and because of the semilunar attachment of the leaflets, there is no discrete proximal border to the root. It is limited distally, nonetheless, by the supravalvar ridge, or sinutubular junction. Descriptions of the aortic root over the years have been bedeviled by accounts of a valve anulus. There are at least two rings within the root, but neither serves to support the valve leaflets, each leaflets being attached in semilunar fashion from the sinutubular junction to a basal ventricular attachment Two leaflets are supported by muscle, and the third has an exclusively fibrous attachment. The root acts as a bridging structure not only anatomically, separating the myocardial and arterial components of the left ventricular pathway, but also functionally, since its proximal and distal components can withstand considerable changes in ventricular and arterial pressures. In this review, we describe the anatomy of this crucial cardiac component, emphasizing the current problems which have arisen due to indiscriminate descriptions of a nonexistent anulus. Clin. Anat. 27:748-756, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24000000

Loukas, Marios; Bilinsky, Esther; Bilinsky, Samuel; Blaak, Christa; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

2014-07-01

92

Root lattices and quasicrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right\\u000apool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All\\u000anon-periodic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with\\u000amaximal symmetry.

M. Baake; D. Joseph; P. Kramer; M. Schlottmann

2000-01-01

93

Root Canal Irrigants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

Matthias Zehnder

2006-01-01

94

PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

95

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

96

Root Beer Float  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity/demonstration about density, learners examine what happens when two cans of root beer--one diet and one regular--are placed in a large container of water. Do they sink or float? Use this activity to introduce learners to the importance of density as well as the nutritional content of soft drinks.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

97

Cs3AgAs4Se8 and CsAgAs2Se4: selenoarsenates with infinite 1 infinity[AsSe2]- chains in different Ag+ coordination environments.  

PubMed

Two quaternary silver selenoarsenates Cs3AgAs4Se8 (I) and CsAgAs2Se4 (II) have been discovered by methanothermal reaction of Li3AsSe3 with AgBF4 in the presence of the respective alkali metal sources Cs2CO3 and CsCl. Orange crystals of Cs3AgAs4Se8 (I) were formed after reaction at 120 degrees C for 72 h, whereas red CsAgAs2Se4 (II) was obtained under slightly different conditions at 140 degrees C for 70 h. Both compounds possess novel two-dimensional (2D) polyanions consisting of infinite 1 infinity[AsSe2]- chains that are interconnected by Ag+ ions in different coordination patterns. In I, a double layer of 1 infinity[AsSe2]- chains is bridged by distorted trigonal planar coordinated Ag+ atoms to form a 2 infinity[AgAs4Se8]3- layer with a thickness of about 11.3 A. The nonbonding Ag...Ag distances are about 4.220 A, and large cavities within the layers accommodate for three of the four crystallographic Cs+ cations. The double amount of Ag+ atoms per AsSe2 chain unit in II leads to simple layers 2 infinity[AgAs2Se4]- [=[Ag2As4Se8]2-] in which the Ag+ atoms are arranged in rows between the 1 infinity[AsSe2]- chains, with alternating Ag...Ag distances of 3.053(3) and 3.488(3) A. Hereby the 1 infinity[AsSe2]- polyanions show a disorder within the central (-As-Seb)- chain (b = bridging), while the positions of the terminal Se atoms (Set) remain unaffected. The thermal, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the compounds are reported. Both I and II melt with decomposition and are wide band gap semiconductors with values of 2.07 and 1.79 eV, respectively. Raman spectroscopic data show typical band patterns expected for infinite [AsSe2]- chains. Crystal Data: Cs3AgAs4Se8 (I), monoclinic, C2/c, a = 25.212(2) A, b = 8.0748(7) A, c = 22.803(2) A, beta = 116.272(2) degrees, Z = 8; CsAgAs2Se4 (II), monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 10.9211(1) A, b = 6.5188(2) A, c = 13.7553(3) A, beta = 108.956(1) degrees, Z = 4. PMID:12526494

Wachhold, M; Kanatzidis, M G

2000-05-29

98

A Root Isolation Method for Testing Root-Active Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for isolating roots of a growing plant was devised. The technique allows treatment of an isolated portion of the root system without disturbance or injury to the untreated root mass. A specially designed planter-box was used to induce natural sep...

S. L. Duffy

1975-01-01

99

Investigation of low resistance transparent MoO 3\\/Ag\\/MoO 3 multilayer and application as anode in organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on the resistivity and transmittance, transparent conductive oxides (TCO) are widely used in thin film optoelectronic devices. Thus doped In2O3 (ITO), ZnO, SnO2 are commercially developed. However, the deposition process of these films need sputtering and\\/or heating cycle, which has negative effect on the performances of the organic devices due to the sputtering and heat damages. Therefore a thermally

L. Cattin; M. Morsli; F. Dahou; S. Yapi Abe; A. Khelil; J. C. Bernède

2010-01-01

100

Evaluating Ecohydrological Theories of Woody Root Distribution in the Kalahari  

PubMed Central

The contribution of savannas to global carbon storage is poorly understood, in part due to lack of knowledge of the amount of belowground biomass. In these ecosystems, the coexistence of woody and herbaceous life forms is often explained on the basis of belowground interactions among roots. However, the distribution of root biomass in savannas has seldom been investigated, and the dependence of root biomass on rainfall regime remains unclear, particularly for woody plants. Here we investigate patterns of belowground woody biomass along a rainfall gradient in the Kalahari of southern Africa, a region with consistent sandy soils. We test the hypotheses that (1) the root depth increases with mean annual precipitation (root optimality and plant hydrotropism hypothesis), and (2) the root-to-shoot ratio increases with decreasing mean annual rainfall (functional equilibrium hypothesis). Both hypotheses have been previously assessed for herbaceous vegetation using global root data sets. Our data do not support these hypotheses for the case of woody plants in savannas. We find that in the Kalahari, the root profiles of woody plants do not become deeper with increasing mean annual precipitation, whereas the root-to-shoot ratios decrease along a gradient of increasing aridity.

Bhattachan, Abinash; Tatlhego, Mokganedi; Dintwe, Kebonye; O'Donnell, Frances; Caylor, Kelly K.; Okin, Gregory S.; Perrot, Danielle O.; Ringrose, Susan; D'Odorico, Paolo

2012-01-01

101

Distribution and speciation of Mn in hydrated roots of cowpea at levels inhibiting root growth.  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of Mn is important globally due to its increased solubility in acid or waterlogged soils. Short-term (?24 h) solution culture studies with 150 µM Mn were conducted to investigate the in situ distribution and speciation of Mn in apical tissues of hydrated roots of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Red Caloona] using synchrotron-based techniques. Accumulation of Mn was rapid; exposure to 150 µM Mn for only 5 min resulting in substantial Mn accumulation in the root cap and associated mucigel. The highest tissue concentrations of Mn were in the root cap, with linear combination fitting of the data suggesting that??80% of this Mn(II) was associated with citrate. Interestingly, although the primary site of Mn toxicity is typically the shoots, concentrations of Mn in the stele of the root were not noticeably higher than in the surrounding cortical tissues in the short-term (?24 h). The data provided here from the in situ analyses of hydrated roots exposed to excess Mn are, to our knowledge, the first of this type to be reported for Mn and provide important information regarding plant responses to high Mn in the rooting environment. PMID:22892034

Kopittke, Peter M; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Wang, Peng; Donner, Erica; Webb, Richard I; Blamey, F Pax C; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Howard, Daryl L; Menzies, Neal W

2013-04-01

102

Photomorphogenesis and pigment induction in lentil seedling roots exposed to low light conditions.  

PubMed

Although roots are normally hidden in soil, they may inadvertently be exposed to low light levels in experiments or in natural conditions through cracks or light transmittance through the soil. Light has been implicated in root morphogenesis. Thus, effects of low light conditions on lentil (Lens culinaris L. cv. Verte du Puy) root morphology and root pigmentation were studied. Lentil seedlings were grown in peat or transparent, nutrient-fortified agar at a 12-h light (PAR 240 ?mol · m(-2) · s(-1)), 12-h dark cycle. Roots were exposed to low levels (? 1-10 ?mol · m(-2) · s(-1)) of broadband white light, either directly or indirectly by aboveground light penetrating the growth medium. Control roots were grown in darkness. In situ spectroscopy was used to measure transmittance and reflectance spectra of intact root tissue by mounting the upper part of the primary root directly in a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere attachment. The transmittance and reflectance spectra were used to calculate the in situ root absorbance spectrum. Absorbance bands were found in the regions 480-500 nm and 650-680 nm, possibly due to low levels of root-localised carotenoids and chlorophylls, respectively. Low light levels (? 1-10 ?mol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) transmitted through the growth medium significantly increased root pigment concentration and root biomass, and altered root morphology by enhancing lateral root formation and inhibiting root elongation relative to roots grown in complete darkness. The light-induced changes in root morphogenesis and pigmentation appear to be primarily due to upper root light perception. PMID:22117590

Vollsnes, A V; Melø, T B; Futsaether, C M

2012-05-01

103

Advances in root reinforcement experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root reinforcement is considered in many situations an important effect of vegetation for slope stability. In the past 20 years many studies analyzed root reinforcement in laboratory and field experiments, as well as through modeling frameworks. Nearby the important contribution of roots to shear strength, roots are recognized to impart stabilization also through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. Lateral root reinforcement under tensile solicitations (such as in the upper part of a shallow landslide) was documented and discussed by some studies. The most common method adopted to measure lateral root reinforcement are pullout tests where roots (single or as bundle) are pulled out from a soil matrix. These conditions are indeed representative for the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope (such in a tension crack). However, there is also the situation where roots anchored at the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding soil mass. In this last case it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study discussed this mechanism so far. The main objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of roots considering the two presented cases of lateral root reinforcement discussed above - roots slipping out from stable soil profile or sliding soil matrix from anchored roots-, and discuss the implication of the results for slope stability modeling. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments for both roots pullout and soil sliding mechanisms using a tilting box with a bundle of 15 roots. Both Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots and soil were collected from the study area in Sardinia (Italy), and reconstructed in laboratory, filling the root and soil layer by layer up to 0.4 meter thickness. The results show that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil sliding range from 0.5 to 1. This results indicate that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral root reinforcement activated in situations where soil slide from anchored roots. That result implies a comparison and calibration of the models used for the calculation of root reinforcement.

Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Niedda, Marcello

2013-04-01

104

Angles of multivariable root loci  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

1982-01-01

105

Gamma-ray irradiation resistance of silver doped GeS2–Ga2S3AgI chalcohalide glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, series of silver doped Ge–Ga–S–AgI chalcohalide glasses have been prepared and their optical transmission spectra are compared before and after ?-ray irradiation at different doses. The differential transmission spectra of the irradiated samples with and without Ag doping have been compared to characterize the ?-ray irradiation induced red-shift of electronic absorption and formation of color centers. Ag doping plays an important role in increasing ?-ray irradiation resistance of the chalcohalide glasses due to its specific effect on the valence band and the network structure of glasses.

Shen, W.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Ren, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, G.

2014-06-01

106

Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

Koltai, Hinanit

2012-07-01

107

Springback in root gravitropism.  

PubMed

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation. PMID:11537456

Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

1989-01-01

108

Springback in root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1989-01-01

109

Diagravitropism in corn roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1988-01-01

110

The root extraction problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nth root extraction problem for germs of diffeomorphisms f :(C,0)?(C,0) is the problem of finding a germ of diffeomorphism g :(C,0)?(C,0) such that g=f, where g is the Nth iterate of g under composition. Depending on f and on the multiplier of g at the origin there can be formal and analytic obstructions to a solution of the problem. By considering an unfolding of f we explain these obstructions. Indeed each analytic obstruction corresponds to an accumulation of periodic points which, in turn, are an obstruction to taking an Nth root of the unfolding. We apply this to the problem of the section of a curvilinear angle in N equal parts in conformal geometry.

Rousseau, C.

111

Prevention of root caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

DesignRandomised controlled trialInterventionElders having at least five teeth with exposed roots, no serious medical problems and basic self-care ability (including oral hygiene practices) were randomly allocated into one of four prevention groups. Individualised oral hygiene instruction was provided to each participant, focusing on effective brushing with a manual toothbrush, and use of fluoride toothpaste was recommended. Before applications of the

Patrick Sequeira-Byron; Adrian Lussi

2011-01-01

112

Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

Day, Frank P., Jr.

1994-01-01

113

Root tips moving through soil  

PubMed Central

Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations.

Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

2011-01-01

114

Control of Arabidopsis Root Development  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis root has been the subject of intense research over the past decades. This research has led to significantly improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying root development. Key insights into the specification of individual cell types, cell patterning, growth and differentiation, branching of the primary root, and responses of the root to the environment have been achieved. Transcription factors and plant hormones play key regulatory roles. Recently, mechanisms involving protein movement and the oscillation of gene expression have also been uncovered. Root gene regulatory networks controlling root development have been reconstructed from genome-wide profiling experiments, revealing novel molecular connections and models. Future refinement of these models will lead to a more complete description of the complex molecular interactions that give rise to a simple growing root.

Petricka, Jalean J.; Winter, Cara M.; Benfey, Philip N.

2013-01-01

115

Periodontal healing after bonding treatment of vertical root fracture.  

PubMed

Vertical root fractures lead to advanced periodontal breakdown with deep periodontal pockets and vertical bone defects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinically the periodontal healing of root fracture treatment using adhesive resin cement. In 22 patients, 23 teeth with vertical root fractures were treated with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement. Eleven fractured roots were bonded through the root canal (group A) and 12 fractured roots were bonded extra-orally and replanted (group B). All teeth were then restored with full cast crowns (n=20) or coping (n=3). Mean probing depth was 6.6 mm at pre-treatment and 4.4 mm 6 months after the treatment in group A, and 7.4 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively, in group B. Bleeding scores were 100% at pre-treatment and 36.4% after 6 months in group A and 91.7% and 8.3%, respectively in group B. Radiographic bone level was 56.8% at pretreatment and 59.1% after 6 months in group A, and 18.8% and 29.2%, respectively, in group B. Two roots of group A and three roots of group B were extracted due to refracture, deterioration of periodontal inflammation, mobility, and luxation. The remaining roots (n=18) presented no discomfort to the patients and there was no deterioration of periodontal conditions over a mean period of 33 months (range 14-74 months) in group A and over a mean period of 22 months (range 6-48 months) in group B. There was no ankylosed teeth nor was any root resorption detected. The results suggested that the treatment of vertical root fracture using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin has good prognostic possibilities. PMID:11585144

Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M; Noguchi, H; Kato, H; Masaka, N

2001-08-01

116

Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.  

PubMed

• All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force. PMID:22583121

Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

2012-07-01

117

[Vertical root fracture--case report and clinical evaluation].  

PubMed

It is observed at the Dental OPD that some of the patients suffer from toothache are due to tooth fracture. Of the various types of tooth fracture, it is noted that vertical root fracture of molars which have never undergone endodontic treatment has rarely been reported. It is suggested that x-ray examination is the best diagnostic tool as it would show a certain section of the abnormally large root canal. This will indicate a fracture in the root. As the fractured root is mostly very poor in prognosis, the tooth in question should be extracted or it can be treated with root amputation or hemisection to eradicate the fractured root. Three cases of vertical root fracture are reported. The intent of this paper is to probe such cases, the means of diagnosis, and their treatments in clinical practices. Dental colleagues are thus advised to take into consideration the possibility of vertical root fracture whenever patients complain about toothache without any apparent cause. PMID:2637061

Wei, P C; Ju, Y R

1989-12-20

118

Matching roots to their environment  

PubMed Central

Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future.

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

2013-01-01

119

Hairy roots — a short cut to transgenic root nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate molecular studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation a procedure for rapid production of transgenic root nodules was established on the legumeLotus corniculatus (Bird'sfoot trefoil). Regeneration of transgenic plants is not required as transgenic nodules are formed onAgrobacterium rhizogenes incited roots inoculated withRhizobium. Easy identification of transformed roots is possible using a set ofA. rhizogenes acceptor strains carrying assayable marker

Jørgen Hansen; Jan-Elo Jørgensen; Jens Stougaard; Kjeld A. Marcker

1989-01-01

120

RootNav: navigating images of complex root architectures.  

PubMed

We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist's satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav's core representation. PMID:23766367

Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony

2013-08-01

121

Ammonium triggers lateral root branching in Arabidopsis in an AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER1;3-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Root development is strongly affected by the plant's nutritional status and the external availability of nutrients. Employing split-root systems, we show here that local ammonium supply to Arabidopsis thaliana plants increases lateral root initiation and higher-order lateral root branching, whereas the elongation of lateral roots is stimulated mainly by nitrate. Ammonium-stimulated lateral root number or density decreased after ammonium or Gln supply to a separate root fraction and did not correlate with cumulative uptake of (15)N-labeled ammonium, suggesting that lateral root branching was not purely due to a nutritional effect but most likely is a response to a sensing event. Ammonium-induced lateral root branching was almost absent in a quadruple AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER (qko, the amt1;1 amt1;2 amt1;3 amt2;1 mutant) insertion line and significantly lower in the amt1;3-1 mutant than in the wild type. Reconstitution of AMT1;3 expression in the amt1;3-1 or in the qko background restored higher-order lateral root development. By contrast, AMT1;1, which shares similar transport properties with AMT1;3, did not confer significant higher-order lateral root proliferation. These results show that ammonium is complementary to nitrate in shaping lateral root development and that stimulation of lateral root branching by ammonium occurs in an AMT1;3-dependent manner. PMID:21119058

Lima, Joni E; Kojima, Soichi; Takahashi, Hideki; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2010-11-01

122

Calcium enriched mixture cement for primary molars exhibiting root perforations and extensive root resorption: report of three cases.  

PubMed

In primary molars with root perforations of endodontic origin, tooth extraction and space maintainer are recommended. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is a new biomaterial demonstrating favorable sealability/biocompatibility. This report presents a novel treatment modality for cases of primary molar teeth with root perforations associated with a periodontal lesion due to extensive inflammatory root resorption, whereby CEM was used as a perforation repair/pulpotomy biomaterial. Three cases of primary molar root perforations due to inflammatory resorption were selected; all cases were associated with furcal lesions of endodontic origin. Pulp chambers were accessed/irrigated with NaOCl; the root canal orifices were filled with CEM and restored with stainless steel crowns. Clinical/radiographic examinations up to 17 months revealed that all teeth were functional and free of signs/symptoms of infection and all had complete bone healing. Further trials are suggested to confirm CEM use for management of root perforations in primary molars exhibiting root perforation. PMID:24717704

Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Kameli, Somayeh; Rahimian-Emam, Sara; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Asgary, Saeed

2014-01-01

123

Auxin Control of Root Development  

PubMed Central

A plant's roots system determines both the capacity of a sessile organism to acquire nutrients and water, as well as providing a means to monitor the soil for a range of environmental conditions. Since auxins were first described, there has been a tight connection between this class of hormones and root development. Here we review some of the latest genetic, molecular, and cellular experiments that demonstrate the importance of generating and maintaining auxin gradients during root development. Refinements in the ability to monitor and measure auxin levels in root cells coupled with advances in our understanding of the sources of auxin that contribute to these pools represent important contributions to our understanding of how this class of hormones participates in the control of root development. In addition, we review the role of identified molecular components that convert auxin gradients into local differentiation events, which ultimately defines the root architecture.

Overvoorde, Paul; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom

2010-01-01

124

[Modeling of Cs-137 vertical soil transfer by a tree root system].  

PubMed

A model of 137Cs vertical soil transport by a tree root system is presented. As distinct from other models the radionuclide root uptake is described as a reversible process and depth distribution of roots is given as a function of time. The model was used for prediction of 137Cs release from a surface disposal site located in a territory with conditions similar to that in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone. Prediction indicates that during several decades 137Cs transport from the waste layer by the root system of pine can lead to significant contamination of the soil surface due to needles fallout and, probably, ionic leakage from roots. PMID:12449825

Bulgakov, A A; Konoplev, A V

2002-01-01

125

Role of NINJA in root jasmonate signaling.  

PubMed

Wound responses in plants have to be coordinated between organs so that locally reduced growth in a wounded tissue is balanced by appropriate growth elsewhere in the body. We used a JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 10 (JAZ10) reporter to screen for mutants affected in the organ-specific activation of jasmonate (JA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Wounding one cotyledon activated the reporter in both aerial and root tissues, and this was either disrupted or restricted to certain organs in mutant alleles of core components of the JA pathway including COI1, OPR3, and JAR1. In contrast, three other mutants showed constitutive activation of the reporter in the roots and hypocotyls of unwounded seedlings. All three lines harbored mutations in Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA), which encodes part of a repressor complex that negatively regulates JA signaling. These ninja mutants displayed shorter roots mimicking JA-mediated growth inhibition, and this was due to reduced cell elongation. Remarkably, this phenotype and the constitutive JAZ10 expression were still observed in backgrounds lacking the ability to synthesize JA or the key transcriptional activator MYC2. Therefore, JA-like responses can be recapitulated in specific tissues without changing a plant's ability to make or perceive JA, and MYC2 either has no role or is not the only derepressed transcription factor in ninja mutants. Our results show that the role of NINJA in the root is to repress JA signaling and allow normal cell elongation. Furthermore, the regulation of the JA pathway differs between roots and aerial tissues at all levels, from JA biosynthesis to transcriptional activation. PMID:24003128

Acosta, Iván F; Gasperini, Debora; Chételat, Aurore; Stolz, Stéphanie; Santuari, Luca; Farmer, Edward E

2013-09-17

126

Role of NINJA in root jasmonate signaling  

PubMed Central

Wound responses in plants have to be coordinated between organs so that locally reduced growth in a wounded tissue is balanced by appropriate growth elsewhere in the body. We used a JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 10 (JAZ10) reporter to screen for mutants affected in the organ-specific activation of jasmonate (JA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Wounding one cotyledon activated the reporter in both aerial and root tissues, and this was either disrupted or restricted to certain organs in mutant alleles of core components of the JA pathway including COI1, OPR3, and JAR1. In contrast, three other mutants showed constitutive activation of the reporter in the roots and hypocotyls of unwounded seedlings. All three lines harbored mutations in Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA), which encodes part of a repressor complex that negatively regulates JA signaling. These ninja mutants displayed shorter roots mimicking JA-mediated growth inhibition, and this was due to reduced cell elongation. Remarkably, this phenotype and the constitutive JAZ10 expression were still observed in backgrounds lacking the ability to synthesize JA or the key transcriptional activator MYC2. Therefore, JA-like responses can be recapitulated in specific tissues without changing a plant’s ability to make or perceive JA, and MYC2 either has no role or is not the only derepressed transcription factor in ninja mutants. Our results show that the role of NINJA in the root is to repress JA signaling and allow normal cell elongation. Furthermore, the regulation of the JA pathway differs between roots and aerial tissues at all levels, from JA biosynthesis to transcriptional activation.

Acosta, Ivan F.; Gasperini, Debora; Chetelat, Aurore; Stolz, Stephanie; Santuari, Luca; Farmer, Edward E.

2013-01-01

127

Disentangling root responses to climate change in a semiarid grassland.  

PubMed

Future ecosystem properties of grasslands will be driven largely by belowground biomass responses to climate change, which are challenging to understand due to experimental and technical constraints. We used a multi-faceted approach to explore single and combined impacts of elevated CO2 and warming on root carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a temperate, semiarid, native grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment. To investigate the indirect, moisture mediated effects of elevated CO2, we included an irrigation treatment. We assessed root standing mass, morphology, residence time and seasonal appearance/disappearance of community-aggregated roots, as well as mass and N losses during decomposition of two dominant grass species (a C3 and a C4). In contrast to what is common in mesic grasslands, greater root standing mass under elevated CO2 resulted from increased production, unmatched by disappearance. Elevated CO2 plus warming produced roots that were longer, thinner and had greater surface area, which, together with greater standing biomass, could potentially alter root function and dynamics. Decomposition increased under environmental conditions generated by elevated CO2, but not those generated by warming, likely due to soil desiccation with warming. Elevated CO2, particularly under warming, slowed N release from C4-but not C3-roots, and consequently could indirectly affect N availability through treatment effects on species composition. Elevated CO2 and warming effects on root morphology and decomposition could offset increased C inputs from greater root biomass, thereby limiting future net C accrual in this semiarid grassland. PMID:24643718

Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; LeCain, Dan; Morgan, Jack A; Blumenthal, Dana; Waldron, Sarah; Pendall, Elise

2014-06-01

128

A novel bioassay using root re-growth in Lemna.  

PubMed

A new phytotoxicity test method based on root elongation of three Lemna species (Lemna gibba, L. minor, and L. paucicostata) has been developed. Tests with aquatic plants have, typically, favored measurements on fronds (e.g. frond number, area, biomass) rather than on roots, due, in part, to issues associated with handling fragile roots and the time-consuming procedures of selecting roots with identical root lengths. The present method differs in that roots were excised prior to exposure with subsequent measurements on newly developed roots. Results show that there were species-specific difference in sensitivity to the five metals tested (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg), with Ag being the most toxic (EC50=5.3-37.6 ?gL(-1)) to all three species, and Cr the least toxic for L. gibba and L. minor (1148.3 and 341.8 ?gL(-1), respectively) and Cu for L. paucicostata (470.4 ?gL(-1)). Direct comparisons were made with measurements of frond area, which were found to be less sensitive. More generally, root re-growth was shown to reflect the toxic responses of all three Lemna species to these five important metals. The root growth bioassay differs from three internationally standardized methods (ISO, OCED and US EPA) in that it is completed in 48 h, the required volume of test solutions is only 3 ml and non-axenic plants are used. Our results show that the Lemna root method is a simple, rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and precise bioassay to assess the toxic risks of metals and has practical application for monitoring municipal and industrial waste waters where metals are common constituents. PMID:23917640

Park, Areum; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

2013-09-15

129

Root-root interactions: extending our perspective to be more inclusive of the range of theories in ecology and agriculture using in-vivo analyses  

PubMed Central

Background There is a large body of literature on competitive interactions among plants, but many studies have only focused on above-ground interactions and little is known about root–root dynamics between interacting plants. The perspective on possible mechanisms that explain the outcome of root–root interactions has recently been extended to include non-resource-driven mechanisms (as well as resource-driven mechanisms) of root competition and positive interactions such as facilitation. These approaches have often suffered from being static, partly due to the lack of appropriate methodologies for in-situ non-destructive root characterization. Scope Recent studies show that interactive effects of plant neighbourhood interactions follow non-linear and non-additive paths that are hard to explain. Common outcomes such as accumulation of roots mainly in the topsoil cannot be explained solely by competition theory but require a more inclusive theoretical, as well as an improved methodological framework. This will include the question of whether we can apply the same conceptual framework to crop versus natural species. Conclusions The development of non-invasive methods to dynamically study root–root interactions in vivo will provide the necessary tools to study a more inclusive conceptual framework for root–root interactions. By following the dynamics of root–root interactions through time in a whole range of scenarios and systems, using a wide variety of non-invasive methods, (such as fluorescent protein which now allows us to separately identify the roots of several individuals within soil), we will be much better equipped to answer some of the key questions in root physiology, ecology and agronomy.

Faget, Marc; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Walter, Achim; Herrera, Juan M.; Jahnke, Siegfried; Schurr, Ulrich; Temperton, Vicky M.

2013-01-01

130

Density of the continental roots: Compositional and thermal contributions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The origin and evolution of cratonic roots has been debated for many years. Precambrian cratons are underlain by cold lithospheric roots that are chemically depleted. Thermal and petrologic data indicate that Archean roots are colder and more chemically depleted than Proterozoic roots. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the degree of depletion in a lithospheric root depends mostly on its age. Here we test this hypothesis using gravity, thermal, petrologic, and seismic data to quantify differences in the density of cratonic roots globally. In the first step in our analysis we use a global crustal model to remove the crustal contribution to the observed gravity. The result is the mantle gravity anomaly field, which varies over cratonic areas from -100 to +100 mGal. Positive mantle gravity anomalies are observed for cratons in the northern hemisphere: the Baltic shield, East European Platform, and the Siberian Platform. Negative anomalies are observed over cratons in the southern hemisphere: Western Australia, South America, the Indian shield, and Southern Africa. This indicates that there are significant differences in the density of cratonic roots, even for those of similar age. Root density depends on temperature and chemical depletion. In order to separate these effects we apply a lithospheric temperature correction using thermal estimates from a combination of geothermal modeling and global seismic tomography models. Gravity anomalies induced by temperature variations in the uppermost mantle range from -200 to +300 mGal, with the strongest negative anomalies associated with mid-ocean ridges and the strongest positive anomalies associated with cratons. After correcting for thermal effects, we obtain a map of density variations due to lithospheric compositional variations. These maps indicate that the average density decrease due to the chemical depletion within cratonic roots varies from 1.1% to 1.5%, assuming the chemical boundary layer has the same thickness as the thermal boundary layer. The maximal values of the density drop are in the range 1.7-2.5%, and correspond to the Archean portion of each craton. Temperatures within cratonic roots vary strongly, and our analysis indicates that density variations in the roots due to temperature are larger than the variations due to chemical differences. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Kaban, M. K.; Schwintzer, P.; Artemieva, I. M.; Mooney, W. D.

2003-01-01

131

Traffic control in the root: keeping root branching in check.  

PubMed

While the importance of intercellular communication in plants is well documented, the role of symplastic transport during the formation of new meristems in roots has remained unexplored. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Benitez-Alfonso et al. (2013) show that callose-dependent cell-to-cell connectivity determines root branching in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23906059

Vanstraelen, Marleen; Beeckman, Tom

2013-07-29

132

Impact of vegetation root distribution and soil moisture on evaporation simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate description of root distributions and soil moisture regimes has great impacts on evapotranspiration simulations, leading to difference in surface energy partitioning. We have designed three scenarios to test the effects of different parameterization schemes of root distributions on energy flux partitioning (i.e. change in Bowen ratio) using the off-line NCAR CLM2.0 land-surface model. We use the data measured in a coniferous forest in Alaska (63° 53' N 145° 44' W) in the 2002 summer (from June 20 to August 10, 2002). Compared with the fluxes measured over the black spruce forest, the uniform root distribution in our simulations leads to ~12% less latent heat fluxes and ~15% higher sensible heat fluxes. Because the soil moisture increases with depth in our site, the uniform root distribution may cause the reduced transpiration in the root layer. Also, the transpiration rates are limited in the upper layer by the lower soil moisture even though there is an increased root density. The exponential root distribution leads to ~16% higher latent heat fluxes and ~15% lower sensible heat fluxes. The higher latent heat flux may be due to the higher soil moisture content that is set below 40 cm depth with a higher root density in this model than the real root density for the black spruce. The triangular root distribution gives a reasonable result even though the latent heat flux is 6% higher than measurements and sensible heat flux is 8% lower than measurements. The difference could be due to the other factors that control energy partitioning or due to the discrepancy between the real root distribution and the triangular root distribution. It is expected that these results have large implications on boundary layer developments. For example, the uniform root distribution could lead to a drier and higher planetary boundary layer while the exponential root distribution could cause a moister and lower planetary boundary layer relative to the real one.

Liu, H.

2005-05-01

133

Response of millet and sorghum to a varying water supply around the primary and nodal roots  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cereals have two root systems. The primary system originates from the embryo when the seed germinates and can support the plant until it produces grain. The nodal system can emerge from stem nodes throughout the plant's life; its value for yield is unclear and depends on the environment. The aim of this study was to test the role of nodal roots of sorghum and millet in plant growth in response to variation in soil moisture. Sorghum and millet were chosen as both are adapted to dry conditions. Methods Sorghum and millet were grown in a split-pot system that allowed the primary and nodal roots to be watered separately. Key Results When primary and nodal roots were watered (12 % soil water content; SWC), millet nodal roots were seven times longer than those of sorghum and six times longer than millet plants in dry treatments, mainly from an 8-fold increase in branch root length. When soil was allowed to dry in both compartments, millet nodal roots responded and grew 20 % longer branch roots than in the well-watered control. Sorghum nodal roots were unchanged. When only primary roots received water, nodal roots of both species emerged and elongated into extremely dry soil (0·6–1·5 % SWC), possibly with phloem-delivered water from the primary roots in the moist inner pot. Nodal roots were thick, short, branchless and vertical, indicating a tropism that was more pronounced in millet. Total nodal root length increased in both species when the dry soil was covered with plastic, suggesting that stubble retention or leaf mulching could facilitate nodal roots reaching deeper moist layers in dry climates. Greater nodal root length in millet than in sorghum was associated with increased shoot biomass, water uptake and water use efficiency (shoot mass per water). Millet had a more plastic response than sorghum to moisture around the nodal roots due to (1) faster growth and progression through ontogeny for earlier nodal root branch length and (2) partitioning to nodal root length from primary roots, independent of shoot size. Conclusions Nodal and primary roots have distinct responses to soil moisture that depend on species. They can be selected independently in a breeding programme to shape root architecture. A rapid rate of plant development and enhanced responsiveness to local moisture may be traits that favour nodal roots and water use efficiency at no cost to shoot growth.

Rostamza, M.; Richards, R. A.; Watt, M.

2013-01-01

134

Controlled Field and Laboratory Experiments to Investigate soil-root Interactions and Streambank Stability.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian vegetation has a number of mechanical and hydrologic effects on streambank stability, some of which are positive and some of which are negative. The mechanical reinforcement provided by root networks is one of the most important stabilizing factors, as roots are strong in tension but weak in compression and conversely soil is strong in compression but weak in tension. A soil that contains roots therefore has increased shear strength due to the production of a reinforced matrix, which is stronger than the soil or roots separately (Thorne, 1990). Quantification and understanding of the way the soil and roots interact individually and as a complete matrix is important if we are to predict the reinforcing effects of different types of riparian vegetation in streambank stabilizing schemes. Previous estimates of the contribution of root networks to soil strength have been attained either by using equations that sum root tensile and the soil shear strengths (eg. Wu et al., 1979), or by carrying out shear tests of root-permeated soils. However, neither of these methods alone allows a full investigation and understanding of the interactions that take place between the soil and the roots as a soil is sheared. These interactions are complex, and the simple addition of root tensile and soil shear strengths may therefore lead to overestimation of the increased strength provided to the soil by the roots, as the rate of mobilization of stress in the roots may not be the same as that of the soil (Waldron and Dakessian, 1981; Pollen et al., 2002). This paper describes a series of experiments that were carried out to test the material properties of roots, and soil samples from a streambank along Goodwin Creek, N. Mississippi. Results from field experiments carried out to measure root-tensile strengths, and stress-displacement characteristics of roots, were compared with laboratory shear tests of soil samples from Goodwin Creek. It was shown that the roots of different species took up strain at different rates, and that these rates differed considerably from that of the Goodwin Creek soil sample. For example, the mean displacement of Eastern Sycamore roots before breaking was 3.57cm, whereas the displacement of the soil sample at peak strength was just 0.68cm, suggesting that the critical factor in root reinforcement of soil matrices may in fact be the rate of mobilization of tension in the roots, rather than their ultimate tensile strength. Isolation and testing of the roots and soil separately, in the field and the laboratory, allowed the formulation of two hypotheses to explain the way in which roots and soil interact during shearing: As the soil shears, either the roots reinforce the soil after the peak soil strength has been overcome, until the ultimate tensile strength of the roots is reached, or the roots only reinforce the soil until the peak soil strength has been reached, beyond which point the entire root-soil matrix fails. These hypotheses were then tested by running a series of laboratory-shear tests of root-permeated and non-root-permeated soils. The results of these studies were used in the ARS-Bank Stability Model (ver. 2.0) to simulate the increase in factor of safety of streambanks due to root reinforcement. The calculations suggest that overestimation of increased soil shear strength from the root network using the sum of root tensile and soil shear strengths, may be as high as 78% for Eastern Sycamore roots which uptake strain slowly, but only 10% for Sandbar Willow roots, which take up tension more quickly.

Pollen, N. L.; Simon, A.

2002-12-01

135

Gut and Root Microbiota Commonalities  

PubMed Central

Animal guts and plant roots have absorption roles for nutrient uptake and converge in harboring large, complex, and dynamic groups of microbes that participate in degradation or modification of nutrients and other substances. Gut and root bacteria regulate host gene expression, provide metabolic capabilities, essential nutrients, and protection against pathogens, and seem to share evolutionary trends.

Ramirez-Puebla, Shamayim T.; Servin-Garciduenas, Luis E.; Jimenez-Marin, Berenice; Bolanos, Luis M.; Rosenblueth, Monica; Martinez, Julio; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeno-Orrillo, Ernesto

2013-01-01

136

Rooting Purple Sage Stem Cuttings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rooting of semihardwood cuttings of purple sage Salvia dorrii with and without mist, bottom heat, root inducing substance (naphthalene-acetic acid/indolebutyric acid (NAA/BA)), and fungicides (dichlone and captan) was evaluated. More than 75 percent of th...

R. L. Everett C. R. Gautier

1981-01-01

137

Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

De Pillis, L. G.

2005-01-01

138

The root as a drill  

PubMed Central

Plant roots forage the soil for water and nutrients and overcome the soil’s physical compactness. Roots are endowed with a mechanism that allows them to penetrate and grow in dense media such as soil. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. The nature of the media in which roots grow adds to the difficulty to in situ analyze the mechanisms underlying root penetration. Inhibition of ethylene perception by application of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) to tomato seedlings nearly abolished the root penetration in Soilrite. The reversal of this process by auxin indicated operation of an auxin-ethylene signaling pathway in the regulation of root penetration. The tomato pct1–2 mutant that exhibits an enhanced polar transport of auxin required higher doses of 1-MCP to inhibit root penetration, indicating a pivotal role of auxin transport in this process. In this update we provide a brief review of our current understanding of molecular processes underlying root penetration in higher plants.

Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Ivanchenko, Maria; Sharma, Rameshwar

2012-01-01

139

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classroo

Wandersee, James; Clary, Renee

2010-02-01

140

Vetiver Root System : Search for the Ideotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver roots have a tufted vertically growing root structure. The roots are one of the most important organizational systems that make vetiver a miracle grass for its multifarious applications in soil and water conservation, soil health, and raw material for vetiver root handicrafts, environmental and perfumery products. A lot of diversity is found in vetiver root system in nature, and

Seshu Lavania

141

Root exudates: the hidden part of plant defense.  

PubMed

The significance of root exudates as belowground defense substances has long been underestimated, presumably due to being buried out of sight. Nevertheless, this chapter of root biology has been progressively addressed within the past decade through the characterization of novel constitutively secreted and inducible phytochemicals that directly repel, inhibit, or kill pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere. In addition, the complex transport machinery involved in their export has been considerably unraveled. It has become evident that the profile of defense root exudates is not only diverse in its composition, but also strikingly dynamic. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the nature and regulation of root-secreted defense compounds and the role of transport proteins in modulating their release. PMID:24332225

Baetz, Ulrike; Martinoia, Enrico

2014-02-01

142

Tree roots — Methodological review and new development in dating and quantifying erosive processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposed roots have been used in Dendrogeomorphology since the 1960s to determine erosion rates. This was done by using the root axis as the relative position of the former soil layer and then relating this measure to the age of the root in order to quantify the amount of soil erosion over time. Recently, wood anatomical research revealed the possibility of determining the first year of exposure of roots due to specific anatomical changes within the respective annual ring. As a consequence, using exposed roots that are still in contact to the soil surface, it is possible to reconstruct the size and position of the root at the time of exposure. Consequently, a new equation is presented to calculate the thickness of the eroded soil layer allowing a detailed reconstruction of erosion rates. The technique also helps to determine if the root was exposed by erosional processes or just by its ongoing secondary growth without any erosion involved.

Gärtner, Holger

2007-05-01

143

Effect of Main Root Decapitation on Root Branching in Flax Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching patterns in intact and decapitated flax (Linum usitatissimumL.) roots were compared. The number of initiated primordia in the control and decapitated roots was similar, but decapitated roots produced an increased number of lateral roots owing to an increase in the number of primordia developed into the laterals. It is suggested that the apical meristem influences lateral root development

M. E. Ploshchinskaya

2001-01-01

144

Root knot of Gomphrena globosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A root knot disease ofGomphrena globosa has been described. The disease exhibits typical symptoms, hypertrophy, formation of galls and club foot appearance of root\\u000a system and stunted growth of shoot.\\u000a \\u000a Histopathology of the diseased roots was studied which showed the presence of the nematode in various stages of egg formation\\u000a and the presence of adult in the extra-stellar region.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The

Audrey Mackenzie

1961-01-01

145

Endodontic management of a four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar  

PubMed Central

The presence of accessory roots is rare in the primary dentition. Complete knowledge and understanding of tooth anatomy is essential to carry out high quality dental treatment with excellent outcome. In addition, the persistent primary tooth and its missing permanent successor in the dental arch pose several hurdles in front of the clinician due to doubtful survival of primary tooth. In this paper, highlights the root canal treatment of a rarest four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar.

Chhabra, Naveen

2013-01-01

146

Effects of Pd(P) Thickness on the Microstructural Evolution Between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Ni(P)/Pd(P)/Au Surface Finish During the Reflow Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural evolution between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder and Ni(P)/Pd(P)/Au finish during the reflow process was investigated for various Pd(P) thicknesses (0 ?m to 0.6 ?m). The reflow process was carried out in a belt-conveying reflow oven with peak temperature of 260°C. In the early stages of the reflow process, the Pd(P) layer either dissolved or spalled in the form of (Pd,Ni)Sn4 into the molten solder, leaving behind an Ni2SnP/Ni3P bilayer on the Ni(P) layer. From the dissolution of the spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn4 particles during the reflow process, the solubility of Pd in the molten SAC305 solder in the reflow process was estimated to be 0.18 wt.% to 0.25 wt.%. Regardless of the ratio of solder volume to pad opening size, the Ni2SnP layer that formed in the early stage of reflow had a significant influence on the subsequent formation and growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 at the solder interface. As the Ni2SnP layer became thicker with increasing Pd(P) thickness, the formation of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 became increasingly sluggish and occurred only at locations where the Ni2SnP layer was locally thin or discontinuous, leading to a discontinuous morphology of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. This was attributed to the Ni2SnP layer that became an increasingly effective barrier to Ni diffusion with increasing thickness. Based on the experimental results, this study suggests detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of the Pd(P) thickness on the morphology and growth of the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formed during the reflow process.

Chung, Bo-Mook; Baek, Yong-Ho; Choi, Jaeho; Huh, Joo-Youl

2012-12-01

147

Root hairs improve root penetration, root-soil contact, and phosphorus acquisition in soils of different strength.  

PubMed

Root hairs are a key trait for improving the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. However, it is not known whether root hairs provide significant advantage for plant growth under combined soil stresses, particularly under conditions that are known to restrict root hair initiation or elongation (e.g. compacted or high-strength soils). To investigate this, the root growth and P uptake of root hair genotypes of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (i.e. genotypes with and without root hairs), were assessed under combinations of P deficiency and high soil strength. Genotypes with root hairs were found to have an advantage for root penetration into high-strength layers relative to root hairless genotypes. In P-deficient soils, despite a 20% reduction in root hair length under high-strength conditions, genotypes with root hairs were also found to have an advantage for P uptake. However, in fertilized soils, root hairs conferred an advantage for P uptake in low-strength soil but not in high-strength soil. Improved root-soil contact, coupled with an increased supply of P to the root, may decrease the value of root hairs for P acquisition in high-strength, high-P soils. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that root hairs are a valuable trait for plant growth and nutrient acquisition under combined soil stresses. Selecting plants with superior root hair traits is important for improving P uptake efficiency and hence the sustainability of agricultural systems. PMID:23861547

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Young, Iain M; Hallett, Paul D; White, Philip J; George, Timothy S

2013-09-01

148

Breakage of transgenic tobacco roots for monoclonal antibody release in an ultra-scale down shearing device.  

PubMed

Transgenic tobacco roots offer a potential alternative to leaves for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. A possible method for extraction of MAbs from roots is by homogenization, breaking the roots into fragments to release the antibody. This process was assessed by shearing 10?mm root sections ("roots") in a 24?mL ultra-scale down shearing device, including an impeller with serrated blade edges, intended to mimic the action of a large-scale homogenizer. Size distributions of the remaining intact roots and root fragments were obtained as a function of shearing time. The data suggest that about 36% of the roots could not be broken under the prevailing conditions and, beyond these unbreakable roots, the fragmentation was approximately first order with respect to intact root number. It was postulated that root breakage in such a high shearing device was due to root-impeller collisions and the particle size data suggest that roots colliding with the impeller were completely fragmented into debris particles of the order of 0.1?mm in length. IgG release normalized to release by grinding appeared to lag behind the number of roots that had fragmented, suggesting that a process of leakage followed fragmentation in the ultra-scale down shearing device. PMID:23860965

Hassan, Sally; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ma, Julian; Thomas, Colin

2014-01-01

149

Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mullen, J. L.; Hangarter, R. P.; Kiss, J. Z. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

150

Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of arabidopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation.

Mullen, J. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

2003-05-01

151

Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics with high temporal and spatial resolution  

PubMed Central

Background Methods exist to quantify the distribution of growth rate over the root axis. However, non-destructive, high-throughput evaluations of total root elongation in controlled environments and the field are lacking in growth studies. A new imaging approach to analyse total root elongation is described. Scope High pixel resolution of the images enables the study of growth in short time intervals and provides high temporal resolution. Using the method described, total root elongation rates are calculated from the displacement of the root tip. Although the absolute root elongation rate changes in response to growth conditions, this set-up enables root growth of Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings to be followed for more than 1 month after germination. The method provides an easy approach to decipher root extension rate and much simpler calculations compared with other methods that use segmental growth to address this question. Conclusions The high temporal resolution allows small modifications of total root elongation growth to be revealed. Furthermore, with the options to investigate growth of various mutants in diverse growth conditions the present tool allows modulations in root growth kinetics due to different biotic and abiotic stimuli to be unravelled. Measurements performed on Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col0) plants revealed rhythms superimposed on root elongation. Results obtained from the starchless mutant pgm, however, present a clearly modified pattern. As expected, deviation is strongest during the dark period.

Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Fisahn, Joachim

2010-01-01

152

Root Absorption and Xylem Translocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: Herbicides must be absorbed into plants inorder to be effective. Plant roots and below ground shoots have fewbarriers to herbicide absorption; however, interactions with soilparticles and soil organic matter have significant impacts on theamount of herbicide available for plant absorption. Plant roots andbelow ground shoots (hypocotyls or coleoptiles) are lipophilic bynature and do not have thick, waxy cuticles like leaves. Lipophilic andhydrophilic herbicides reach the root surface by bulk transport in soilwater; however, there are a few examples of herbicides that reach theroot as a vapor or gas. Soil-applied herbicides can translocate to theshoot or remain in the root system. Soil-applied herbicides translocateto the shoot in the xylem and tend to accumulate in mature leaves thattranspire the most water. The lipophilic/hydrophilic nature of theherbicide will determine if the herbicide translocates to the shoot.Absorption and translocation of phloem-mobile herbicides will bediscussed in another lesson.

153

Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

2011-11-01

154

Drawing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary history of a collection of species is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree. Sometimes, phylogenetic networks are used as a means of representing reticulate evolution or of showing uncertainty and incompatibilities in evolutionary datasets. This is often done using unrooted phylogenetic networks such as split networks, due in part, to the availability of software (SplitsTree) for their computation

Daniel H. Huson

2009-01-01

155

Root Patterns in Heterogeneous Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous water availability is a typical characteristic of soils in which plant roots grow. Despite the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil-plant water relations, we know little about the ways how plants respond to local environmental quality. Furthermore, increasing use of soil amendments as partial water reservoirs in agriculture calls for a better understanding of plant response to soil heterogeneity. Neutron radiography is a non-invasive imaging that is highly sensitive to water and root distribution and that has high capability for monitoring spatial and temporal soil-plant water relations in heterogeneous systems. Maize plants were grown in 25 x 30 x 1 cm aluminum slabs filled with sandy soil. On the right side of the compartments a commercial water absorbent (Geohumus) was mixed with the soil. Geohumus was distributed with two patterns: mixed homogeneously with the soil, and arranged as 1-cm diameter aggregates (Fig. 1). Two irrigation treatments were applied: sufficient water irrigation and moderate water stress. Neutron radiography started 10 days after planting and has been performed twice a day for one week. At the end of the experiment, the containers were opened, the root were removed and dry root weight in different soil segments were measured. Neutron radiography showed root growth tendency towards Geohumus treated parts and preferential water uptake from Geohumus aggregates. Number and length of fine lateral roots were lower in treated areas compared to the non-treated zone and to control soil. Although corn plants showed an overall high proliferation towards the soil water sources, they decreased production of branches and fine root when water was more available near the main root parts. However there was 50% higher C allocation in roots grown in Geohumus compartments, as derived by the relative dry weight of root. The preferential C allocation in treated regions was higher when plants grew under water stress. We conclude that in addition to the inherent effect of water absorbent materials on increasing soil water availability, the distribution pattern of the soil amendments had an important role on root growth strategy and plant water uptake. Neutron radiography of the top, right corner of one sample. The Geohumus is arranged as aggregates.

Dara, A.; Moradi, A. B.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S. E.

2010-12-01

156

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has\\u000a a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n???1 and g???3, let G3(n,g){\\\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner

Bingbing Zhuang; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2010-01-01

157

Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

158

Net Gas Exchange as a Damage Indicator for Phytophthora Root Rot of Flooded and Nonflooded Avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional index words. Persea americana, Phytophthora cinnamomi, CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance Abstract. Net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance for CO2 (gs) were determined for flooded and nonflooded avocado plants (Persea americana Mill.) with different severities of phytophthora root rot (caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands). Under nonflooded conditions, root necrosis (primarily due to P. cinnamomi) of <50% generally had little

Bruce Schaffer; Randy C. Ploetz

1989-01-01

159

COUPLING FINE ROOT DYNAMICS WITH ECOSYSTEM CARBON CYCLING IN BLACK SPRUCE FORESTS OF INTERIOR ALASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root processes play a prominent role in the carbon and nutrient cycling of boreal ecosystems due to the high proportion of biomass allocated belowground and the rapid decomposition of fine roots relative to aboveground tissues. To examine these issues in detail, major components of ecosystem carbon flux were studied in three mature black spruce forests in interior Alaska, where

Roger W. Ruess; Ronald L. Hendrick; Andrew J. Burton; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Bjartmar Sveinbjornssön; Michael F. Allen; Gregory E. Maurer

2003-01-01

160

Passive transport of microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation after root inoculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root inoculation of susceptible carnations withFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi induced characteristic unilateral wilt only if root woundings and use of a microconidial suspension had not been combined at the time of inoculation. The combination, however, induced atypical and sudden stem breaking soon followed by death. In all cases wilt was due to destruction of the xylem. Unilateral wilt appeared to

R. P. Baayen; A. L. De Maat

1987-01-01

161

Quantification of endotoxins in necrotic root canals from symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the concentration of endotoxin in necrotic root canals and investigate the possible relationship between the concentration of endotoxin and endodontic signs and symptoms. Samples were collected from root canals of 50 patients requiring endodontic treatment due to necrosis of the pulpal tissue. Anaerobic techniques were used to determine the number of c.f.u.

R. C Jacinto; Haroun N. Shah; Caio C. Ferraz; Alexandre A. Zaia; Francisco J. Souza-Filho

2005-01-01

162

Root waving and skewing: unexpectedly in micro-g.  

PubMed

Gravity has major effects on both the form and overall length of root growth. Numerous papers have documented these effects (over 300 publications in the last 5 years), the most well-studied being gravitropism, which is a growth re-orientation directed by gravity toward the earth's center. Less studied effects of gravity are undulations due to the regular periodic change in the direction root tips grow, called waving, and the slanted angle of growth roots exhibit when they are growing along a nearly-vertical surface, called skewing. Although diverse studies have led to the conclusion that a gravity stimulus is needed for plant roots to show waving and skewing, the novel results just published by Paul et al. (2012) reveal that this conclusion is not correct. In studies carried out in microgravity on the International Space Station, the authors used a new imaging system to collect digital photographs of plants every six hours during 15 days of spaceflight. The imaging system allowed them to observe how roots grew when their orientation was directed not by gravity but by overhead LED lights, which roots grew away from because they are negatively phototropic. Surprisingly, the authors observed both skewing and waving in spaceflight plants, thus demonstrating that both growth phenomena were gravity independent. Touch responses and differential auxin transport would be common features of root waving and skewing at 1-g and micro-g, and the novel results of Paul et al. will focus the attention of cell and molecular biologists more on these features as they try to decipher the signaling pathways that regulate root skewing and waving. PMID:23217095

Roux, Stanley J

2012-01-01

163

Effects of root diameter and root nitrogen concentration on in situ root respiration among different seasons and tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of root respiration is a prerequisite for a better understanding of ecosystem carbon budget and carbon allocation.\\u000a However, there are not many relevant data in the literature on direct measurements of in situ root respiration by root chamber\\u000a method. Furthermore, few studies have been focused on the effects of root diameter (D\\u000a r) and root nitrogen concentration (N\\u000a r)

Dima Chen; Lixia Zhou; Xingquan Rao; Yongbiao Lin; Shenglei Fu

2010-01-01

164

Anatomy of the aortic and pulmonary roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the pulmonary autograft for aortic root replacement has renewed interest in the morphology of the arterial roots. In this article the basic construction of the roots, their anchorage, and their support from surrounding structures are reviewed. The arterial roots manifest a complex anatomy, with an intricate relation between the anulus and its adjacent structures, which span the

Margot M. Bartelings; Ad J. J. C. Bogers; Mark E. Galantowicz; Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot

1998-01-01

165

Root dynamics in native grassland exposed to elevated CO2 and warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of belowground processes to global change play a major role in terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) storage and feedbacks to climate, but remain understudied in comparison to aboveground processes. In grasslands, roots comprise about 75 percent of the biomass, and are responsible for increased inputs of C to soil pools under elevated CO2. Root exudation may also be responsible for increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition, or priming, potentially offsetting inputs of new C. Understanding the fate of belowground C allocation requires a better understanding of root processes including growth, rhizodeposition, turnover and decomposition. We studied root dynamics in mixed C3/C4 grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment near Cheyenne, WY, where Free-Air CO2 Enrichment is applied at 600 ppm during daytime in the growing season, and temperature is elevated by 1.5/3 deg C day/night all year. We applied several belowground techniques, including direct biomass measurements coupled with C isotope labeling, root litter decomposition measured in litter bags and in plots with herbicide applied, and image analysis of intact and harvested root systems . Direct measurements indicated that elevated CO2 increased root biomass, a trend that became increasingly significant over the first four years of treatments. Warming by itself tended to decrease root biomass in the first two years, and this effect declined in the next two years of the experiment, suggesting a transient negative response of root growth to warming. Continuous 13C labeling in elevated CO2 plots allowed detection of a greater proportion of new C in warmed than ambient temperature plots, demonstrating greater allocation of C to roots exposed to both elevated CO2 and warming. A root litter bag decomposition experiment showed that C3 grass roots decomposed more rapidly with elevated CO2 alone, but more slowly when elevated CO2 was combined with warming, possibly due to soil drying. C4 grass roots decomposed more slowly than C3 roots, probably due to higher C/N values, and were less responsive to global change treatments. Recent research has shown that C4 grasses become more competitive with elevated CO2 and warming, which together with their lower decomposition rates and higher root growth under these conditions, suggests that roots are likely to play an increasingly important role in belowground C storage in grasslands in the coming century. Changes in root system structure detected in minirhizotron and harvested root images, including lengths, diameters, and demography, will contribute further understanding of how belowground ecosystems will respond to global change.

Pendall, E.; Carrillo, Y.; Morgan, J. A.; Newcomb, J.

2011-12-01

166

Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.  

PubMed

To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants should be created in the upper part of the cover layer, namely a sufficient amount of plant nutrients. However, to define such a condition is difficult since different plant species have different requirements. PMID:17253002

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-12-01

167

Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita?  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens.

Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldan, Antonio

2011-01-01

168

Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: "codominance" of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities.

Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

2013-01-01

169

Adventitious root mass distribution in progeny of four perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) groups selected for root shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of one cycle of selection for adventitious root system shape (i.e. percentage of total root mass in successive depth increments) were investigated in progeny of four perennial ryegrass pools with contrasting rooting patterns: (1) low surface (0–10 cm) root mass and roots to 1 m; (2) high surface root mass and roots to 1 m; (3) high root

JR Crush; SN Nichols; L. Ouyang

2010-01-01

170

Anatomical characteristics of roots of citrus rootstocks that vary in specific root length  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Among citrus rootstocks, higher specific root length (SRL, root length}d. wt) has been linked to several specific morphological and physiological traits, including smaller average root diameter, higher root hydraulic conductivity and higher rates of root proliferation. In this study, thickness of the outer tangential exodermal (hypodermal) wall and its suberin layer, number of passage cells, presence of epidermis, and

D. M. E ISSENSTAT; D. S. A CHOR

1999-01-01

171

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued.

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

172

Root status and future developments  

SciTech Connect

In this talk the authors review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present their plans for future developments. The additions and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templates and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, they intend to continue the development of PROOF and its interfacing with GRID environments. They plan on providing an interface between Geant3, Geant4 and Fluka and the new geometry package. The ROOT-GUI classes will finally be available on Windows and they plan to release a GUI inspector and builder. In the last year, ROOT has drawn the endorsement of additional experiments and institutions. It is now officially supported by CERN and used as key I/O component by the LCG project.

Rene Brun et al.

2003-10-01

173

Free-living amoebae isolated from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes).  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in aquatic environments and their hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man are increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to isolate free-living amoebae from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes) and the water of an urban lake in Mexico City. Five grams of wet root were seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE). Water samples were concentrated by centrifugation at 1200g for 15min and the pellet was seeded on NNE. Of the 16 isolated genera, 10 were detected in both habitats. The most frequent were Vannella in root and Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in water. The total number of isolates and genera isolated from root was higher than that isolated from water. The differences between root and water are probably due to the morphological characteristics of water-hyacinth root, which provides a large habitat and refuge area for many organisms. PMID:20117108

Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca

2010-09-01

174

Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.  

PubMed

Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits. PMID:24633995

Geng, Yan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Dongmei; Liu, Huiying; He, Jin-Sheng

2014-06-01

175

When Outgroups Fail; Phylogenomics of Rooting the Emerging Pathogen, Coxiella burnetii  

PubMed Central

Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the LCA can be used as proxy outgroups to root diverse phylogenies. Here, we describe a genome-wide expansion of this technique that can be used to solve problems at the other end of the evolutionary scale: where ingroup individuals are all very closely related to each other, but the next closest relative is very distant. We used shared orthologous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 whole genome sequences of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in humans, to create a robust, but unrooted phylogeny. To maximize the number of characters informative about the rooting, we searched entire genomes for polymorphic duplicated regions where orthologs of each paralog could be identified so that the paralogs could be used to root the tree. Recent radiations, such as those of emerging pathogens, often pose rooting challenges due to a lack of ingroup variation and large genomic differences with known outgroups. Using a phylogenomic approach, we created a robust, rooted phylogeny for C. burnetii. [Coxiella burnetii; paralog SNPs; pathogen evolution; phylogeny; recent radiation; root; rooting using duplicated genes.

Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie M.; Sahl, Jason W.; Schaack, Sarah; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Matthew W.; Priestley, Rachael A.; Champion, Mia D.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S.; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Samuel, James E.; Massung, Robert F.; Keim, Paul

2013-01-01

176

TIME FOR COFFEE controls root meristem size by changes in auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Roots play important roles in plant survival and productivity as they not only anchor the plants in the soil but are also the primary organ for the uptake of nutrients from the outside. The growth and development of roots depend on the specification and maintenance of the root meristem. Here, we report a previously unknown role of TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) in controlling root meristem size in Arabidopsis. The results showed that loss of function of TIC reduced root meristem length and cell number by decreasing the competence of meristematic cells to divide. This was due to the repressed expression of PIN genes for decreased acropetal auxin transport in tic-2, leading to low auxin accumulation in the roots responsible for reduced root meristem, which was verified by exogenous application of indole-3-acetic acid. Downregulated expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, key transcription factors in mediating the patterning of the root stem cell niche, was also assayed in tic-2. Similar results were obtained with tic-2 and wild-type plants at either dawn or dusk. We also suggested that the MYC2-mediated jasmonic acid signalling pathway may not be involved in the regulation of TIC in controlling the root meristem. Taken together, these results suggest that TIC functions in an auxin–PLTs loop for maintenance of post-embryonic root meristem.

Lu, Ying-Tang

2014-01-01

177

Elderly at Greater Risk for Root Caries: A Look at the Multifactorial Risks with Emphasis on Genetics Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Root caries is one of the most significant dental problems among older adults today. Many studies have demonstrated that older adults are at greater risk for developing root caries. Here we examine what risk factors older adults are prone to and explain how they contribute to higher rates of oral disease, in particular root caries. The elderly are at risk for root caries due to dentures, lack of dexterity, a shift from complex to simple sugars, and poor oral hygiene. Decreased salivary flow and its manifestations with other social/behavioral and medical factors may provide a more comprehensive explanation to a higher frequency of root caries in older adults.

Gati, Daniel; Vieira, Alexandre R.

2011-01-01

178

Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.  

PubMed

Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. PMID:23252740

Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2013-03-01

179

Expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin enhances growth of Hyoscyamus muticus hairy root cultures.  

PubMed

The Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vhb) was introduced into Hyoscyamus muticus with the aim of investigating its effect on growth and alkaloid production of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy root cultures. We were able to generate several VHb-expressing hairy root lines with different integration patterns. Substantial somaclonal variation was observed in growth and hyoscyamine production amongst both VHb-expressing lines and controls. Despite this variation, the growth properties of single lines remained stable over time. Expression of VHb was found to improve growth of H. muticus hairy roots in shake-flask cultures. The dry weights of the root cultures expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin were on average 18 % higher than those of the controls. VHb expression also increased the volumetric hyoscyamine production, mainly due to the improved growth properties. However, this difference was not statistically significant due to the wide somaclonal variation and fluctuations over time in both VHb and control hairy root lines. PMID:15678373

Wilhelmson, Annika; Kallio, Pauli T; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Nuutila, Anna Maria

2005-01-01

180

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n ? 1 and g ? 3, let {\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner face is at most g. In this paper, we give an algorithm that enumerates all plane graphs in {\\cal G}_3(n,g). The algorithm runs in constant time per each by outputting the difference from the previous output.

Zhuang, Bingbing; Nagamochi, Hiroshi

181

Phosphate sensing in root development.  

PubMed

Phosphate (Pi) and its anhydrides constitute major nodes in metabolism. Thus, plant performance depends directly on Pi nutrition. Inadequate Pi availability in the rhizosphere is a common challenge to plants, which activate metabolic and developmental responses to maximize Pi usage and acquisition. The sensory mechanisms that monitor environmental Pi and transmit the nutritional signal to adjust root development have increasingly come into focus. Recent transcriptomic analyses and genetic approaches have highlighted complex antagonistic interactions between external Pi and Fe bioavailability and have implicated the stem cell niche as a target of Pi sensing to regulate root meristem activity. PMID:21571579

Abel, Steffen

2011-06-01

182

A simple empirical model of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical sink function describing water extraction by roots is proposed. Water uptake is given as a function both of the potential transpiration rate and a weighted stress index which accounts for the effects of the vertical distributions of roots and soil water content. The model was tested in the field using measurements of water content in a clay soil in which oats, spring rape and mustard crops were grown under mobile shelters. Measured changes in soil water content were considered primarily due to root water uptake, since recharge was prevented and the redistribution of water assumed negligible. Best-fit parameter values were found by optimization during one experimental year. Model predictions compared well with measurements in two further years ( r2 values of 94 and 81%), with no change in the optimized parameter input values.

Jarvis, N. J.

1989-05-01

183

Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

184

Strigolactones fine-tune the root system.  

PubMed

Strigolactones were originally discovered to be involved in parasitic weed germination, in mycorrhizal association and in the control of shoot architecture. Despite their clear role in rhizosphere signaling, comparatively less attention has been given to the belowground function of strigolactones on plant development. However, research has revealed that strigolactones play a key role in the regulation of the root system including adventitious roots, primary root length, lateral roots, root hairs and nodulation. Here, we review the recent progress regarding strigolactone regulation of the root system and the antagonism and interplay with other hormones. PMID:23801297

Rasmussen, Amanda; Depuydt, Stephen; Goormachtig, Sofie; Geelen, Danny

2013-10-01

185

Competition for water between deep- and shallow-rooted grasses  

SciTech Connect

Competition between root systems of neighboring plants may be altered by seasonal variation in precipitation and soil moisture. Competitive effects of a deep-rooted, perennial grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata, on a shallow-rooted, perennial grass, Poa sandbergii, were monitored over two growing seasons by isolating the root system of P. sandbergii individuals within PVC tubes and comparing plant and soil characteristics to controls. When isolated for the entire growing season, P. sandbergii continued vegetative growth three weeks longer and later season soil water content was significantly greater than controls. Differences in soil water content were greatest between 30 and 50cm, below P. sandbergii's typical rooting depth. Flowering phenology was unchanged. When plants were isolated late in the season, treated plants showed more negative predown xylem pressure potential the morning after isolatron. Compared to controls, soil water content was reduced the day after tube insertion. These immediate effects on plant and soil water status may be due to removal of water supplied nightly by hydraulic lift.

Healy, J.L.; Black, R.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)); Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States))

1994-06-01

186

Control of Root Meristem Size by DA1-RELATED PROTEIN2 in Arabidopsis1[C][W  

PubMed Central

The control of organ growth by coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation is a fundamental developmental process. In plants, postembryonic root growth is sustained by the root meristem. For maintenance of root meristem size, the rate of cell differentiation must equal the rate of cell division. Cytokinin and auxin interact to affect the cell proliferation and differentiation balance and thus control root meristem size. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine root meristem size still remain largely unknown. Here, we report that da1-related protein2 (dar2) mutants produce small root meristems due to decreased cell division and early cell differentiation in the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). dar2 mutants also exhibit reduced stem cell niche activity in the root meristem. DAR2 encodes a Lin-11, Isl-1, and Mec-3 domain-containing protein and shows an expression peak in the border between the transition zone and the elongation zone. Genetic analyses show that DAR2 functions downstream of cytokinin and SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 to maintain normal auxin distribution by influencing auxin transport. Further results indicate that DAR2 acts through the PLETHORA pathway to influence root stem cell niche activity and therefore control root meristem size. Collectively, our findings identify the role of DAR2 in root meristem size control and provide a novel link between several key regulators influencing root meristem size.

Peng, Yuancheng; Ma, Wenying; Chen, Liangliang; Yang, Lei; Li, Shengjun; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhao, Yankun; Jin, Weihuan; Li, Na; Bevan, Michael W.; Li, Xia; Tong, Yiping; Li, Yunhai

2013-01-01

187

The FairRoot framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FairRoot framework is an object oriented simulation, reconstruction and data analysis framework based on ROOT. It includes core services for detector simulation and offline analysis. The framework delivers base classes which enable the users to easily construct their experimental setup in a fast and convenient way. By using the Virtual Monte Carlo concept it is possible to perform the simulations using either Geant3 or Geant4 without changing the user code or the geometry description. Using and extending the task mechanism of ROOT it is possible to implement complex analysis tasks in a convenient way. Moreover, using the FairCuda interface of the framework it is possible to run some of these tasks also on GPU. Data IO, as well as parameter handling and data base connections are also handled by the framework. Since some of the experiments will not have an experimental setup with a conventional trigger system, the framework can handle also free flowing input streams of detector data. For this mode of operation the framework provides classes to create the needed time sorted input streams of detector data out of the event based simulation data. There are also tools to do radiation studies and to visualize the simulated data. A CMake-CDash based building and monitoring system is also part of the FairRoot services which helps to build and test the framework on many different platforms in an automatic way, including also Continuous Integration.

Al-Turany, M.; Bertini, D.; Karabowicz, R.; Kresan, D.; Malzacher, P.; Stockmanns, T.; Uhlig, F.

2012-12-01

188

The pipid root.  

PubMed

The estimation of phylogenetic relationships is an essential component of understanding evolution. Accurate phylogenetic estimation is difficult, however, when internodes are short and old, when genealogical discordance is common due to large ancestral effective population sizes or ancestral population structure, and when homoplasy is prevalent. Inference of divergence times is also hampered by unknown and uneven rates of evolution, the incomplete fossil record, uncertainty in relationships between fossil and extant lineages, and uncertainty in the age of fossils. Ideally, these challenges can be overcome by developing large "phylogenomic" data sets and by analyzing them with methods that accommodate features of the evolutionary process, such as genealogical discordance, recurrent substitution, recombination, ancestral population structure, gene flow after speciation among sampled and unsampled taxa, and variation in evolutionary rates. In some phylogenetic problems, it is possible to use information that is independent of fossils, such as the geological record, to identify putative triggers for diversification whose associated estimated divergence times can then be compared a posteriori with estimated relationships and ages of fossils. The history of diversification of pipid frog genera Pipa, Hymenochirus, Silurana, and Xenopus, for instance, is characterized by many of these evolutionary and analytical challenges. These frogs diversified dozens of millions of years ago, they have a relatively rich fossil record, their distributions span continental plates with a well characterized geological record of ancient connectivity, and there is considerable disagreement across studies in estimated evolutionary relationships. We used high throughput sequencing and public databases to generate a large phylogenomic data set with which we estimated evolutionary relationships using multilocus coalescence methods. We collected sequence data from Pipa, Hymenochirus, Silurana, and Xenopus and the outgroup taxon Rhinophrynus dorsalis from coding sequence of 113 autosomal regions, averaging ?300 bp in length (range: 102-1695 bp) and also a portion of the mitochondrial genome. Analysis of these data using multiple approaches recovers strong support for the ((Xenopus, Silurana)(Pipa, Hymenochirus)) topology, and geologically calibrated divergence time estimates that are consistent with estimated ages and phylogenetic affinities of many fossils. These results provide new insights into the biogeography and chronology of pipid diversification during the breakup of Gondwanaland and illustrate how phylogenomic data may be necessary to tackle tough problems in molecular systematics. [Coalescence; gene tree; high-throughout sequencing; lineage sorting; pipid; species tree; Xenopus.]. PMID:22438331

Bewick, Adam J; Chain, Frédéric J J; Heled, Joseph; Evans, Ben J

2012-12-01

189

Changes in rupture formation and zonary region stained with Evans blue during the recovery process from aluminum toxicity in the pea root apex.  

PubMed

We investigated how the pea (Pisum sativum cv. Harunoka) root, upon return to an Al-free condition, recovers from injury caused by exposure to Al. Elongation and re-elongation of the root during the recovery process from Al injury occurred only in the apical 5-mm region of the pea root. With the model system of the pea root for recovery from Al injury, images of the root characterized by zonal staining with Evans blue showed the existence of two regions in the root apex consisting of rupture and zonary stained regions. Ruptures enlarged by increase in their depth but without widening of the intervals among zonary stained regions in the roots treated with Al continuously. On the other hand, intervals of the zonary stained regions were widened due to re-elongation of the root and were narrow in the rupture region in the recovery root. PMID:21258208

Motoda, Hirotoshi; Kano, Yoshio; Hiragami, Fukumi; Kawamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hideaki

2011-01-01

190

Deep Phenotyping of Coarse Root Architecture in R. pseudoacacia Reveals That Tree Root System Plasticity Is Confined within Its Architectural Model  

PubMed Central

This study aims at assessing the influence of slope angle and multi-directional flexing and their interaction on the root architecture of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings, with a particular focus on architectural model and trait plasticity. 36 trees were grown from seed in containers inclined at 0° (control) or 45° (slope) in a glasshouse. The shoots of half the plants were gently flexed for 5 minutes a day. After 6 months, root systems were excavated and digitized in 3D, and biomass measured. Over 100 root architectural traits were determined. Both slope and flexing increased significantly plant size. Non-flexed trees on 45° slopes developed shallow roots which were largely aligned perpendicular to the slope. Compared to the controls, flexed trees on 0° slopes possessed a shorter and thicker taproot held in place by regularly distributed long and thin lateral roots. Flexed trees on the 45° slope also developed a thick vertically aligned taproot, with more volume allocated to upslope surface lateral roots, due to the greater soil volume uphill. We show that there is an inherent root system architectural model, but that a certain number of traits are highly plastic. This plasticity will permit root architectural design to be modified depending on external mechanical signals perceived by young trees.

Danjon, Frederic; Khuder, Hayfa; Stokes, Alexia

2013-01-01

191

Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while the length of the root system stabilized between 30 and 40 days. Root growth was more intense in the first two layers (0 to 0.4 m depth) of soil profile, which presented more than 80% of the total root length after the stabilization.

Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

2013-04-01

192

Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.  

PubMed

The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops. PMID:23913002

Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-09-01

193

An L-system model for root system mycorrhization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral phosphate fertilisers are a non-renewable resource; rock phosphate reserves are estimated to be depleted in 50 to 100 years. In order to prevent a severe phosphate crisis in the 21st century, there is a need to decrease agricultural inputs such as P fertilisers by making use of plant mechanisms that increase P acquisition efficiency. Most plants establish mycorrhizal symbiosis as an adaptation to increase/economize their P acquisition from the soil. However, there is a great functional diversity in P acquisition mechanisms among different fungal species that colonize the roots (Thonar et al. 2011), and the composition of mycorrhizal community is known to depend strongly on agricultural management practices. Thus, the agroecosystem management may substantially affect the mycorrhizal functioning and also the use of P fertilizers. To date, it is still difficult to quantify the potential input savings for the agricultural crops through manipulation of their symbiotic microbiome, mainly due to lack of mechanistic understanding of P uptake dynamics by the fungal hyphae. In a first attempt, Schnepf et al. (2008b) have used mathematical modelling to show on the single root scale how different fungal growth pattern influence root P uptake. However, their approach was limited by the fact that it was restricted to the scale of a single root. The goal of this work is to advance the dynamic, three-dimensional root architecture model of Leitner et al. (2010) to include root system infection with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and growth of external mycelium. The root system infection model assumes that there is an average probability of infection (primary infection), that the probability of infection of a new root segment immediately adjacent to an existing infection is much higher than the average (secondary infection), that infected root segments have entry points that are the link between internal and external mycelium, that only uninfected root segments are susceptible (since new infection can only be detected in previously uninfected root) and that there is a maximum percentage of overall root system infection. Growth of external mycelium is based on the model of Schnepf et al. (2008a) but translated into L-system form. Different hypotheses about the effect of inoculum position (dispersed vs. localized) and about root system infection mechanisms can be tested with this model. This will help to quantify the role of the complex geometric structure of external mycelia in plant P acquisition and to gain mechanistic insights into whole-plant processes affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis. Literature Leitner, D., Klepsch, S., Bodner, G., Schnepf, A., 2010a. A dynamic root system growth model based on L-Systems. Plant Soil 332, 177-192. Schnepf, A., Roose, T., Schweiger, P., 2008a. Growth model for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J R Soc Interface 5, 773-784. Schnepf, A., Roose, T., Schweiger, P., 2008b. Impact of growth and uptake patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant phosphorus uptake - a modelling study. Plant Soil 312, 85-99. Thonar C, Schnepf A, Frossard E, Roose T, Jansa J (2011) Traits related to differences in function among three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 339: 231-245. Acknowledgements This research was partly supported by the Austrian Science Fund FWF (Grant No.: V220-N13) and by an APART fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences at the Computational Science Center, University of Vienna (to D.L.).

Schnepf, Andrea; Schweiger, Peter; Jansa, Jan; Leitner, Daniel

2014-05-01

194

Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Understanding root processes at the whole-plant or ecosystem scales requires an accounting of the range of functions within a root system. Studying root traits based on their branching order can be a powerful approach to understanding this complex system. The current study examined the highly branched root system of the ericoid plant, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry) by classifying its root orders with a modified version of the morphometric approach similar to that used in hydrology for stream classification. Root anatomy provided valuable insight into variation in root function across orders. The more permanent portion of the root system occurred in 4th- and higher-order roots. Roots in these orders had radial growth; the lowest specific root length, N:C ratios, and mycorrhizal colonization; the highest tissue density and vessel number; and the coarsest root diameter. The ephemeral portion of the root system was mainly in the first three root orders. First- and 2nd-order roots were nearly anatomically identical, with similar mycorrhizal colonization and diameter, and also, despite being extremely fine, median lifespans were not very short (115-120 d; estimated with minirhizotrons). Our research underscores the value of examining root traits by root order and its implications to understanding belowground processes. PMID:21628158

Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Vera-Caraballo, Vivianette; Ruth, Leah E; Eissenstat, David M

2008-12-01

195

Do increased summer precipitation and N deposition alter fine root dynamics in a Mojave Desert ecosystem?  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to impact the amount and distribution of precipitation in the arid southwestern United States. In addition, nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing in these regions due to increased urbanization. Responses of belowground plant activity to increases in soil water content and N have shown inconsistent patterns between biomes. In arid lands, plant productivity is limited by water and N availability so it is expected that changes in these factors will affect fine root dynamics. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of increased summer precipitation and N deposition on fine root dynamics in a Mojave Desert ecosystem during a 2-year field experiment using minirhizotron measurements. Root length density, production, and mortality were measured in field plots in the Mojave Desert receiving three 25 mm summer rain events and/or 40 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . Increased summer precipitation and N additions did not have an overall significant effect on any of the measured root parameters. However, differences in winter precipitation resulting from interannual variability in rainfall appeared to affect root parameters with root production and turnover increasing following a wet winter most likely due to stimulation of annual grasses. In addition, roots were distributed more deeply in the soil following the wet winter. Root length density was initially higher under canopies compared to canopy interspaces, but converged toward the end of the study. In addition, roots tended to be distributed more deeply into the soil in canopy interspace areas. Results from this study indicated that increased summer precipitation and N deposition in response to climate change and urbanization are not likely to affect fine root dynamics in these Mojave Desert ecosystems, despite studies showing aboveground plant physiological responses to these environmental perturbations. However, changes in the amount and possibly distribution of winter precipitation may affect fine root dynamics. PMID:23504850

Verburg, Paul S J; Young, Andrew C; Stevenson, Bryan A; Glanzmann, Isabelle; Arnone, John A; Marion, Giles M; Holmes, Christopher; Nowak, Robert S

2013-03-01

196

Internal hydraulic redistribution prevents the loss of root conductivity during drought.  

PubMed

Shrubs of the Great Basin desert in Utah are subjected to a prolonged summer drought with the potential consequence of reduced water transport capability of the xylem due to drought-induced cavitation. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is the passive movement of water from deep to shallow soil through plant roots. Hydraulic redistribution can increase water availability in shallow soil and ameliorate drought stress, providing better soil and root water status, which could affect shallow root conductivity (Ks) and native root embolism. We tested this hypothesis in an Artemisia tridentata Nutt. mono-specific stand grown in a common garden in Utah. We enhanced HR artificially by applying a once a week deep-irrigation treatment increasing the water potential gradient between deep and shallow soil layers. Plants that were deep-watered had less negative water potentials and greater stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than non-watered control plants. After irrigation with labeled water (?D), xylem water in stems and shallow roots of watered shrubs was enriched with respect to control shrubs, a clear indication of deep water uptake and HR. Shallow root conductivity was threefold greater and shrubs experienced lower native embolism when deep-watered. We found clear evidence of water transfer between deep and shallow roots through internal HR that delayed depletion of shallow soil water content, maintained Ks and prevented root embolism. Overall, our results show a positive effect of HR on root water transport capacity in otherwise dry soil, with important implications for plant water status. PMID:24436338

Prieto, Iván; Ryel, Ronald J

2014-01-01

197

Assessing and analyzing 3D architecture of woody root systems, a review of methods and applications in tree and soil stability, resource acquisition and allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In numerous studies dealing with roots of woody plants, a description of the root system architecture is needed. During the\\u000a twentieth century, several manual measurement methods were used, depending on the objectives of study. Due to the difficulties\\u000a in accessing the roots and the duration of measurements, the studies generally involved a low number of root systems, were\\u000a often qualitative

Frédéric Danjon; Bert Reubens

2008-01-01

198

Tracking soil structural changes during root growth with sequential X-Ray CT scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop productivity is highly dependent on a good supply of water and nutrients. With increasing demand for food and variable water regimes due to climate change, it is important to get a better understanding on the processes involved in water and nutrient uptake by roots. Changes in soil structure affect water and nutrient availabilities for plants. It is known that roots change their environment during growth but little is known on how soil structural properties change as roots penetrate soils. More detailed information on root growth induced changes in the rhizosphere will help us to model water and nutrient uptake by plants. The objective of this study was to measure directly how soil structure changes in close proximity to the root as a seedling root penetrates through the soil. 3D volumetric images of maize root growth during six hours were obtained using X-ray microtomography at a resolution of 21 ?m. Roots were grown in soils of two different compaction levels (50 kPa and 200 kPa uniaxial load) and matric potentials (10 kPa and 100 kPa). Changes in porosity, pore connectivity and root-soil contact were determined from 2D cross sections for each time step. The 2D cross sections were chosen at 4 different positions in the sample, and each section was divided into sections of 64 voxels (1.3 mm2) to determine changes in porosity and connectivity with distance from the root. Soil movement caused by root growth was quantified from 2D cross sections at different positions along the sample using Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Changes in soil structure during root growth were observed. Porosity in close proximity to the root decreased whereas root-soil contact increased with time. The PIV showed a radial deformation of the soil. Greatest deformation was found close to the root. Some aggregates fractured during root growth whereas others were pushed into the pore space. These data on the changes in soil structure will help us to predict water and nutrient availability for plants. They are also a useful first step in a better understanding of root growth mechanisms and how they overcome physical constraints imposed by soils.

Schmidt, Sonja; Bengough, Glyn; Hallett, Paul

2014-05-01

199

Coarse root distribution of a semi-arid oak savanna estimated with ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North California enjoys wet and mild winters, but experiences extreme hot, dry summer conditions, with occasional drought years. Despite the severity of summer conditions, blue oaks are winter-deciduous. We hypothesized that the binary nature of water availability would be reflected in blue oak root architecture. Our objective was to understand how the form of the root system facilitates ecosystem functioning. To do this, we sought to characterize the structure of the root system, and survey coarse root distribution with ground penetrating radar (GPR), due to its advantages in covering large areas rapidly and non-destructively. Because GPR remains a relatively new technology for examining root distribution, an ancillary objective was to test this methodology, and help facilitate its application more broadly. A third objective was to test the potential for upscaling coarse root biomass by developing allometric relations based on LIDAR measurements of above ground canopy structure. We surveyed six 8x8 m locations with trees varying in size, age and clumping (i.e. isolated trees vs. tree clusters). GPR signals were transformed to root biomass by calibrating them against excavated roots. Toward this goal, we positioned two rectangles of size 60x100 cm in each of the grids, excavated and sieved soil to harvest roots. Our results indicate that coarse roots occupy the full soil profile, and that root biomass of old large trees peaks just above the bedrock. As opposed to other semi-arid regions, where trees often develop extensive shallow coarse lateral roots, in order to exploit the entire wet-soil medium, we found that coarse root density decreased with distance from the bole, and dropped sharply at a distance of 2 m. We upscaled root biomass to stand-scale (2.8±0.4 kg m-2) based on LiDAR analysis of the relative abundance of each tree configuration. We argue that the deep and narrow root structure we observed reflects the ecohydrology of oaks in this ecosystem, because extensive lateral roots would not be beneficial during the growing season (water is sufficiently abundant), nor during the summer season (soil water is highly limited). Our research has shown that the combination of resource availability, which is primarily water in this ecosystem, and plant demand, are portrayed in the form of the root system.

Raz-Yaseef, N.; Koteen, L. E.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2012-12-01

200

A new compensated root water and nutrient uptake model implemented in HYDRUS programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant root water and nutrient uptake is one of the most important processes in subsurface unsaturated flow and transport modeling, as root uptake controls actual plant evapotranspiration, water recharge and nutrient leaching to the groundwater. Root water uptake in unsaturated flow models is usually uncompensated and nutrient uptake is simulated assuming that all uptake is passive. We present a new compensated root water and nutrient uptake model, implemented in HYDRUS programs. The so-called root adaptability factor (Jarvis, 1989) is used to represent a threshold value above which reduced root water or nutrient uptake in water- or nutrient-stressed parts of the root zone is fully compensated for by increased uptake in other soil regions that are less stressed. Using a critical value of the water stress index, water uptake compensation is proportional to the water stress response function. Total root nutrient uptake is determined from the total of active and passive nutrient uptake. The partitioning between passive and active uptake is controlled by the a priori defined concentration value c_max. Passive nutrient uptake is simulated by multiplying root water uptake with the dissolved nutrient concentration, for soil solution concentration values below c_max. Passive nutrient uptake is thus zero when c_max is equal to zero. As the active nutrient uptake is obtained from the difference between plant nutrient demand and passive nutrient uptake (using Michaelis-Menten kinetics), the presented model thus implies that reduced passive nutrient uptake is compensated for by active nutrient uptake. In addition, the proposed root uptake model includes compensation for active nutrient uptake, in a similar way as used for root water uptake. The proposed root water and nutrient uptake model is demonstrated by several hypothetical and real examples, for plants supplied by water due to capillary rise from groundwater and surface drip irrigation.

Simunek, Jiri; Hopmans, Jan W.; Lazarovitch, Naftali

2010-05-01

201

Management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) using silicon.  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) has been reported to effectively manage some pests and diseases of plants. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Si concentration, mode, and frequency of application in managing Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber. A susceptible cultivar of cucumber (cv. Cyclone) was planted in pots containing heat-sterilized soil. Three weeks after planting, the plants were inoculated with 1,000 juveniles/ pot. Uninoculated plants were provided to serve as control. Three concentrations of Si in the form of sodium metasilicate was applied on the leaves and roots alone and also on both the leaves and roots. Application was done once during the growing period and weekly until seven days before harvest. Leaf and root application of Si was found to significantly increase (p = 0.0029) the fresh top weight of inoculated and uninoculated plants. On the other hand, inoculation of root-knot nematode significantly increased the fresh root weight of cucumber which could be due to enlargement of roots or formation of galls. Interestingly, the inoculated plants gave significantly higher marketable yield than uninoculated ones. Application of Si at the rate of 200 ppm significantly increased the marketable yield compared to the higher rate of Si (400 ppm). At 200 ppm, one application of Si both on the leaves and roots significantly reduced the number of galls in inoculated plants. This was comparable to the same concentration applied continuously on the roots and at higher concentration (400 ppm) applied continuously on the leaves and on the roots. On the other hand, single root application of Si at the rate of 400 ppm gave the lowest number of eggmasses, however, it was comparable to the same Si concentration applied singly on the leaves and applied continuously both on the leaves and roots. These treatments, however, were at par with continuous application of the lower rate of Si (200 ppm) on the leaves and both leaves and roots. PMID:21539270

Dugui-Es, C; Pedroche, N; Villanueva, L; Galeng, J; De Waele, D

2010-01-01

202

Numerical analysis of the effect of root reinforcement on the triggering of shallow landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides in vegetated slopes are strongly influenced by roots and their distribution. The mechanical properties of rooted soils are reported in numerous studies but are yet to be widely used for slope stability calculations. Quantifying root reinforcement in slope stability calculation, is difficult due to the complexity of soil-root interactions and the lack of knowledge of spatial root distribution. Moreover, the compressibility of rooted soil contributes both to the stiffness of the body of the slope and to the foot of the slope. Thus, they plays a fundamental role in landslide activation. Next to the well-documented contribution of roots to shear and tensile strength of soils, there are no studies that discuss the effects of roots on the compressibility of soils and how this mechanical property influences the triggering and size of shallow landslides. In this study we present the results of the sensitivity analysis of the SOSlope model based on the implementation of recent field and laboratory investigation results on the effects of root reinforcement and water content on the tensile-compressive behavior of rooted soil. The model simulates the effects of the spatial and temporal variability of root reinforcement on the stability of a slope as a function of position, dimension, and tree species. Including the compressive behavior or rooted soils is particularly important to estimate how vegetation stabilizes slopes of protection forests and bioengineered slopes. Results of the model are compared to field observations and discussed in the context of future validations. This study represents an important improvement for strategies within the scope of bioengineering measures and for the management of protection forests against shallow landslides.

Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Denis; Giadrossich, Filippo

2014-05-01

203

Imaging Tree Roots with Borehole Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-penetrating radar has been used to de- tect and map tree roots using surface-based antennas in reflection mode. On amenable soils these methods can accurately detect lateral tree roots. In some tree species (e.g. Pinus taeda, Pinus palustris), vertically orientated tap roots directly beneath the tree, comprise most of the root mass. It is difficult if not impossible to vertically

John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Per Wikström; Tomas Lundmark; Sune Linder

2006-01-01

204

Root-squaring with DPR1 matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in polynomial root-finding relies on employing the associated companion and generalized companion DPR1 matrices.\\u000a (“DPR1” stands for “diagonal plus rank-one.”) We propose an algorithm that uses nearly linear arithmetic time to square a\\u000a DPR1 matrix. Consequently, the algorithm squares the roots of the associated characteristic polynomial. This incorporates\\u000a the classical techniques of polynomial root-finding by means of root-squaring

V. Y. Pan

2010-01-01

205

Root canal filling using Resilon: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as

D. J. Shanahan; H. F. Duncan

2011-01-01

206

Root proliferation in decaying roots and old root channels: A nutrient conservation mechanism in oligotrophic mangrove forests?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. In oligotrophic habitats, proliferation of roots in nutrient-rich microsites may contribute to overall nutrient conservation by plants. Peat-based soils on mangrove islands in Belize are characterized by the presence of decaying roots and numerous old root channels (0.1-3.5 cm diameter) that become filled with living and highly branched roots of Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proliferation of roots in these microsites and to determine what causes this response. 2. Channels formed by the refractory remains of mangrove roots accounted for only 1-2% of total soil volume, but the proportion of roots found within channels varied from 9 to 24% of total live mass. Successive generations of roots growing inside increasingly smaller root channels were also found. 3. When artificial channels constructed of PVC pipe were buried in the peat for 2 years, those filled with nutrient-rich organic matter had six times more roots than empty or sand-filled channels, indicating a response to greater nutrient availability rather than to greater space or less impedance to root growth. 4. Root proliferation inside decaying roots may improve recovery of nutrients released from decomposing tissues before they can be leached or immobilized in this intertidal environment. Greatest root proliferation in channels occurred in interior forest zones characterized by greater soil waterlogging, which suggests that this may be a strategy for nutrient capture that minimizes oxygen losses from the whole root system. 5. Improved efficiency of nutrient acquisition at the individual plant level has implications for nutrient economy at the ecosystem level and may explain, in part, how mangroves persist and grow in nutrient-poor environments.

McKee, K. L.

2001-01-01

207

Controls on Ecosystem and Root Respiration in an Alaskan Peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal ecosystems cover 14% of the vegetated surface on earth and account for 25-30% of the world’s soil carbon (C), mainly due to large carbon stocks in deep peat and frozen soil layers. While peatlands have served as historical sinks of carbon, global climate change may trigger re-release of C to the atmosphere and may turn these ecosystems into net C sources. Rates of C release from a peatland are determined by regional climate and local biotic and abiotic factors such as vegetation cover, thaw depth, and peat thickness. Soil CO2 fluxes are driven by both autotrophic (plant) respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration. Thus, changes in plant and microbial activity in the soil will impact CO2 emissions from peatlands. In this study, we explored environmental and vegetation controls on ecosystem respiration and root respiration in a variety of wetland sites. The study was conducted at the Alaskan Peatland Experiment (APEX; www.uoguelph.ca/APEX) sites in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest located 35 km southwest of Fairbanks Alaska. We measured ecosystem respiration, root respiration, and monitored a suite of environmental variables along a vegetation and soil moisture gradient including a black spruce stand with permafrost, a shrubby site with permafrost, a tussock grass site, and a herbaceous open rich fen. Within the rich fen, we have been conducting water table manipulations including a control, lowered, and raised water table treatment. In each of our sites, we measured total ecosystem respiration using static chambers and root respiration by harvesting roots from the uppermost 20 cm and placing them in a root cuvette to obtain a root flux. Ecosystem respiration (ER) on a ?mol/m2/sec basis varied across sites. Water table was a significant predictor of ER at the lowered manipulation site and temperature was a strong predictor at the control site in the rich fen. Water table and temperature were both significant predictors of ER at the raised manipulation site. Root respiration fluxes on a ppm CO2/sec/g dry mass basis were highest for herbaceous species, which dominated the open rich fen sites. Root respiration flux was significantly lower in tree-dominated black spruce sites. It appears that the variation in root respiration explains the variation in ER between herbaceous and tree-dominated systems. Therefore an important next step is to partition ER into heterotrophic and autotrophic components across these ecosystems. This in turn will provide a better assessment of peatland C responses to global climate change.

McConnell, N. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.

2010-12-01

208

Involvement of polyamines in root development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root development is under the control of hormonal, metabolic, and environmental cues that can act on genetically-controlled developmental programmes and thus affect the plasticity of root architecture. These processes involve not only the five `classical' plant hormones, but also other growth regulators, such as polyamines. The present review emphasises the importance of polyamines in the different aspects of root development:

Ivan Couée; Irène Hummel; Cécile Sulmon; Gwenola Gouesbet; Abdelhak El Amrani

2004-01-01

209

Distribution of roots of random polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider polynomials of high degree with random coefficients which appear in the context of ``quantum chaotic'' dynamics and investigate various conditions under which their roots tend to concentrate near the unit circle in the complex plane. Correlation functions of roots are computed analytically. We also investigate a certain class of random polynomials whose roots cover, in a uniform way,

E. Bogomolny; O. Bohigas; P. Leboeuf

1992-01-01

210

Bell pepper responses to root restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various container sizes were used to induce root restriction on ‘Jupiter’ bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). There was little or no effect of container size on plant growth up to 23 days after transplanting (DAT). By 45 DAT, leaf area and plant dry weight was diminished proportional to container volume. Root?to?shoot ratio was constant among the various root restricting conditions

D. S. NeSmith; D. C. Bridges; J. C. Barbour

1992-01-01

211

Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming that fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) turn over once per year, they represent a third of the global annual net primary productivity. These turnover estimates are based on rhizotron studies, where root longevity is determined by monitoring the appearance/disappearance of roots on a screen, which is inserted into the soil. Much slower fine root turnover rates were found using carbon (C) isotope methods (either 14C dating or continuous 13C-labelling), resulting in root longevities of several years. Stable C isotope tracer experiments, are argued to overestimate fine root longevities, mainly because the smallest roots with the highest turn over, are easily missed during sampling. The goal of the present study was therefore to carry out a C-labelling experiment, and specifically focus on the finest roots, namely root tips. In addition we sampled whole fine roots (<1 mm and 1-3 mm in diameter), as in other studies. We pulse labelled 14-year-old Pinus sylvestris (Pine) trees in the field for only three hours with highly 13C-enriched CO2 (24 atom percent). The mean residence time (MRT) of recently assimilated C in root tips was determined, as a measure for root longevity. Already two days after labelling, recent C had been translocated from the crowns to fine roots indicating rapid belowground C allocation. 13C signals in root tips were stronger than in whole roots, which shows that they are the most active part of the root system. MRT of C calculated using first order exponential decay functions of C in bulk roots were around 20 days in both <1mm and 1-3mm roots and 29 days in root tips. A rapid decline in 13C signals was observed which could be explained by a rapid decrease in the signal of the sucrose pool, which had a MRT of 5 days. However, part of the labelled C had been allocated to a pool with a slower turnover rate (most likely structural compounds such as cellulose) as indicated by persisting 13C signals measured 120 days after labelling. MRT of C in those slow turnover pools will be estimated by continuously monitoring the remaining 13C signals. Those MRTs are expected to offer more realistic fine root turnover estimates and could possibly end the root longevity debate.

Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

2008-12-01

212

Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape  

PubMed Central

Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased.

Nakamura, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

213

Root-soil mechanical interactions during pullout and failure of root bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots play a major role in reinforcing and stabilizing steep hillslopes. Most studies in slope stability implement root reinforcement as an apparent cohesion by upscaling the behavior of static individual roots. Recent studies, however, have shown that much better predictions of slope stability can be made if the progressive failure of bundles of roots are considered. The characteristics of progressive

M. Schwarz; D. Cohen; D. Or

2010-01-01

214

Springback in Root Gravitropism 1  

PubMed Central

Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as `springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalmaic acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a `memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

Leopold, A. Carl; Wettlaufer, Scott H.

1989-01-01

215

The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge.

Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Pieterse, Corne M. J.

2013-01-01

216

The age of continental roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the age of the mantle part of continental roots is essential to our understanding of the evolution and stability of continents. Dating the rocks that comprise the mantle root beneath the continents has proven difficult because of their high equilibration temperatures and open-system geochemical behaviour. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years that allows us to see how continental roots have evolved in different areas. The first indication of the antiquity of continental roots beneath cratons came from the enriched Nd and Sr isotopic signatures shown by both peridotite xenoliths and inclusions in diamonds, requiring isolation of cratonic roots from the convecting mantle for billions of years. The enriched Nd and Sr isotopic signatures result from mantle metasomatic events post-dating the depletion events that led to the formation and isolation of the peridotite from convecting mantle. These signatures document a history of melt- and fluid-rock interaction within the lithospheric mantle. In some suites of cratonic rocks, such as eclogites, Nd and Pb isotopes have been able to trace probable formation ages. The Re-Os isotope system is well suited to dating lithospheric peridotites because of the compatible nature of Os and its relative immunity to post-crystallisation disturbance compared with highly incompatible element isotope systems. Os isotopic compositions of lithospheric peridotites are overwhelmingly unradiogenic and indicate long-term evolution in low Re/Os environments, probably as melt residues. Peridotite xenoliths from kimberlites can show some disturbed Re/Os systematics but analyses of representative suites show that beneath cratons the oldest Re depletion model ages are Archean and broadly similar to major crust-forming events. Some locations, such as Premier in southern Africa, and Lashaine in Tanzania, indicate more recent addition of lithospheric material to the craton, in the Proterozoic, or later. Of the cratons studies so far (Kaapvaal, Siberia, Wyoming and Tanzania), all indicate Archean formation of their lithospheric mantle roots. Few localities studied show any clear variation of age with depth of derivation, indicating that >150 km of lithosphere may have formed relatively rapidly. In circum-cratonic areas where the crustal basement is Proterozoic in age kimberlite-derived xenoliths give Proterozoic model ages, matching the age of the overlying crust. This behaviour shows how the crust and mantle parts of continental lithospheric roots have remained coupled since formation in these areas, for billions of years, despite continental drift. Orogenic massifs show more systematic behaviour of Re-Os isotopes, where correlations between Os isotopic composition and S or Re content yield initial Os isotopic ratios that define Re depletion model ages for the massifs. Ongoing Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-Os isotopic studies of massif peridotites and new kimberlite- and basalt-borne xenolith suites from new areas, will soon enable a global understanding of the age of continental roots and their subsequent evolution.

Pearson, D. G.

1999-09-01

217

Root canal treatment of a maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots: A case report  

PubMed Central

Anatomical variations in root canal morphology are an enigma and it is this variability, which is often a complicating factor in a successful root canal treatment. To achieve success in endodontic therapy it is imperative that all the canals are located, cleaned and shaped and obturated three dimensionally. Maxillary first premolar having three separate roots has an incidence of 0.5-6%. Even rarer are reported clinical case reports of maxillary second premolar with three separate roots and three canals. This case report describes the endodontic management of maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots and one buccal root having three root canals

George, Gingu Koshy; Varghese, Anju Mary; Devadathan, Aravindan

2014-01-01

218

The Compact Root Architecture1 Gene Regulates Lignification, Flavonoid Production, and Polar Auxin Transport in Medicago truncatula1[W  

PubMed Central

The root system architecture is crucial to adapt plant growth to changing soil environmental conditions and consequently to maintain crop yield. In addition to root branching through lateral roots, legumes can develop another organ, the nitrogen-fixing nodule, upon a symbiotic bacterial interaction. A mutant, cra1, showing compact root architecture was identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula. cra1 roots were short and thick due to defects in cell elongation, whereas densities of lateral roots and symbiotic nodules were similar to the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that a lengthened life cycle in cra1 was due to the smaller root system and not to the pleiotropic shoot phenotypes observed in the mutant. Analysis of the cra1 transcriptome at a similar early developmental stage revealed few significant changes, mainly related to cell wall metabolism. The most down-regulated gene in the cra1 mutant encodes a Caffeic Acid O-Methyl Transferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis; accordingly, whole lignin content was decreased in cra1 roots. This correlated with differential accumulation of specific flavonoids and decreased polar auxin transport in cra1 mutants. Exogenous application of the isoflavone formononetin to wild-type plants mimicked the cra1 root phenotype, whereas decreasing flavonoid content through silencing chalcone synthases restored the polar auxin transport capacity of the cra1 mutant. The CRA1 gene, therefore, may control legume root growth through the regulation of lignin and flavonoid profiles, leading to changes in polar auxin transport.

Laffont, Carole; Blanchet, Sandrine; Lapierre, Catherine; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Crespi, Martin; Mathesius, Ulrike; Frugier, Florian

2010-01-01

219

Historical roots of gauge invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Gauge invariance is the basis of the modern,theory of electroweak and strong interactions (the so called Standard Model). The roots of gauge invariance go back to the year 1820 when electromagnetismwas,discovered and the first electrodynamic,theory was proposed. Subsequent developments,led to the discovery that different forms of the vector potential result in the same observable forces. The partial arbitrariness of

J. D. Jackson; L. B. Okun

1965-01-01

220

Photosensitivity due to thiazides.  

PubMed

Thiazides are widely used diuretics that first became available in the 1950s. The first reports of photosensitivity reactions to thiazides were published shortly after the introduction of these drugs, but few cases have been described since. We review all the cases of photosensitivity due to thiazides published up to December 2011. We found 62 cases, 33 in women and 29 in men. The most common presentation was eczematous lesions in a photodistributed pattern, and the most common causative agent was hydrochlorothiazide. The results of photobiological studies were published in only some of the cases reviewed. In most cases, phototesting revealed an abnormal response to UV-A alone or to both UV-A and UV-B. In some cases, the results of phototesting were normal and only photopatch testing yielded abnormal results. Diagnosis of photosensitivity due to thiazides requires a high degree of suspicion. Ideally, diagnosis should be confirmed by a photobiological study. PMID:23664250

Gómez-Bernal, S; Alvarez-Pérez, A; Rodríguez-Pazos, L; Gutiérrez-González, E; Rodríguez-Granados, M T; Toribio, J

2014-05-01

221

Root functioning modifies seasonal climate  

PubMed Central

Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the nocturnal vertical transfer of soil water from moister to drier regions in the soil profile by roots, has now been observed in Amazonian trees. We have incorporated HR into an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model Version 2) to estimate its impact on climate over the Amazon and other parts of the globe where plants displaying HR occur. Model results show that photosynthesis and evapotranspiration increase significantly in the Amazon during the dry season when plants are allowed to redistribute soil water. Plants draw water up and deposit it into the surface layers, and this water subsidy sustains transpiration at rates that deep roots alone cannot accomplish. The water used for dry season transpiration is from the deep storage layers in the soil, recharged during the previous wet season. We estimate that HR increases dry season (July to November) transpiration by ?40% over the Amazon. Our model also indicates that such an increase in transpiration over the Amazon and other drought-stressed regions affects the seasonal cycles of temperature through changes in latent heat, thereby establishing a direct link between plant root functioning and climate.

Lee, Jung-Eun; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fung, Inez

2005-01-01

222

Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics  

PubMed Central

The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots (LRs) are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation. Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how LRs and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

Cuesta, Candela; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Benkova, Eva

2013-01-01

223

Changes in Membrane Lipids of Roots Associated with Changes in Permeability  

PubMed Central

Previous work has shown that undissociated forms of organic acids, such as formic, acetic, and propionic acids, increase the permeability of barley roots to ions. The work here was undertaken to test whether these undissociated acids affect the lipids from the root membranes in such a way as to account for the permeability increase. Relative amounts of the principal fatty acids from barley root membranes were measured as a function of organic acid concentration, pH, and time of treatment of barley roots under conditions similar to those of the previous studies. Undissociated formic, acetic, and propionic acids all rapidly increase the proportions of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids and decrease proportions of linoleic and linolenic acids. Only the undissociated species are effective. The effects on the fatty acids from membrane lipids parallel effects on ion permeability. It is concluded that the increase in permeability produced by undissociated organic acid is due to changes in the lipids of barley root membranes.

Jackson, Patricia C.; John, Judith B. St.

1980-01-01

224

Effect of pH and zinc stress on micropore system of rye roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After zinc stress the total micropore volume decreased remarkably while the average micropore radius increased remarkably for the rye roots. Pore size distribution functions of the roots after the additional zinc application showed the decrease of the small micropore fraction from ca 2 to 10 nm and the increase of the large micropore from ca 22 to 50 nm. The root surface pores were fractal. After the stress pore fractal dimension increased. The changes of the microporosity observed in the roots surface can be related to the high content of zinc in the cell wall and/or due to the shortage of Ca+2 the intercellular spaces particularly in the tissues of seminal cortex of the studied roots might have grown.

Szatanik-Kloc, A.

2012-07-01

225

Iron plaque formation and morphoanatomy of roots from species of restinga subjected to excess iron.  

PubMed

The restingas, a sandy coastal plain ecosystem of Brazil, have received an additional amount of iron due to the activity of mining industries. The present study aims to characterize morphoanatomically and histochemically the iron plaque formation on roots of Ipomoea pes-caprae L. and Canavalia rosea DC, cultivated in hydroponic solution with and without excess iron. The iron plaque formation as well as changes in the external morphology of the lateral roots of both species were observed after the subjection to excess iron. Changes in the nutrient uptake, and in the organization and form of the pericycle and cortex cells were observed for both species. Scanning electron microscopy showed evident iron plaques on the whole surface of the root. The iron was histolocalized in all root tissues of both species. The species of restinga studied here formed iron plaque in their roots when exposed to excess of this element, which may compromise their development in environments polluted by particulated iron. PMID:22169228

Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves; Oliva, Marco Antonio

2012-04-01

226

Root-shoot interaction in the greening of wheat seedlings grown under red light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wheat seedlings grown with roots exposed to constant red light (300-500 micromoles m-2 s-1) did not accumulate chlorophyll in the leaves. In contrast, seedlings grown with their roots shielded from light accumulated chlorophylls. Chlorophyll biosynthesis could be induced in red-light-grown chlorophyll-deficient yellow plants by either reducing the red-light intensity at the root surface to 100 micromoles m-1 s-1 or supplementing with 6% blue light. The inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis was due to impairment of the Mg-chelatase enzyme working at the origin of the Mg-tetrapyrrole pathway. The root-perceived photomorphogenic inhibition of shoot greening demonstrates root-shoot interaction in the greening process.

Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.

1995-01-01

227

Root-soil mechanical interactions during pullout and failure of root bundles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots play a major role in reinforcing and stabilizing steep hillslopes. Most studies in slope stability implement root reinforcement as an apparent cohesion by upscaling the behavior of static individual roots. Recent studies, however, have shown that much better predictions of slope stability can be made if the progressive failure of bundles of roots are considered. The characteristics of progressive failure depend on interactions between soil deformation and root bundle geometric and mechanical properties. We present a detailed model for the quantitative description of the mechanical behavior of a bundle of roots under strain-controlled mechanical forcing. The Root Bundle Model explicitly considers typical values of root-size spatial distribution (number and dimension of roots), geometric factors (diameter-length proportion, tortuosity, and branching characteristics), and mechanical characteristics (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and interactions under various soil conditions (soil type, confining pressure, and soil moisture). We provide systematic analyses of the roles of these factors on the mechanical response of the bundle and explore the relative importance of various parameters to the macroscopic root-soil mechanical response. We distinguish between increased strength imparted by small roots at small deformations and the resilience imparted by larger roots to the growth of large tensile cracks, showing that the maximal reinforcement of fine roots is reached within the first 5 cm of displacement whereas a root of 20 mm diameter may reach its maximal pullout force after 10 cm displacement. The model reproduces the gradual straining and ultimate residual failure behavior of root systems often observed in hillslopes, with progressive growth of tension cracks improving estimations of root reinforcement when considering the effects of root distribution and the variation of the pullout force as a function of displacement. These results enhance understanding of root reinforcement mechanisms and enable more realistic implementation of root reinforcement modeling for stability calculations of vegetated slopes and for guiding ongoing experimental efforts to gather critical root-soil mechanical information.

Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Or, D.

2010-12-01

228

Phytotoxic cyanamide affects maize (Zea mays) root growth and root tip function: from structure to gene expression.  

PubMed

Cyanamide (CA) is a phytotoxic compound produced by four Fabaceae species: hairy vetch, bird vetch, purple vetch and black locust. Its toxicity is due to complex activity that involves the modification of both cellular structures and physiological processes. To date, CA has been investigated mainly in dicot plants. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of CA in the restriction of the root growth of maize (Zea mays), representing the monocot species. CA (3mM) reduced the number of border cells in the root tips of maize seedlings and degraded their protoplasts. However, CA did not induce any significant changes in the organelle structure of other root cells, apart from increased vacuolization. CA toxicity was also demonstrated by its effect on cell cycle activity, endoreduplication intensity, and modifications of cyclins CycA2, CycD2, and histone HisH3 gene expression. In contrast, the arrangement of microtubules was not altered by CA. Treatment of maize seedlings with CA did not completely arrest mitotic activity, although the frequency of dividing cells was reduced. Furthermore, prolonged CA treatment increased the proportion of endopolyploid cells in the root tip. Cytological malformations were accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress in root cells, which manifested as enhanced accumulation of H2O2. Exposure of maize seedlings to CA resulted in an increased concentration of auxin and stimulated ethylene emission. Taken together, these findings suggested that the inhibition of root growth by CA may be a consequence of stress-induced morphogenic responses. PMID:24709147

Soltys, Dorota; Rudzi?ska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Szajko, Katarzyna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

229

Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios.

Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

230

Sites and Regulation of Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative

Karin Ljung; Anna K. Hull; John Celenza; Masashi Yamada; Mark Estelle; Jennifer Normanly; Goran Sandberga

2005-01-01

231

Infection of turnip and radish storage roots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within about 10 days after inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, the vascular bundles of storage root disks of turnip or radish developed small outgrowths with numerous root hairs. Thereafter, adventitious roots (hairy roots) emerged extensively from these outgrowths. The hairy roots which emerged fully supported the growth of host plants, though they lacked geotropism. An excised hairy root could be subcultured

Nobukazu Tanaka; Mitsutoshi Hayakawa; Yoshihiro Mano; Hideo Ohkawa; Chiaki Matsui

1985-01-01

232

Canopy Composition and Topographic Controls on Root Cohesion in Landslide-Prone Terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steep, forested landscapes are commonly the source of devastating shallow landslides and debris flows. The magnitude and frequency of these slides is dependent on the distribution of steep slopes, the frequency of prolonged and/or intense precipitation, and the resistive properties of soil and roots. Most studies of the human influence on shallow landslide frequency focus on the effects of forestry and associated road building. Humans also influence the species composition of forests through management and introductions of exotic species. Forest composition affects the magnitude of root reinforcement of largely cohesionless colluvial soils that resist landsliding. We investigated how topographically controlled changes in forest composition affected the distribution of root reinforcement along a catenery sequence in a forested catchment, southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina. The magnitude of reinforcement is estimated based on the vertical distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of fifteen native woody species. Root tensile strengths from different hardwood tree species were similar and consistently higher than the only native shrub species measured (Rhododendron maximum). Roots were stronger in trees found on noses relative to those in hollows coincident with the variability in cellulose content. This cellulose variability is likely an ecophysiologic response to differences in soil moisture potential along our catena. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface, with the majority of R. maximum roots located in the shallow, O-horizon. R. maximum had lower mean root cohesion than trees because of a lower root tensile force and a shallow rooting structure. Our results highlight the need to quantify how changes in canopy composition, particularly the expansion of R. maximum due to fire suppression, affect shallow landslide potential. We suggest that a combination of simple topographic analysis and leaf off image analysis can help us predict canopy change and improve estimates of hazards in forested southern Appalachian catchments.

Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J.; Band, L. E.

2009-12-01

233

Ammonium Uptake by Rice Roots (III. Electrophysiology).  

PubMed Central

The transmembrane electrical potential differences ([delta][psi]) were measured in epidermal and cortical cells of intact roots of 3-week-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv M202) seedlings grown in 2 or 100 [mu]M NH4+ (G2 or G100 plants, respectively). In modified Johnson's nutrient solution containing no nitrogen, [delta][psi] was in the range of -120 to -140 mV. Introducing NH4+ to the bathing medium caused a rapid depolarization. At the steady state, average [delta][psi] of G2 and G100 plants were -116 and -89 mV, respectively. This depolarization exhibited a biphasic response to external NH4+ concentration similar to that reported for 13NH4+ influx isotherms (M.Y. Wang, M.Y. Siddiqi, T.J. Ruth, A.D.M. Glass [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 1259-1267). Plots of membrane depolarization versus 13NH4+ influx were also biphasic, indicating distinct coupling processes for the two transport systems, with a breakpoint between two concentration ranges around 1 mM NH4+. The extent of depolarization was also influenced by nitrogen status, which was larger for G2 plants than for G100 plants. Depolarization of [delta][psi] due to NH4+ uptake was eliminated by a protonophore (carboxylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone), inhibitors of ATP synthesis (sodium cyanide plus salicylhydroxamic acid), or an ATPase inhibitor (diethylstilbestrol). The results of these observations are discussed in the context of the mechanisms of NH4+ uptake by high- and low-affinity transport systems operating across the plasma membranes of root cells.

Wang, M. Y.; Glass, ADM.; Shaff, J. E.; Kochian, L. V.

1994-01-01

234

Hydrotropism in pea roots in a porous-tube water delivery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orientation of root growth on earth and under microgravity conditions can possibly be controlled by hydrotropism--growth toward a moisture source in the absence of or reduced gravitropism. A porous-tube water delivery system being used for plant growth studies is appropriate for testing this hypothesis since roots can be grown aeroponically in this system. When the roots of the agravitropic mutant pea ageotropum (Pisum sativum L.) were placed vertically in air of 91% relative humidity and 2 to 3 mm from the water-saturated porous tube placed horizontally, the roots responded hydrotropically and grew in a continuous arch along the circular surface of the tube. By contrast, normal gravitropic roots of Alaska' pea initially showed a slight transient curvature toward the tube and then resumed vertical downward growth due to gravitropism. Thus, in microgravity, normal gravitropic roots could respond to a moisture gradient as strongly as the agravitropic roots used in this study. Hydrotropism should be considered a significant factor responsible for orientation of root growth in microgravity.

Takahashi, H.; Brown, C. S.; Dreschel, T. W.; Scott, T. K.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

235

Constructing the uncertainty of due dates.  

PubMed

By its nature, the date that a baby is predicted to be born, or the due date, is uncertain. How women construct the uncertainty of their due dates may have implications for when and how women give birth. In the United States as many as 15% of births occur before 39 weeks because of elective inductions or cesarean sections, putting these babies at risk for increased medical problems after birth and later in life. This qualitative study employs a grounded theory approach to understand the decisions women make on how and when to give birth. Thirty-three women who were pregnant or had given birth within the past 2 years participated in key informant or small-group interviews. The results suggest that women interpret the uncertainty of their due dates as a reason to wait for birth and as a reason to start the process early; however, information about a baby's brain development in the final weeks of pregnancy may persuade women to remain pregnant longer. The uncertainties of due dates are analyzed using Babrow's problematic integration, which distinguishes between epistemological and ontological uncertainty. The results point to a third type of uncertainty, axiological uncertainty. Axiological uncertainty is rooted in the values and ethics of outcomes. PMID:24266788

Vos, Sarah C; Anthony, Kathryn E; O'Hair, H Dan

2014-10-01

236

Growth of plant root cultures in liquid- and gas-dispersed reactor environments.  

PubMed

The growth of Agrobacterium transformed "hairy root" cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus was examined in various liquid- and gas-dispersed bioreactor configurations. Reactor runs were replicated to provide statistical comparisons of nutrient availability on culture performance. Accumulated tissue mass in submerged air-sparged reactors was 31% of gyratory shake-flask controls. Experiments demonstrate that poor performance of sparged reactors is not due to bubble shear damage, carbon dioxide stripping, settling, or flotation of roots. Impaired oxygen transfer due to channeling and stagnation of the liquid phase are the apparent causes of poor growth. Roots grown on a medium-perfused inclined plane grew at 48% of gyratory controls. This demonstrates the ability of cultures to partially compensate for poor liquid distribution through vascular transport of nutrients. A reactor configuration in which the medium is sprayed over the roots and permitted to drain down through the root tissue was able to provide growth rates which are statistically indistinguishable (95% T-test) from gyratory shake-flask controls. In this type of spray/trickle-bed configuration, it is shown that distribution of the roots becomes a key factor in controlling the rate of growth. Implications of these results regarding design and scale-up of bioreactors to produce fine chemicals from root cultures are discussed. PMID:7763701

McKelvey, S A; Gehrig, J A; Hollar, K A; Curtis, W R

1993-01-01

237

Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

1998-01-01

238

Root exudates of mycorrhizal tomato plants exhibit a different effect on microconidia germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici than root exudates from non-mycorrhizal tomato plants.  

PubMed

The effect of root exudates from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomato plants on microconidia germination of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was tested. Microconidia germination was enhanced in the presence of root exudates from mycorrhizal tomato plants. The more tomato plants were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae, the more microconidia germination was increased, indicating that alterations of the exudation pattern depended on the degree of root AM colonization. Moreover, alterations of the exudation pattern of mycorrhizal plants are not only local, but also systemic. Testing the exudates from plants with a high and a low P level revealed that the alterations of the root exudates from mycorrhizal plants, resulting in a changed effect on microconidia germination, are not due to an improved P status of mycorrhizal plants. PMID:16528569

Scheffknecht, S; Mammerler, R; Steinkellner, S; Vierheilig, H

2006-07-01

239

?-Glucosidase Activity in Corn Roots  

PubMed Central

Preliminary results from differential centrifugation experiments, washing treatments, and enrichment in linear sucrose gradients at a density of 1.09 grams per cubic centimeter all indicated that ?-glucosidase activity in corn root homogenates was associated with a membrane such as tonoplast. A subsequent sucrose density gradient centrifugation time course showed that the ?-glucosidase was actually a soluble enzyme which moved into the gradients. The problem of soluble enzymes contaminating light density membranes in sucrose gradients and the question of centrifugation time necessary for membrane vesicles to reach isopycnic conditions are addressed.

Nagahashi, Gerald; Baker, Amy F.

1984-01-01

240

Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus latifolius roots.  

PubMed

From the petrol extract of Lonchocarpus latifolius roots, 10 flavonoids were isolated. These included: 3,5-dimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano-(5'',6'':8,7)-flavone, 3-methoxy-(2'',3'':7,8)-furanoflavanone, 3',4'-methylenedioxy-(2'',3'':7,8)-furanoflavanone, and (2,3-trans-3,4-trans)-3,4-dimethoxy-(2'',3'':7,8)-furanoflavan, as well as the previously known karanjachromene, karanjin, lanceolatin B, pongachromene, pongaglabrone and ponganpin. Only nine flavonoids could be quantified through HPLC analysis. PMID:11190397

Magalhães, A F; Tozzi, A M; Magalhães, E G; Nogueira, M A; Queiroz, S C

2000-12-01

241

Root Water Uptake and Tracer Transport in a Lupin Root System: Integration of Magnetic Resonance Images and the Numerical Model RSWMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combination of experimental studies with detailed deterministic models help understand root water uptake processes. Recently, Javaux et al. developed the RSWMS model by integration of Doussa?s root model into the well established SWMS code[1], which simulates water and solute transport in unsaturated soil [2, 3]. In order to confront RSWMS modeling results to experimental data, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to monitor root water uptake in situ. Non-invasive 3-D imaging of root system architecture, water content distributions and tracer transport by MR were performed and compared with numerical model calculations. Two MRI experiments were performed and modeled: i) water uptake during drought stress and ii) transport of a locally injected tracer (Gd-DTPA) to the soil-root system driven by root water uptake. Firstly, the high resolution MRI image (0.23x0.23x0.5mm) of the root system was transferred into a continuous root system skeleton by a combination of thresholding, region-growing filtering and final manual 3D redrawing of the root strands. Secondly, the two experimental scenarios were simulated by RSWMS with a resolution of about 3mm. For scenario i) the numerical simulations could reproduce the general trend that is the strong water depletion from the top layer of the soil. However, the creation of depletion zones in the vicinity of the roots could not be simulated, due to a poor initial evaluation of the soil hydraulic properties, which equilibrates instantaneously larger differences in water content. The determination of unsaturated conductivities at low water content was needed to improve the model calculations. For scenario ii) simulations confirmed the solute transport towards the roots by advection. 1. Simunek, J., T. Vogel, and M.T. van Genuchten, The SWMS_2D Code for Simulating Water Flow and Solute Transport in Two-Dimensional Variably Saturated Media. Version 1.21. 1994, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS: Riverside, California. 2. Javaux, M., et al., Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake. Vadose Zone J., 2008. 7(3): p. 1079-1088. 3. Schröder, T., et al., Effect of Local Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Drop Using a Three Dimensional Root Water Uptake Model. Vadose Zone J., 2008. 7(3): p. 1089-1098.

Pohlmeier, Andreas; Vanderborght, Jan; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Wienke, Sandra; Vereecken, Harry; Javaux, Mathieu

2010-05-01

242

Effects of local scouring and saturation of soil due to flooding on maximum resistive bending moment for overturning Robinia pseudoacacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on Robinia pseudoacacia (an exotic and invasive plant in Japanese rivers) of local scouring and saturation of the soil in the root-anchoring zone\\u000a due to flooding were investigated. Scouring has been defined as the removal of substrate in the root-anchoring zone, exposing\\u000a the tree roots. Tree-pulling experiments were conducted, simulating flood action, and the resulting damage was examined

M. B. Samarakoon; Norio Tanaka; Junji Yagisawa

243

A Rooted Net of Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko.

2011-01-01

244

[Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].  

PubMed

Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration. PMID:24066535

Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

2013-06-01

245

Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.

Tsugeki, R.; Fedoroff, N. V.

1999-01-01

246

Maxillary canine with two root canals  

PubMed Central

To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an additional canal in this permanent maxillary canine.

Bolla, Nagesh; Kavuri, Sarath Raj

2011-01-01

247

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.  

PubMed

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

1992-06-01

248

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.  

PubMed Central

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

1992-01-01

249

Lumbosacral intrathecal nerve roots: an anatomical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The lumbosacral intrathecal anatomy is complex because of the density of nerve roots in the cauda equina. Space-occupying\\u000a lesions, including disc herniation, trauma and tumor, within the spinal canal may compromise the nerve roots, causing severe\\u000a clinical syndromes. The goal of this study is to provide spinal surgeons with a detailed anatomical description of the intrathecal\\u000a nerve roots and to

Mehmet Arslan; Ayhan Cömert; Halil ?brahim Açar; Mevci Özdemir; Alaittin Elhan; ?brahim Tekdemir; Shane R. Tubbs; Ayhan Attar; Hasan Ça?lar U?ur

2011-01-01

250

Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

Poff, K. L.

1990-01-01

251

Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

1992-01-01

252

Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Department of Endodontics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin

2013-01-01

253

The ROOT C++ Framework for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROOT {http://root.cern.ch/} is a C++ framework developed at CERN, Geneva. It was designed for high energy physics to handle and analyze large amounts of data in a very efficient way. Its main features are a C++ - interpreter, graphical tools and an object I/O - system. The INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC) {http://isdc.unige.ch} is using ROOT as a graphical tool and as a scripting language in the off-line analysis. To use the full capability of ROOT for astronomical data analysis a link is required. Therefore we complete this system with a library called AstroROOT. With AstroROOT we can store astronomical data organized in tables and images in ROOT - files using the efficient I/O system of ROOT. Furthermore we are developing a new astronomical image display for the ROOT framework. Finally we can use the buildin C++ interpreter as a scripting language in an interactive session to analyze and display astronomical data.

Rohlfs, R.

2004-07-01

254

Self-similar continued root approximants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V. I.

2012-12-01

255

Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and on plant roots.  

PubMed

Soil microcosms were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 to test persistence in fallow soil, on roots of cover crops and in presence of manure. In fallow soils, E. coli O157:H7 persisted for 25-41 days, on rye roots for 47-96 days and on alfalfa roots, in a silt loam soil, for 92 days whereas on other legumes persistence ranged from 25-40 days, similar to fallow soil. Manure did not seem to affect the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in these soils. Indigenous and manure-applied coliform populations often decreased faster when E. coli O157:H7 was applied, indicating possible competition between microflora. Coliform populations in microcosms not inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 decreased more slowly or increased. Microbial community analyses showed little effect for E. coli O157:H7 inoculation or addition of manure. Microbial community metabolic activity was enhanced from rye roots after 14 days and by 63 days from alfalfa roots. Microbial community lactose utilization increased over time on rye roots in all soils and on alfalfa roots in a silt loam soil when E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated. Lactose utilization also increased for uninoculated rye roots, soil around rye roots and in some fallow soils. Our data suggest that clay increases persistence and activity of E. coli O157:H7 and other coliforms. In frozen soil stored for over 500 days, E. coli O157:H7 was viable in 37% of tested samples. In summary, E. coli O157:H7 persisted longer and activity was enhanced with some cover crops in these soils due to plant roots, the presence of clay and freezing. PMID:11972618

Gagliardi, Joel V; Karns, Jeffrey S

2002-02-01

256

Molecular analysis of SCARECROW genes expressed in white lupin cluster roots  

PubMed Central

The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent centre and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50-fold to 70-fold due to the development of cluster (proteoid) roots. Previously it was reported that SCR-like expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were expressed during early cluster root development. Here the cloning of two white lupin SCR genes, LaSCR1 and LaSCR2, is reported. The predicted amino acid sequences of both LaSCR gene products are highly similar to AtSCR and contain C-terminal conserved GRAS family domains. LaSCR1 and LaSCR2 transcript accumulation localized to the endodermis of both normal and cluster roots as shown by in situ hybridization and gene promoter::reporter staining. Transcript analysis as evaluated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA gel hybridization indicated that the two LaSCR genes are expressed predominantly in roots. Expression of LaSCR genes was not directly responsive to the P status of the plant but was a function of cluster root development. Suppression of LaSCR1 in transformed roots of lupin and Medicago via RNAi (RNA interference) delivered through Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in decreased root numbers, reflecting the potential role of LaSCR1 in maintaining root growth in these species. The results suggest that the functional orthologues of AtSCR have been characterized.

Sbabou, Laila; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan; Liu, Junqi; Berhada, Fatiha; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Allan, Deborah; Vance, Carroll

2010-01-01

257

Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.  

PubMed

It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

2014-03-01

258

OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

259

Dynamics of air gap formation around roots with changing soil water content.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most models regarding uptake of water and nutrients from soil assume intimate contact between roots and soil. However, it is known for a long time that roots may shrink under drought conditions. Due to the opaque nature of soil this process could not be observed in situ until recently. Combining tomography of the entire sample (field of view of 16 x 16 cm, pixel side 0.32 mm) with local tomography of the soil region around roots (field of view of 5 x 5 cm, pixel side 0.09 mm), the high spatial resolution required to image root shrinkage and formation of air-filled gaps around roots could be achieved. Applying this technique and combining it with microtensiometer measurements, measurements of plant gas exchange and microscopic assessment of root anatomy, a more detailed study was conducted to elucidate at which soil matric potential roots start to shrink in a sandy soil and which are the consequences for plant water relations. For Lupinus albus grown in a sandy soil tomography of the entire root system and of the interface between taproot and soil was conducted from day 11 to day 31 covering two drying cycles. Soil matric potential decreased from -36 hPa at day 11 after planting to -72, -251, -429 hPa, on day 17, 19, 20 after planting. On day 20 an air gap started to occur around the tap root and extended further on day 21 with matric potential below -429 hPa (equivalent to 5 v/v % soil moisture). From day 11 to day 21 stomatal conductivity decreased from 467 to 84 mmol m-2 s-1, likewise transpiration rate decreased and plants showed strong wilting symptoms on day 21. Plants were watered by capillary rise on day 21 and recovered completely within a day with stomatal conductivity increasing to 647 mmol m-2 s-1. During a second drying cycle, which was shorter as plants continuously increased in size, air gap formed again at the same matric potential. Plant stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased in a similar fashion with decreasing matric potential and appearance of air gap as during the first cycle. Microscopic assessment of the tap root at day 31 showed that secondary thickening of the taproot occurred all along the region of interest observed during X-ray tomography. A large part of the cross sections consists of lignified tissue; no root hairs could be observed along the tap root. Gaps are expected to reduce water transfers between soil and roots. Opening and closing of gaps may help plants to prevent water loss when the soil dries, and to restore the soil-root continuity when water becomes available.

Vetterlein, D.; Carminati, A.; Weller, U.; Oswald, S.; Vogel, H.-J.

2009-04-01

260

Eastern Australian Examples of River Bank Soil Reinforcement by Tree Roots (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverside vegetation is a significant factor influencing the occurrence and progress of stream-bed and river-bank erosion. Recent riparian management practice in Australia has focussed on re-establishing or maintaining native riparian vegetation in order to control or prevent erosion as well as regenerate or preserve the complex variety of in-stream and riverside habitats. This work presents an integrated review of field and experimental studies conducted in eastern Australia that evaluate native vegetation’s role in reducing riverine erosion. Several results of these studies have general application and include the following. 1) Riparian vegetation reduces the impact of subaerial processes on soils and significantly increases a soil’s resistance to fluvial scour. 2) The presence of riparian forest on river banks significantly reduces the likelihood of erosion by mass failure due to reinforcement of river bank soils by tree roots; 3) Many Australian tree species have evolved roots that seek the permanent, summer water-table in order to survive prolonged dry spells and are particularly effective in mass failure mitigation due to rooting depths that are commonly greater than five metres. 4) The "Root-Area-Ratio Method" of calculating the shear strength of root-reinforced soil using root tensile-strength data and Waldron’s (1977) and Wu et al.’s (1979) simple root model leads to significant overestimation of the actual root reinforcement due to the fact the soil mass fails progressively along the length of potential shear plane rather instantaneously across the entire shear plane.

Hubble, T.; Rutherfurd, I.; Docker, B.

2010-12-01

261

Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

1999-01-01

262

Piriformospora indica Root Colonization Triggers Local and Systemic Root Responses and Inhibits Secondary Colonization of Distal Roots  

PubMed Central

Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J.; Waller, Frank

2013-01-01

263

Toxic effects of Cu(2+) on growth, nutrition, root morphology, and distribution of Cu in roots of Sabi grass.  

PubMed

Sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy) (a C4 species of Poaceae) is commonly used to revegetate disturbed sites in low-rainfall environments, but comparatively little is known regarding copper (Cu) toxicity in this species. A dilute nutrient solution culture experiment was conducted for 10 d to examine the effects of elevated Cu(2+) activities ({Cu(2+)}) on the growth of Sabi grass. Growth was inhibited by high Cu in solution, with a 50% reduction in the relative fresh mass occurring at 1.0 microM {Cu(2+)} for the roots and 1.2 microM {Cu(2+)} for the shoots. In solutions containing 1.2-1.9 microM {Cu(2+)}, many of the roots ruptured due to the tearing and separation of the rhizodermis and outer cortex from the underlying tissues. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Cu-rich deposits were found to accumulate predominantly within vacuoles. Due to limited translocation of Cu from the roots to the shoots, phytotoxicity is likely to be more of a problem in remediation of Cu-toxic sites than is Cu toxicity of fauna consuming the above-ground biomass. PMID:19467695

Kopittke, P M; Asher, C J; Blamey, F P C; Menzies, N W

2009-08-01

264

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

1993-01-26

265

Root-growth-inhibiting sheet  

DOEpatents

In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

266

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-05-02

267

Lectin Binding to the Root and Root Hair Tips of the Tropical Legume Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb  

PubMed Central

Ten fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins were tested on the roots of the tropical legume Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb. Four of these (concanavalin A, peanut agglutinin, Ricinis communis agglutinin I [RCA-I], wheat germ agglutinin) were found to bind to the exterior of root cap cells, the root cap slime, and the channels between epidermal cells in the root elongation zone. One of these lectins, RCA-I, bound to the root hair tips in the mature and emerging hair zones and also to sites at which root hairs were only just emerging. There was no RCA-I binding to immature trichoblasts. Preincubation of these lectins with their hapten sugars eliminated all types of root cell binding. By using a microinoculation technique, preincubation of the root surface with RCA-I lectin was found to inhibit infection and nodulation by Rhizobium spp. Preincubation of the root surface with the RCA-I hapten ?-d-galactose or a mixture of RCA-I lectin and its hapten failed to inhibit nodulation. Application of RCA-I lectin to the root surface caused no apparent detrimental effects to the root hair cells and did not prevent the growth of root hairs. The lectin did not prevent Rhizobium sp. motility or viability even after 24 h of incubation. It was concluded that the RCA-I lectin-specific sugar ?-d-galactose may be involved in the recognition or early infection stages, or both, in the Rhizobium sp. infection of M. atropurpureum. Images

Ridge, R. W.; Rolfe, B. G.

1986-01-01

268

Coupling root architecture and pore network modeling - an attempt towards better understanding root-soil interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding root-soil interactions is of high importance for environmental and agricultural management. Root uptake is an essential component in water and solute transport modeling. The amount of groundwater recharge and solute leaching significantly depends on the demand based plant extraction via its root system. Plant uptake however not only responds to the potential demand, but in most situations is limited by supply form the soil. The ability of the plant to access water and solutes in the soil is governed mainly by root distribution. Particularly under conditions of heterogeneous distribution of water and solutes in the soil, it is essential to capture the interaction between soil and roots. Root architecture models allow studying plant uptake from soil by describing growth and branching of root axes in the soil. Currently root architecture models are able to respond dynamically to water and nutrient distribution in the soil by directed growth (tropism), modified branching and enhanced exudation. The porous soil medium as rooting environment in these models is generally described by classical macroscopic water retention and sorption models, average over the pore scale. In our opinion this simplified description of the root growth medium implies several shortcomings for better understanding root-soil interactions: (i) It is well known that roots grow preferentially in preexisting pores, particularly in more rigid/dry soil. Thus the pore network contributes to the architectural form of the root system; (ii) roots themselves can influence the pore network by creating preferential flow paths (biopores) which are an essential element of structural porosity with strong impact on transport processes; (iii) plant uptake depend on both the spatial location of water/solutes in the pore network as well as the spatial distribution of roots. We therefore consider that for advancing our understanding in root-soil interactions, we need not only to extend our root models, but also improve the description of the rooting environment. Until now there have been no attempts to couple root architecture and pore network models. In our work we present a first attempt to join both types of models using the root architecture model of Leitner et al., (2010) and a pore network model presented by Raoof et al. (2010). The two main objectives of coupling both models are: (i) Representing the effect of root induced biopores on flow and transport processes: For this purpose a fixed root architecture created by the root model is superimposed as a secondary root induced pore network to the primary soil network, thus influencing the final pore topology in the network generation. (ii) Representing the influence of pre-existing pores on root branching: Using a given network of (rigid) pores, the root architecture model allocates its root axes into these preexisting pores as preferential growth paths with thereby shape the final root architecture. The main objective of our study is to reveal the potential of using a pore scale description of the plant growth medium for an improved representation of interaction processes at the interface of root and soil. References Raoof, A., Hassanizadeh, S.M. 2010. A New Method for Generating Pore-Network Models. Transp. Porous Med. 81, 391-407. Leitner, D, Klepsch, S., Bodner, G., Schnepf, S. 2010. A dynamic root system growth model based on L-Systems. Tropisms and coupling to nutrient uptake from soil. Plant Soil 332, 177-192.

Leitner, Daniel; Bodner, Gernot; Raoof, Amir

2013-04-01

269

Rearrangement of Actin Cytoskeleton Mediates Invasion of Lotus japonicus Roots by Mesorhizobium loti[C][W  

PubMed Central

Infection thread–dependent invasion of legume roots by rhizobia leads to internalization of bacteria into the plant cells, which is one of the salient features of root nodule symbiosis. We found that two genes, Nap1 (for Nck-associated protein 1) and Pir1 (for 121F-specific p53 inducible RNA), involved in actin rearrangements were essential for infection thread formation and colonization of Lotus japonicus roots by its natural microsymbiont, Mesorhizobium loti. nap1 and pir1 mutants developed an excess of uncolonized nodule primordia, indicating that these two genes were not essential for the initiation of nodule organogenesis per se. However, both the formation and subsequent progression of infection threads into the root cortex were significantly impaired in these mutants. We demonstrate that these infection defects were due to disturbed actin cytoskeleton organization. Short root hairs of the mutants had mostly transverse or web-like actin filaments, while bundles of actin filaments in wild-type root hairs were predominantly longitudinal. Corroborating these observations, temporal and spatial differences in actin filament organization between wild-type and mutant root hairs were also observed after Nod factor treatment, while calcium influx and spiking appeared unperturbed. Together with various effects on plant growth and seed formation, the nap1 and pir1 alleles also conferred a characteristic distorted trichome phenotype, suggesting a more general role for Nap1 and Pir1 in processes establishing cell polarity or polar growth in L. japonicus.

Yokota, Keisuke; Fukai, Eigo; Madsen, Lene H.; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Rueda, Paloma; Radutoiu, Simona; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof; Morieri, Giulia; Oldroyd, Giles E.D.; Downie, J. Allan; Nielsen, Mette W.; Rusek, Anna Maria; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; James, Euan K.; Oyaizu, Hiroshi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens

2009-01-01

270

Spatial separation of light perception and growth response in maize root phototropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the effects of gravity on root growth are well known and interactions between light and gravity have been reported, details of root phototropic responses are less documented. We used high-resolution image analysis to study phototropism in primary roots of Zea mays L. Similar to the location of perception in gravitropism, the perception of light was localized in the root cap. Phototropic curvature away from the light, on the other hand, developed in the central elongation zone, more basal than the site of initiation of gravitropic curvature. The phototropic curvature saturated at approximately 10 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light with a peak curvature of 29 +/- 4 degrees, in part due to induction of positive gravitropism following displacement of the root tip from vertical during negative phototropism. However, at higher fluence rates, development of phototropic curvature is arrested even if gravitropism is avoided by maintaining the root cap vertically using a rotating feedback system. Thus continuous illumination can cause adaptation in the signalling pathway of the phototropic response in roots.

Mullen, J. L.; Wolverton, C.; Ishikawa, H.; Hangarter, R. P.; Evans, M. L.

2002-01-01

271

Tissue-Specific Localization of Pea Root Infection by Nectria haematococca. Mechanisms and Consequences1  

PubMed Central

Root infection in susceptible host species is initiated predominantly in the zone of elongation, whereas the remainder of the root is resistant. Nectria haematococca infection of pea (Pisum sativum) was used as a model to explore possible mechanisms influencing the localization of root infection. The failure to infect the root tip was not due to a failure to induce spore germination at this site, suppression of pathogenicity genes in the fungus, or increased expression of plant defense genes. Instead, exudates from the root tip induce rapid spore germination by a pathway that is independent of nutrient-induced germination. Subsequently, a factor produced during fungal infection and death of border cells at the root apex appears to selectively suppress fungal growth and prevent sporulation. Host-specific mantle formation in response to border cells appears to represent a previously unrecognized form of host-parasite relationship common to diverse species. The dynamics of signal exchange leading to mantle development may play a key role in fostering plant health, by protecting root meristems from pathogenic invasion.

Gunawardena, Uvini; Rodriguez, Marianela; Straney, David; Romeo, John T.; VanEtten, Hans D.; Hawes, Martha C.

2005-01-01

272

The Effects of Heavy Metals and Root Immersion on Isoflavonoid Metabolism in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).  

PubMed Central

Modest increases in the concentration of medicarpin, 6-fold in leaves and 4-fold in roots, were observed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings treated with 1 mM metal salts for 72 h. However, medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonate (MGM) and formononetin-7-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonate (FGM) levels were up to 50-fold lower in metal-treated compared to control roots. Approximately 10% of the "missing" conjugates could be accounted for in the root treatment solution, where FGM and MGM transiently accumulated prior to their hydrolysis. Time-course studies revealed that total isoflavonoid content (roots plus solution) increased slightly after CuCl2 treatment, whereas the levels of FGM and MGM increased rapidly in alfalfa roots immersed in water. This increase was reduced by aeration. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-[alpha]-aminooxy-[beta]-phenylpropionic acid was used to show that immersion of the roots reduced conjugate rates of degradation, which explains their accumulation. In contrast, conjugate rates of degradation were elevated in CuCl2-treated roots, with 50% of the increase being due to hydrolysis. Up to 90% of formononetin and medicarpin produced in response to CuCl2 treatment arose via conjugate hydrolysis. Our results demonstrate that both immersion/anaerobiosis and abiotic elicitation modify isoflavonoid metabolism in alfalfa, and that metal-stimulated accumulation of phytoalexins may arise through the release from preformed stores rather than de novo synthesis.

Parry, A. D.; Tiller, S. A.; Edwards, R.

1994-01-01

273

OsSNDP1, a Sec14-nodulin domain-containing protein, plays a critical role in root hair elongation in rice.  

PubMed

Rice is cultivated in water-logged paddy lands. Thus, rice root hairs on the epidermal layers are exposed to a different redox status of nitrogen species, organic acids, and metal ions than root hairs growing in drained soil. To identify genes that play an important role in root hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified and isolated by using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutation arose from a single amino acid substitution of OsSNDP1 (Oryza sativa Sec14-nodulin domain protein), which shows high sequence homology with Arabidopsis COW1/AtSFH1 and encodes a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP). By performing complementation assays with Atsfh1 mutants, we demonstrated that OsSNDP1 is involved in growth of root hairs. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy was utilized to further characterize the effect of the Ossndp1 mutation on root hair morphology. Aberrant morphogenesis was detected in root hair elongation and maturation zones. Many root hairs were branched and showed irregular shapes due to bulged nodes. Many epidermal cells also produced dome-shaped root hairs, which indicated that root hair elongation ceased at an early stage. These studies showed that PITP-mediated phospholipid signaling and metabolism is critical for root hair elongation in rice. PMID:23456248

Huang, Jin; Kim, Chul Min; Xuan, Yuan-hu; Park, Soon Ju; Piao, Hai Long; Je, Byoung Il; Liu, Jingmiao; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Bo-Kyeong; Han, Chang-Deok

2013-05-01

274

A Method for Nonlinear Equation's Simple Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the convergence behavior of a modified Newton's method based on Simpson integral rule. The convergence properties of this method for solving equations which have simple roots have been discussed and it has been shown that it converges cubically to simple roots. The values of the corresponding asymptotic error constants of convergence are determined. Theoretical results

Feng Gao

2010-01-01

275

Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes unit root tests for dynamic heterogeneous panels based on the mean of individual unit root statistics. In particular it proposes a standardized t-bar test statistic based on the (augmented) Dickey–Fuller statistics averaged across the groups. Under a general setting this statistic is shown to converge in probability to a standard normal variate sequentially with T (the time

Kyung So Im; M. Hashem Pesaran; Yongcheol Shin

2003-01-01

276

Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

1990-01-01

277

Localised ABA signalling mediates root growth plasticity  

PubMed Central

Two recent reports show that cellular abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, together with other phytohormone signalling pathways, is crucial for salt-regulated root growth dynamics. Here we discuss these findings and place them in a broader framework on how cellular hormone signalling regulates root growth plasticity in response to environmental cues.

Ding, Zhaojun; De Smet, Ive

2013-01-01

278

Iron deficiency responses in roots of kiwi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dicotyledonous species respond to iron (Fe) deficiency by morphological and physiological changes at root level, which are usually defined as Strategy I. Particularly, these latter modifications include a higher acidification of the external medium and the induction of a high root Fe reductase activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the response of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa cv.

Giannina Vizzotto; Ivica Matosevic; Roberto Pinton; Zeno Varanini; Guglielmo Costa

1997-01-01

279

Root-L Geneaology Discussion List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ROOTS-L is a mailing list for genealogical researchers. Topics include surname queries, discussions of methodology and interesting genealogical web sites, etc. send email to: LISTSERV@MAIL.EWORLD.COM in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE ROOTS-L yourfirstname yourlastname

1987-01-01

280

Rational Roots of Polynomials with Integer Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note the authors investigate ways to shorten the amount of work involved in using the Rational Roots Theorem to find the rational roots of a polynomial with integral coefficients. The first result is a proof of a fact that we had long suspected, but were never able to find the statement of in any of the college algebra textbooks we had…

Combs, Randel; Walls, Gary L.

2004-01-01

281

ACETOGENIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are adapted to being rooted in reduced, anoxic sediments with high rates of sulfate reduction. During the day, an oxygen gradient is generated around the roots, becoming anoxic at night. Thus, obligate anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere have to tolerate elevated oxy...

282

CORTICAL CELL DEATH DURING LATERAL ROOT FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the con- tiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of

HOWARD T. BONNETT

1969-01-01

283

Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Infected Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years). Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU) were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU) in root canals was (0.5 ± 1.1) × 106 (range 8.0 × 101–3.1 × 106), and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%). The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%), Mogibacterium (17.7%), Pseudoramibacter (17.7%), Propionibacterium (11.9%) and Parvimonas (5.9%). Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.

Sato, Takuichi; Yamaki, Keiko; Ishida, Naoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Yasuhisa; Shoji, Megumi; Sato, Emika; Matsuyama, Junko; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2012-01-01

284

Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

1984-01-01

285

Sheaths of the spinal nerve roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the permeability of normal spinal nerve root sheaths around dorsal and ventral roots in the rat. In vivo studies were performed using Evans bluealbumin and lanthanum chloride as tracers. The Evans blue-albumin complex is macromolecular in size and lanthanum ions are small and easily visible in the electron microscope. Both tracers were

C. Å. V. Pettersson

1993-01-01

286

Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes unit root tests for dynamic heterogeneous panels based on the mean of individual unit root statistics. In particular it proposes a standardized t-bar test statistic based on the (augmented) Dickey-Fuller statistics averaged across the groups. Under a general setting this statistic is shown to converge in probability to a standard normal variate sequentially with T (the time

Kyung So Im; M. Hashem Pesaran; Yongcheol Shin

1997-01-01

287

Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on soil and root properties remains sparse. We investigated whether

T. C. Hales; C. R. Ford; T. Hwang; J. M. Vose; L. E. Band

2009-01-01

288

Root canal sealers induce cytotoxicity and necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three types of the root canal sealers commonly used in clinical applications. They are calcium hydroxide base (Sealapex), zinc oxide–eugenol base (Canals), and epoxy-resin base (AH Plus). Elutable substances and degradation products from root canal sealers may gain access to periodontal tissue in a number of ways. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biologic

Tsui-Hsien Huang; Shinn-Jyh Ding; Ting-Zen Hsu; Zen-Dar Lee; Chia-Tze Kao

2004-01-01

289

Direct analysis of root zone data in a microculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a whole plant microculture system coupled with image analysis to observe and quantify elusive root growth phenomena was demonstrated. Subtle differences in root initiation and growth rate for maple microcuttings inserted into three distinct rooting media were recurrently registered over the span of the rooting phase in terms of root length, number, and weighted density (equivalent

M. A. L. Smith; L. A. Spomer; M. T. McClelland

1990-01-01

290

Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

Belyavskaya, N.

291

Aluminum-Induced Rapid Root Inhibition and Changes in Cell-Wall Components of Squash Seedlings.  

PubMed Central

Growth of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) roots was significantly inhibited by 1 mM AlCl3 as early as 1 h after the treatment. The growth inhibition was confined to the elongating zone (1-6 mm from the root tip). Chemical analysis of cell-wall polysaccharides from roots revealed that aluminum increased pectin, hemi-cellulose, and cellulose contents after 3 h of treatment. The effect of aluminum on pectin content was found in the elongating zone including the root tip, whereas change in cellulose content was confined to only nonelongating zones. Hemicellulose content increased in all of the regions along the root axis. The increase in the pectin fraction was due to the increases in uronic acids, galactose, and arabinose constituents, whereas hemicellulose content changed due to increases in glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose. The results clearly indicate that aluminum rapidly reduced squash root growth by inhibiting cell elongation and altering metabolism of cell-wall polysaccharides in the nonelongating zone as well as in the elongating zone.

Van, H. L.; Kuraishi, S.; Sakurai, N.

1994-01-01

292

Symplastic intercellular connectivity regulates lateral root patterning.  

PubMed

Cell-to-cell communication coordinates the behavior of individual cells to establish organ patterning and development. Although mobile signals are known to be important in lateral root development, the role of plasmodesmata (PD)-mediated transport in this process has not been investigated. Here, we show that changes in symplastic connectivity accompany and regulate lateral root organogenesis in Arabidopsis. This connectivity is dependent upon callose deposition around PD affecting molecular flux through the channel. Two plasmodesmal-localized ?-1,3 glucanases (PdBGs) were identified that regulate callose accumulation and the number and distribution of lateral roots. The fundamental role of PD-associated callose in this process was illustrated by the induction of similar phenotypes in lines with altered callose turnover. Our results show that regulation of callose and cell-to-cell connectivity is critical in determining the pattern of lateral root formation, which influences root architecture and optimal plant performance. PMID:23850190

Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Faulkner, Christine; Pendle, Ali; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Helariutta, Ykä; Maule, Andrew

2013-07-29

293

Electrical resistances of corn root segments.  

PubMed

Longitudinal electrical resistances have been measured on 2-centimeter segments of corn (Zea mays L.) roots, cut at varying distances from the root apex. The segment resistances vary from 400 to 100 kilohms per centimeter along the root length (apex to 18 cm), with the maximum occurring in the 2- to 4-centimeter segment, and decreasing thereafter toward the root base. Measurements of isolated root cortical sleeves and steles show that the pathway of least resistance is in the cortex, which has a greater cross-sectional area; the specific resistance of the older stele is less than that of the cortex. The anatomical state of the xylem cannot be inferred from electrical resistance determinations. PMID:16659437

Anderson, W P; Higinbotham, N

1976-02-01

294

Regulation of symbiotic root nodule development.  

PubMed

Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of N2-fixing root nodules. The interaction of rhizobia and plants shows a high degree of host specificity based on the exchange of chemical signals between the symbiotic partners. The plant signals, flavonoids exuded by the roots, activate the expression of nodulation genes, resulting in the production of the rhizobial lipochitooligosaccharide signals (Nod factors). Nod factors act as morphogens that, under conditions of nitrogen limitation, induce cells within the root cortex to divide and to develop into nodule primordia. This review focuses on how the production of Nod factors is regulated, how these signals are perceived and transduced by the plant root, and the physiological conditions and plant factors that control the early events leading to root nodule development. PMID:9928474

Schultze, M; Kondorosi, A

1998-01-01

295

Alfalfa Root Flavonoid Production Is Nitrogen Regulated.  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids produced by legume roots are signal molecules acting both as chemoattractants and nod gene inducers for the symbiotic Rhizobium partner. Combined nitrogen inhibits the establishment of the symbiosis. To know whether nitrogen nutrition could act at the level of signal production, we have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes as well as the production of flavonoids in the roots of plants grown under nitrogen-limiting or nonlimiting conditions. We show here that growth of the plant under nitrogen-limiting conditions results in the enhancement of expression of the flavonoid biosynthesis genes chalcone synthase and isoflavone reductase and in an increase of root flavonoid and isoflavonoid production as well as in the Rhizobium meliloti nod gene-inducing activity of the root extract. These results indicate that in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots, the production of flavonoids can be influenced by the nitrogen nutrition of the plant.

Coronado, C.; Zuanazzi, JAS.; Sallaud, C.; Quirion, J. C.; Esnault, R.; Husson, H. P.; Kondorosi, A.; Ratet, P.

1995-01-01

296

Plant Root Growth In Granular Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots grow in a variety of granular substrates. However, the substrates are often treated in ways which minimize or neglect the inhomogeneities arising from the influence of inter-particle forces. Experiments are often run using gels or average stress measurements. This presentation discusses the effect of the local structure of the particulate environment on the root's direction. Using photoelastic particles and particles with a variety of Young's Moduli, we investigate the influence of inter-particle forces and particle stiffness on a pinto bean root's ability to grow through a fully-saturated granular medium. The level of particle contact force through which the roots successfully grow is determined and the influence of particle stiffness on root direction is investigated.

Wendell, Dawn; Hosoi, Peko

2010-03-01

297

An in situ approach to detect tree root ecology: linking ground-penetrating radar imaging to isotope-derived water acquisition zones.  

PubMed

Tree root distribution and activity are determinants of belowground competition. However, studying root response to environmental and management conditions remains logistically challenging. Methodologically, nondestructive in situ tree root ecology analysis has lagged. In this study, we tested a nondestructive approach to determine tree coarse root architecture and function of a perennial tree crop, Theobroma cacao L., at two edaphically contrasting sites (sandstone and phyllite-granite derived soils) in Ghana, West Africa. We detected coarse root vertical distribution using ground-penetrating radar and root activity via soil water acquisition using isotopic matching of ?(18)O plant and soil signatures. Coarse roots were detected to a depth of 50 cm, however, intraspecifc coarse root vertical distribution was modified by edaphic conditions. Soil ?(18)O isotopic signature declined with depth, providing conditions for plant-soil ?(18)O isotopic matching. This pattern held only under sandstone conditions where water acquisition zones were identifiably narrow in the 10-20 cm depth but broader under phyllite-granite conditions, presumably due to resource patchiness. Detected coarse root count by depth and measured fine root density were strongly correlated as were detected coarse root count and identified water acquisition zones, thus validating root detection capability of ground-penetrating radar, but exclusively on sandstone soils. This approach was able to characterize trends between intraspecific root architecture and edaphic-dependent resource availability, however, limited by site conditions. This study successfully demonstrates a new approach for in situ root studies that moves beyond invasive point sampling to nondestructive detection of root architecture and function. We discuss the transfer of such an approach to answer root ecology questions in various tree-based landscapes. PMID:23762519

Isaac, Marney E; Anglaaere, Luke C N

2013-05-01

298

Promotion ofin vitro shoot formation from excised roots of silktree (Albizzia julibrissin) by an oxime ether derivative and other ethylene inhibitors.  

PubMed

This report describes the regeneration response of excised seedling roots of silktree (Albizzia julibrissin) to added ethylene precursors/generators (1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid [ACC], 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid [CEPA]), biosynthesis inhibitors (aminoethoxyvinylglycine [AVG], an oxime ether derivative [OED={[(ispropylidene)-amino]oxy}-acetic acid-2-(methoxy)-2-oxoethyl ester], CoCl(2) [Co(++)]), and an ethylene action inhibitor (AgNO3 [Ag(+)]). When placed on B5 medium, about 50% of the control explants formed shoot buds within 15 days. Addition of ACC or CEPA (1-10 µM) to the culture medium decreased both the percentage of cultures forming shoots and the number of shoots formed per culture. In contrast, AVG and OED (1-10 µM) increased shoot formation to almost 100% and increased the number of shoots formed per culture. Likewise, both Co(++) and Ag(+) (1-10 µM) increased shoot regeneration, but the number of shoots produced after 30 days was less than with AVG or OED. The inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis were partially effective in counteracting the inhibitory effect of ACC on shoot formation. These results suggest that modulation of ethylene biosynthesis and/or action can strongly influence the formation of adventitious shoots from excised roots of silktree. PMID:24185673

Sankhla, D; Sankhla, N; Davis, T D

1995-01-01

299

Thermal measurement of root surface temperatures during application of intracanal laser energy in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of laser energy to clean, shape, and sterilize a root canal system space involves the generation of heat due to the thermal effect of the laser on the organic tissue contents and dentin walls of that space. If heat generation is above physiologic levels, irreparable damage may occur to the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone. This study measured temperature rise on the outer root surfaces of extracted teeth during intracanal laser exposure. Thirty single rooted, recently extracted teeth free of caries and restorations were accessed pulps extirpated and divided into three groups. Each root canal system was treated with a 1.06 micrometers pulsed Nd:YAG laser with quartz contact probes. Temperatures were recorded for all surfaces (mesial distal, buccal, lingual, apical) with infrared thermography utilizing a detector response time of 1 (mu) sec, sensitivity range (infrared) of 8 to 12 micrometers and a scan rate of 30 frames/sec.

Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Neev, Joseph

1993-07-01

300

Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols  

PubMed Central

Objective This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. Material and methods Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10), according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control): non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (?=0.05). Results Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. Conclusion The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol.

ZOGHEIB, Lucas Villaca; SAAVEDRA, Guilherme de Siqueira Ferreira Anzaloni; CARDOSO, Paula Elaine; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de ARAUJO, Maria Amelia Maximo

2011-01-01

301

Anatomical and hydraulic properties of sorghum roots exposed to water deficit. [Sorghum bicolor  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a severe water stress in the upper 0-0.15 m rooting zone on development of the exodermis, endodermis and xylem and on radial (Lp) and axial (Ls) hydraulic conductances were studied for Sorghum bicolor. Lp and Lx were based on water flow rates obtained by applying a negative hydrostatic pressure to the proximal xylem ends of excised roots placed in aerated nutrient solution. The same roots were stained with fluorescent berberine and acid phloroglucinol to describe the development of the exodermal and endodermal cell walls from formation of the Casparian band (State I), to deposition of suberin lamellae (State II), and lignification (State III). Lp of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 80% lower in stressed roots than in unstressed controls. At 0.01 and 0.07 m from the root apex, stressed roots were in State III while control roots were in States I and II, respectively. SEM-image analysis for stressed roots indicated that in the exodermis a greater proportion of the cross sectional area was occupied by lignified walls than in the endodermis. Cellufluor, an apoplastic tracer, was blocked at the lignified exodermis even at 0.01 m from the apex in stressed roots. Uranin, a symplastic tracer, was taken up only in the apical region in stressed roots but farther from the apex in the controls. Lx of 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 90% lower in stressed roots compared with the controls. Cellufluor test and image analysis showed that although the protoxylem and early metaxylem were conductive in both treatments, stress caused more than a 50% reduction in the diameter of the xylem elements. Results suggest that lignification of the exodermis and endodermis to a large extent decreased apoplastic and symplastic flows and hence Lp in stressed roots. The low Lx in stressed roots was due to a decrease in the diameters of the conductive xylem elements.

Cruz, R.T.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-05-01

302

Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, p<0.0001). This decline in offset with increasing temperature may reflect greater year-round coupling between air and soil temperature in warm biomes. Growth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

2013-12-01

303

Hydrogen peroxide staining to visualize intracellular bacterial infections of seedling root cells.  

PubMed

Visualization of bacteria in living plant cells and tissues is often problematic due to lack of stains that pass through living plant cell membranes and selectively stain bacterial cells. In this article, we report the use of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrachloride (DAB) to stain hydrogen peroxide associated with bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells. Tissues were counterstained with aniline blue/lactophenol to stain protein in bacterial cells. Using this staining method to visualize intracellular bacterial (Burkholderia gladioli) colonization of seedling roots of switch grass (Panicum virgatum), we compared bacterial free seedling roots and those inoculated with the bacterium. To further assess application of the technique in multiple species of vascular plants, we examined vascular plants for seedling root colonization by naturally occurring seed-transmitted bacteria. Colonization by bacteria was only observed to occur within epidermal (including root hairs) and cortical cells of root tissues, suggesting that bacteria may not be penetrating deeply into root tissues. DAB/peroxidase with counter stain aniline blue/lactophenol was effective in penetration of root cells to selectively stain bacteria. Furthermore, this stain combination permitted the visualization of the bacterial lysis process. Before any evidence of H2 O2 staining, intracellular bacteria were seen to stain blue for protein content with aniline blue/lactophenol. After H2 O2 staining became evident, bacteria were often swollen, without internal staining by aniline blue/lactophenol; this suggests loss of protein content. This staining method was effective for seedling root tissues; however, it was not effective at staining bacteria in shoot tissues due to poor penetration. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:566-573, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24825573

White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Somu, Mohini P; Johnson, Holly; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Ning; Walsh, Emily; Tadych, Mariusz; Bergen, Marshall

2014-08-01

304

Establishment of a Protein Reference Map for Soybean Root Hair Cells1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single tubular cells formed from the differentiation of epidermal cells on roots. They are involved in water and nutrient uptake and represent the infection site on leguminous roots by rhizobia, soil bacteria that establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Root hairs develop by polar cell expansion or tip growth, a unique mode of plant growth shared only with pollen tubes. A more complete characterization of root hair cell biology will lead to a better understanding of tip growth, the rhizobial infection process, and also lead to improvements in plant water and nutrient uptake. We analyzed the proteome of isolated soybean (Glycine max) root hair cells using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and shotgun proteomics (1D-PAGE-liquid chromatography and multidimensional protein identification technology) approaches. Soybean was selected for this study due to its agronomic importance and its root size. The resulting soybean root hair proteome reference map identified 1,492 different proteins. 2D-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified 527 proteins from total cell contents. A complementary shotgun analysis identified 1,134 total proteins, including 443 proteins that were specific to the microsomal fraction. Only 169 proteins were identified by the 2D-PAGE and shotgun methods, which highlights the advantage of using both methods. The proteins identified are involved not only in basic cell metabolism but also in functions more specific to the single root hair cell, including water and nutrient uptake, vesicle trafficking, and hormone and secondary metabolism. The data presented provide useful insight into the metabolic activities of a single, differentiated plant cell type.

Brechenmacher, Laurent; Lee, Joohyun; Sachdev, Sherri; Song, Zhao; Nguyen, Tran Hong Nha; Joshi, Trupti; Oehrle, Nathan; Libault, Marc; Mooney, Brian; Xu, Dong; Cooper, Bret; Stacey, Gary

2009-01-01

305

10. PHOTOCOPY OF 'P. H. & F. M. ROOTS FOUNDARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. PHOTOCOPY OF 'P. H. & F. M. ROOTS FOUNDARY MANUFACTURERS OF ROOTS BLOWERS' FROM INDIANAPOLIS STAR, June 13, 1926, Gravure Section, p. 2 - P. H. & F. M. Roots Company, Eastern Avenue, Connersville, Fayette County, IN

306

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2010-04-01

307

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2014-04-01

308

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2011-04-01

309

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2012-04-01

310

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

311

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

312

Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

2011-10-01

313

Study of Glucose Starvation in Excised Maize Root Tips  

PubMed Central

Excised maize (Zea mays) root tips were used to follow the effects of a prolonged glucose starvation. Respiration rate began to decrease immediately after excision, reaching 30 to 40% of its initial value after 20 hours, and then declined more slowly until death of the tissues, which occurred after 200 hours of starvation. During the whole process, respiration could be uncoupled by 2,4-dinitrophenol and the energy charge remained high. These results suggest that in excised maize root tips, respiration rate is essentially limited by the rate of biosyntheses (ATP-utilizing processes) rather than mitochondrial number. During starvation the sugar content sharply decreased for the first 20 hours and reached zero at 120 hours. Following root excision, proteins and lipids were continuously degraded and were virtually the only substrates for respiration and biosyntheses after 20 hours of starvation. Over the first 90 hours of starvation, enzymic activities related to sugar metabolic pathways and the Krebs cycle decreased to 20% or less of their initial activity. Starvation was reversible only for the first 80 to 90 hours. Between 80 and 100 hours, there was a sharp fall in intracellular osmolarity and a 25% loss in the dry weight. The irreversibility may be due, as in senescence, to a change in membrane selective permeability.

Brouquisse, Renaud; James, Franck; Raymond, Philippe; Pradet, Alain

1991-01-01

314

Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.  

PubMed

Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ?2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots. PMID:24831831

Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

2014-08-01

315

Quantitative determination of callose in tree roots.  

PubMed

The formation of callose in tree roots has been suggested as a physiological indicator of aluminum (Al) toxicity. Quantifying callose in the roots in forest soils, however, is hampered by the presence of autofluorescent materials in the roots that disturb the measurement of callose by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tannins in the roots cause these measurement problems. Here we report on the measurement of callose in the root apices of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) seedlings collected in an acidified forest soil. The callose was quantified with a modified protocol which included three washing steps with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) before the callose was extracted. This procedure reduced the autofluorescence by about 50%. With the use of water or ethanol alone, callose could be measured in only about 15% of the root samples, whereas with the use of PVPP callose could be determined in 95% of the samples. This improved method could help to evaluate the effects of Al toxicity on tree roots grown in forest soils, where callose is detected as a physiological indicator. PMID:17126734

Hirano, Yasuhiro; Brunner, Ivano

2006-12-01

316

Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

2012-01-01

317

Root Hypoxia Reduces Leaf Growth 1  

PubMed Central

This study examined the potential role of restricted phloem export, or import of substances from the roots in the leaf growth response to root hypoxia. In addition, the effects of root hypoxia on abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) levels were measured and their effects on in vitro growth determined. Imposition of root hypoxia in the dark when transpirational water flux was minimal delayed the reduction in leaf growth until the following light period. Restriction of phloem transport by stem girdling did not eliminate the hypoxia-induced reduction in leaf growth. In vitro growth of leaf discs was inhibited in the presence of xylem sap collected from hypoxic roots, and also by millimolar ABA. Disc growth was promoted by sap from aerated roots and by 0.1 micromolar ZR. The flux of both ABA and ZR was reduced in xylem sap from hypoxic roots. Leaf ABA transiently increased twofold after 24 hours of hypoxia exposure but there were no changes in leaf cytokinin levels. Images Figure 3 Figure 4

Smit, Barbara A.; Neuman, Dawn S.; Stachowiak, Matthew L.

1990-01-01

318

Cytokinins in Seedling Roots of Pea  

PubMed Central

The natural occurrence of cytokinins existing both in a free form and as a constituent of transfer RNA was examined in serial segments of young seedling roots of pea. Purified ethanol extracts of root apices were resolved into four factors capable of inducing soybean callus tissue proliferation. The most active factor was identified as zeatin or some closely related compound; it produced polyploid divisions and tracheary element differentiation when tested on cultured pea root segments. The terminal 0- to 1-millimeter root tip contained 43 to 44 times more free cytokinin on a fresh weight or a per cell basis than the next 1- to 5-millimeter root segment. Extracts of more proximal segments behind the tip contained no measurable free cytokinin. Acid hydrolysates of transfer RNA exhibited reproducible cytokinin activity. Bioassays revealed that the predominant amounts of free cytokinin and that present in transfer RNA were restricted to the extreme root tip. There was approximately 27 times more free cytokinin than the amount detected in transfer RNA in root apices.

Short, Keith C.; Torrey, John G.

1972-01-01

319

Rice develop wavy seminal roots in response to light stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seminal roots are the primary roots to emerge from germinated seeds. Here, we demonstrate that the photomorphology of\\u000a the seminal roots was diverse among rice varieties, and the light-induced wavy roots were found mostly in indica-type rice\\u000a varieties. The light-induced wavy morphology in rice seminal roots has been different with curling or coiling roots in some

Shu-Jen Wang; Chia-Hsun Ho; Hsiang-Wen Chen

320

Pullout tests of root analogs and natural root bundles in soil: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-soil mechanical interactions are key to soil stability on steep hillslopes. Motivated by new advances and applications of the Root Bundle Model (RBM), we conducted a series of experiments in the laboratory and in the field to study the mechanical response of pulled roots. We systematically quantified the influence of different factors such as root geometry and configuration, soil type, and soil water content considering individual roots and root bundles. We developed a novel pullout apparatus for strain-controlled field and laboratory tests of up to 13 parallel roots measured individually and as a bundle. Results highlight the importance of root tortuosity and root branching points for prediction of individual root pullout behavior. Results also confirm the critical role of root diameter distribution for realistic prediction of global pullout behavior of a root bundle. Friction between root and soil matrix varied with soil type and water content and affected the force-displacement behavior. Friction in sand varied from 1 to 17 kPa, with low values obtained in wet sand at a confining pressure of 2 kPa and high values obtained in dry sand with 4.5 kPa confining pressure. In a silty soil matrix, friction ranged between 3 kPa under wet and low confining pressure (2 kPa) and 6 kPa in dry and higher confining pressure (4.5 kPa). Displacement at maximum pullout force increased with increasing root diameter and with tortuosity. Laboratory experiments were used to calibrate the RBM that was later validated using six field measurements with natural root bundles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). These tests demonstrate the progressive nature of root bundle failure under strain-controlled pullout force and provide new insights regarding force-displacement behavior of root reinforcement, highlighting the importance of considering displacement in slope stability models. Results show that the magnitude of maximum root pullout forces (1-5 kPa) are important for slope stability. The force-displacement relations characterized in this study are fundamental inputs for quantifying the resistive force redistribution on vegetated slopes and may provide explanation for abrupt loss of strength during landslide initiation and deformation.

Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Or, D.

2011-06-01

321

Selenium absorption by excised Astragalus roots.  

PubMed

Absorption of selenate and selenite by excised roots of Astragalus Crotalariae, a selenium accumulator, and of A. lentiginosus, a non-accumulator, was favored by CaCl(2) and a pH of 4.0. The uptake of selenate and possibly selenite, is metabolically linked. Roots of a number of Astragalus species were examined, and in all cases selenate entered the roots much faster than selenite. In these short-term experiments there was no relation between uptake of the 2 ions and classification of a species as selenium-accumulator or non-accumulator. PMID:5638040

Ulrich, J M; Shrift, A

1968-01-01

322

Uptake of bromacil by isolated barley roots.  

PubMed

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg l(-1)) of 0.64 ?g bromacil g(-1) fresh root hr(-1). A Q10 for the process was determined to be 1.5 and living roots were required for bromacil uptake. This procedure was judged to be a quick and inexpensive method to screen plant uptake of toxic chemicals. PMID:24259145

Wickliff, C; McFarlane, J C; Ratsch, H

1984-03-01

323

BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

324

Selenium Absorption by Excised Astragalus Roots 1  

PubMed Central

Absorption of selenate and selenite by excised roots of Astragalus Crotalariae, a selenium accumulator, and of A. lentiginosus, a non-accumulator, was favored by CaCl2 and a pH of 4.0. The uptake of selenate and possibly selenite, is metabolically linked. Roots of a number of Astragalus species were examined, and in all cases selenate entered the roots much faster than selenite. In these short-term experiments there was no relation between uptake of the 2 ions and classification of a species as selenium-accumulator or non-accumulator.

Ulrich, Jane M.; Shrift, Alex

1968-01-01

325

Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture  

PubMed Central

Root system architecture (RSA) – the spatial configuration of a root system – is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining RSA in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants.

Jung, Janelle K. H.; McCouch, Susan

2013-01-01

326

Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors  

SciTech Connect

In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

1984-11-01

327

Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.  

PubMed

The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 and PIN-FORMED 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root. PMID:24927545

Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

2014-06-24

328

Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water  

PubMed Central

The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 and PIN-FORMED 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E.; Sturrock, Craig J.; Thompson, Mark C.; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Dinneny, Jose R.

2014-01-01

329

Estimating root respiration, microbial respiration in the rhizosphere, and root-free soil respiration in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that respiration measurements made using both the basal and excised-root respiration methods would allow us to quantify three important components of soil respiration: root respiration (Rroot), microbial respiration in the rhizosphere (Rrhizo), and root-free soil respiration (Rrfs). Root respiration determined by the basal method was approximately one-third greater than root respiration determined by the excised-root method (52 versus

Daniel L Kelting; James A Burger; Gerry S Edwards

1998-01-01

330

Due Process in Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of all 50 states concerning the availability of due process procedures for gifted students and the number and nature of recent hearings produced the following information: 28 states currently provide due process or mediation for conflicts concerning gifted students and 7 states reported holding 26 due process hearings from…

Karnes, Frances A.; Troxclair, Debra A.; Marquardt, Ronald G.

1998-01-01

331

Biochemical Composition Suggests Different Roles of Leaf Litter and Fine Roots in Soil Carbon Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter is a major source of soil organic carbon (C). This litter is not homogenous, but instead primarily composed of fine root and leaf litter that adapted to different physiological functions. These unique functions suggest that root and leaf litter likely have different biochemical traits, and thus different decomposition patterns. However, few studies have compared their substrate quality and contributions to soil C. Also, much less attention has been given to fine roots although they can represent a substantial litter production. Here we hypothesize that 1) leaf litter and fine roots have different substrate quality as they are highly different in biochemical composition; 2) the biochemical composition of leaf litter and fine roots responds differently to the simulated nitrogen (N) deposition. To test these hypotheses, we collected leaf litter and fine roots of Acer saccharum (the dominant species in the northern temperate ecosystems we studied) in both ambient and N addition treatment plots at four sites of Michigan N deposition gradient study. We quantified ten biochemical components thought to be important on decomposition. Strikingly, we found a consistently three-fold higher lignin concentration in fine roots than that in leaf litter (P< 0.01). On average, lignin concentration of fine roots was 45.4±0.3% while that of leaf litter was 13.5±0.2%. Lignin has been considered highly recalcitrant and hypothesized as the major precursor of humus substance. Condensed tannin (CT) concentration in fine roots (13.13±0.51%) was also substantially higher than that in leaf litter (P< 0.01, 4.63±0.42 %). Tissue CT can inhibit litter decay by both precipitating proteins and by having antimicrobial properties. In contrast, fine roots exhibited lower concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), soluble phenolics, and holocellulose (hemicelluloses & cellulose) than leaf litter (P< 0.01). These components are considered more easily accessible, and may stimulate the decay of lignin by providing required energy. Therefore, fine roots of Acer saccharum have a relatively recalcitrant nature based on their distinct biochemical composition, suggesting fine roots may be the major driver of soil carbon formation in the ecosystems we studied. Litter type and N addition had significant interactions on lignin, holocellulose, and NSC (P< 0.05), indicating these traits of different litter types respond differently to N addition. In leaf litter, the concentrations of lignin, NSC, and bound CT were affected by N addition (P< 0.05). By contrast, N addition only reduced the soluble protein concentration in fine roots (P< 0.05). Hence, substrate quality of leaf litter and fine roots responds differently to the simulated N deposition, and may eventually lead to different responses in decomposition pattern. This is one of few studies comparing the detailed biochemical profile of leaf litter and fine roots in a dominant tree species. Different biochemical traits of fine roots and leaf litter may reflect the different specializations for their physiological functions. This work highlights the importance of fine root in the soil carbon formation due to its recalcitrant nature, and emphasizes the necessity of differentiating the responses of leaf litter and fine root decompositions to environmental changes when modeling biogeochemical cycles.

Xia, M.; Pregitzer, K. S.; Talhelm, A. F.

2012-12-01

332

Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C) inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions, we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C) content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27) than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27) (p < 0.05), the mean age of C in fine roots in forests averaged 11.3 ± 1.8 yr and was older and more variable compared to grasslands 1.7 ± 0.4 yr (p < 0.001). We further found that management affects the mean age of fine root C in temperate grasslands mediated by changes in plant species diversity and composition. Fine root mean C age is positively correlated with plant diversity (r = 0.65) and with the number of perennial species (r = 0.77). Fine root mean C age in grasslands was also affected by study region with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9) on mostly organic soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9) and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9) in central and southern Germany (p < 0.05). This was probably due to differences in soil nutrient contents and soil moisture conditions between study regions, which affected plant species diversity and the presence of perennial species. Our results indicate more long-lived roots or internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

Solly, E.; Schöning, I.; Boch, S.; Müller, J.; Socher, S. A.; Trumbore, S. E.; Schrumpf, M.

2013-07-01

333

Effects and mechanisms of the combined pollution of lanthanum and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings.  

PubMed

Rare earth pollution and acid rain pollution are both important environmental issues worldwide. In regions which simultaneously occur, the combined pollution of rare earth and acid rain becomes a new environmental issue, and the relevant research is rarely reported. Accordingly, we investigated the combined effects and mechanisms of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the root phenotype of soybean seedlings. The combined pollution of low-concentration La(3+) and acid rain exerted deleterious effects on the phenotype and growth of roots, which were aggravated by the combined pollution of high-concentration La(3+) and acid rain. The deleterious effects of the combined pollution were stronger than those of single La(3+) or acid rain pollution. These stronger deleterious effects on the root phenotype and growth of roots were due to the increased disturbance of absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients in roots. PMID:23726884

Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

2013-09-01

334

Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system.  

PubMed

The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (A(L):A(R)). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (A(R)) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (k(r)) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (?(L)) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (-0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (-1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately -0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by -0.15 MPa (-1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at -1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, g(s) of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35-20 mmol vine(-1) s(-1) during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (k(r)) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa(-1) s(-1) during that same time period. The changes in k(r) could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root segments. Thus, the manner in which drought tolerance was conveyed to the drought-sensitive clone appeared to arise from deep root proliferation during the hottest and driest part of the season, rather than through changes in xylem structure, xylem density or stomatal regulation. This information can be useful to growers on a site-specific basis in selecting rootstocks for grape clonal material (scions) grafted to them. PMID:20851906

Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

2011-01-01

335

Coumarins from the roots of Ligusticum multivittatum.  

PubMed

Five new coumarins, (+)-peujaponisin (1) and multivittans A-D (2-5), were isolated from the roots of Ligusticum multivittatum Franch., and their structures were established by spectral means. PMID:18404350

Kondo, Taro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shibano, Makio; Wang, Nian-He; Baba, Kimiye

2008-01-01

336

Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

Evans, Michael L.

1993-01-01

337

LCD ROOT Simulation and Analysis Tools  

SciTech Connect

The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

Iwasaki, Masako

2001-02-08

338

Leishmanicidal activity of Maytenus illicifolia roots.  

PubMed

In vitro evaluation of leishmanicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Maytenus illicifolia against three species of Leishmania. The root extracts showed differential activity against parasites, whereas the aerial part of the extracts was inactive. PMID:18504075

Alvarenga, Nelson; Canela, N; Gómez, R; Yaluff, G; Maldonado, M

2008-07-01

339

Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

1983-01-01

340

Roots and Tubers: A Postharvest Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Idaho University's Information Center of the Postharvest Institute for Perishables (ICPIP) was created in 1980 to globally disseminate up-to-date information on reducing postharvest losses. This bibliography on roots and tubers is the first in a semiannua...

1981-01-01

341

LCD Root Simulation and Analysis Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed a simulation program package based on the ROOT system. The package consists of Fast simulation, the reconstruction of the Full simulated data, and physics analysis utilities.

M. Iwasaki

2001-01-01

342

Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone  

PubMed Central

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-01-01

343

Sequential rooting media and rooting capacity of Sequoiadendron giganteum in vitro. Peroxidase activity as a marker.  

PubMed

The rooting capacities of tips of seedling, juvenile and mature shoots of Sequoiadendron giganteum were compared on different rooting media (inductive and expressive media) after passage on an elongating medium. None of the cuttings rooted when continuously kept on medium containing the auxin NAA and vitamin D2. Peroxidase activity of all those cuttings on NAA+D2 first increased during the 7-9 first days and decreased in the days after. Rooting was obtained by transfer of the cuttings after periods longer than 7-9 days from the NAA+D2 inductive medium to a basal medium supplemented or not with rutin (expressive medium). The rooting capacity was emphasized by rutin treatment and was in correlation with the peroxidase peak reached on the NAA+D2 medium. Seedlings, characterised by the highest peroxidase activity, were most performing in rooting. PMID:24248840

Berthon, J Y; Boyer, N; Gaspar, T

1987-10-01

344

[Measurement of mesiodistal root angulation for panoramic images and the effect of buccolingual root angulation].  

PubMed

Panoramic images were taken from an anatomically correct phantom with three different buccolingual angulations for each tooth (Original, 10 degrees buccal root torque, and 10 degrees lingual root torque). The true mesiodistal angulation of each tooth was determined with a three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine. Each tooth had at least one angle measurement that was statistically different from the other mesiodistal angles with different buccolingual orientations. Roots with buccal root orientations were projected more distally than they were in reality; and the roots lingually positioned were projected more mesially. The canine and premolars in both arches were most affected and the phenomenon was more pronounced in the maxilla than the mandible. Buccolingual orientation changes did not affect the root angulation expression on the incisor area. PMID:20303900

Garcia-Figueroa, Mariano A; Raboud, Donald W; Lam, Ernest W; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W

2009-03-01

345

Purine Phosphoribosyl Transferases in Human Hair Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the two enzymes involved in purine salvage in human hair roots. Km values of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HG-PRT) for hypoxanthine and 5?-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (A-PRT) for adenine and PRPP in human hair roots were similar to values reported for human erythrocytes. No differences were observed between hair

C. H. M. M. de Bruyn; T. L. Oei

1974-01-01

346

New Results on Optimizing Rooted Triplets Consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of phylogenetic trees with overlapping leaf sets is con- sistent if it can be merged without conflicts into a supertree. In this paper, we study the polynomial-time approximability of two related op- timization problems called the maximum rooted triplets consistency prob- lem (MaxRTC) and the minimum rooted triplets inconsistency prob- lem (MinRTI) in which the input is a

Jaroslaw Byrka; Sylvain Guillemot; Jesper Jansson

2008-01-01

347

Iterated square root unscented Kalman particle filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve tracking estimation accuracy of square-root unscented Kalman particle filter (SRUKFPF), a new particle filter algorithm of update SRUKF based on iterated measurements is proposed. The algorithm produces the important density function of particle filter using maximum posteriori estimate of iterated square-root unscented Kalman filter, and amends the state covariance using Levenberg-Marquardt method, so that the observed

Guohui Li; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

348

Laser-Fluoride Effect on Root Demineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the individual cariostatic effects of laser and fluoride have been shown, the combined effect of CO2 laser and fluoride on root demineralization remains uncertain and was the main aim of this study. By using a pH-cycling system and Polarized Light Microscopy, we demonstrated the synergistic effect of fluoride combined with CO2 laser treatment on reducing root demineralization. The mean

X.-L. Gao; J.-S. Pan; C.-Y. Hsu

2006-01-01

349

Idiopathic root resorption: report of a case.  

PubMed

A case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption in a 26-yr-old female patient is presented. A review of the literature revealed that extensive idiopathic root resorption is unusual. Neither local nor systemic etiological factors were found in our case. Examination of parents and siblings did not reveal a familiar tendency. Radiographs and clinical evaluation showed a very poor prognosis for most of the teeth present in the mouth of our patient. PMID:11199741

Di Domizio, P; Orsini, G; Scarano, A; Piattelli, A

2000-05-01

350

Mapping gene activity of Arabidopsis root hairs  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative information on gene activity at single cell-type resolution is essential for the understanding of how cells work and interact. Root hairs, or trichoblasts, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specialized cells in the epidermis, represent an ideal model for cell fate acquisition and differentiation in plants. Results Here, we provide an atlas of gene and protein expression in Arabidopsis root hair cells, generated by paired-end RNA sequencing and LC/MS-MS analysis of protoplasts from plants containing a pEXP7-GFP reporter construct. In total, transcripts of 23,034 genes were detected in root hairs. High-resolution proteome analysis led to the reliable identification of 2,447 proteins, 129 of which were differentially expressed between root hairs and non-root hair tissue. Dissection of pre-mRNA splicing patterns showed that all types of alternative splicing were cell type-dependent, and less complex in EXP7-expressing cells when compared to non-root hair cells. Intron retention was repressed in several transcripts functionally related to root hair morphogenesis, indicative of a cell type-specific control of gene expression by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Concordance between mRNA and protein expression was generally high, but in many cases mRNA expression was not predictive for protein abundance. Conclusions The integrated analysis shows that gene activity in root hairs is dictated by orchestrated, multilayered regulatory mechanisms that allow for a cell type-specific composition of functional components.

2013-01-01

351

Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the Nymphaeales are strongly structurally associated with the monocots, especially the Acorales.

Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

2013-01-01

352

Adventitious root formation in Anacardium occidentale L. in response to phytohormones and removal of roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in tissue culture techniques, propagation by leafy, softwood cuttings is the preferred, practical system for vegetative reproduction of many tree and shrub species. Species are frequently defined as ‘difficult’- or ‘easy-to-root’ when propagated by conventional cuttings. Speed of rooting is often linked with ease of propagation, and slow-to-root species may be ‘difficult’ precisely because tissues deteriorate prior to

Juliano Saranga; Ross Cameron

2007-01-01

353

Root size and shoot\\/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment of a plant shoot can affect its root size and the shoot\\/root biomass ratio. Photoperiodic influence on shoot\\/root ratios of first?year biennial sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) plants was related to phytochrome measurement of day length and its regulation of photosynthate partitioning to favor successful completion of the life cycle. Short photoperiods alternated with long, uninterrupted nights resulted

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt

1992-01-01

354

Root Canal Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Canals - An Anatomic Variation  

PubMed Central

Dental anatomical variations play a significant role in the diagnosis and a successful treatment outcome in endodontics. It is essential for the clinician to have a clear picture and understanding of the pulpal anatomy and its variations. In a mandibular second premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals. The aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis, and clinical management of a three-rooted mandibular second premolar with three independent roots and canals.

Gandhi, Bhavana; Patil, Anand C

2013-01-01

355

Control of willow?tree shelter root systems in kiwifruit orchards by root pruning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root systems of willow?tree shelter root systems and adjacent kiwifruit root systems, and measurements of gravimetric soil water content, were mapped in three orchards on deep Te Puke soils, in the North Island of New Zealand. Fruit yields were also obtained from the first (5–6 m from the shelter) and middle (4th or 5th row, 19–24 m from the

K. A. Hughes; W. R. N. Edwards; A. M. Snowball

1994-01-01

356

Primary Root Growth and the Pattern of Root Apical Meristem Organization are Coupled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root apical meristems (RAMs) in dicotyledonous plants have two organizational schemes; closed (with highly organized tiers)\\u000a and open (tiers lacking or disorganized). These schemes are commonly believed to remain unchanged during the growth of the\\u000a root axis. Individual roots are commonly thought to have indeterminate growth. We challenge these two generalizations through\\u000a the study of five species with closed apical

K. Chapman; E. P. Groot; S. A. Nichol; T. L. Rost

2002-01-01

357

Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from fruits and roots of Pimpinella anisum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy root cultures of Pimpinella anisum were established following inoculation of aseptically grown plantlets with an A4 pRiA4 70 GUS strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The essential oils from the hairy roots, maintained in four different media, and from the fruits and roots of the parent plant were analysed and their compositions compared by GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The major components

Paula M. Santos; A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Margarida Oliveira; José G. Barroso; Luis G. Pedro; Stanley G. Deans; A. K. M. Younus; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

1998-01-01

358

Root specific elicitation and antimicrobial activity of rosmarinic acid in hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a multifunctional caffeic acid ester present in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Untransformed normal roots of O. basilicum harbored the maximum titers (0.98% g fresh weight basis) of RA compared to leaves and shoots. Hairy root cultures of O. basilicum transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes (ATCC-15834) showed three-fold increases in growth and RA production compared to the untransformed normal roots.

Harsh Pal Bais; Travis S. Walker; Herbert P. Schweizer; Jorge M. Vivanco

2002-01-01

359

Strigolactones affect lateral root formation and root-hair elongation in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strigolactones (SLs) have been proposed as a new group of plant hormones, inhibiting shoot branching, and as signaling molecules\\u000a for plant interactions. Here, we present evidence for effects of SLs on root development. The analysis of mutants flawed in\\u000a SLs synthesis or signaling suggested that the absence of SLs enhances lateral root formation. In accordance, roots grown in\\u000a the presence

Yoram Kapulnik; Pierre-Marc Delaux; Natalie Resnick; Einav Mayzlish-Gati; Smadar Wininger; Chaitali Bhattacharya; Nathalie Séjalon-Delmas; Jean-Philippe Combier; Guillaume Bécard; Eduard Belausov; Tom Beeckman; Evgenia Dor; Joseph Hershenhorn; Hinanit Koltai

2011-01-01

360

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees  

SciTech Connect

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

1988-12-31

361

Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome  

PubMed Central

Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities.

Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

2014-01-01

362

Brassinosteroids promote root growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to regulate shoot growth, their role in the regulation of root growth is less clear. We show that low concentrations of BRs such as 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide promote root elongation in Arabidopsis wild-type plants up to 50% and in BR-deficient mutants such as dwf1-6 (cbb1) and cbb3 (which is allelic to cpd) up to 150%. The growth-stimulating effect of exogenous BRs is not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid. BR-deficient mutants show normal gravitropism, and 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid or higher concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid inhibit root growth in the mutants to the same extent as in wild-type plants. Simultaneous administration of 24-epibrassinolide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid results in largely additive effects. Exogenous gibberellins do not promote root elongation in the BR-deficient mutants, and the sensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is not altered. Thus, the root growth-stimulating effect of BRs appears to be largely independent of auxin and gibberellin action. Furthermore, we analyzed BR interactions with other phytohormones on the gene expression level. Only a limited set of auxin- and ethylene-related genes showed altered expression levels. Genes related to other phytohormones barely showed changes, providing further evidence for an autonomous stimulatory effect of BR on root growth. PMID:14526105

Müssig, Carsten; Shin, Ga-Hee; Altmann, Thomas

2003-11-01

363

Brassinosteroids Promote Root Growth in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to regulate shoot growth, their role in the regulation of root growth is less clear. We show that low concentrations of BRs such as 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide promote root elongation in Arabidopsis wild-type plants up to 50% and in BR-deficient mutants such as dwf1-6 (cbb1) and cbb3 (which is allelic to cpd) up to 150%. The growth-stimulating effect of exogenous BRs is not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid. BR-deficient mutants show normal gravitropism, and 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid or higher concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid inhibit root growth in the mutants to the same extent as in wild-type plants. Simultaneous administration of 24-epibrassinolide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid results in largely additive effects. Exogenous gibberellins do not promote root elongation in the BR-deficient mutants, and the sensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is not altered. Thus, the root growth-stimulating effect of BRs appears to be largely independent of auxin and gibberellin action. Furthermore, we analyzed BR interactions with other phytohormones on the gene expression level. Only a limited set of auxin- and ethylene-related genes showed altered expression levels. Genes related to other phytohormones barely showed changes, providing further evidence for an autonomous stimulatory effect of BR on root growth.

Mussig, Carsten; Shin, Ga-Hee; Altmann, Thomas

2003-01-01

364

ASTROCULTURE (TM) root metabolism and cytochemical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture (TM) plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure.

Porterfield, D. M.; Barta, D. J.; Ming, D. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Musgrave, M. E.

2000-01-01

365

PFT1-controlled ROS balance is critical for multiple stages of root hair development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play key roles in cellular decision making and signal integration in multicellular organisms. In roots, ROS levels are managed by the action of peroxidases and NAPDH oxidases, resulting in a distinct spatial distribution of hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and superoxide (O?(-)) that is critical for the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, ROS is required for the determination of the cell shape of root hairs. Mutations in the Mediator subunit MED25/PFT1 result in compromised root hair development, due to altered expression of a suite of H?O?-producing class III peroxidases. pft1-1 mutants form shorter root hairs than wild-type plants. Analysis of pft1-1 cross-sections revealed that also root hair initiation is compromised, probably by impeding local cell wall loosening. It is suggested that ROS homeostasis is critical throughout the development of root hairs, controlling various processes via PFT1-regulated transcription of genes encoding redox-active enzymes. PMID:23455023

Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Chandrika, Nulu; Tsai, Yi-Hsiu; Schmidt, Wolfgang

2013-05-01

366

Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

2003-05-01

367

Loss of tooth substance during root planing with various periodontal instruments: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic and power-driven instrumentation is gaining in significance as an acceptable alternative to manual periodontal root treatment. Some question whether they do not remove too much tooth substance. Various ultrasonic scalers, hand instruments and two power-driven systems were compared by assessing the loss of tooth substance due to root instrumentation. Quantitative analysis of this effect of the instruments used was performed on 20 freshly extracted, non-periodontally involved, large human molars. In the first study, 40 specimens were randomly assigned to four groups of treatment: combined use of ultrasonic scaler and Periopolisher diamond-coated inserts (US-POL), hand instruments (MANUAL), Perioplaner-Periopolisher system (PPL-POL) and Periokit ultrasonic-designed scalers (PERIOKIT). The second study involved two treatment groups, ultrasonic scaler alone and hand instruments, each allocated with 20 teeth (small root fragments). An unpaired two-tailed t test was carried out for both studies to compare the average weight loss of root substance with the modes of instrumentation. The level of significance was set at proot treatments. Based on the results of these two comparative studies, the power-driven inserts or the various ultrasonic scalers tested did not remove more tooth substance than conventional hand instruments. They may thus be a useful alternative for the debridement of root surfaces. PMID:15838684

Obeid, Patrick; Bercy, Pierre

2005-06-01

368

On the use of antibiotics to reduce rhizoplane microbial populations in root physiology and ecology investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No straightforward method exists for separating the proportion of ion exchange and respiration due to rhizoplane microbial organisms from that of root ion exchange and respiration. We examined several antibiotics that might be used for the temporary elimination of rhizoplane bacteria from hydroponically grown wheat roots (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10). Each antibiotic was tested for herbicidal activity and plate counts were used to enumerate bacteria and evaluate antibiotic kinetics. Only lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) did not reduce wheat growth rates. Aminoglycosides, the pyrimidine trimethoprim, colistin and rifampicin reduced growth rates substantially. Antibiotics acted slowly, with maximum reductions in rhizoplane bacteria occurring after more than 48 h of exposure. Combinations of nonphytotoxic antibiotics reduced platable rhizoplane bacteria by as much as 98%; however, this was generally a reduction from about 10(9) to 10(6) colony forming units per gram of dry root mass, so that many viable bacteria remained on root surfaces. We present evidence which suggests that insufficient bacterial biomass exists on root surfaces of nonstressed plants grown under well-aerated conditions to quantitatively interfere with root nitrogen absorption measurements.

Smart, D. R.; Ferro, A.; Ritchie, K.; Bugbee, B. G.

1995-01-01

369

Light-dependent changes in plastid differentiation influence carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot roots.  

PubMed

Carrot is an important nutritional crop due to the high levels of pro-vitamin A carotenoids (?-carotene and, to a lower extent, ?-carotene) that accumulate in its storage root during secondary growth. In this work we show that in carrots, contrary to that reported for aerial organs of other plant species, light has a profound effect on root development by inhibiting root thickening, preventing the differentiation of chromoplasts and eventually repressing the expression of most genes required for the biosynthesis of ?-carotene and ?-carotene and to a lesser extent genes for xanthophylls and apocarotenoids biosynthesis. We observed a correlation in the carotenoid profile and the patterns of gene expression during the development of root segments grown either in the light or in the dark, which suggests a transcriptional regulation for carotenoid synthesis during carrot root development. Furthermore, our work supports the conclusion that the differentiation of chromoplasts coincides with carotenoid accumulation during the later stages of development of underground storage roots. PMID:22427026

Fuentes, Paulina; Pizarro, Lorena; Moreno, Juan Camilo; Handford, Michael; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Stange, Claudia

2012-05-01

370

Simplifying the decision matrix for estimating fine root production by the sequential soil coring approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequential soil coring is a commonly used approach to measure seasonal root biomass and necromass, from which root production can be estimated by maximum-minimum, sum of changes, compartment-flow model, and/or decision matrix methods. Among these methods, decision matrix is the most frequently used. However, the decision matrix, often underestimating fine root production, is frequently misused in research due to inadequate documentation of its underlying logic. In this paper, we reviewed the decision matrix method and provided mathematical logic for the development of the matrix, by which not only root production but also mortality and decomposition rates can be calculated. To ease its use for large datasets, we developed simplified equations to facilitate computation of root production, mortality and decomposition to be used in MS Excel or R. We also presented results from calculations by an example using empirical data from boreal forests to show proper calculations of root production, mortality and decomposition. The simplified decision matrix presented here shall promote its application in ecology, especially for large datasets.

Yuan, Z. Y.; Chen, Han Y. H.

2013-04-01

371

The role of liquid mixing and gas-phase dispersion in a submerged, sparged root reactor.  

PubMed

An Agrobacterium-transformed root culture of Solanum tuberosum was grown in a 15-1 bubble column. The specific respiration rate decreased by a factor of ten as the tissue grew over a 25-day culture period. On days 5, 8, 13, and 21, respiration was shown to be independent of aeration rate over a range of 0.05-0.4 vvm (volume of air per volume of liquid min-1). Gas dispersion measured from argon tracer residence time distributions increased fourfold due to increased stagnation and channeling of gas through the bed of growing roots; however, introduction of an antifoam surfactant on day 20 greatly reduced dispersion with no accompanying change in respiration. Taken together, the gas dispersion and respiration studies suggest that the gas-liquid interface is not the dominant resistance to oxygen mass transfer. Liquid mixing time measured with a dye tracer increased from 1.45 +/- 0.45 min with no root tissue to 40.2 +/- 1.6 min with 180 g FW l-1 of roots in the column. In addition, the oxygen uptake rate of growing tips (5.2 +/- 0.2 mm) of individual root segments of S. tuberosum measured in a stirred microcell (600 microliters) increased with the oxygen tension of the medium. Based on these results, the role of liquid mixing, gas-phase dispersion, and diffusion in the tissue in the scaleup of root culture is discussed. PMID:9090955

Tescione, L D; Ramakrishnan, D; Curtis, W R

1997-02-15

372

Enzymatic Digestion of Roots for Recovery of Root-knot Nematode Developmental Stages.  

PubMed

Developmental stages of Meloidogyne javanica were successfully released from roots by treatment with commercially available cellulase and pectinase. The average percentage recovery of nematode developmental stages from Dolichos lablab, Elymus glaucus, and Lycopersicon esculentum were as follows: eggs = 526%, J2 = 272%, J3 = 783%, J4 = 549%, adult females = 285%, and total = 425%, expressed as percentages of the counts obtained from stained roots spread on glass plates. Root digestion was more accurate and sensitive in detecting low numbers of nematodes in roots than was the glass plate method. No simple linear, quadratic, or cubic relationship was found between the two methods that would allow a conversion factor to be developed. PMID:19279814

Araya, M; Caswell-Chen, E P

1993-12-01

373

Natural H+ Currents Traverse Growing Roots and Root Hairs of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1  

PubMed Central

With the aid of an extracellular vibrating electrode, natural electric fields were detected and measured in the medium near growing roots and root hairs of barley seedlings. An exploration of these fields indicates that both the root as a whole, as well as individual root hairs, drive large steady currents through themselves. Current consistently enters both the main elongation zone of the root as well as the growing tips of elongating root hairs; it leaves the surface of the root beneath the root hairs. These currents enter with a density of about 2 microamperes per square centimeter, leave with a density of about 0.5 to 1 microampere per square centimeter, and total about 30 nanoamperes. Responses of the natural fields to changes in the ionic composition of the medium as well as observations of the pH pattern in the medium near the roots (made with bromocresol purple) together indicate that much of the current consists of hydrogen ions. Altogether, H+ ions seem to leak into growing cells or cell parts and to be pumped out of nongrowing ones. Images

Weisenseel, Manfred H.; Dorn, Alfred; Jaffe, Lionel F.

1979-01-01

374

Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.  

PubMed

The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 ?M melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

2012-11-01

375

Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging.  

PubMed

CO(2)-enrichment experiments consistently show that rooting depth increases when trees are grown at elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)), leading in some experiments to increased capture of available soil nitrogen (N) from deeper soil. However, the link between N uptake and root distributions remains poorly represented in forest ecosystem and global land-surface models. Here, this link is modeled and analyzed using a new optimization hypothesis (MaxNup) for root foraging in relation to the spatial variability of soil N, according to which a given total root mass is distributed vertically in order to maximize annual N uptake. MaxNup leads to analytical predictions for the optimal vertical profile of root biomass, maximum rooting depth, and N-uptake fraction (i.e., the proportion of plant-available soil N taken up annually by roots). We use these predictions to gain new insight into the behavior of the N-uptake fraction in trees growing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory free-air CO(2)-enrichment experiment. We also compare MaxNup with empirical equations previously fitted to root-distribution data from all the world's plant biomes, and find that the empirical equations underestimate the capacity of root systems to take up N. PMID:22833797

McMurtrie, Ross E; Iversen, Colleen M; Dewar, Roderick C; Medlyn, Belinda E; Näsholm, Torgny; Pepper, David A; Norby, Richard J

2012-06-01

376

Strigolactones affect lateral root formation and root-hair elongation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) have been proposed as a new group of plant hormones, inhibiting shoot branching, and as signaling molecules for plant interactions. Here, we present evidence for effects of SLs on root development. The analysis of mutants flawed in SLs synthesis or signaling suggested that the absence of SLs enhances lateral root formation. In accordance, roots grown in the presence of GR24, a synthetic bioactive SL, showed reduced number of lateral roots in WT and in max3-11 and max4-1 mutants, deficient in SL synthesis. The GR24-induced reduction in lateral roots was not apparent in the SL signaling mutant max2-1. Moreover, GR24 led to increased root-hair length in WT and in max3-11 and max4-1 mutants, but not in max2-1. SLs effect on lateral root formation and root-hair elongation may suggest a role for SLs in the regulation of root development; perhaps, as a response to growth conditions. PMID:21080198

Kapulnik, Yoram; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Resnick, Natalie; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Wininger, Smadar; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Belausov, Eduard; Beeckman, Tom; Dor, Evgenia; Hershenhorn, Joseph; Koltai, Hinanit

2011-01-01

377

White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases.  

PubMed

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P

2011-07-01

378

Assessing the importance of genotype x environment interaction for root traits in rice using a mapping population. I: a soil-filled box screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altering root system architecture is considered a method of improving crop water and soil nutrient capture. The analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root traits has revealed inconsistency in the same population evaluated in different environments. It must be clarified if this is due to genotype × environment interaction or considerations of statistics if the value of QTLs for marker-assisted breeding

K. MacMillan; K. Emrich; H.-P. Piepho; C. E. Mullins; A. H. Price

2006-01-01

379

Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative

Márcia R de Almeida; Carolina M Ruedell; Felipe K Ricachenevsky; Raul A Sperotto; Giancarlo Pasquali; Arthur G Fett-Neto

2010-01-01

380

Rooting cuttings of Syringa vulgaris cv. Charles Joly and Corylus avellana cv. Aurea: the influence of stock plant pruning and shoot growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between shoot growth and rooting was examined in two, 'difficult-to root' amenity trees, Syringa vulgaris L. cv. Charles Joly and Corylus avellana L. cv. Aurea. A range of treatments reflecting severity of pruning was imposed on field-grown stock prior to bud break. To minimise variation due to the numbers of buds that developed under different treatments, bud number

Ross Cameron; Richard Harrison-Murray; Michael Fordham; Heather Judd; Yannick Ford; Tim Marks; Rodney Edmondson

2003-01-01

381

Soybean phytophthora root rot: {\\\\it Phytophthora sojae\\\\\\/} races in Indiana and factors affecting disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae has been one of the most important diseases throughout the soybean growing areas of the United States and Canada since the 1950's. Documenting the current physiological diversity of P. sojae and the role of factors affecting disease resistance are important in reducing yield losses due to this disease. Prevalence and distribution

Jose Cristino Melgar

1997-01-01

382

Soil microbial community structure and microbial activities in the root zone of Nothapodytes nimmoniana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camptothecin (CPT) is a bioactive secondary metabolite of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mablerley and has strong antitumor activity due to its ability to inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. In this study the changes of soil chemical and microbiological properties in the root zone of N. nimmoniana under application of two different nitrogen (N) fertilizers with different rates were investigated. There were seven

Ren-Shih Chung; Ed-Haun Chang

2012-01-01

383

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions

Steven W. Kembel; James F. Cahill

2011-01-01

384

The Mutual Adaptation Concept: Its Roots and Relatives. Documentation and Technical Assistance in Urban Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the roots of the concept of mutual adaptation in the literature of cognitive psychology, anthropology, biology, organizational behavior, and policy analysis. It is said that while educational researchers use the concept, their neglect of the literature on it is due, in part, to contradictory definitions of mutual adaptation as…

Meara, Hannah

385

EFFECT OF SILICON APPLICATION ON SORGHUM ROOT RESPONSES TO WATER STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze how silicon (Si) fertilizer improves plant growth under water stress, we investigated the growth and root responses of sorghum seedlings to Si application. Seedlings were grown hydroponically at two Si levels (0 and 1.78 mM) and under two water stress conditions simulated with polyethylene glycol. The reduction in dry weight due to stress was alleviated by Si application,

Kaori Sonobe; Taiichiro Hattori; Ping An; Wataru Tsuji; Anthony Egrinya Eneji; Sohei Kobayashi; Yukio Kawamura; Kiyoshi Tanaka; Shinobu Inanaga

2010-01-01

386

Root growth and metal uptake in four grasses grown on zinc-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Depth and area of rooting are important to long-term survival of plants on metal-contaminated, steep-slope soils. We evaluated shoot and root growth and metal uptake of four cool-season grasses grown on a high-Zn soil in a greenhouse. A mixture of biosolids, fly ash, and burnt lime was placed either directly over a Zn-contaminated soil or over a clean, fine-grained topsoil and then the Zn-contaminated soil; the control was the clean topsoil. The grasses were 'Reliant' hard fescue (Festuca brevipila R. Tracey), 'Oahe' intermediate wheatgrass [Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski subsp. intermedia], 'Ruebens' Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa L.), and 'K-31' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Root growth in the clean soil and biosolids corresponded to the characteristic rooting ability of each species, while rooting into the Zn-contaminated soil was related to the species' tolerance to Zn. While wheatgrass and tall fescue had the strongest root growth in the surface layers (0-5 cm) of clean soil or biosolids, wheatgrass roots were at least two times more dense than those of the other grasses in the second layer (5-27 cm) of Zn-contaminated soil. When grown over Zn-contaminated soil in the second layer, hard fescue (with 422 mg/kg Zn) was the only species not to have phytotoxic levels of Zn in shoots; tall fescue had the highest Zn uptake (1553 mg/kg). Thus, the best long-term survivors in high-Zn soils should be wheatgrass, due to its ability to root deeply into Zn-contaminated soils, and hard fescue, with its ability to effectively exclude toxic Zn uptake. PMID:12809284

Palazzo, Antonio J; Cary, Timothy J; Hardy, Susan E; Lee, C Richard

2003-01-01

387

Salinity induced the changes of root growth and antioxidative responses in two wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of root growth and to compare antioxidative responses in two wheat cultivars, drought-tolerant Ningchun and drought-sensitive Xihan, exposed to different NaCl concentrations. Ningchun exhibited lower germination rate, seedling growth, and lipid peroxidation than Xihan when exposed to salinity. The loss of cell viability was correlated with the inhibition of root growth induced by NaCl stress. Moreover, treatments with H2O2 scavenger dimethylthiourea and catalase (CAT) partly blocked salinity-induced negative effects on root growth and cell viability. Besides, the enhancement of superoxide radical and H2O2 levels, and the stimulation of CAT and diamine oxidase (DAO) as well as the inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) were observed in two wheat roots treated with salinity. However, hydroxyl radical content increased only in Xihan roots under NaCl treatment, and the changes of soluble peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cell-wall-bound POD activities were different in drought-tolerant Ningchun and drought-sensitive Xihan exposed to different NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, salinity might induce the loss of cell viability via a pathway associated with extracellular H2O2 generation, which was the primary reason leading to the inhibition of root growth in two wheat cultivars. Here, it was also suggested that increased H2O2 accumulation in the roots of drought-tolerant Ningchun might be due to decreased POD and GR activities as well as enhanced cell-wall-bound POD and DAO ones, while the inhibition of APX and GR as well as the stimulation of SOD and DAO was responsible for the elevation of H2O2 level in drought-sensitive Xihan roots. PMID:24318673

Zhang, Jing; Duan, Xiaohui; Ding, Fan; Ma, HaiZhen; Zhang, Tengguo; Yang, Yingli

2014-07-01

388

CASIROZ: Root parameters and types of ectomycorrhiza of young beech plants exposed to different ozone and light regimes.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) triggers physiological changes in leaves that affect carbon source strength leading to decreased carbon allocation below-ground, thus affecting roots and root symbionts. The effects of O(3) depend on the maturity-related physiological state of the plant, therefore adult and young forest trees might react differently. To test the applicability of young beech plants for studying the effects of O(3) on forest trees and forest stands, beech seedlings were planted in containers and exposed for two years in the Kranzberg forest FACOS experiment (Free-Air Canopy O(3) Exposure System, http://www.casiroz.de ) to enhanced ozone concentration regime (ambient [control] and double ambient concentration, not exceeding 150 ppb) under different light conditions (sun and shade). After two growing seasons the biomass of the above- and below-ground parts, beech roots (using WinRhizo programme), anatomical and molecular (ITS-RFLP and sequencing) identification of ectomycorrhizal types and nutrient concentrations were assessed. The mycorrhization of beech seedlings was very low ( CA. 5 % in shade, 10 % in sun-grown plants), no trends were observed in mycorrhization (%) due to ozone treatment. The number of Cenococcum geophilum type of ectomycorrhiza, as an indicator of stress in the forest stands, was not significantly different under different ozone treatments. It was predominantly occurring in sun-exposed plants, while its majority share was replaced by Genea hispidula in shade-grown plants. Different light regimes significantly influenced all parameters except shoot/root ratio and number of ectomycorrhizal types. In the ozone fumigated plants the number of types, number of root tips per length of 1 to 2 mm root diameter, root length density per volume of soil and concentration of Mg were significantly lower than in control plants. Trends to a decrease were found in root, shoot, leaf, and total dry weights, total number of root tips, number of vital mycorrhizal root tips, fine root (mass) density, root tip density per surface, root area index, concentration of Zn, and Ca/Al ratio. Due to the general reduction in root growth indices and nutrient cycling in ozone-fumigated plants, alterations in soil carbon pools could be predicted. PMID:17357022

Zeleznik, P; Hrenko, M; Then, C; Koch, N; Grebenc, T; Levanic, T; Kraigher, H

2007-03-01

389

Root growth in the permanent teeth of 45,X/46,XX females.  

PubMed

Studies on individuals with sex chromosome anomalies have provided proof of a direct differential promoting effect of the X and Y chromosome genes on tooth crown growth. 45,X/46,XX females are one subgroup of Turner patients who have both normal XX and one X sex chromosome cell lines. Their permanent tooth crown size is reduced, which is mainly due to thin enamel. 45,X females likewise show reduced crown size and enamel thickness, and their root size is reduced. By contrast, the lengths of the roots in 47,XYY males or males with an extra Y chromosome and 46,XY females or females with a male sex chromosome constitution are increased. The aim of the present study was to investigate permanent tooth root lengths in 45,X/46,XX females to obtain additional information on their dental growth. The study group consisted of 15 45,X/46,XX females, mean age 23.4 years; 10 female relatives, mean age 24.5 years; and 47 population control females, mean age 29.8 years, from the Kvantti research project. Root length measurements were made from panoramic radiographs on both sides of the jaw using a sliding digital calliper. The results showed that permanent tooth root lengths in 45,X/46,XX females were, in most cases, significantly shorter than those of the population controls or relatives. It is apparent that a reduced tooth crown size in 45,X/46,XX females is followed by reduced root growth. This begins 3 years after birth and continues to at least 14 years of age. It is suggested that the reduction in crown and root growth in 45,X/4,XX females is due to a deficiency in the amount of dental growth-promoting genes on the sex chromosomes. PMID:16679328

Lähdesmäki, Raija; Alvesalo, Lassi

2006-08-01

390

Effects of Nutrient Heterogeneity and Competition on Root Architecture of Spruce Seedlings: Implications for an Essential Feature of Root Foraging  

PubMed Central

Background We have limited understanding of root foraging responses when plants were simultaneously exposed to nutrient heterogeneity and competition, and our goal was to determine whether and how plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors in root foraging processes. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was conducted in split-containers, wherein half of the roots of spruce (Picea asperata) seedlings were subjected to intraspecific root competition (the vegetated half), while the other half experienced no competition (the non-vegetated half). Experimental treatments included fertilization in the vegetated half (FV), the non-vegetated half (FNV), and both compartments (F), as well as no fertilization (NF). The root architecture indicators consisted of the number of root tips over the root surface (RTRS), the length percentage of diameter-based fine root subclasses to total fine root (SRLP), and the length percentage of each root order to total fine root (ROLP). The target plants used novel root foraging behaviors under different combinations of neighboring plant and localized fertilization. In addition, the significant increase in the RTRS of 0–0.2 mm fine roots after fertilization of the vegetated half alone and its significant decrease in fertilizer was applied throughout the plant clearly showed that plant root foraging behavior was regulated by local responses coupled with systemic control mechanisms. Conclusions/Significance We measured the root foraging ability for woody plants by means of root architecture indicators constructed by the roots possessing essential nutrient uptake ability (i.e., the first three root orders), and provided new evidence that plants integrate multiple forms of environmental information, such as nutrient status and neighboring competitors, in a non-additive manner during the root foraging process. The interplay between the responses of individual root modules (repetitive root units) to localized environmental signals and the systemic control of these responses may well account for the non-additive features of the root foraging process.

Nan, Hongwei; Liu, Qing; Chen, Jinsong; Cheng, Xinying; Yin, Huajun; Yin, Chunying; Zhao, Chunzhang

2013-01-01

391

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

PubMed

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-01-01

392

Filter strip as a method of choice for apoplastic fluid extraction from maize roots.  

PubMed

Apoplastic fluid was extracted from maize (Zea mays L.) roots using two procedures: collection from the surface of intact plant roots by filter paper strips (AF) or vacuum infiltration and/or centrifugation from excised root segments (AWF). The content of cytoplasmic marker (glucose-6-phosphate, G-6-P) and antioxidative components (enzymes, organic acids, phenolics, sugars, ROS) were compared in the extracts. The results obtained demonstrate that AF was completely free of G-6-P, as opposed to AWF where the cytoplasmic constituent was detected even at mildest centrifugation (200×g). Isoelectric focusing of POD and SOD shows the presence of cytoplasmic isoforms in AWF, and HPLC of sugars and phenolics a much more complex composition of AWF, due to cytoplasmic contamination. Organic acid composition differed in the two extracts, much higher concentrations of malic acid being registered in AF, while oxalic acid due to intracellular contamination being present only in AWF. EPR spectroscopy of DEPMPO spin trap in the extracts showed persistent generation of hydroxyl radical adduct in AF. The results obtained argue in favor of the filter strip method for the root apoplastic fluid extraction, avoiding the problems of cytoplasmic contamination and dilution and enabling concentration measurements in minute regions of the root. PMID:24767115

Dragiši? Maksimovi?, Jelena J; Zivanovi?, Branka D; Maksimovi?, Vuk M; Mojovi?, Miloš D; Nikolic, Miroslav T; Vu?ini?, Zeljko B

2014-06-01

393

Effects of root-induced compaction on rhizosphere hydraulic properties--X-ray microtomography imaging and numerical simulations.  

PubMed

Soil compaction represents one of the most ubiquitous environmental impacts of human development, decreasing bulk-scale soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity, thereby reducing soil productivity and fertility. At the aggregate-scale however, this study shows that natural root-induced compaction increases contact areas between aggregates, leading to an increase in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils adjacent to the roots. Contrary to intuition, water flow may therefore be locally enhanced due to root-induced compaction. This study investigates these processes by using recent advances in X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging and numerical water flow modeling to show evolution in interaggregate contact and its implications for water flow between aggregates under partially saturated conditions. Numerical modeling showed that the effective hydraulic conductivity of a pair of aggregates undergoing uniaxial deformation increased following a nonlinear relationship as the interaggregate contact area increased due to increasing aggregate deformation. Numerical modeling using actual XMT images of aggregated soil around a root surrogate demonstrated how root-induced deformation increases unsaturated water flow toward the root, providing insight into the growth, function, and water uptake patterns of roots in natural soils. PMID:21121599

Aravena, Jazmín E; Berli, Markus; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Tyler, Scott W

2011-01-15

394

Root temperature effects on ‘Arkin’ carambola ( Averrhoa carambola L.) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of root temperatures on leaf gas exchange and water relations of 1-year-old ‘Arkin’ carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) trees in containers were investigated in controlled root temperature chambers in a glasshouse. Average leaf xylem water potentials (?l) were more negative for trees grown at root temperatures of 5, 10 or 38°C compared to those at root temperatures of 20

Hilary L George; Frederick S Davies; Jonathan H Crane; Bruce Schaffer

2002-01-01

395

Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hairs are presumably important in the acquisition of immobile soil resources such as phosphorus. The density and length of root hairs vary substantially within and between species, and are highly regulated by soil phosphorus availability, which suggests that at high nutrient availability, root hairs may have a neutral or negative impact on fitness. We used a root-hairless mutant of

Terence R. Bates; Jonathan P. Lynch

2001-01-01

396