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Sample records for root growth regulation

  1. Nitrate-Regulated Glutaredoxins Control Arabidopsis Primary Root Growth.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Kurt; Walters, Laura A; Cooper, Andrew M; Olvera, Jocelyn G; Rosas, Miguel A; Rasmusson, Allan G; Escobar, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen is an essential soil nutrient for plants, and lack of nitrogen commonly limits plant growth. Soil nitrogen is typically available to plants in two inorganic forms: nitrate and ammonium. To better understand how nitrate and ammonium differentially affect plant metabolism and development, we performed transcriptional profiling of the shoots of ammonium-supplied and nitrate-supplied Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Seven genes encoding class III glutaredoxins were found to be strongly and specifically induced by nitrate. RNA silencing of four of these glutaredoxin genes (AtGRXS3/4/5/8) resulted in plants with increased primary root length (approximately 25% longer than the wild type) and decreased sensitivity to nitrate-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. Increased primary root growth is also a well-characterized phenotype of many cytokinin-deficient plant lines. We determined that nitrate induction of glutaredoxin gene expression was dependent upon cytokinin signaling and that cytokinins could activate glutaredoxin gene expression independent of plant nitrate status. In addition, crosses between "long-root" cytokinin-deficient plants and "long-root" glutaredoxin-silenced plants generated hybrids that displayed no further increase in primary root length (i.e. epistasis). Collectively, these findings suggest that AtGRXS3/4/5/8 operate downstream of cytokinins in a signal transduction pathway that negatively regulates plant primary root growth in response to nitrate. This pathway could allow Arabidopsis to actively discriminate between different nitrogen sources in the soil, with the preferred nitrogen source, nitrate, acting to suppress primary root growth (vertical dimension) in concert with its well-characterized stimulatory effect on lateral root growth (horizontal dimension). PMID:26662603

  2. [Effects of growth regulators and growth media on root-hair development of Poncirus trifoliate].

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Jian; Xia, Ren-Xue; Cao, Xiu; Wang, Peng; Shu, Bo

    2011-06-01

    By using river sand and mixed soil as growth media, and treating with different concentration IBA, ETH, and NAA, this paper studied the root-hair development of Poncirus trifoliate seedlings, and the development cycle and distribution pattern of the root-hairs under phosphorus deficiency in sand culture. The root-hairs had a development cycle of about 4 days, and formed block-shaped and clumped, mainly around root, and with uneven distribution. Sand culture gave rise to the production of more root hairs, with an average of 486.3 per tap root, and treating with 1.0 micromol x L(-1) of IBA and ETH notablypromoted root-hair development. The phosphorous deficiency in sand culture induced more roothair formation (636.3 per tap root). Mixed soil culture produced lesser root-hairs (212.3 per taproot), and all the test growth regulators had no obvious effects on the root-hair development. PMID:21941742

  3. Root growth regulation and gravitropism in maize roots does not require the epidermis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have earlier published observations showing that endogenous alterations in growth rate during gravitropism in maize roots (Zea mays L.) are unaffected by the orientation of cuts which remove epidermal and cortical tissue in the growing zone (Bjorkman and Cleland, 1988, Planta 176, 513-518). We concluded that the epidermis and cortex are not essential for transporting a growth-regulating signal in gravitropism or straight growth, nor for regulating the rate of tissue expansion. This conclusion has been challenged by Yang et al. (1990, Planta 180, 530-536), who contend that a shallow girdle around the entire perimeter of the root blocks gravitropic curvature and that this inhibition is the result of a requirement for epidermal cells to transport the growth-regulating signal. In this paper we demonstrate that the entire epidermis can be removed without blocking gravitropic curvature and show that the position of narrow girdles does not affect the location of curvature. We therefore conclude that the epidermis is not required for transport of a growth-regulating substance from the root cap to the growing zone, nor does it regulate the growth rate of the elongating zone of roots.

  4. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  5. The bHLH transcription factor SPATULA regulates root growth by controlling the size of the root meristem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis thaliana gene SPATULA (SPT), encoding a bHLH transcription factor, was originally identified for its role in pistil development. SPT is necessary for the growth and development of all carpel margin tissues including the style, stigma, septum and transmitting tract. Since then, it has been shown to have pleiotropic roles during development, including restricting the meristematic region of the leaf primordia and cotyledon expansion. Although SPT is expressed in roots, its role in this organ has not been investigated. Results An analysis of embryo and root development showed that loss of SPT function causes an increase in quiescent center size in both the embryonic and postembryonic stem cell niches. In addition, root meristem size is larger due to increased division, which leads to a longer primary root. spt mutants exhibit other pleiotropic developmental phenotypes, including more flowers, shorter internodes and an extended flowering period. Genetic and molecular analysis suggests that SPT regulates cell proliferation in parallel to gibberellic acid as well as affecting auxin accumulation or transport. Conclusions Our data suggest that SPT functions in growth control throughout sporophytic growth of Arabidopsis, but is not necessary for cell fate decisions except during carpel development. SPT functions independently of gibberellic acid during root development, but may play a role in regulating auxin transport or accumulation. Our data suggests that SPT plays a role in control of root growth, similar to its roles in above ground tissues. PMID:23280064

  6. Phytohormone regulation of root growth triggered by P deficiency or Al toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Tian, Jiang; Zhang, Haiyan; Liao, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency and aluminum (Al) toxicity often coexist and limit plant growth on acid soils. It has been well documented that both P deficiency and Al toxicity alter root growth, including inhibition of primary roots and promotion of lateral roots. This suggests that plants adapt to both stresses through a common regulation pathway. Although an expanding set of results shows that phytohormones play vital roles in controlling root responses to Pi starvation and Al toxicity, it remains largely unknown whether P and Al coordinately regulate root growth through interacting phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways. This review provides a summary of recent results concerning the influences of P deficiency and Al toxicity on root growth through the action of phytohormones, most notably auxin and ethylene. The objective is to facilitate increasing insights into complex responses of plants to adverse factors common on acid soils, which can spur development of 'smart' cultivars with better root growth and higher yield on these globally distributed marginal soils. PMID:27190050

  7. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  8. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  9. Multilayered Organization of Jasmonate Signalling in the Regulation of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Debora; Chételat, Aurore; Acosta, Ivan F.; Goossens, Jonas; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Dreos, René; Alfonso, Esteban; Farmer, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical damage can strongly affect plant growth, reducing the biomass of developing organs situated at a distance from wounds. These effects, previously studied in leaves, require the activation of jasmonate (JA) signalling. Using a novel assay involving repetitive cotyledon wounding in Arabidopsis seedlings, we uncovered a function of JA in suppressing cell division and elongation in roots. Regulatory JA signalling components were then manipulated to delineate their relative impacts on root growth. The new transcription factor mutant myc2-322B was isolated. In vitro transcription assays and whole-plant approaches revealed that myc2-322B is a dosage-dependent gain-of-function mutant that can amplify JA growth responses. Moreover, myc2-322B displayed extreme hypersensitivity to JA that totally suppressed root elongation. The mutation weakly reduced root growth in undamaged plants but, when the upstream negative regulator NINJA was genetically removed, myc2-322B powerfully repressed root growth through its effects on cell division and cell elongation. Furthermore, in a JA-deficient mutant background, ninja1 myc2-322B still repressed root elongation, indicating that it is possible to generate JA-responses in the absence of JA. We show that NINJA forms a broadly expressed regulatory layer that is required to inhibit JA signalling in the apex of roots grown under basal conditions. By contrast, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 displayed cell layer-specific localisations and MYC3 and MYC4 were expressed in mutually exclusive regions. In nature, growing roots are likely subjected to constant mechanical stress during soil penetration that could lead to JA production and subsequent detrimental effects on growth. Our data reveal how distinct negative regulatory layers, including both NINJA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, restrain JA responses to allow normal root growth. Mechanistic insights from this work underline the importance of mapping JA signalling components to specific

  10. Cytokinins negatively regulate the root iron uptake machinery in Arabidopsis through a growth-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Séguéla, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Plants display a number of biochemical and developmental responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. The ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. In Arabidopsis, expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is tightly controlled to maintain iron homeostasis, and involves local and long-distance signals, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. FIT encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that regulates iron uptake responses in Arabidopsis. Here, we uncover a new regulation of the root iron uptake genes. We show that IRT1, FRO2 and FIT are repressed by the exogenous addition of cytokinins (CKs), and that this repression acts at the level of transcript accumulation, and depends on the AHK3 and CRE1 CK receptors. The CKs and iron-deficiency signals act through distinct pathways to regulate the soil iron uptake genes, as (i) CK repression is independent of the iron status, (ii) IRT1 and FRO2 downregulation is unchanged in a fit loss-of-function mutant, indicating that FIT does not mediate CK repression, and (iii) the iron-regulated genes AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 are not downregulated by CKs. We show that root growth-inhibitory conditions, such as abiotic stresses (mannitol, NaCl) and hormonal treatments (auxin, abscissic acid), repress the iron starvation response genes. We propose that CKs control the root iron uptake machinery through a root growth dependent pathway in order to adapt nutrient uptake to the demand of the plant. PMID:18397377

  11. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

  12. Differential wall growth in gravistimulated corn roots: Its timing and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlin, B. S.

    1985-01-01

    The experiments designed to document cell-wall level changes which occur as a result of their gravistimulation are described. The goal of this research is to elucidate the mechanism and time frame of differential growth following a controlled gravistimulation. To achieve this, rates of wall deposition will be determined by following the incorporation of radioactive monosaccharides into the wall. Complementing this experiment will be a freeze-etch study directed at revealing the spatial arrangment of both newly-deposited microfibrils and microfibrils that were present in the growing root prior to stimulation. The second phase of the proposed research will examine the roles ethylene and Ca(2+) have in the modulation of differential wall changes during gravitropism. Ethylene and Ca(2+) have both been implicated as regulators of the gravitropic response in roots and they have also been implicated as regulators of the gravitropic response in roots and they have also been reported to exert some control on the orientation of microfibrils. Both of these agents will be manipulated in such a way as to reveal whether they have a direct influence on cell wall deposition and microfibrillar alignment during the geotropic response.

  13. Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.

    PubMed

    Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin. PMID:26889752

  14. Touch modulates gravity sensing to regulate the growth of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plants must sense and respond to diverse stimuli to optimize the architecture of their root system for water and nutrient scavenging and anchorage. We have therefore analyzed how information from two of these stimuli, touch and gravity, are integrated to direct root growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana, touch stimulation provided by a glass barrier placed across the direction of growth caused the root to form a step-like growth habit with bends forming in the central and later the distal elongation zones. This response led to the main root axis growing parallel to, but not touching the obstacle, whilst the root cap maintained contact with the barrier. Removal of the graviperceptive columella cells of the root cap using laser ablation reduced the bending response of the distal elongation zone. Similarly, although the roots of the gravisensing impaired pgm1-1 mutant grew along the barrier at the same average angle as wild-type, this angle became more variable with time. These observations imply a constant gravitropic re-setting of the root tip response to touch stimulation from the barrier. In wild-type plants, transient touch stimulation of root cap cells, but not other regions of the root, inhibited both subsequent gravitropic growth and amyloplast sedimentation in the columella. Taken together, these results suggest that the cells of the root cap sense touch stimuli and their subsequent signaling acts on the columella cells to modulate their graviresponse. This interaction of touch and gravity signaling would then direct root growth to avoid obstacles in the soil while generally maintaining downward growth.

  15. Salt-stress regulation of root system growth and architecture in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lina; Sebastian, Jose; Dinneny, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    In order to acclimate to the soil environment, plants need to constantly optimize their root system architecture for efficient resource uptake. Roots are highly sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment and root system responses to a stress such as salinity and drought can be very dynamic and complex in nature. These responses can be manifested differentially at the cellular, tissue, or organ level and between the types of roots in a root system. Therefore, various approaches must be taken to quantify and characterize these responses. In this chapter, we review methods to study basic root growth traits, such as root length, cell cycle activity and meristem size, cell shape and size that form the basis for the emergent properties of the root system. Methods for the detailed analysis of lateral root initiation and postemergence growth are described. Finally, several live-imaging systems, which allow for dynamic imaging of the root, will be explored. Together these tools provide insight into the regulatory steps that sculpt the root system upon environmental change and can be used as the basis for the evaluation of genetic variation affecting these pathways. PMID:25408448

  16. Co-regulation of root hair tip growth by ROP GTPases and nitrogen source modulated pH fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-03-01

    Growth of plant cells involves tight regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking by processes including the action of the ROP small G proteins together with pH-modulated cell wall modifications. Yet, little is known on how these systems are coordinated. In a paper recently published in Plant Cell and Environment we show that ROPs/RACs function synergistically with NH4NO3-modulated pH fluctuations to regulate root hair growth. Root hairs expand exclusively at their apical end in a strictly polarized manner by a process known as tip growth. The highly polarized secretion at the apex is maintained by a complex network of factors including the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton, tip-focused ion gradients and by small G proteins. Expression of constitutively active ROP mutants disrupts polar growth, inducing the formation of swollen root hairs. Root hairs are also known to elongate in an oscillating manner, which is correlated with oscillatory H(+) fluxes at the tip. Our analysis shows that root hair elongation in wild type plants and swelling in transgenic plants expressing a constitutively active ROP11 (rop11(CA)) is sensitive to the presence of NH4(+) at concentrations higher than 1 mM and on NO3(-). The NH4(+) and NO3(-) ions did not affect the localization of ROP in the membrane but modulated pH fluctuations at the root hair tip. Actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution were abnormal in rop11CA root hairs but were similar to wild type root hairs when seedlings were grown on medium lacking NH4(+) and / or NO3(-). These observations suggest that the nitrogen source-modulated pH fluctuations may function synergistically with ROP regulated signaling during root hair tip growth. Interestingly, under certain growth conditions, expression of rop11 (CA) suppressed ammonium toxicity, similar to auxin resistant mutants. In this Addendum article we discuss these findings and their implications. PMID:21673509

  17. Auxin, ethylene and the regulation of root growth under mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rameshwar; Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2012-07-01

    Among the multitude functions performed by plant roots, little information is available about the mechanisms that allow roots to overcome the soil resistance, in order to grow in the soil to obtain water and nutrient. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings grown on horizontally placed agar plates showed a progressive decline in the root length with the increasing impedance of agar media. The incubation with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, led to aerial growth of roots. In contrast, in absence of 1-MCP control roots grew horizontally anchored to the agar surface. Though 1-MCP-treated and control seedlings showed differential ability to penetrate in the agar, the inhibition of root elongation was nearly similar for both treatments. While increased mechanical impedance also progressively impaired hypocotyl elongation in 1-MCP treated seedlings, it did not affect the hypocotyl length of control seedlings. The decline in root elongation was also associated with increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip signifying accumulation of auxin at the root tip. The increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip was also observed in 1-MCP treated seedlings, indicating independence of this response from ethylene signaling. Our results indicate operation of a sensing mechanism in root that likely operates independently of ethylene but involves auxin to determine the degree of impedance of the substratum.

  18. Gene expression regulation in the plant growth promoting Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 stimulated by maize root exudates.

    PubMed

    Mwita, Liberata; Chan, Wai Yin; Pretorius, Theresa; Lyantagaye, Sylvester L; Lapa, Svitlana V; Avdeeva, Lilia V; Reva, Oleg N

    2016-09-15

    Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. Active PGPR strain Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was studied in this research. RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. It was found that the transcriptional factor DegU also could play an important role in gene regulations during plant colonization. A significant stress caused by the root exudates on in vitro cultivated B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was noticed and discussed. Multiple cases of conflicted gene regulations showed scantiness of our knowledge on the regulatory network in Bacillus. Some of these conflicted regulations could be explained by interference of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Search through differential expressed intergenic regions revealed 49 putative loci of ncRNA regulated by the root exudate stimuli. Possible target mRNA were predicted and a general regulatory network of B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 genome was designed. PMID:27259668

  19. The Regulation of Growth in the Distal Elongation Zone of Maize Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The major goals of the proposed research were 1. To develop specialized software for automated whole surface root expansion analysis and to develop technology for controlled placement of surface electrodes for analysis of relationships between root growth and root pH and electrophysiological properties. 2. To measure surface pH patterns and determine the possible role of proton flux in gravitropic sensing or response, and 3. To determine the role of auxin transport in establishment of patterns of proton flux and electrical gradients during the gravitropic response of roots with special emphasis on the role of the distal elongation zone in the early phases of the gravitropic response.

  20. The ABA receptor PYL9 together with PYL8 plays an important role in regulating lateral root growth.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lu; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Jinghui; Xiang, Chengbin; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid is a phytohormone regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins are ABA receptors that function by inhibiting PP2Cs to activate SnRK2s, resulting in phosphorylation of ABFs and other effectors of ABA response pathways. Exogenous ABA induces growth quiescence of lateral roots, which is prolonged by knockout of the ABA receptor PYL8. Among the 14 members of PYR1/PYL/RCAR protein family, PYL9 is a close relative of PYL8. Here we show that knockout of both PYL9 and PYL8 resulted in a longer ABA-induced quiescence on lateral root growth and a reduced sensitivity to ABA on primary root growth and lateral root formation compared to knockout of PYL8 alone. Induced overexpression of PYL9 promoted the lateral root elongation in the presence of ABA. The prolonged quiescent phase of the pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant was reversed by exogenous IAA. PYL9 may regulate auxin-responsive genes in vivo through direct interaction with MYB77 and MYB44. Thus, PYL9 and PYL8 are both responsible for recovery of lateral root from ABA inhibition via MYB transcription factors. PMID:27256015

  1. The ABA receptor PYL9 together with PYL8 plays an important role in regulating lateral root growth

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lu; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Jinghui; Xiang, Chengbin; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid is a phytohormone regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins are ABA receptors that function by inhibiting PP2Cs to activate SnRK2s, resulting in phosphorylation of ABFs and other effectors of ABA response pathways. Exogenous ABA induces growth quiescence of lateral roots, which is prolonged by knockout of the ABA receptor PYL8. Among the 14 members of PYR1/PYL/RCAR protein family, PYL9 is a close relative of PYL8. Here we show that knockout of both PYL9 and PYL8 resulted in a longer ABA-induced quiescence on lateral root growth and a reduced sensitivity to ABA on primary root growth and lateral root formation compared to knockout of PYL8 alone. Induced overexpression of PYL9 promoted the lateral root elongation in the presence of ABA. The prolonged quiescent phase of the pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant was reversed by exogenous IAA. PYL9 may regulate auxin-responsive genes in vivo through direct interaction with MYB77 and MYB44. Thus, PYL9 and PYL8 are both responsible for recovery of lateral root from ABA inhibition via MYB transcription factors. PMID:27256015

  2. PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1)-like Genes Regulate Shoot/root Growth, Starch Accumulation, and Wood Formation in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Busov, Victor B.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes functional characterization of two putative poplar PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1) orthologues. The expression and sequence analyses indicate that the two poplar genes diverged, at least partially, in function. PtPHOR1_1 is most highly expressed in roots and induced by short days, while PtPHOR1_2 is more uniformly expressed throughout plant tissues and is not responsive to short days. The two PHOR1 genes also had distinct effects on shoot and root growth when their expression was up- and downregulated transgenically. PtPHOR1_1 effects were restricted to roots while PtPHOR1_2 had similar effects on aerial and below-ground development. Nevertheless, both genes seemed to be upregulated in transgenic poplars that are gibberellin-deficient and gibberellin-insensitive, suggesting interplay with gibberellin signalling. PHOR1 suppression led to increased starch accumulation in both roots and stems. The effect of PHOR1 suppression on starch accumulation was coupled with growth-inhibiting effects in both roots and shoots, suggesting that PHOR1 is part of a mechanism that regulates the allocation of carbohydrate to growth or storage in poplar. PHOR1 downregulation led to significant reduction of xylem formation caused by smaller fibres and vessels suggesting that PHOR1 likely plays a role in the growth of xylem cells. PMID:22915748

  3. AINTEGUMENTA and the D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 regulate root secondary growth and respond to cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Randall, Ricardo S; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Blomster, Tiina; Zhang, Jing; Elo, Annakaisa; Karlberg, Anna; Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Lee, Ji-Young; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Blajecka, Karolina; Melnyk, Charles W; Alcasabas, Annette; Forzani, Celine; Matsumoto-Kitano, Miho; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Dewitte, Walter; Helariutta, Ykä; Murray, James A H

    2015-01-01

    Higher plant vasculature is characterized by two distinct developmental phases. Initially, a well-defined radial primary pattern is established. In eudicots, this is followed by secondary growth, which involves development of the cambium and is required for efficient water and nutrient transport and wood formation. Regulation of secondary growth involves several phytohormones, and cytokinins have been implicated as key players, particularly in the activation of cell proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms mediating this hormonal control remain unknown. Here we show that the genes encoding the transcription factor AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and the D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 are expressed in the vascular cambium of Arabidopsis roots, respond to cytokinins and are both required for proper root secondary thickening. Cytokinin regulation of ANT and CYCD3 also occurs during secondary thickening of poplar stems, suggesting this represents a conserved regulatory mechanism. PMID:26340943

  4. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration. PMID:26945480

  5. Arabidopsis Myrosinase Genes AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 Are Root-Tip Specific and Contribute to Auxin Biosynthesis and Root-Growth Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lili; Wang, Meng; Han, Bingying; Tan, Deguan; Sun, Xuepiao; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Plant myrosinases (β-thioglucoside glucohydrolases) are classified into two subclasses, Myr I and Myr II. The biological function of Myr I has been characterized as a major biochemical defense against insect pests and pathogens in cruciferous plants. However, the biological function of Myr II remains obscure. We studied the function of two Myr II member genes AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 in Arabidopsis. RT-PCR showed that both genes were specifically expressed in roots. GUS-assay revealed that both genes were expressed in the root-tip but with difference: AtTGG4 was expressed in the elongation zone of the root-tip, while AtTGG5 was expressed in the whole root-tip. Moreover, myrosin cells that produce and store the Myr I myrosinases in aboveground organs were not observed in roots, and AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 were expressed in all cells of the specific region. A homozygous double mutant line tgg4tgg5 was obtained through cross-pollination between two T-DNA insertion lines, tgg4E8 and tgg5E12, by PCR-screening in the F2 and F3 generations. Analysis of myrosinase activity in roots of mutants revealed that AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 had additive effects and contributed 35% and 65% myrosinase activity in roots of the wild type Col-0, respectively, and myrosinase activity in tgg4tgg5 was severely repressed. When grown in Murashiege & Skoog (MS) medium or in soil with sufficient water, Col-0 had the shortest roots, and tgg4tgg5 had the longest roots, while tgg4E8 and tgg5E12 had intermediate root lengths. In contrast, when grown in soil with excessive water, Col-0 had the longest roots, and tgg4tgg5 had the shortest roots. These results suggested that AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 regulated root growth and had a role in flood tolerance. The auxin-indicator gene DR5::GUS was then introduced into tgg4tgg5 by cross-pollination. DR5::GUS expression patterns in seedlings of F1, F2, and F3 generations indicated that AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 contributed to auxin biosynthesis in roots. The proposed mechanism is that

  6. Arabidopsis Myrosinase Genes AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 Are Root-Tip Specific and Contribute to Auxin Biosynthesis and Root-Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lili; Wang, Meng; Han, Bingying; Tan, Deguan; Sun, Xuepiao; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Plant myrosinases (β-thioglucoside glucohydrolases) are classified into two subclasses, Myr I and Myr II. The biological function of Myr I has been characterized as a major biochemical defense against insect pests and pathogens in cruciferous plants. However, the biological function of Myr II remains obscure. We studied the function of two Myr II member genes AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 in Arabidopsis. RT-PCR showed that both genes were specifically expressed in roots. GUS-assay revealed that both genes were expressed in the root-tip but with difference: AtTGG4 was expressed in the elongation zone of the root-tip, while AtTGG5 was expressed in the whole root-tip. Moreover, myrosin cells that produce and store the Myr I myrosinases in aboveground organs were not observed in roots, and AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 were expressed in all cells of the specific region. A homozygous double mutant line tgg4tgg5 was obtained through cross-pollination between two T-DNA insertion lines, tgg4E8 and tgg5E12, by PCR-screening in the F2 and F3 generations. Analysis of myrosinase activity in roots of mutants revealed that AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 had additive effects and contributed 35% and 65% myrosinase activity in roots of the wild type Col-0, respectively, and myrosinase activity in tgg4tgg5 was severely repressed. When grown in Murashiege & Skoog (MS) medium or in soil with sufficient water, Col-0 had the shortest roots, and tgg4tgg5 had the longest roots, while tgg4E8 and tgg5E12 had intermediate root lengths. In contrast, when grown in soil with excessive water, Col-0 had the longest roots, and tgg4tgg5 had the shortest roots. These results suggested that AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 regulated root growth and had a role in flood tolerance. The auxin-indicator gene DR5::GUS was then introduced into tgg4tgg5 by cross-pollination. DR5::GUS expression patterns in seedlings of F1, F2, and F3 generations indicated that AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 contributed to auxin biosynthesis in roots. The proposed mechanism is that

  7. Nutritional regulation of root development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Herrera, León Francisco; Shane, Michael W; López-Bucio, José

    2015-01-01

    Mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Adequate provision of nutrients via the root system impacts greatly on shoot biomass and plant productivity and is therefore of crucial importance for agriculture. Nutrients are taken up at the root surface in ionic form, which is mediated by specific transport proteins. Noteworthy, root tips are able to sense the local and internal concentrations of nutrients to adjust growth and developmental processes, and ultimately, to increase or decrease the exploratory capacity of the root system. Recently, important progress has been achieved in identifying the mechanisms of nutrient sensing in wild- and cultivated species, including Arabidopsis, bean, maize, rice, lupin as well as in members of the Proteaceae and Cyperaceae families, which develop highly sophisticated root clusters as adaptations to survive in soils with very low fertility. Major findings include identification of transporter proteins and transcription factors regulating nutrient sensing, miRNAs as mobile signals and peptides as repressors of lateral root development under heterogeneous nutrient supply. Understanding the roles played by N, P, and Fe in gene expression and biochemical characterization of proteins involved in root developmental responses to homogeneous or heterogeneous N and P sources has gained additional interest due to its potential for improving fertilizer acquisition efficiency in crops. PMID:25760021

  8. Abscisic Acid- and Stress-Induced Highly Proline-Rich Glycoproteins Regulate Root Growth in Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, I-Chieh; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Yu, Su-May; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    2013-01-01

    In the root of rice (Oryza sativa), abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, salinity, or water deficit stress induces the expression of a family of four genes, REPETITIVE PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN (RePRP). These genes encode two subclasses of novel proline-rich glycoproteins with highly repetitive PX1PX2 motifs, RePRP1 and RePRP2. RePRP orthologs exist only in monocotyledonous plants, and their functions are virtually unknown. Rice RePRPs are heavily glycosylated with arabinose and glucose on multiple hydroxyproline residues. They are significantly different from arabinogalactan proteins that have glycan chains composed of arabinose and galactose. Transient and stable expressions of RePRP-green fluorescent protein reveal that a fraction of this protein is localized to the plasma membrane. In rice roots, ABA treatment increases RePRP expression preferentially in the elongation zone. Overexpression of RePRP in transgenic rice reduces root cell elongation in the absence of ABA, similar to the effect of ABA on wild-type roots. Conversely, simultaneous knockdown of the expression of RePRP1 and RePRP2 reduces the root sensitivity to ABA, indicating that RePRP proteins play an essential role in ABA/stress regulation of root growth and development. Moreover, rice RePRPs specifically interact with a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan, in a dosage-dependent manner. It is suggested that RePRP1 and RePRP2 are functionally redundant suppressors of root cell expansion and probably act through interactions with cell wall components near the plasma membrane. PMID:23886623

  9. The Cotton Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Functions in Drought Tolerance by Regulating Stomatal Responses and Root Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Wenjing; He, Xiaowen; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yuli; Guo, Xulei; Guo, Xingqi

    2016-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play critical roles in signal transduction processes in eukaryotes. The MAPK kinases (MAPKKs) that link MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs) and MAPKs are key components of MAPK cascades. However, the intricate regulatory mechanisms that control MAPKKs under drought stress conditions are not fully understood, especially in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Here, we isolated and characterized the cotton group B MAPKK gene GhMKK3 Overexpressing GhMKK3 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced tolerance to drought, and the results of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays suggest that GhMKK3 plays an important role in responses to abiotic stresses by regulating stomatal responses and root hair growth. Further evidence demonstrated that overexpressing GhMKK3 promoted root growth and ABA-induced stomatal closure. In contrast, silencing GhMKK3 in cotton using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in the opposite phenotypes. More importantly, we identified an ABA- and drought-induced MAPK cascade that is composed of GhMKK3, GhMPK7 and GhPIP1 that compensates for deficiency in the MAPK cascade pathway in cotton under drought stress conditions. Together, these findings significantly improve our understanding of the mechanism by which GhMKK3 positively regulates drought stress responses. PMID:27335349

  10. miR390, Arabidopsis TAS3 tasiRNAs, and Their AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR Targets Define an Autoregulatory Network Quantitatively Regulating Lateral Root Growth[W

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Elena; Jouannet, Virginie; Herz, Aurélie; Lokerse, Annemarie S.; Weijers, Dolf; Vaucheret, Herve; Nussaume, Laurent; Crespi, Martin D.; Maizel, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Plants adapt to different environmental conditions by constantly forming new organs in response to morphogenetic signals. Lateral roots branch from the main root in response to local auxin maxima. How a local auxin maximum translates into a robust pattern of gene activation ensuring the proper growth of the newly formed lateral root is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR390, TAS3-derived trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs), and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) form an auxin-responsive regulatory network controlling lateral root growth. Spatial expression analysis using reporter gene fusions, tasi/miRNA sensors, and mutant analysis showed that miR390 is specifically expressed at the sites of lateral root initiation where it triggers the biogenesis of tasiRNAs. These tasiRNAs inhibit ARF2, ARF3, and ARF4, thus releasing repression of lateral root growth. In addition, ARF2, ARF3, and ARF4 affect auxin-induced miR390 accumulation. Positive and negative feedback regulation of miR390 by ARF2, ARF3, and ARF4 thus ensures the proper definition of the miR390 expression pattern. This regulatory network maintains ARF expression in a concentration range optimal for specifying the timing of lateral root growth, a function similar to its activity during leaf development. These results also show how small regulatory RNAs integrate with auxin signaling to quantitatively regulate organ growth during development. PMID:20363771

  11. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. PMID:26514625

  12. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present stu...

  13. Regulation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation: Effects of nitrogen source and root-zone and aerial environment on growth and productivity of soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. David, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The interdependence of root and shoot growth produces a functional equilibrium as described in quantitative terms by numerous authors. It was noted that bean seedlings grown in a constant environment tended to have a constant distribution pattern of dry matter between roots and leaves characteristic of the set of environmental conditions. Disturbing equilibrium resulted in a change in relative growth of roots and leaves until the original ratio was restored. To define a physiological basis for regulation of nitrogen uptake within the balance between root and shoot activities, the authors combined a partioning scheme and a utilization priority assumption in which: (1) all carbon enters the plant through photosynthesis in leaves and all nitrogen enters the plant through active uptake by roots, (2) nitrogen uptake by roots and secretion into the xylem for transport to the shoots are active processes, (3) availability of exogenous nitrogen determines concentration of soluble carbohydrates within the roots, (4) leaves are a source and a sink for carbohydrates, and (5) the requirement for nitrogen by leaf growth is proportionally greater during initiation and early expansion than during later expansion.

  14. An R2R3-type transcription factor gene AtMYB59 regulates root growth and cell cycle progression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Rui-Ling; Cao, Yang-Rong; Liu, Yun-Feng; Lei, Gang; Zou, Hong-Feng; Liao, Yong; Wang, Hui-Wen; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Du, Ji-Zhou; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2009-11-01

    MYB proteins play important roles in eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the R1R2R3-type MYB proteins function in cell cycle control. However, whether the R2R3-type MYB protein is also involved in the cell division process remains unknown. Here, we report that an R2R3-type transcription factor gene, AtMYB59, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and root growth. The AtMYB59 protein is localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells and has transactivation activity. Expression of AtMYB59 in yeast cells suppresses cell proliferation, and the transformants have more nuclei and higher aneuploid DNA content with longer cells. Mutation in the conserved domain of AtMYB59 abolishes its effects on yeast cell growth. In synchronized Arabidopsis cell suspensions, the AtMYB59 gene is specifically expressed in the S phase during cell cycle progression. Expression and promoter-GUS analysis reveals that the AtMYB59 gene is abundantly expressed in roots. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtMYB59 have shorter roots compared with wild-type plants (Arabidopsis accession Col-0), and around half of the mitotic cells in root tips are at metaphase. Conversely, the null mutant myb59-1 has longer roots and fewer mitotic cells at metaphase than Col, suggesting that AtMYB59 may inhibit root growth by extending the metaphase of mitotic cells. AtMYB59 regulates many downstream genes, including the CYCB1;1 gene, probably through binding to MYB-responsive elements. These results support a role for AtMYB59 in cell cycle regulation and plant root growth. PMID:19581938

  15. Diversification of a Transcription Factor Family Led to the Evolution of Antagonistically Acting Genetic Regulators of Root Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Breuninger, Holger; Thamm, Anna; Streubel, Susanna; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Dolan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    Streptophytes colonized the land some time before 470 million years ago [1-3]. The colonization coincided with an increase in morphological and cellular diversity [4-7]. This increase in diversity is correlated with a proliferation in transcription factors encoded in genomes [8-10]. This suggests that gene duplication and subsequent diversification of function was instrumental in the generation of land plant diversity. Here, we investigate the diversification of the streptophyte-specific Lotus japonicus ROOTHAIRLESS LIKE (LRL) transcription factor (TF) [11, 12] subfamily of basic loop helix (bHLH) proteins by comparing gene function in early divergent and derived land plant species. We report that the single Marchantia polymorpha LRL gene acts as a general growth regulator required for rhizoid development, a function that has been partially conserved throughout multicellular streptophytes. In contrast, the five relatively derived Arabidopsis thaliana LRL genes comprise two antagonistically acting groups of differentially expressed genes. The diversification of LRL genes accompanied the evolution of an antagonistic regulatory element controlling root hair development. PMID:27265398

  16. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty. PMID:25200982

  17. Single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes promote rice root growth by eliciting the similar molecular pathways and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shihan; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Yan; Tan, Junjun; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yapei; Hou, Haoli; Huang, Jin; Li, Lijia

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are constantly exposed to environmental stimuli and have evolved mechanisms of protection and adaptation. Various effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on crops have been described and some results confirm that NPs could enhance plant growth at the physiological and genetic levels. This study comparatively analysed the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on rice growth. The results showed that single-wall CNTs were located in the intercellular space while multi-wall CNTs penetrated cell walls in roots. CNTs could promote rice root growth through the regulation of expression of the root growth related genes and elevated global histone acetylation in rice root meristem zones. These responses were returned to normal levels after CNTs were removed from medium. CNTs caused the similar histone acetylation and methylation statuses across the local promoter region of the Cullin-RING ligases 1 (CRL1) gene and increased micrococcal nuclease accessibility of this region, which enhanced this gene expression. The authors results suggested that CNTs could cause plant responses at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and these responses were independent on interaction modes between root cells and CNTs. PMID:27463793

  18. Regulation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation: Effects of nitrogen source, root-zone pH, and aerial CO2 concentration on growth and productivity of soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D.; Tolley-Henry, L.

    1989-01-01

    An important feature of controlled-environment crop production systems such as those to be used for life support of crews during space exploration is the efficient utilization of nitrogen supplies. Making decisions about the best sources of these supplies requires research into the relationship between nitrogen source and the physiological processes which regulate vegetative and reproductive plant growth. Work done in four areas within this research objective is reported: (1) experiments on the effects of root-zone pH on preferential utilization of NO3(-) versus NH4(+) nitrogen; (2) investigation of processes at the whole-plant level that regulate nitrogen uptake; (3) studies of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and NO3(-) supply on the growth of soybeans; and (4) examination of the role of NO3(-) uptake in enhancement of root respiration.

  19. The antagonistic regulation of abscisic acid-inhibited root growth by brassinosteroids is partially mediated via direct suppression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 expression by BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaorui; Bai, Yang; Shang, Jianxiu; Xin, Ruijiao; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are plant hormones that antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development; however, the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk of these two hormones are still not well understood. BRs regulate plant growth and development by activating BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Here we show that the crosstalk between BRs and ABA signalling is partially mediated by BZR1 regulated gene expression. bzr1-1D is a dominant mutant with enhanced BR signalling; our results showed that bzr1-1D mutant is less sensitive to ABA-inhibited primary root growth. By RNA sequencing, a subset of BZR1 regulated ABA-responsive root genes were identified. Of these genes, the expression of a major ABA signalling component ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) was found to be suppressed by BR and by BZR1. Additional evidences showed that BZR1 could bind strongly with several G-box cis-elements in the promoter of ABI5, suppress the expression of ABI5 and make plants less sensitive to ABA. Our study demonstrated that ABI5 is a direct target gene of BZR1, and modulating the expression of ABI5 by BZR1 plays important roles in regulating the crosstalk between the BR and ABA signalling pathways. PMID:27149247

  20. Extracellular ATP and nitric oxide signaling pathways regulate redox-dependent responses associated to root hair growth in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Terrile, María Cecilia; Tonón, Claudia Virginia; Iglesias, María José; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) and nitric oxide (NO) have emerged as crucial players in plant development, stress responses and cell viability. Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant reducing agent with proposed roles in plant growth, development and stress physiology. In a recent publication, we demonstrated that eATP and NO restore hypocotyl elongation of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings treated with GSH. Here it is reported that exogenous ATP also restores root hair growth suggesting a role for ATP and NO in the regulation of redox balance associated to specific processes of plant morphogenesis. A tentative model integrating redox-, eATP- and NO-signaling pathways during root hair growth in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. PMID:20404565

  1. Impact of silicon on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) root traits by regulating growth parameters, cellular antioxidants and stress modulators under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Chandana; Khan, Ehasanullah; Panthri, Medha; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Gupta, Meetu

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is an emerging pollutant causing inhibition in growth and development of plants resulting into phytotoxicity. On the other hand, silicon (Si) has been suggested as a modulator in abiotic and biotic stresses that, enhances plant's physiological adaptations in response to several stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, we used roots of hydroponically grown 14 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea var. Varuna treated with 150 μM As, 1.5 mM Si and both in combination for 96 h duration. Application of Si modulated the effect of As by improving morphological traits of root along with the development of both primary and lateral roots. Changes observed in root traits showed positive correlation with As induced cell death, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular superoxide radicals (O2(-)). Addition of 1.5 mM Si during As stress increased accumulation of As in roots. Mineral nutrient analysis was done using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique and positively correlated with increased cysteine, proline, MDA, H2O2 and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX). The results obtained from the above biochemical approaches support the protective and active role of Si in the regulation of As stress through the changes in root developmental process. PMID:27038600

  2. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  3. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  4. A root-specific wall-associated kinase gene, HvWAK1, regulates root growth and is highly divergent in barley and other cereals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravneet; Singh, Kashmir; Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-06-01

    Wall-associated receptor-like kinases (WAKs) are important candidates for directly linking the extracellular matrix with intracellular compartments and are involved in developmental processes and stress response. WAK gene family has been identified in plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the WAK1 gene from barley cv. Golden Promise, mapped to chromosome 5H. Three BAC clones corresponding to the WAK fragment were sequenced and the full-length WAK1 gene was characterized. The gene has three exons and two short introns with a coding region of 2,178 bp encoding a protein of 725 amino acids. A regulatory region was analyzed in -1,000 bp sequence upstream to start codon. Using conserved domains database and SMART, various conserved domains such as GUB WAK Bind, epidermal growth factor CA, and protein kinase C as well as other regions like signal peptides, active sites, and transmembrane domains were identified. The gene organization of HvWAK1 was compared with wheat (TaWAK1) and Arabidopsis (AtWAK1), suggesting that the WAK1 gene organization has remained highly conserved. Nonetheless, WAK1 was found to be highly divergent when compared with sequences available from barley cv. Haruna Nijo (50 %), rice (46 %), wheat (21 %), Arabidopsis (25 %), and maize (19 %). This divergence may have facilitated a better adaptation to surrounding environments due to its role in communication between the extracellular matrix, cell, and outer environment. Semiquantitative RT-PCR-based expression analysis indicates HvWAK1 expression is specific to roots. Significant differences in root growth between GP wild type and GP-Ds mutant seedlings were observed under control and salt stress conditions. PMID:23443578

  5. Stochastic roots of growth phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Giorno, V.

    2014-05-01

    We show that the Gompertz equation describes the evolution in time of the median of a geometric stochastic process. Therefore, we induce that the process itself generates the growth. This result allows us further to exploit a stochastic variational principle to take account of self-regulation of growth through feedback of relative density variations. The conceptually well defined framework so introduced shows its usefulness by suggesting a form of control of growth by exploiting external actions.

  6. New theories of root growth modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landl, Magdalena; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan; Huber, Katrin; Javaux, Mathieu; Bengough, A. Glyn; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    In dynamic root architecture models, root growth is represented by moving root tips whose line trajectory results in the creation of new root segments. Typically, the direction of root growth is calculated as the vector sum of various direction-affecting components. However, in our simulations this did not reproduce experimental observations of root growth in structured soil. We therefore developed a new approach to predict the root growth direction. In this approach we distinguish between, firstly, driving forces for root growth, i.e. the force exerted by the root which points in the direction of the previous root segment and gravitropism, and, secondly, the soil mechanical resistance to root growth or penetration resistance. The latter can be anisotropic, i.e. depending on the direction of growth, which leads to a difference between the direction of the driving force and the direction of the root tip movement. Anisotropy of penetration resistance can be caused either by microscale differences in soil structure or by macroscale features, including macropores. Anisotropy at the microscale is neglected in our model. To allow for this, we include a normally distributed random deflection angle α to the force which points in the direction of the previous root segment with zero mean and a standard deviation σ. The standard deviation σ is scaled, so that the deflection from the original root tip location does not depend on the spatial resolution of the root system model. Similarly to the water flow equation, the direction of the root tip movement corresponds to the water flux vector while the driving forces are related to the water potential gradient. The analogue of the hydraulic conductivity tensor is the root penetrability tensor. It is determined by the inverse of soil penetration resistance and describes the ease with which a root can penetrate the soil. By adapting the three dimensional soil and root water uptake model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) in this way

  7. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

  8. Root Growth Maintenance at Low Water Potentials (Increased Activity of Xyloglucan Endotransglycosylase and Its Possible Regulation by Abscisic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y.; Spollen, W. G.; Sharp, R. E.; Hetherington, P. R.; Fry, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work suggested that an increase in cell wall-loosening contributes to the maintenance of maize (Zea mays L.) primary root elongation at low water potentials ([psi]w). It was also shown that root elongation at low [psi]w requires increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA). In this study we investigated the effects of low [psi]w and ABA status on xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity in the root elongation zone. XET is believed to contribute to wall-loosening by reversibly cleaving xyloglucan molecules that tether cellulose microfibrils. The activity of XET per unit fresh weight in the apical 10 mm (encompassing the elongation zone) was constant at high [psi]w but increased by more than 2-fold at a [psi]w of -1.6 MPa. Treatment with fluridone to decrease ABA accumulation greatly delayed the increase in activity at low [psi]w. This effect was largely overcome when internal ABA levels were restored by exogenous application. Spatial distribution studies showed that XET activity was increased in the apical 6 mm at low [psi]w whether expressed per unit fresh weight, total soluble protein, or cell wall dry weight, corresponding to the region of continued elongation. Treatment with fluridone progressively inhibited the increase in activity with distance from the apex, correlating with the pattern of inhibition of elongation. Added ABA partly restored activity at all positions. The increase in XET activity at low [psi]w was due to maintenance of the rate of deposition of activity despite decreased deposition of wall material. The loss of activity associated with decreased ABA was due to inhibition of the deposition of activity. The results demonstrate that increased XET activity is associated with maintenance of root elongation at low [psi]w and that this response requires increased ABA. PMID:12232354

  9. Growth and development of root system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and development of root systems of cotton plants is under genetic control but may be modified by the environment. There are many factors that influence root development in cotton. These range from abiotic factors such as soil temperature, soil water, and soil aeration to biotic factors ...

  10. An Nfic-hedgehog signaling cascade regulates tooth root development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Jifan; Li, Jingyuan; Zhao, Hu; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang

    2015-10-01

    Coordination between the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and apical papilla (AP) is crucial for proper tooth root development. The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and Nfic are both involved in tooth root development; however, their relationship has yet to be elucidated. Here, we establish a timecourse of mouse molar root development by histological staining of sections, and we demonstrate that Hh signaling is active before and during root development in the AP and HERS using Gli1 reporter mice. The proper pattern of Hh signaling activity in the AP is crucial for the proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells, because either inhibition with Hh inhibitors or constitutive activation of Hh signaling activity in transgenic mice leads to decreased proliferation in the AP and shorter roots. Moreover, Hh activity is elevated in Nfic(-/-) mice, a root defect model, whereas RNA sequencing and in situ hybridization show that the Hh attenuator Hhip is downregulated. ChIP and RNAscope analyses suggest that Nfic binds to the promoter region of Hhip. Treatment of Nfic(-/-) mice with Hh inhibitor partially restores cell proliferation, AP growth and root development. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an Nfic-Hhip-Hh signaling pathway is crucial for apical papilla growth and proper root formation. This discovery provides insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating tooth root development. PMID:26293299

  11. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  12. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  13. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  14. Chapter 16. Fine-root Growth Response

    SciTech Connect

    J. Devereux Joslin; Mark H. Wolfe

    2002-07-31

    As part of a multiyear study to evaluate the affects of altered water inputs to an upland forest many aspects of tree growth physiology were studied. Chapter 16 of this book deals with fine root growth as studied over a 7 year period using a variety of methods. This chapter summarizes the results and conclusions from those efforts.

  15. Apical control, gravitropic signaling, and the growth of lateral roots in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Jack L.; Wolverton, Chris; Hangarter, Roger P.

    Most research on gravity responses in plants has focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically grow in a vertical orientation. However, the patterns of lateral organ growth, which generally have large effects on overall plant architecture, are such that the organs are typically not vertical. In lateral roots of Arabidopsis, growth is initially in a nearly horizontal orientation but changes to a near-vertical orientation as the lateral root develops. Although the non-vertical lateral roots are gravitropically competent, following gravitropic reorientation of seedlings, the lateral roots on the upper flank of the primary root have different growth patterns from those on the lower side of the primary root. The differences are in part dependent on reorientation of the primary root, suggesting that gravitropic signaling from the primary root also contributes to the control of lateral root growth. The hormone auxin appears to play a role in this signaling between the primary and lateral roots, as auxin transport inhibitors applied to the primary root affect lateral root growth. Also, lateral roots of pin3 mutants, which are impaired in polar auxin transport, have altered lateral root orientations. However, other signals from the primary root tip also play an important role in regulating lateral root growth.

  16. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  17. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  18. Effect of lead on root growth

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

  19. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  20. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  1. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  2. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  3. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots. PMID:26663562

  4. Plasma membrane proteomics in the maize primary root growth zone: novel insights into root growth adaptation to water stress.

    PubMed

    Voothuluru, Priyamvada; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Sharp, Robert E; Peck, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Previous work on maize (Zea mays L.) primary root growth under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. These responses involve spatially differential and coordinated regulation of osmotic adjustment, modification of cell wall extensibility, and other cellular growth processes that are required for root growth under water-stressed conditions. As the interface between the cytoplasm and the apoplast (including the cell wall), the plasma membrane likely plays critical roles in these responses. Using a simplified method for enrichment of plasma membrane proteins, the developmental distribution of plasma membrane proteins was analysed in the growth zone of well-watered and water-stressed maize primary roots. The results identified 432 proteins with differential abundances in well-watered and water-stressed roots. The majority of changes involved region-specific patterns of response, and the identities of the water stress-responsive proteins suggest involvement in diverse biological processes including modification of sugar and nutrient transport, ion homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and cell wall composition. Integration of the distinct, region-specific plasma membrane protein abundance patterns with results from previous physiological, transcriptomic and cell wall proteomic studies reveals novel insights into root growth adaptation to water stress. PMID:27341663

  5. Regulation of vincamine biosynthesis and associated growth promoting effects through abiotic elicitation, cyclooxygenase inhibition, and precursor feeding of bioreactor grown Vinca minor hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Lal, Raj Kishori

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools have been fortified to vincamine less hairy root clone of Vinca minor to determine the regulatory factors associated with vincamine biosynthesis. Growth kinetic studies revealed that acetyltransferase elicitor acetic anhydride and terpenoid precursor loganin significantly reduce the growth either supplemented alone or in combination (GI = 140.6 ± 18.5 to 246.7 ± 24.3), while shikimate and tryptophan trigger biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 ± 31.5 to 540.5 ± 40.3). Loganin also downregulates total alkaloid biosynthesis. Maximum flux towards vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained when 20-day-old hairy roots were fortified with secologanin (10 mg/l) along with tryptophan (100 mg/l), naproxen (8.4 mg/l), hydrogen peroxide (20 μg/l), and acetic anhydride (32.4 mg/l). This was supported by RT PCR (qPCR) analysis where 2- and 3-fold increase in tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC; RQ = 2.0 ± 0.09) and strictosidine synthase (STR; RQ = 3.3 ± 0.36) activity, respectively, was recorded. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for growth kinetics, total alkaloid content, and gene expression studies favored highly significant data (P < 0.05-0.01). Above treated hairy roots were also up-scaled in a 5-l stirred-tank bioreactor where a 40-day cycle yielded 8-fold increase in fresh root mass. PMID:24723203

  6. Growth regulation of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of an Ortho-UCLA Symposium on growth regulation of cancer. Included are the following chapters: Swiss 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts transfected with a human Prepro-GRP gene synthesize and secrete Pro-GRP rather than GRP, proto-oncogenes as mediators of growth and development: discussion summary, animal studies and clinical trials.

  7. MicroRNAs as regulators of root development and architecture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ghazanfar A; Declerck, Marie; Sorin, Céline; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

    2011-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of growth and development in both plants and animals. In plants, roots play essential roles in their anchorage to the soil as well as in nutrient and water uptake. In this review, we present recent advances made in the identification of miRNAs involved in embryonic root development, radial patterning, vascular tissue differentiation and formation of lateral organs (i.e., lateral and adventitious roots and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules in legumes). Certain mi/siRNAs target members of the Auxin Response Factors family involved in auxin homeostasis and signalling and participate in complex regulatory loops at several crucial stages of root development. Other miRNAs target and restrict the action of various transcription factors that control root-related processes in several species. Finally, because abiotic stresses, which include nutrient or water deficiencies, generally modulate root growth and branching, we summarise the action of certain miRNAs in response to these stresses that may be involved in the adaptation of the root system architecture to the soil environment. PMID:21607657

  8. Quest for Continual Growth Takes Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surdey, Mary M.; Hashey, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the quest for continual growth has taken its root at Vestal Central School district. Located at the heart of upstate New York, educators at Vestal Central School district have created a spirit of "kaizen," a Japanese word meaning the relentless quest for continual improvement and higher-quality…

  9. AtOPR3 specifically inhibits primary root growth in Arabidopsis under phosphate deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongyan; Pan, Xiaoying; Deng, Yuxia; Wu, Huamao; Liu, Pei; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    The primary root plays essential roles in root development, nutrient absorption, and root architectural establishment. Primary root growth is generally suppressed by phosphate (P) deficiency in A. thaliana; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely elusive to date. We found that AtOPR3 specifically inhibited primary root growth under P deficiency via suppressing root tip growth at the transcriptional level, revealing an important novel function of AtOPR3 in regulating primary root response to the nutrient stress. Importantly, AtOPR3 functioned to down-regulate primary root growth under P limitation mostly by its own, rather than depending on the Jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Further, AtOPR3 interacted with ethylene and gibberellin signaling pathways to regulate primary root growth upon P deficiency. In addition, the AtOPR3’s function in inhibiting primary root growth upon P limitation was also partially dependent on auxin polar transport. Together, our studies provide new insights into how AtOPR3, together with hormone signaling interactions, modulates primary root growth in coping with the environmental stress in Arabidopsis. PMID:27101793

  10. Developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Seiji; Nakayama, Toru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in plant-microbe interactions in rhizospheres. Soybean roots secrete daidzein and genistein to attract rhizobia. Despite the importance of isoflavones in plant-microbe interactions, little is known about the developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots. In this study, soybeans were grown in hydroponic culture, and isoflavone contents in tissues, isoflavone secretion from the roots, and the expression of isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase (ICHG) were investigated. Isoflavone contents did not show strong growth-dependent changes, while secretion of daidzein from the roots dramatically changed, with higher secretion during vegetative stages. Coordinately, the expression of ICHG also peaked at vegetative stages. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in 8- and 15-fold increases in secretion of daidzein and genistein, respectively, with no induction of ICHG. Taken together, these results suggest that large amounts of isoflavones were secreted during vegetative stages via the hydrolysis of (malonyl)glucosides with ICHG. PMID:26168358

  11. Endosomal Interactions during Root Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Rosero, Amparo; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Voigt, Boris; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic localization of endosomal compartments labeled with targeted fluorescent protein tags is routinely followed by time lapse fluorescence microscopy approaches and single particle tracking algorithms. In this way trajectories of individual endosomes can be mapped and linked to physiological processes as cell growth. However, other aspects of dynamic behavior including endosomal interactions are difficult to follow in this manner. Therefore, we characterized the localization and dynamic properties of early and late endosomes throughout the entire course of root hair formation by means of spinning disc time lapse imaging and post-acquisition automated multitracking and quantitative analysis. Our results show differential motile behavior of early and late endosomes and interactions of late endosomes that may be specified to particular root hair domains. Detailed data analysis revealed a particular transient interaction between late endosomes—termed herein as dancing-endosomes—which is not concluding to vesicular fusion. Endosomes preferentially located in the root hair tip interacted as dancing-endosomes and traveled short distances during this interaction. Finally, sizes of early and late endosomes were addressed by means of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to corroborate measurements on the spinning disc. This is a first study providing quantitative microscopic data on dynamic spatio-temporal interactions of endosomes during root hair tip growth. PMID:26858728

  12. Endosomal Interactions during Root Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Rosero, Amparo; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Voigt, Boris; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic localization of endosomal compartments labeled with targeted fluorescent protein tags is routinely followed by time lapse fluorescence microscopy approaches and single particle tracking algorithms. In this way trajectories of individual endosomes can be mapped and linked to physiological processes as cell growth. However, other aspects of dynamic behavior including endosomal interactions are difficult to follow in this manner. Therefore, we characterized the localization and dynamic properties of early and late endosomes throughout the entire course of root hair formation by means of spinning disc time lapse imaging and post-acquisition automated multitracking and quantitative analysis. Our results show differential motile behavior of early and late endosomes and interactions of late endosomes that may be specified to particular root hair domains. Detailed data analysis revealed a particular transient interaction between late endosomes-termed herein as dancing-endosomes-which is not concluding to vesicular fusion. Endosomes preferentially located in the root hair tip interacted as dancing-endosomes and traveled short distances during this interaction. Finally, sizes of early and late endosomes were addressed by means of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to corroborate measurements on the spinning disc. This is a first study providing quantitative microscopic data on dynamic spatio-temporal interactions of endosomes during root hair tip growth. PMID:26858728

  13. Arabidopsis root growth movements and their symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Fortunati, Alessio; Tassone, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, an increasing number of plant scientists have become interested in the Arabidopsis root growth pattern, that is produced on the surface of an agar plate, inclined from the vertical. In this situation, the roots wave intensely and slant preferentially towards one side, showing torsions in the epidermal cell files alternately right-and left handed. In addition, the pattern switches to the formation of large or strict coils when the plate is set horizontally. After this finding, different hypotheses were advanced attempting to explain the forces that shape these patterns. These basically appear to be gravitropism, circumnutation and negative thigmotropism. With regard to the symmetry, the coils and the slanting in the wild-type are essentially right-handed, but mutants were also reported which show a left-handed symmetry, while some do not show a regular growth pattern at all. This review article discusses the earlier as well as the most recent findings on the topic, and investigates the possibility of describing the different mechanisms shaping the root growth patterns via unifying hypothesis. PMID:19721745

  14. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  15. Transcriptional profile of maize roots under acid soil growth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the most important yield-limiting factors of many crops worldwide. The primary symptom of Al toxicity syndrome is the inhibition of root growth leading to poor water and nutrient absorption. Al tolerance has been extensively studied using hydroponic experiments. However, unlike soil conditions, this method does not address all of the components that are necessary for proper root growth and development. In the present study, we grew two maize genotypes with contrasting tolerance to Al in soil containing toxic levels of Al and then compared their transcriptomic responses. Results When grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al, the Al-sensitive genotype (S1587-17) showed greater root growth inhibition, more Al accumulation and more callose deposition in root tips than did the tolerant genotype (Cat100-6). Transcriptome profiling showed a higher number of genes differentially expressed in S1587-17 grown in acid soil, probably due to secondary effects of Al toxicity. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of organic acids, which are frequently associated with an Al tolerance response, were not differentially regulated in both genotypes after acid soil exposure. However, genes related to the biosynthesis of auxin, ethylene and lignin were up-regulated in the Al-sensitive genotype, indicating that these pathways might be associated with root growth inhibition. By comparing the two maize lines, we were able to discover genes up-regulated only in the Al-tolerant line that also presented higher absolute levels than those observed in the Al-sensitive line. These genes encoded a lipase hydrolase, a retinol dehydrogenase, a glycine-rich protein, a member of the WRKY transcriptional family and two unknown proteins. Conclusions This work provides the first characterization of the physiological and transcriptional responses of maize roots when grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al. The transcriptome profiles highlighted

  16. Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates root-hair elongation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Chul Min; Xuan, Yuan-hu; Liu, Jingmiao; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Bo-Kyeong; Han, Chang-deok

    2013-05-01

    The outgrowth of root hairs from the epidermal cell layer is regulated by a strict genetic regulatory system and external growth conditions. Rice plants cultivated in water-logged paddy land are exposed to a soil ecology that differs from the environment surrounding upland plants, such as Arabidopsis and maize. To identify genes that play important roles in root-hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified, and the gene was isolated using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutant harbored a point mutation at a splicing acceptor site, which led to truncation of OsFH1 (rice formin homology 1). Subsequent analysis of two additional T-DNA mutants verified that OsFH1 is important for root-hair elongation. Further studies revealed that the action of OsFH1 on root-hair growth is dependent on growth conditions. The mutant Osfh1 exhibited root-hair defects when roots were grown submerged in solution, and mutant roots produced normal root hairs in the air. However, root-hair phenotypes of mutants were not influenced by the external supply of hormones or carbohydrates, a deficiency of nutrients, such as Fe or P i , or aeration. This study shows that OsFH1 plays a significant role in root-hair elongation in a growth condition-dependent manner. PMID:23334469

  17. Increased soil phosphorus availability induced by faba bean root exudation stimulates root growth and phosphorus uptake in neighbouring maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deshan; Zhang, Chaochun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Root growth is influenced by soil nutrients and neighbouring plants, but how these two drivers affect root interactions and regulate plant growth dynamics is poorly understood. Here, interactions between the roots of maize (Zea mays) and faba bean (Vicia faba) are characterized. Maize was grown alone (maize) or with maize (maize/maize) or faba bean (maize/faba bean) as competitors under five levels of phosphorus (P) supply, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous P distribution. Maize had longer root length and greater shoot biomass and P content when grown with faba bean than with maize. At each P supply rate, faba bean had a smaller root system than maize but greater exudation of citrate and acid phosphatase, suggesting a greater capacity to mobilize P in the rhizosphere. Heterogeneous P availability enhanced the root-length density of maize but not faba bean. Maize root proliferation in the P-rich patches was associated with increased shoot P uptake. Increased P availability by localized P application or by the presence of faba bean exudation stimulated root morphological plasticity and increased shoot growth in maize in the maize/faba bean mixture, suggesting that root interactions of neighbouring plants can be modified by increased P availability. PMID:26313736

  18. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinemetz, C. L.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists applied at the root tip on root growth, gravity-induced root curvature, and the movement of calcium across the root tip and auxin (IAA) across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. All of the CaM antagonists used in these studies delayed gravity-induced curvature at a concentration (1 micromole) that did not affect root growth. Calmodulin antagonists (> or = 1 micromole) inhibited downward transport of label from 45Ca2+ across the caps of gravistimulated roots relative to the downward transport of 45Ca2+ in gravistimulated roots which were not treated with CaM antagonists. Application of CaM antagonists at the root tip (> or = 1 micromole) also decreased the relative downward movement of label from 3H-IAA applied to the upper side of the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. In general, tip application of antagonists inhibited neither the upward transport of 45Ca2+ in the root tip nor the upward movement of label from 3H-IAA in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Thus, roots treated with CaM antagonists > or = 1 micromole become less graviresponsive and exhibit reduced or even a reversal of downward polarity of calcium transport across the root tip and IAA transport across the elongation zone. The results indicate that calmodulin-regulated events play a role in root gravitropism.

  19. OZONE DECREASES SPRING ROOT GROWTH AND ROOT CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN PONDEROSA PINE THE YEAR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. he hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. eedling...

  20. Noncoding RNAs, Emerging Regulators in Root Endosymbioses.

    PubMed

    Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Moreau, Jérémy; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Endosymbiosis interactions allow plants to grow in nutrient-deficient soil environments. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is an ancestral interaction between land plants and fungi, whereas nitrogen-fixing symbioses are highly specific for certain plants, notably major crop legumes. The signaling pathways triggered by specific lipochitooligosaccharide molecules involved in these interactions have common components that also overlap with plant root development. These pathways include receptor-like kinases, transcription factors (TFs), and various intermediate signaling effectors, including noncoding (nc)RNAs. These latter molecules have emerged as major regulators of gene expression and small ncRNAs, composed of micro (mi)RNAs and small interfering (si)RNAs, are known to control gene expression at transcriptional (chromatin) or posttranscriptional levels. In this review, we describe exciting recent data connecting variants of conserved si/miRNAs with the regulation of TFs, such as NSP2, NFY-A1, auxin-response factors, and AP2-like proteins, known to be involved in symbiosis. The link between hormonal regulations and these si- and miRNA-TF nodes is proposed in a model in which different feedback loops or regulations controlling endosymbiosis signaling are integrated. The diversity and emerging regulatory networks of young legume miRNAs are also highlighted. PMID:26894282

  1. Roots Revealed - Neutron imaging insight of spatial distribution, morphology, growth and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Bilheux, H.; Kang, M.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C.; Horita, J.; Perfect, E.

    2013-05-01

    Root production, distribution and turnover are not easily measured, yet their dynamics are an essential part of understanding and modeling ecosystem response to changing environmental conditions. Root age, order, morphology and mycorrhizal associations all regulate root uptake of water and nutrients, which along with along with root distribution determines plant response to, and impact on its local environment. Our objectives were to demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor fine root distribution, root growth and root functionality in Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings using neutron imaging. Plants were propagated in aluminum chambers containing sand then placed into a high flux cold neutron beam line. Dynamics of root distribution and growth were assessed by collecting consecutive CCD radiographs through time. Root functionality was assessed by tracking individual root uptake of water (H2O) or deuterium oxide (D2O) through time. Since neutrons strongly scatter H atoms, but not D atoms, biological materials such as plants are prime candidates for neutron imaging. 2D and 3D neutron radiography readily illuminated root structure, root growth, and relative plant and soil water content. Fungal hyphae associated with the roots were also visible and appeared as dark masses since their diameter was likely several orders of magnitude less than ~100 μm resolution of the detector. The 2D pulse-chase irrigation experiments with H2O and D2O successfully allowed observation of uptake and mass flow of water within the root system. Water flux within individual roots responded differentially to foliar illumination based on internal water potential gradients, illustrating the ability to track root functionality based on root size, order and distribution within the soil. (L) neutron image of switchgrass growing in sandy soil with 100 μm diameter roots (R) 3D reconstruction of maize seedling following neutron tomography

  2. Determinate Root Growth and Meristem Maintenance in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, S.; Rost, T. L.; Dubrovsky, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The difference between indeterminate and determinate growth in plants consists of the presence or absence of an active meristem in the fully developed organ. Determinate root growth implies that the root apical meristem (RAM) becomes exhausted. As a consequence, all cells in the root tip differentiate. This type of growth is widely found in roots of many angiosperm taxa and might have evolved as a developmental adaptation to water deficit (in desert Cactaceae), or low mineral content in the soil (proteoid roots in various taxa). Scope and Conclusions This review considers the mechanisms of determinate root growth to better understand how the RAM is maintained, how it functions, and the cellular and genetic bases of these processes. The role of the quiescent centre in RAM maintenance and exhaustion will be analysed. During root ageing, the RAM becomes smaller and its organization changes; however, it remains unknown whether every root is truly determinate in the sense that its RAM becomes exhausted before senescence. We define two types of determinate growth: constitutive where determinacy is a natural part of root development; and non-constitutive where determinacy is induced usually by an environmental factor. Determinate root growth is proposed to include two phases: the indeterminate growth phase, when the RAM continuously produces new cells; and the termination growth phase, when cell production gradually decreases and eventually ceases. Finally, new concepts regarding stem cells and a stem cell niche are discussed to help comprehend how the meristem is maintained in a broad taxonomic context. PMID:17954472

  3. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  4. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  5. MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 regulates lateral root development and responds to multiple external and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Miao, Zi-Qing; Qi, Guo-Feng; Wu, Jie; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Mao, Jie-Li; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Plant root system morphology is dramatically influenced by various environmental cues. The adaptation of root system architecture to environmental constraints, which mostly depends on the formation and growth of lateral roots, is an important agronomic trait. Lateral root development is regulated by the external signals coordinating closely with intrinsic signaling pathways. MADS-box transcription factors are known key regulators of the transition to flowering and flower development. However, their functions in root development are still poorly understood. Here we report that AGL21, an AGL17-clade MADS-box gene, plays a crucial role in lateral root development. AGL21 was highly expressed in root, particularly in the root central cylinder and lateral root primordia. AGL21 overexpression plants produced more and longer lateral roots while agl21 mutants showed impaired lateral root development, especially under nitrogen-deficient conditions. AGL21 was induced by many plant hormones and environmental stresses, suggesting a function of this gene in root system plasticity in response to various signals. Furthermore, AGL21 was found positively regulating auxin accumulation in lateral root primordia and lateral roots by enhancing local auxin biosynthesis, thus stimulating lateral root initiation and growth. We propose that AGL21 may be involved in various environmental and physiological signals-mediated lateral root development and growth. PMID:25122697

  6. MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Regulates Lateral Root Development and Responds to Multiple External and Physiological Signals

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Miao, Zi-Qing; Qi, Guo-Feng; Wu, Jie; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Mao, Jie-Li; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Plant root system morphology is dramatically influenced by various environmental cues. The adaptation of root system architecture to environmental constraints, which mostly depends on the formation and growth of lateral roots, is an important agronomic trait. Lateral root development is regulated by the external signals coordinating closely with intrinsic signaling pathways. MADS-box transcription factors are known key regulators of the transition to flowering and flower development. However, their functions in root development are still poorly understood. Here we report that AGL21, an AGL17-clade MADS-box gene, plays a crucial role in lateral root development. AGL21 was highly expressed in root, particularly in the root central cylinder and lateral root primordia. AGL21 overexpression plants produced more and longer lateral roots while agl21 mutants showed impaired lateral root development, especially under nitrogen-deficient conditions. AGL21 was induced by many plant hormones and environmental stresses, suggesting a function of this gene in root system plasticity in response to various signals. Furthermore, AGL21 was found positively regulating auxin accumulation in lateral root primordia and lateral roots by enhancing local auxin biosynthesis, thus stimulating lateral root initiation and growth. We propose that AGL21 may be involved in various environmental and physiological signals-mediated lateral root development and growth. PMID:25122697

  7. Alkamides Isolated from Plants Promote Growth and Alter Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Molina-Torres, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    To date, several classes of hormones have been described that influence plant development, including auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and, more recently, brassinosteroids. However, it is known that many fungal and bacterial species produce substances that alter plant growth that, if naturally present in plants, might represent novel classes of plant growth regulators. Alkamides are metabolites widely distributed in plants with a broad range of biological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of affinin, an alkamide naturally occurring in plants, and its derivates, N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide, on plant growth and early root development in Arabidopsis. We found that treatments with affinin in the range of 10-6 to 10-4 m alter shoot and root biomass production. This effect correlated with alteration on primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation. Low concentrations of affinin (7 × 10-6–2.8 × 10-5 m) enhanced primary root growth and root hair elongation, whereas higher concentrations inhibited primary root growth that related with a reduction in cell proliferating activity and cell elongation. N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide were found to stimulate root hair elongation at concentrations between 10-8 to 10-7 m. Although the effects of alkamides were similar to those produced by auxins on root growth and cell parameters, the ability of the root system to respond to affinin was found to be independent of auxin signaling. Our results suggest that alkamides may represent a new group of plant growth promoting substances with significant impact on root development and opens the possibility of using these compounds for improved plant production. PMID:14988477

  8. [Mechanism of stomatal regulation by root sourced signaling and its agricultural signficance].

    PubMed

    Guo, Anhong; Li, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Gengshan; Yang, Yuanyan; An, Shunqing

    2004-06-01

    Under soil drought condition, root sourced signal abcisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the long distance signaling process, and can be a measurement of soil water availability. ABA is also an effective stomatal closing agent, and acts to reduce transpiration and canopy water loss. This paper briefly introduced the physiological mechanism and theoretical model about the stomatal regulation by root sourced signaling, and indicated that the combination of this model with root water absorption model and stomatal conductance model could be more effective in depicting the response of plant to soil drying and atmospheric drought. In addition, some effective irrigation approaches, such as regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), partial root-zone drying (PRD) and controlled alternative irrigation (CAI) were profited from the mechanism of plant water use regulation by the root sourced signaling. These irrigation measures favored to reasonably distribute available soil water in root-zone. Root signaling system also played important role in regulating root growth and its development, retarding shoot growth to adjusting root shoot ratio, and optimizing assimilation allocation to favor to improve reproductive development. These processes hold substantial promise for enhancing crop water use efficiency. PMID:15362642

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Johana; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; De Hoff, Peter L.; Detter, John C.; Fujishige, Nancy A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Ivanova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L.; Lum, Michelle R.; Milani-Nejad, Nima; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Tran, Stephen S.; Woyke, Tanja; Valdés, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions, including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and degradation of complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico. PMID:24072863

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

    2013-08-29

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

  11. Auxins differentially regulate root system architecture and cell cycle protein levels in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José

    2015-03-15

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins. PMID:25615607

  12. A Simple Device to Measure Root Growth Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauser, Wilfried E.; Horton, Roger F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple auxanometer which students can use to accurately measure root growth rates of intact seedlings. Typical time course data are presented for the effect of ethylene and indole acetic acid on pea root growth. (Author/BR)

  13. Root-Specific Reduction of Cytokinin Causes Enhanced Root Growth, Drought Tolerance, and Leaf Mineral Enrichment in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Tomáš; Nehnevajova, Erika; Köllmer, Ireen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Krämer, Ute; Schmülling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing root system architecture can overcome yield limitations in crop plants caused by water or nutrient shortages. Classic breeding approaches are difficult because the trait is governed by many genes and is difficult to score. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with enhanced root-specific degradation of the hormone cytokinin, a negative regulator of root growth. These transgenic plants form a larger root system, whereas growth and development of the shoot are similar. Elongation of the primary root, root branching, and root biomass formation were increased by up to 60% in transgenic lines, increasing the root-to-shoot ratio. We thus demonstrated that a single dominant gene could regulate a complex trait, root growth. Moreover, we showed that cytokinin regulates root growth in a largely organ-autonomous fashion that is consistent with its dual role as a hormone with both paracrine and long-distance activities. Transgenic plants had a higher survival rate after severe drought treatment. The accumulation of several elements, including S, P, Mn, Mg, Zn, as well as Cd from a contaminated soil, was significantly increased in shoots. Under conditions of sulfur or magnesium deficiency, leaf chlorophyll content was less affected in transgenic plants, demonstrating the physiological relevance of shoot element accumulation. Our approach might contribute to improve drought tolerance, nutrient efficiency, and nutrient content of crop plants. PMID:21148816

  14. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  15. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  16. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  17. Influence of growth regulators and explant type on in vitro shoot propagation and rooting of red sandal wood (Pterocarpus santalinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arockiasamy, S; Ignacimuthu, S; Melchias, G

    2000-12-01

    In vitro shoot regeneration in Pterocarpus santalinus L. was achieved when detached cotyledons from in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on MS medium containing NAA (0.1 mg/L), BA (1 mg/L) and kinetin (1 mg/L). The regenerated shoots rooted on 1/4 strength MS medium with IAA (1 mg/L) and the fully developed plantlets were successfully established in the soil. PMID:11411054

  18. Plant development in space: Observations on root formation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Kann, R. P.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1990-01-01

    Root growth in space is discussed and observations on root production from plants flown as part of the Chromex project that were defined as to their origin, stage of development and physiological status, are presented. Roots were generated from fully differentiated, aseptically maintained individuals of Haplopappus gracilis (Compositae) under spaceflight conditions. Results are compared for tissue culture generated plantlets and comparably sized seedling clone individuals, both of which had their roots trimmed on Earth before they were loaded into NASA's plant growth unit and subjected to a 5 day shuttle flight (STS-29). Asepsis was maintained throughout the experiment. Overall root production was 40 to 50 percent greater under spaceflight conditions than during ground control tests. However, root formation slowed down towards the end of the flight. This decrease in new roots did not occur in the ground controls that sought to simulate flight except for microgravity.

  19. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-03-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  20. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  1. Ozone decreases spring root growth and root carbohydrate content in ponderosa pine the year following exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.P.; Hogsett, W.E.; Wessling, R.; Plocher, M.

    1991-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. The hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. The results suggest that (1) ponderosa pine seedlings exposed to 122 and 169 ppm hrs ozone for one season have significantly less root starch reserves available just prior to and during bud break the following year, and (2) spring root growth is decreased following ozone exposure. The carry-over effects of ozone stress may be important in long-lived perennial species which are annually subjected to ozone.

  2. Arabidopsis root growth dependence on glutathione is linked to auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Mugford, Sam T; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-10-01

    Glutathione depletion, e.g. by the inhibitor of its synthesis, buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), is well known to specifically reduce primary root growth. To obtain an insight into the mechanism of this inhibition, we explored the effects of BSO on Arabidopsis root growth in more detail. BSO inhibits root growth and reduces glutathione (GSH) concentration in a concentration-dependent manner leading to a linear correlation of root growth and GSH content. Microarray analysis revealed that the effect of BSO on gene expression is similar to the effects of misregulation of auxin homeostasis. In addition, auxin-resistant mutants axr1 and axr3 are less sensitive to BSO than the wild-type plants. Indeed, exposure of Arabidopsis to BSO leads to disappearance of the auxin maximum in root tips and the expression of QC cell marker. BSO treatment results in loss of the auxin carriers, PIN1, PIN2 and PIN7, from the root tips of primary roots, but not adventitious roots. Since BSO did not abolish transcription of PIN1, and since the effect of BSO was complemented by dithiothreitol, we conclude that as yet an uncharacterised post-transcriptional redox mechanism regulates the expression of PIN proteins, and thus auxin transport, in the root tips. PMID:20669021

  3. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  4. The Small GTPase ROP10 of Medicago truncatula Is Required for Both Tip Growth of Root Hairs and Nod Factor-Induced Root Hair Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming-Juan; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Aimin; Luo, Li; Xie, Yajun; Li, Guan; Luo, Da; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Wen, Jiangqi; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian; Wang, Yan-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobia preferentially enter legume root hairs via infection threads, after which root hairs undergo tip swelling, branching, and curling. However, the mechanisms underlying such root hair deformation are poorly understood. Here, we showed that a type II small GTPase, ROP10, of Medicago truncatula is localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of root hair tips to regulate root hair tip growth. Overexpression of ROP10 and a constitutively active mutant (ROP10CA) generated depolarized growth of root hairs, whereas a dominant negative mutant (ROP10DN) inhibited root hair elongation. Inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti, the depolarized swollen and ballooning root hairs exhibited extensive root hair deformation and aberrant infection symptoms. Upon treatment with rhizobia-secreted nodulation factors (NFs), ROP10 was transiently upregulated in root hairs, and ROP10 fused to green fluorescent protein was ectopically localized at the PM of NF-induced outgrowths and curls around rhizobia. ROP10 interacted with the kinase domain of the NF receptor NFP in a GTP-dependent manner. Moreover, NF-induced expression of the early nodulin gene ENOD11 was enhanced by the overexpression of ROP10 and ROP10CA. These data suggest that NFs spatiotemporally regulate ROP10 localization and activity at the PM of root hair tips and that interactions between ROP10 and NF receptors are required for root hair deformation and continuous curling during rhizobial infection. PMID:25794934

  5. The small GTPase ROP10 of Medicago truncatula is required for both tip growth of root hairs and nod factor-induced root hair deformation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming-Juan; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Aimin; Luo, Li; Xie, Yajun; Li, Guan; Luo, Da; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian; Wang, Yan-Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Rhizobia preferentially enter legume root hairs via infection threads, after which root hairs undergo tip swelling, branching, and curling. However, the mechanisms underlying such root hair deformation are poorly understood. Here, we showed that a type II small GTPase, ROP10, of Medicago truncatula is localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of root hair tips to regulate root hair tip growth. Overexpression of ROP10 and a constitutively active mutant (ROP10CA) generated depolarized growth of root hairs, whereas a dominant negative mutant (ROP10DN) inhibited root hair elongation. Inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti, the depolarized swollen and ballooning root hairs exhibited extensive root hair deformation and aberrant infection symptoms. Upon treatment with rhizobia-secreted nodulation factors (NFs), ROP10 was transiently upregulated in root hairs, and ROP10 fused to green fluorescent protein was ectopically localized at the PM of NF-induced outgrowths and curls around rhizobia. ROP10 interacted with the kinase domain of the NF receptor NFP in a GTP-dependent manner. Moreover, NF-induced expression of the early nodulin gene ENOD11 was enhanced by the overexpression of ROP10 and ROP10CA. These data suggest that NFs spatiotemporally regulate ROP10 localization and activity at the PM of root hair tips and that interactions between ROP10 and NF receptors are required for root hair deformation and continuous curling during rhizobial infection. PMID:25794934

  6. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S.; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil. PMID:23844412

  7. Jatropha curcas L. root structure and growth in diverse soils.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil. PMID:23844412

  8. Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Rani, T. Swaroopa; Podile, Appa Rao

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs). We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430). There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE), compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE). In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2), in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion. PMID:24205213

  9. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis. (1) Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  10. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis.1 Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  11. Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia)

    PubMed Central

    Contador, Maria Loreto; Comas, Louise H.; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Stewart, William L.; Porris Gomez, Ignacio; Negron, Claudia; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. Methods Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia ‘Chandler’) using minirhizotron techniques. Key Results Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth starting in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production. Conclusions The findings of this study add to growing evidence that root growth in many ecosystems follows a unimodal curve with one marked flush of root growth in coordination with the initial leaf flush of the season. Root vertical distribution appeared to have greater plasticity than timing of root production in this system, with temperature and/or carbohydrate competition constraining the timing of root growth. Effects on root distribution can have serious impacts on trees, with shallow rooting having negative impacts in years with limited soil water or positive impacts in years with wet springs, and deep rooting having positive impacts on soil water mining from deeper soil layers but negative impacts in years with wet springs

  12. Evolutionary Roots of Arginase Expression and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Dzik, Jolanta Maria

    2014-01-01

    Two main types of macrophage functions are known: classical (M1), producing nitric oxide, NO, and M2, in which arginase activity is primarily expressed. Ornithine, the product of arginase, is a substrate for synthesis of polyamines and collagen, important for growth and ontogeny of animals. M2 macrophages, expressing high level of mitochondrial arginase, have been implicated in promoting cell division and deposition of collagen during ontogeny and wound repair. Arginase expression is the default mode of tissue macrophages, but can also be amplified by signals, such as IL-4/13 or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that accelerates wound healing and tissue repair. In worms, the induction of collagen gene is coupled with induction of immune response genes, both depending on the same TGF-β-like pathway. This suggests that the main function of M2 “heal” type macrophages is originally connected with the TGF-β superfamily of proteins, which are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis. Excretory–secretory products of metazoan parasites are able to induce M2-type of macrophage responses promoting wound healing without participation of Th2 cytokines IL-4/IL-13. The expression of arginase in lower animals can be induced by the presence of parasite antigens and TGF-β signals leading to collagen synthesis. This also means that the main proteins, which, in primitive metazoans, are involved in regulation of tissue and organ differentiation in embryogenesis are produced by innate immunity. The signaling function of NO is known already from the sponge stage of animal evolution. The cytotoxic role of NO molecule appeared later, as documented in immunity of marine mollusks and some insects. This implies that the M2-wound healing promoting function predates the defensive role of NO, a characteristic of M1 macrophages. Understanding when and how the M1 and M2 activities came to be in animals is useful for understanding how macrophage

  13. Root aeration in rice (Oryza sativa): evaluation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ethylene as possible regulators of root acclimatizations.

    PubMed

    Colmer, T D; Cox, M C H; Voesenek, L A C J

    2006-01-01

    Adventitious roots of rice (Oryza sativa) acclimatize to root-zone O(2) deficiency by increasing porosity, and induction of a barrier to radial O(2) loss (ROL) in basal zones, to enhance longitudinal O(2) diffusion towards the root tip. Changes in root-zone gas composition that might induce these acclimatizations, namely low O(2), elevated ethylene, ethylene-low O(2) interactions, and high CO(2), were evaluated in hydroponic experiments. Neither low O(2) (0 or 0.028 mol m(-3) O(2)), ethylene (0.2 or 2.0 microl l(-1)), or combinations of these treatments, induced the barrier to ROL. This lack of induction of the barrier to ROL was despite a positive response of aerenchyma formation to low O(2) and elevated ethylene. Carbon dioxide at 10 kPa had no effect on root porosity, the barrier to ROL, or on growth. Our findings that ethylene does not induce the barrier to ROL in roots of rice, even though it can enhance aerenchyma formation, shows that these two acclimatizations for improved root aeration are differentially regulated. PMID:16684237

  14. Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 restrains lateral roots growth by inhibiting auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianxin; Wang, Qiming; Lin, Jianzhong; Deng, Keqin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Tang, Dongying; Liu, Xuanming

    2010-05-15

    Cryptochromes are blue-light photoreceptors that control many aspects of plant development. In this study, cryptochrome mutants of Arabidopsis were examined to assess the role of cryptchrome-1 (CRY1) in lateral roots growth. When grown in blue light for 12d, mutant seedlings (cry1) showed increased growth of lateral roots, while CRY1-overexpressing transgenic seedlings (CRY1ox) exhibited a marked decrease. Lateral roots growth of CRY1ox could be stimulated by auxin, but expression of PIN1 (efflux carrier of polar auxin transport) was strongly reduced. Contrary, the cry1 mutation showed the opposite effect, indicating that blue light and the auxin-signaling pathway interact in lateral roots growth of Arabidopsis. The free IAA content in CRY1ox roots was half of that in wild type and cry1 mutant roots. Moreover, the content of flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin), which act as endogenous negative regulators of auxin transport, increased in CRY1ox seedlings. Taken together, these results suggest that Arabidopsis CRY1 restrains lateral roots growth by inhibiting auxin transport. PMID:20133010

  15. 75 FR 30300 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Root River, Racine, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Root River, Racine, WI AGENCY: Coast... Street Bridge at Mile 0.31 and the State Street Bridge at Mile 0.53 over the Root River, at Racine,...

  16. Abscisic acid is a negative regulator of root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Han, Woong; Rong, Honglin; Zhang, Hanma; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2009-01-23

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in root gravitropism and has led to an intense debate over whether ABA acts similar to auxin by translating the gravitational signal into directional root growth. While tremendous advances have been made in the past two decades in establishing the role of auxin in root gravitropism, little progress has been made in characterizing the role of ABA in this response. In fact, roots of plants that have undetectable levels of ABA and that display a normal gravitropic response have raised some serious doubts about whether ABA plays any role in root gravitropism. Here, we show strong evidence that ABA plays a role opposite to that of auxin and that it is a negative regulator of the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis roots. PMID:19056344

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

    2012-07-01

    • All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force. PMID:22583121

  18. Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Frank P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

  19. Plant Nitrogen Acquisition Under Low Availability: Regulation of Uptake and Root Architecture.

    PubMed

    Kiba, Takatoshi; Krapp, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen availability is a major factor determining plant growth and productivity. Plants acquire nitrogen nutrients from the soil through their roots mostly in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Since these nutrients are scarce in natural soils, plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with the environment. One of the most important responses is the regulation of nitrogen acquisition efficiency. This review provides an update on the molecular determinants of two major drivers of the nitrogen acquisition efficiency: (i) uptake activity (e.g. high-affinity nitrogen transporters) and (ii) root architecture (e.g. low-nitrogen-availability-specific regulators of primary and lateral root growth). Major emphasis is laid on the regulation of these determinants by nitrogen supply at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which enables plants to optimize nitrogen acquisition efficiency under low nitrogen availability. PMID:27025887

  20. Plant Nitrogen Acquisition Under Low Availability: Regulation of Uptake and Root Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Kiba, Takatoshi; Krapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability is a major factor determining plant growth and productivity. Plants acquire nitrogen nutrients from the soil through their roots mostly in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Since these nutrients are scarce in natural soils, plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with the environment. One of the most important responses is the regulation of nitrogen acquisition efficiency. This review provides an update on the molecular determinants of two major drivers of the nitrogen acquisition efficiency: (i) uptake activity (e.g. high-affinity nitrogen transporters) and (ii) root architecture (e.g. low-nitrogen-availability-specific regulators of primary and lateral root growth). Major emphasis is laid on the regulation of these determinants by nitrogen supply at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which enables plants to optimize nitrogen acquisition efficiency under low nitrogen availability. PMID:27025887

  1. Regulation of Growth Response to Water Stress in the Soybean Primary Root. I. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Region-Specific Regulation of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism and Control of Free Iron in the Elongation Zone.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water-stressed soybean primary roots, elongation was maintained at well-watered rates in the apical 4 mm (region 1) but was progressively inhibited in the 4-8 mm region (region 2), which exhibits maximum elongation in well-watered roots. These responses are similar to previous results for the mai...

  2. Radial force development during root growth measured by photoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Hartmann, Christian; Genet, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical and topological properties of a soil like the global porosity and the distribution of void sizes greatly affect the development of a plant root, which in turn affects the shoot development. In particular, plant roots growing in heterogeneous medium like sandy soils or cracked substrates have to adapt their morphology and exert radial forces depending on the pore size in which they penetrate. We propose a model experiment in which a pivot root (chick-pea seeds) of millimetric diameter has to grow in a size-controlled gap δ (δ ranging 0.5-2.3 mm) between two photoelastic grains. By time-lapse imaging, we continuously monitored the root growth and the development of optical fringes in the photoelastic neighbouring grains when the root enters the gap. Thus we measured simultaneously and in situ the root morphological changes (length and diameter growth rates, circumnutation) as well as the radial forces the root exerts. Radial forces were increasing in relation with gap constriction and experiment duration but a levelling of the force was not observed, even after 5 days and for narrow gaps. The inferred mechanical stress was consistent with the turgor pressure of compressed cells. Therefore our set-up could be a basis for testing mechanical models of cellular growth.

  3. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

  4. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  5. Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

  6. Local and Systemic Regulation of Plant Root System Architecture and Symbiotic Nodulation by a Receptor-Like Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Huault, Emeline; Laffont, Carole; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Ratet, Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Frugier, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In plants, root system architecture is determined by the activity of root apical meristems, which control the root growth rate, and by the formation of lateral roots. In legumes, an additional root lateral organ can develop: the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodule. We identified in Medicago truncatula ten allelic mutants showing a compact root architecture phenotype (cra2) independent of any major shoot phenotype, and that consisted of shorter roots, an increased number of lateral roots, and a reduced number of nodules. The CRA2 gene encodes a Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) that primarily negatively regulates lateral root formation and positively regulates symbiotic nodulation. Grafting experiments revealed that CRA2 acts through different pathways to regulate these lateral organs originating from the roots, locally controlling the lateral root development and nodule formation systemically from the shoots. The CRA2 LRR-RLK therefore integrates short- and long-distance regulations to control root system architecture under non-symbiotic and symbiotic conditions. PMID:25521478

  7. A novel bioassay using root re-growth in Lemna.

    PubMed

    Park, Areum; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

    2013-09-15

    A new phytotoxicity test method based on root elongation of three Lemna species (Lemna gibba, L. minor, and L. paucicostata) has been developed. Tests with aquatic plants have, typically, favored measurements on fronds (e.g. frond number, area, biomass) rather than on roots, due, in part, to issues associated with handling fragile roots and the time-consuming procedures of selecting roots with identical root lengths. The present method differs in that roots were excised prior to exposure with subsequent measurements on newly developed roots. Results show that there were species-specific difference in sensitivity to the five metals tested (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg), with Ag being the most toxic (EC50=5.3-37.6 μgL(-1)) to all three species, and Cr the least toxic for L. gibba and L. minor (1148.3 and 341.8 μgL(-1), respectively) and Cu for L. paucicostata (470.4 μgL(-1)). Direct comparisons were made with measurements of frond area, which were found to be less sensitive. More generally, root re-growth was shown to reflect the toxic responses of all three Lemna species to these five important metals. The root growth bioassay differs from three internationally standardized methods (ISO, OCED and US EPA) in that it is completed in 48 h, the required volume of test solutions is only 3 ml and non-axenic plants are used. Our results show that the Lemna root method is a simple, rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and precise bioassay to assess the toxic risks of metals and has practical application for monitoring municipal and industrial waste waters where metals are common constituents. PMID:23917640

  8. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-08-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation. PMID:27521602

  9. RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Evan; Vu, Lam Dai; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Lin, Zhefeng; Ramakrishna, Priya; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Gaudinier, Allison; Goh, Tatsuaki; Slane, Daniel; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Brady, Siobhan M.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    In plants, many signalling molecules, such as phytohormones, miRNAs, transcription factors, and small signalling peptides, drive growth and development. However, very few small signalling peptides have been shown to be necessary for lateral root development. Here, we describe the role of the peptide RALFL34 during early events in lateral root development, and demonstrate its specific importance in orchestrating formative cell divisions in the pericycle. Our results further suggest that this small signalling peptide acts on the transcriptional cascade leading to a new lateral root upstream of GATA23, an important player in lateral root formation. In addition, we describe a role for ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERFs) in regulating RALFL34 expression. Taken together, we put forward RALFL34 as a new, important player in lateral root initiation. PMID:27521602

  10. Water supply and not nitrate concentration determines primary root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nick; Whalley, W Richard; Lindsey, Keith; Miller, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    Understanding how root system architecture (RSA) adapts to changing nitrogen and water availability is important for improving acquisition. A sand rhizotron system was developed to study RSA in a porous substrate under tightly regulated nutrient supply. The RSA of Arabidopsis seedlings under differing nitrate (NO₃⁻) and water supplies in agar and sand was described. The hydraulic conductivity of the root environment was manipulated by using altered sand particle size and matric potentials. Ion-selective microelectrodes were used to quantify NO₃⁻ at the surface of growing primary roots in sands of different particle sizes. Differences in RSA were observed between seedlings grown on agar and sand, and the influence of NO₃⁻ (0.1-10.0 mm) and water on RSA was determined. Primary root length (PRL) was a function of water flux and independent of NO₃⁻. The percentage of roots with laterals correlated with water flux, whereas NO₃⁻ supply was important for basal root (BR) growth. In agar and sand, the NO₃⁻ activities at the root surface were higher than those supplied in the nutrient solution. The sand rhizotron system is a useful tool for the study of RSA, providing a porous growth environment that can be used to simulate the effects of hydraulic conductivity on growth. PMID:21707650

  11. Regulation of plant root system architecture: implications for crop advancement.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Eric D; Benfey, Philip N

    2015-04-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) plays a major role in plant fitness, crop performance, and grain yield yet only recently has this role been appreciated. RSA describes the spatial arrangement of root tissue within the soil and is therefore crucial to nutrient and water uptake. Recent studies have identified many of the genetic and environmental factors influencing root growth that contribute to RSA. Some of the identified genes have the potential to limit crop loss caused by environmental extremes and are currently being used to confer drought tolerance. It is hypothesized that manipulating these and other genes that influence RSA will be pivotal for future crop advancements worldwide. PMID:25448235

  12. NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize*

    PubMed Central

    Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

  13. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shihui; Li, Zhexin; Yuan, Huwei; Fang, Pan; Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  14. Plant microRNAs: key regulators of root architecture and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Combier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity. Among the different molecular partners governing root development, microRNAs (miRNAs) are key players for the fast regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are small RNAs involved in most developmental processes and are required for the normal growth of organisms, by the negative regulation of key genes, such as transcription factors and hormone receptors. Here, we review the known roles of miRNAs in root specification and development, from the embryonic roots to the establishment of root symbioses, highlighting the major roles of miRNAs in these processes. PMID:27292927

  15. HAWAIIAN SKIRT regulates the quiescent center-independent meristem activity in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sol; Choe, Goh; Sebastian, Jose; Ryu, Kook Hui; Mao, Linyong; Fei, Zhangjun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-01

    Root apical meristem (RAM) drives post-embryonic root growth by constantly supplying cells through mitosis. It is composed of stem cells and their derivatives, the transit-amplifying (TA) cells. Stem cell organization and its maintenance in the RAM are well characterized, however, their relationships with TA cells remain unclear. SHORTROOT (SHR) is critical for root development. It patterns cell types and promotes the post-embryonic root growth. Defective root growth in the shr has been ascribed to the lack of quiescent center (QC), which maintains the surrounding stem cells. However, our recent investigation indicated that SHR maintains TA cells independently of QC by modulating PHABULOSA (PHB) through miRNA165/6. PHB controls TA cell activity by modulating cytokinin levels and type B Arabidopsis Response Regulator activity, in a dosage-dependent manner. To further understand TA cell regulation, we conducted a shr suppressor screen. With an extensive mutagenesis screen followed by genome sequencing of a pooled F2 population, we discovered two suppressor alleles with mutations in HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS). HWS, encoding an F-box protein with kelch domain, is expressed, partly depending on SHR, in the root cap and in the pericycle of the differentiation zone. Interestingly, root growth in the shr hws was more active than the wild-type roots for the first 7 days after germination, without recovering QC. Contrary to shr phb, shr hws did not show a recovery of cytokinin signaling. These indicate that HWS affects QC-independent TA cell activities through a pathway distinctive from PHB. PMID:26968317

  16. The nitrate transporter MtNPF6.8 (MtNRT1.3) transports abscisic acid and mediates nitrate regulation of primary root growth in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Pellizzaro, Anthoni; Clochard, Thibault; Cukier, Caroline; Bourdin, Céline; Juchaux, Marjorie; Montrichard, Françoise; Thany, Steeve; Raymond, Valérie; Planchet, Elisabeth; Limami, Anis M; Morère-Le Paven, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Elongation of the primary root during postgermination of Medicago truncatula seedlings is a multigenic trait that is responsive to exogenous nitrate. A quantitative genetic approach suggested the involvement of the nitrate transporter MtNPF6.8 (for Medicago truncatula NITRATE TRANSPORTER1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER Family6.8) in the inhibition of primary root elongation by high exogenous nitrate. In this study, the inhibitory effect of nitrate on primary root elongation, via inhibition of elongation of root cortical cells, was abolished in npf6.8 knockdown lines. Accordingly, we propose that MtNPF6.8 mediates nitrate inhibitory effects on primary root growth in M. truncatula. pMtNPF6.8:GUS promoter-reporter gene fusion in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic roots showed the expression of MtNPF6.8 in the pericycle region of primary roots and lateral roots, and in lateral root primordia and tips. MtNPF6.8 expression was insensitive to auxin and was stimulated by abscisic acid (ABA), which restored the inhibitory effect of nitrate in npf6.8 knockdown lines. It is then proposed that ABA acts downstream of MtNPF6.8 in this nitrate signaling pathway. Furthermore, MtNPF6.8 was shown to transport ABA in Xenopus spp. oocytes, suggesting an additional role of MtNPF6.8 in ABA root-to-shoot translocation. (15)NO3(-)-influx experiments showed that only the inducible component of the low-affinity transport system was affected in npf6.8 knockdown lines. This indicates that MtNPF6.8 is a major contributor to the inducible component of the low-affinity transport system. The short-term induction by nitrate of the expression of Nitrate Reductase1 (NR1) and NR2 (genes that encode two nitrate reductase isoforms) was greatly reduced in the npf6.8 knockdown lines, supporting a role of MtNPF6.8 in the primary nitrate response in M. truncatula. PMID:25367858

  17. Root growth studies of willow cuttings using Rhizoboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Dinara; Lammeranner, Walter; Florineth, Florin

    2014-05-01

    Riparian forests (Tugay forests) in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) play a significant in soil protection. However, unadapted forest use leads to damage and loss of these fragile ecosystems. Willows have a crucial function in the ecosystem of these riparian forests. Willows facilitate the colonization with other important tree species and furthermore they protect the soil from wind and water erosion. To propagate willows and to estimate the beneficial effects of these plants it is important to know the root growth development. The research design is planned as model experiment with rhizoboxes. Rhizoboxes are non-invasive investigation methods which offer the possibility to survey the root system growth dynamics in time and space. A total of 33 rhizoboxes in size of 50cm x 75 cm x 5 cm will be constructed. The rhizoboxes will be tilted by 45 degrees using the gravitropism of the roots. The willow cuttings (Salix purpurea) will be planted in three different soil types. Each test series (growth period) will take three months. Investigated parameters will be root architecture, dynamic of root growth and above and below ground biomass allocation. Data will be drawn from photographic surveys which will be performed once a week. The contribution will present the methodology of these rhizobox investigations.

  18. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  19. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  20. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  1. ABA-Mediated ROS in Mitochondria Regulate Root Meristem Activity by Controlling PLETHORA Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Jing; He, Junna; Qin, Yingying; Hua, Deping; Duan, Ying; Chen, Zhizhong; Gong, Zhizhong

    2014-01-01

    Although research has determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules in plant development, the molecular mechanism by which ROS regulate plant growth is not well known. An aba overly sensitive mutant, abo8-1, which is defective in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein responsible for the splicing of NAD4 intron 3 in mitochondrial complex I, accumulates more ROS in root tips than the wild type, and the ROS accumulation is further enhanced by ABA treatment. The ABO8 mutation reduces root meristem activity, which can be enhanced by ABA treatment and reversibly recovered by addition of certain concentrations of the reducing agent GSH. As indicated by low ProDR5:GUS expression, auxin accumulation/signaling was reduced in abo8-1. We also found that ABA inhibits the expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, and that root growth is more sensitive to ABA in the plt1 and plt2 mutants than in the wild type. The expression of PLT1 and PLT2 is significantly reduced in the abo8-1 mutant. Overexpression of PLT2 in an inducible system can largely rescue root apical meristem (RAM)-defective phenotype of abo8-1 with and without ABA treatment. These results suggest that ABA-promoted ROS in the mitochondria of root tips are important retrograde signals that regulate root meristem activity by controlling auxin accumulation/signaling and PLT expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25522358

  2. Regulation of phytochrome message abundance in root caps of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. M.; Pao, L. I.; Feldman, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    In many cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) red light affects root development via the photomorphogenetic pigment phytochrome. The site of perception for the light is the root cap. In the maize cultivar Merit, we investigated phytochrome-mediated events in the cap. We established that the message encoded by the phyA1 gene was most abundant in dark-grown tissue and was asymmetrically distributed in the root cap, with greatest expression in the cells which make up the central columella core of the cap. Phytochrome message was negatively autoregulated in a specific region within the root cap. This autoregulation was sensitive to very-low-fluence red light, and thus was characterized as a phytochrome-mediated, very-low-fluence event. The kinetics of message reaccumulation in the dark were also examined and compared to the kinetics of the light requirement for root gravitropism in this cultivar. Similarly, the degree of autoregulation present in two other maize cultivars with different light requirements for gravitropic sensitivity was investigated. It appears that the Merit cultivar expresses a condition of hypersensitivity to phytochrome-mediated light regulation in root tissues. We conclude that phytochrome regulates many activities within the cap, but the degree to which these activities share common phytochrome-mediated steps is not known.

  3. SCFTIR1/AFB-auxin signalling regulates PIN vacuolar trafficking and auxin fluxes during root gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Baster, Paweł; Robert, Stéphanie; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Kania, Urszula; Grunewald, Wim; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Friml, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the phytohormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant development including growth response to gravity. Gravitropic root curvature involves coordinated and asymmetric cell elongation between the lower and upper side of the root, mediated by differential cellular auxin levels. The asymmetry in the auxin distribution is established and maintained by a spatio-temporal regulation of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporter activity. We provide novel insights into the complex regulation of PIN abundance and activity during root gravitropism. We show that PIN2 turnover is differentially regulated on the upper and lower side of gravistimulated roots by distinct but partially overlapping auxin feedback mechanisms. In addition to regulating transcription and clathrin-mediated internalization, auxin also controls PIN abundance at the plasma membrane by promoting their vacuolar targeting and degradation. This effect of elevated auxin levels requires the activity of SKP-Cullin-F-boxTIR1/AFB (SCFTIR1/AFB)-dependent pathway. Importantly, also suboptimal auxin levels mediate PIN degradation utilizing the same signalling pathway. These feedback mechanisms are functionally important during gravitropic response and ensure fine-tuning of auxin fluxes for maintaining as well as terminating asymmetric growth. PMID:23211744

  4. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  5. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  6. ROOTING RESPONSE OF SHOOT CUTTINGS FROM THREE PEACH GROWTH HABITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current year shoot cuttings were collected in October and August from three growth habits of peach (Compact, Pillar, and Standard), treated with one of four concentrations of indole butyric acid (0, 250, 1250, and 2500 mg L-1 IBA). Rooting response was measured after five weeks in the greenhouse. ...

  7. The LIKE SEX FOUR2 regulates root development by modulating reactive oxygen species homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pingzhi; Sokolov, Lubomir N; Ye, Jian; Tang, Cheng-Yi; Shi, Jisen; Zhen, Yan; Lan, Wenzhi; Hong, Zhi; Qi, Jinliang; Lu, Gui-Hua; Pandey, Girdhar K; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis plays a central role in plants, and is also critical for plant root development. Threshold levels of ROS act as signals for elongation and differentiation of root cells. The protein phosphatase LIKE SEX FOUR2 (LSF2) has been reported to regulate starch metabolism in Arabidopsis, but little is known about the mechanism how LSF2 affect ROS homeostasis. Here, we identified that LSF2 function as a component modulating ROS homeostasis in response to oxidative stress and, thus regulate root development. Compared with wild type Arabidopsis, lsf2-1 mutant exhibited reduced rates of superoxide generation and higher levels of hydrogen peroxide upon oxidative stress treatments. The activities of several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, were also affected in lsf2-1 mutant under these oxidative stress conditions. Consequently, lsf2-1 mutant exhibited the reduced root growth but less inhibition of root hair formation compared to wild type Arabidopsis plants. Importantly, protein phosphatase LSF2 interacted with mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MPK8), a known component of ROS homeostasis pathways in the cytoplasm. These findings indicated the novel function of LSF2 that controls ROS homeostasis to regulate root development. PMID:27349915

  8. The LIKE SEX FOUR2 regulates root development by modulating reactive oxygen species homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pingzhi; Sokolov, Lubomir N.; Ye, Jian; Tang, Cheng-Yi; Shi, Jisen; Zhen, Yan; Lan, Wenzhi; Hong, Zhi; Qi, Jinliang; Lu, Gui-Hua; Pandey, Girdhar K.; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis plays a central role in plants, and is also critical for plant root development. Threshold levels of ROS act as signals for elongation and differentiation of root cells. The protein phosphatase LIKE SEX FOUR2 (LSF2) has been reported to regulate starch metabolism in Arabidopsis, but little is known about the mechanism how LSF2 affect ROS homeostasis. Here, we identified that LSF2 function as a component modulating ROS homeostasis in response to oxidative stress and, thus regulate root development. Compared with wild type Arabidopsis, lsf2-1 mutant exhibited reduced rates of superoxide generation and higher levels of hydrogen peroxide upon oxidative stress treatments. The activities of several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, were also affected in lsf2-1 mutant under these oxidative stress conditions. Consequently, lsf2-1 mutant exhibited the reduced root growth but less inhibition of root hair formation compared to wild type Arabidopsis plants. Importantly, protein phosphatase LSF2 interacted with mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MPK8), a known component of ROS homeostasis pathways in the cytoplasm. These findings indicated the novel function of LSF2 that controls ROS homeostasis to regulate root development. PMID:27349915

  9. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III.

    PubMed

    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin. PMID:26473454

  10. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on rooting and root growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Yasar; Ercisli, Sezai; Haznedar, Ayhan; Cakmakci, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the rooting and root growth of semi-hardwood and hardwood kiwifruit stem cuttings were investigated. The PGPR used were Bacillus RC23, Paenibacillus polymyxa RC05, Bacillus subtilis OSU142, Bacillus RC03, Comamonas acidovorans RC41, Bacillus megaterium RC01 and Bacillus simplex RC19. All the bacteria showed indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing capacity. Among the PGPR used, the highest rooting ratios were obtained at 47.50% for semi-hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03 and Bacillus simplex RC19 treatments and 42.50% for hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03. As well, Comamonas acidovorans RC41 inoculations indicated higher value than control treatments. The results suggest that these PGPR can be used in organic nursery material production and point to the feasibility of synthetic auxin (IBA) replacement by organic management based on PGPR. PMID:21157636

  11. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    PubMed Central

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs by using a green-fluorescent-protein-talin reporter and shown to form a dense mesh in the apex of the growing tip. The kojak gene, which encodes a protein similar to the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, is needed in the first stages of hair growth. A role for LRX1, a leucine-rich repeat extensin, in determining the morphology of the cell wall of root hairs has been established using reverse genetics. The new information can be integrated into a general and more advanced view of how these specialized plant cells grow. PMID:12079677

  12. Transient growth responses of the primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    List, A

    1969-03-01

    1. The technique of streak photography was modified to use seven parallel cameras, each focused on an individual root in a guide holding flowing nutrient. Streak photographs representing displacement of points on the longitudinal axis of the root were projected on the table of an image plane digitizer. The displacement data are collected on cards by an IBM 526 key punch and processed by an IBM 360-65 computer. All graphic data were plotted by an EAI line plotter having a resolution of 600 lines per inch. 2. Roots of corn held at a temperature of 25°, a pH of 5.6, with constant oxygen concentration and basic nutrient composition, were subjected to step changes in oxygen and auxin (3-indoleacetic acid, IAA) concentrations. When O2 was lowered the response of the root consisted of a large reduction in growth rate followed by a series of oscillations with a period of about 30-50 min. Step changes in IAA from 0-10(-8)M (or less) resulted in heavily dampened oscillatory responses as well as reduction in growth rate. 10(-7) M IAA, however, elicited the initial inhibition followed by full recovery of growth rate after a few hours. PMID:24504710

  13. Multiscale Systems Analysis of Root Growth and Development: Modeling Beyond the Network and Cellular Scales

    PubMed Central

    Band, Leah R.; Fozard, John A.; Godin, Christophe; Jensen, Oliver E.; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm J.; King, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, we have gained detailed knowledge of many processes involved in root growth and development. However, with this knowledge come increasing complexity and an increasing need for mechanistic modeling to understand how those individual processes interact. One major challenge is in relating genotypes to phenotypes, requiring us to move beyond the network and cellular scales, to use multiscale modeling to predict emergent dynamics at the tissue and organ levels. In this review, we highlight recent developments in multiscale modeling, illustrating how these are generating new mechanistic insights into the regulation of root growth and development. We consider how these models are motivating new biological data analysis and explore directions for future research. This modeling progress will be crucial as we move from a qualitative to an increasingly quantitative understanding of root biology, generating predictive tools that accelerate the development of improved crop varieties. PMID:23110897

  14. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Methods Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. Key Results All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Conclusions Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of

  15. The Correlation of Profiles of Surface pH and Elongation Growth in Maize Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Winfried S.; Felle, Hubert H.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution profiles of surface pH and growth along vertically growing maize (Zea mays) primary root tips were determined simultaneously by pH-sensitive microelectrodes and marking experiments. Methodological tests were carried out that proved the reliability of our kinematic growth analysis, while questioning the validity of an alternative technique employed previously. A distal acidic zone around the meristematic region and a proximal one around the elongation zone proper were detected. This pattern as such persisted irrespective of the bulk pH value. The proximal acidic region coincided with maximum relative elemental growth rates (REGR), and both characters reacted in a correlated manner to auxin and cyanide. The distal acidic band was unrelated to growth, but was abolished by cyanide treatment. We conclude that: (a) the pattern of surface pH as such is a regulated feature of growing root tips; (b) the correlation of extracellular pH and growth rate suggests a functional relationship only along proximal portions of the growing root tip; and (c) the distal acidic band is not caused by pH buffering by root cap mucilage, as suggested previously, but rather is controlled by cellular activity. PMID:10557239

  16. The compact root architecture1 gene regulates lignification, flavonoid production, and polar auxin transport in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Carole; Blanchet, Sandrine; Lapierre, Catherine; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Crespi, Martin; Mathesius, Ulrike; Frugier, Florian

    2010-08-01

    The root system architecture is crucial to adapt plant growth to changing soil environmental conditions and consequently to maintain crop yield. In addition to root branching through lateral roots, legumes can develop another organ, the nitrogen-fixing nodule, upon a symbiotic bacterial interaction. A mutant, cra1, showing compact root architecture was identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula. cra1 roots were short and thick due to defects in cell elongation, whereas densities of lateral roots and symbiotic nodules were similar to the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that a lengthened life cycle in cra1 was due to the smaller root system and not to the pleiotropic shoot phenotypes observed in the mutant. Analysis of the cra1 transcriptome at a similar early developmental stage revealed few significant changes, mainly related to cell wall metabolism. The most down-regulated gene in the cra1 mutant encodes a Caffeic Acid O-Methyl Transferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis; accordingly, whole lignin content was decreased in cra1 roots. This correlated with differential accumulation of specific flavonoids and decreased polar auxin transport in cra1 mutants. Exogenous application of the isoflavone formononetin to wild-type plants mimicked the cra1 root phenotype, whereas decreasing flavonoid content through silencing chalcone synthases restored the polar auxin transport capacity of the cra1 mutant. The CRA1 gene, therefore, may control legume root growth through the regulation of lignin and flavonoid profiles, leading to changes in polar auxin transport. PMID:20522723

  17. High-throughput 2D root system phenotyping platform facilitates genetic analysis of root growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput phenotyping of root systems requires a combination of specialized techniques and adaptable plant growth, root imaging and software tools. A custom phenotyping platform was designed to capture images of whole root systems, and novel software tools were developed to process and analyz...

  18. Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Mori, Ayaka; Yasue, Naoko; Sumida, Kumiko; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-04-01

    A peptide hormone, root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulates root meristem development through the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor pathway, but it remains to be uncovered how extracellular RGF signals are transduced to the nucleus. Here we identified, using a combination of a custom-made receptor kinase (RK) expression library and exhaustive photoaffinity labeling, three leucine-rich repeat RKs (LRR-RKs) that directly interact with RGF peptides in Arabidopsis These three LRR-RKs, which we named RGFR1, RGFR2, and RGFR3, are expressed in root tissues including the proximal meristem, the elongation zone, and the differentiation zone. The triple rgfr mutant was insensitive to externally applied RGF peptide and displayed a short root phenotype accompanied by a considerable decrease in meristematic cell number. In addition, PLT1 and PLT2 protein gradients, observed as a gradual gradient decreasing toward the elongation zone from the stem cell area in wild type, steeply declined at the root tip in the triple mutant. Because RGF peptides have been shown to create a diffusion-based concentration gradient extending from the stem cell area, our results strongly suggest that RGFRs mediate the transformation of an RGF peptide gradient into a PLT protein gradient in the proximal meristem, thereby acting as key regulators of root meristem development. PMID:27001831

  19. The role of auxin and ethylene for gravitropic differential growth of coleoptiles and roots of rye- and maize seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, H. G.; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The relevance of auxin and ethylene for differential gravitropic growth has been analyzed both in shoots and roots of etiolated rye- and maize seedlings. As previously demonstrated for indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), incubation of coleoptiles in dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) resulted in a two- to threefold length increase compared to water controls. In spite of this immense effect on elongation growth, gravi-curvature was similar to water controls. In contrast, inhibition of ethylene synthesis prevented differential growth of abraded coleoptiles as well as of roots without a significant inhibiting effect on elongation. Inhibition of ethylene perception in horizontally stimulated maize roots growing on surfaces eliminated the capacity of the roots to adapt growth to the surface and a vertical orientation of the root tip. This effect is accompanied by up- and down-regulation of a number of proteins as detected with the 2D-MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight) method. Exogenous ethylene inhibited growth but enhanced gravitropic curvature in roots that were "freely" gravistimulated in a horizontal position, exhibiting a pronounced "waving" behavior. Together the data challenge the regulatory relevance of IAA-redistribution for gravitropic differential growth. They corroborate the crucial regulatory relevance of ethylene for gravitropic growth, in both roots and coleoptiles.

  20. The cytokinin response factors modulate root and shoot growth and promote leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Raines, Tracy; Shanks, Carly; Cheng, Chia-Yi; McPherson, Duncan; Argueso, Cristiana T; Kim, Hyo J; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Vaňková, Radomíra; Schaller, G Eric; Kieber, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinin response factors (CRFs) are a group of related AP2/ERF transcription factors that are transcriptionally induced by cytokinin. Here we explore the role of the CRFs in Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development by analyzing lines with decreased and increased CRF function. While single crf mutations have no appreciable phenotypes, disruption of multiple CRFs results in larger rosettes, delayed leaf senescence, a smaller root apical meristem (RAM), reduced primary and lateral root growth, and, in etiolated seedlings, shorter hypocotyls. In contrast, overexpression of CRFs generally results in the opposite phenotypes. The crf1,2,5,6 quadruple mutant is embryo lethal, indicating that CRF function is essential for embryo development. Disruption of the CRFs results in partially insensitivity to cytokinin in a root elongation assay and affects the basal expression of a significant number of cytokinin-regulated genes, including the type-A ARRs, although it does not impair the cytokinin induction of the type-A ARRs. Genes encoding homeobox transcription factors are mis-expressed in the crf1,3,5,6 mutant, including STIMPY/WOX9 that is required for root and shoot apical meristem maintenance roots and which has previously been linked to cytokinin. These results indicate that the CRF transcription factors play important roles in multiple aspects of plant growth and development, in part through a complex interaction with cytokinin signaling. PMID:26662515

  1. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers. PMID:21410712

  2. Growth rate distribution in the forming lateral root of arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowska-Pułka, Joanna; Lipowczan, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Microscopic observations of lateral roots (LRs) in Arabidopsis thaliana reveal that the cross-sectional shape of the organ changes from its basal to its apical region. The founder cells for LRs are elongated along the parent root axis, and thus from the site of initiation the base of LRs resemble an ellipse. The circumference of the apical part of LRs is usually a circle. The objective of this study was to analyse the characteristics of changes in the growth field of LRs possessing various shapes in their basal regions. Methods The LRs of the wild type (Col-0) and two transgenic arabidopsis lines were analysed. On the basis of measurements of the long and short diameters (DL and DS, respectively) of the ellipse-like figure representing the bases of particular LRs, their asymmetry ratios (DL/DS) were determined. Possible differences between accessions were analysed by applying statistical methods. Key Results No significant differences between accessions were detected. Comparisons were therefore made of the maximal, minimal and mean value of the ratio of all the LRs analysed. Taking into consideration the lack of circular symmetry of the basal part, rates of growth were determined at selected points on the surface of LRs by the application of the growth tensor method, a mathematical tool previously applied only to describe organs with rotational symmetry. Maps showing the distribution of growth rates were developed for surfaces of LRs of various asymmetry ratios. Conclusions The maps of growth rates on the surfaces of LRs having various shapes of the basal part show differences in both the geometry and the manner of growth, thus indicating that the manner of growth of the LR primordium is correlated to its shape. This is the first report of a description of growth of an asymmetric plant organ using the growth tensor method. The mathematical modelling adopted in the study provides new insights into plant organ formation and shape. PMID:25108392

  3. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol metabolism has been well studied biochemically. However, the means by which glycerol functions in plant development is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of glycerol on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous glycerol inhibited primary root growth and altered lateral root development in wild-type plants. These phenotypes appeared concurrently with increased endogenous glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and H2O2 contents in seedlings, and decreased phosphate levels in roots. Upon glycerol treatment, G3P level and root development did not change in glycerol kinase mutant gli1, but G3P level increased in gpdhc1 and fad-gpdh mutants, which resulted in more severely impaired root development. Overexpression of the FAD-GPDH gene attenuated the alterations in G3P, phosphate and H2O2 levels, leading to increased tolerance to exogenous glycerol, which suggested that FAD-GPDH plays an important role in modulating this response. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content increased by 46%, and DR5pro::GUS staining increased in the stele cells of the root meristem under glycerol treatment, suggesting that glycerol likely alters normal auxin distribution. Decreases in PIN1 and PIN7 expression, β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining in plants expressing PIN7pro::GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in plants expressing PIN7pro::PIN7-GFP were observed, indicating that polar auxin transport in the root was downregulated under glycerol treatment. Analyses with auxin-related mutants showed that TIR1 and ARF7 were involved in regulating root growth under glycerol treatment. Glycerol-treated plants showed significant reductions in root meristem size and cell number as revealed by CYCB1;1pro::GUS staining. Furthermore, the expression of CDKA and CYCB1 decreased significantly in treated plants compared with control plants, implying possible alterations in cell cycle progression. Our data demonstrated that glycerol

  4. Glycerol Affects Root Development through Regulation of Multiple Pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol metabolism has been well studied biochemically. However, the means by which glycerol functions in plant development is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of glycerol on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous glycerol inhibited primary root growth and altered lateral root development in wild-type plants. These phenotypes appeared concurrently with increased endogenous glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and H2O2 contents in seedlings, and decreased phosphate levels in roots. Upon glycerol treatment, G3P level and root development did not change in glycerol kinase mutant gli1, but G3P level increased in gpdhc1 and fad-gpdh mutants, which resulted in more severely impaired root development. Overexpression of the FAD-GPDH gene attenuated the alterations in G3P, phosphate and H2O2 levels, leading to increased tolerance to exogenous glycerol, which suggested that FAD-GPDH plays an important role in modulating this response. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content increased by 46%, and DR5pro::GUS staining increased in the stele cells of the root meristem under glycerol treatment, suggesting that glycerol likely alters normal auxin distribution. Decreases in PIN1 and PIN7 expression, β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining in plants expressing PIN7pro::GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in plants expressing PIN7pro::PIN7-GFP were observed, indicating that polar auxin transport in the root was downregulated under glycerol treatment. Analyses with auxin-related mutants showed that TIR1 and ARF7 were involved in regulating root growth under glycerol treatment. Glycerol-treated plants showed significant reductions in root meristem size and cell number as revealed by CYCB1;1pro::GUS staining. Furthermore, the expression of CDKA and CYCB1 decreased significantly in treated plants compared with control plants, implying possible alterations in cell cycle progression. Our data demonstrated that glycerol

  5. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  6. Recent Advances in Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms Regulating the Root System Response to Phosphate Deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bouain, Nadia; Doumas, Patrick; Rouached, Hatem

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is the major form of P taken up from the soil by plant roots. It is well established that under Pi deficiency condition, plant roots undergo striking morphological changes; mainly a reduction in primary root length while increase in lateral root length as well as root hair length and density. This typical phenotypic change reflects complex interactions with other nutrients such as iron, and involves the activity of a large spectrum of plant hormones. Although, several key proteins involved in the regulation of root growth under Pi-deficiency have been identified in Arabidopsis, how plants adapt roots system architecture in response to Pi availability remains an open question. In the current post-genomic era, state of the art technologies like high-throughput phenotyping and sequencing platforms,"omics" methods, together with the widespread use of system biology and genome-wide association studies will help to elucidate the genetic architectures of root growth on different Pi regimes. It is clear that the large-scale characterization of molecular systems will improve our understanding of nutrient stress phenotype and biology. Herein, we summarize the recent advances and future directions towards a better understanding of Arabidopsis root developmental programs functional under Pi deficiency. Such a progress is necessary to devise strategies to improve the Pi use efficiency in plants that is an important issue for agriculture. PMID:27499680

  7. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions. PMID:27310473

  8. Growth in Turface® clay permits root hair phenotyping along the entire crown root in cereal crops and demonstrates that root hair growth can extend well beyond the root hair zone.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Watts, Sophia; Shearer, Charles; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    In cereal crops, root hairs are reported to function within the root hair zone to carry out important roles in nutrient and water absorption. Nevertheless, these single cells remain understudied due to the practical challenges of phenotyping these delicate structures in large cereal crops growing on soil or other growth systems. Here we present an alternative growth system for examining the root hairs of cereal crops: the use of coarse Turface® clay alongside fertigation. This system allowed for root hairs to be easily visualized along the entire lengths of crown roots in three different cereal crops (maize, wheat, and finger millet). Surprisingly, we observed that the root hairs in these crops continued to grow beyond the canonical root hair zone, with the most root hair growth occurring on older crown root segments. We suggest that the Turface® fertigation system may permit a better understanding of the changing dynamics of root hairs as they age in large plants, and may facilitate new avenues for crop improvement below ground. However, the relevance of this system to field conditions must be further evaluated in other crops. PMID:25889276

  9. Phenotyping pipeline reveals major seedling root growth QTL in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Marcus; Pound, Michael P.; Gaju, Oorbessy; Foulkes, M. John; Le Gouis, Jacques; Griffiths, Simon; Bennett, Malcolm J.; King, Julie; Wells, Darren M.

    2015-01-01

    Seedling root traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been shown to be important for efficient establishment and linked to mature plant traits such as height and yield. A root phenotyping pipeline, consisting of a germination paper-based screen combined with image segmentation and analysis software, was developed and used to characterize seedling traits in 94 doubled haploid progeny derived from a cross between the winter wheat cultivars Rialto and Savannah. Field experiments were conducted to measure mature plant height, grain yield, and nitrogen (N) uptake in three sites over 2 years. In total, 29 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling root traits were identified. Two QTLs for grain yield and N uptake co-localize with root QTLs on chromosomes 2B and 7D, respectively. Of the 29 root QTLs identified, 11 were found to co-localize on 6D, with four of these achieving highly significant logarithm of odds scores (>20). These results suggest the presence of a major-effect gene regulating seedling root vigour/growth on chromosome 6D. PMID:25740921

  10. Phenotyping pipeline reveals major seedling root growth QTL in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Marcus; Pound, Michael P; Gaju, Oorbessy; Foulkes, M John; Le Gouis, Jacques; Griffiths, Simon; Bennett, Malcolm J; King, Julie; Wells, Darren M

    2015-04-01

    Seedling root traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been shown to be important for efficient establishment and linked to mature plant traits such as height and yield. A root phenotyping pipeline, consisting of a germination paper-based screen combined with image segmentation and analysis software, was developed and used to characterize seedling traits in 94 doubled haploid progeny derived from a cross between the winter wheat cultivars Rialto and Savannah. Field experiments were conducted to measure mature plant height, grain yield, and nitrogen (N) uptake in three sites over 2 years. In total, 29 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling root traits were identified. Two QTLs for grain yield and N uptake co-localize with root QTLs on chromosomes 2B and 7D, respectively. Of the 29 root QTLs identified, 11 were found to co-localize on 6D, with four of these achieving highly significant logarithm of odds scores (>20). These results suggest the presence of a major-effect gene regulating seedling root vigour/growth on chromosome 6D. PMID:25740921

  11. Antioxidative activity and growth regulation of Brassicaceae induced by oxygen radical irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuya; Ono, Reoto; Shiratani, Masaharu; Yonesu, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The growth regulation characteristics of plants are investigated when plant seeds are irradiated with atmospheric discharge plasma. Enhancement of the germination and lengths of the stem and root of plants are observed after seeding. The total length of the stem and root increases approximately 1.6 times after a cultivation period of 72 h. The growth regulation effect is found to be maintained for 80 h of cultivation after seeding. The growth regulation originates from the change in the antioxidative activity of plant cells induced by active oxygen species generated in the oxygen plasma, which leads to the production of growth factor in plants.

  12. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-11-01

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50mg/L for radish, and about 20mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:17374428

  13. The MADS transcription factor XAL2/AGL14 modulates auxin transport during Arabidopsis root development by regulating PIN expression

    PubMed Central

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; Ortiz-Moreno, Enrique; de la Paz Sánchez, María; Murphy, Angus S; García-Ponce, Berenice; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pacheco-Escobedo, Mario A; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Pelaz, Soraya; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating molecular links between cell-fate regulatory networks and dynamic patterning modules is a key for understanding development. Auxin is important for plant patterning, particularly in roots, where it establishes positional information for cell-fate decisions. PIN genes encode plasma membrane proteins that serve as auxin efflux transporters; mutations in members of this gene family exhibit smaller roots with altered root meristems and stem-cell patterning. Direct regulators of PIN transcription have remained elusive. Here, we establish that a MADS-box gene (XAANTAL2, XAL2/AGL14) controls auxin transport via PIN transcriptional regulation during Arabidopsis root development; mutations in this gene exhibit altered stem-cell patterning, root meristem size, and root growth. XAL2 is necessary for normal shootward and rootward auxin transport, as well as for maintaining normal auxin distribution within the root. Furthermore, this MADS-domain transcription factor upregulates PIN1 and PIN4 by direct binding to regulatory regions and it is required for PIN4-dependent auxin response. In turn, XAL2 expression is regulated by auxin levels thus establishing a positive feedback loop between auxin levels and PIN regulation that is likely to be important for robust root patterning. PMID:24121311

  14. The Interaction between Rice ERF3 and WOX11 Promotes Crown Root Development by Regulating Gene Expression Involved in Cytokinin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Cheng, Saifeng; Song, Yaling; Huang, Yulan; Zhou, Shaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2015-09-01

    Crown roots are the main components of the fibrous root system in rice (Oryza sativa). WOX11, a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene specifically expressed in the emerging crown root meristem, is a key regulator in crown root development. However, the nature of WOX11 function in crown root development has remained elusive. Here, we identified a rice AP2/ERF protein, ERF3, which interacts with WOX11 and was expressed in crown root initials and during crown root growth. Functional analysis revealed that ERF3 was essential for crown root development and acts in auxin- and cytokinin-responsive gene expression. Downregulation of ERF3 in wox11 mutants produced a more severe root phenotype. Also, increased expression of ERF3 could partially complement wox11, indicating that the two genes functioned cooperatively to regulate crown root development. ERF3 and WOX11 shared a common target, the cytokinin-responsive gene RR2. The expression of ERF3 and WOX11 only partially overlapped, underlining a spatio-temporal control of RR2 expression and crown root development. Furthermore, ERF3-regulated RR2 expression was involved in crown root initiation, while the ERF3/WOX11 interaction likely repressed RR2 during crown root elongation. These results define a mechanism regulating gene expression involved in cytokinin signaling during different stages of crown root development in rice. PMID:26307379

  15. The Interaction between Rice ERF3 and WOX11 Promotes Crown Root Development by Regulating Gene Expression Involved in Cytokinin Signaling[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yaling; Huang, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Crown roots are the main components of the fibrous root system in rice (Oryza sativa). WOX11, a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene specifically expressed in the emerging crown root meristem, is a key regulator in crown root development. However, the nature of WOX11 function in crown root development has remained elusive. Here, we identified a rice AP2/ERF protein, ERF3, which interacts with WOX11 and was expressed in crown root initials and during crown root growth. Functional analysis revealed that ERF3 was essential for crown root development and acts in auxin- and cytokinin-responsive gene expression. Downregulation of ERF3 in wox11 mutants produced a more severe root phenotype. Also, increased expression of ERF3 could partially complement wox11, indicating that the two genes functioned cooperatively to regulate crown root development. ERF3 and WOX11 shared a common target, the cytokinin-responsive gene RR2. The expression of ERF3 and WOX11 only partially overlapped, underlining a spatio-temporal control of RR2 expression and crown root development. Furthermore, ERF3-regulated RR2 expression was involved in crown root initiation, while the ERF3/WOX11 interaction likely repressed RR2 during crown root elongation. These results define a mechanism regulating gene expression involved in cytokinin signaling during different stages of crown root development in rice. PMID:26307379

  16. Transcriptional regulation of PIN genes by FOUR LIPS and MYB88 during Arabidopsis root gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Zhe; Yang, Ke-Zhen; Zou, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Xie, Zi Dian; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao; Friml, Jiří; Grotewold, Erich; Beeckman, Tom; Vanneste, Steffen; Sack, Fred; Le, Jie

    2015-01-01

    PIN proteins are auxin export carriers that direct intercellular auxin flow and in turn regulate many aspects of plant growth and development including responses to environmental changes. The Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factor FOUR LIPS (FLP) and its paralogue MYB88 regulate terminal divisions during stomatal development, as well as female reproductive development and stress responses. Here we show that FLP and MYB88 act redundantly but differentially in regulating the transcription of PIN3 and PIN7 in gravity-sensing cells of primary and lateral roots. On the one hand, FLP is involved in responses to gravity stimulation in primary roots, whereas on the other, FLP and MYB88 function complementarily in establishing the gravitropic set-point angles of lateral roots. Our results support a model in which FLP and MYB88 expression specifically determines the temporal-spatial patterns of PIN3 and PIN7 transcription that are closely associated with their preferential functions during root responses to gravity. PMID:26578169

  17. Transcriptional regulation of PIN genes by FOUR LIPS and MYB88 during Arabidopsis root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Zhe; Yang, Ke-Zhen; Zou, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Xie, Zi Dian; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao; Friml, Jiří; Grotewold, Erich; Beeckman, Tom; Vanneste, Steffen; Sack, Fred; Le, Jie

    2015-01-01

    PIN proteins are auxin export carriers that direct intercellular auxin flow and in turn regulate many aspects of plant growth and development including responses to environmental changes. The Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factor FOUR LIPS (FLP) and its paralogue MYB88 regulate terminal divisions during stomatal development, as well as female reproductive development and stress responses. Here we show that FLP and MYB88 act redundantly but differentially in regulating the transcription of PIN3 and PIN7 in gravity-sensing cells of primary and lateral roots. On the one hand, FLP is involved in responses to gravity stimulation in primary roots, whereas on the other, FLP and MYB88 function complementarily in establishing the gravitropic set-point angles of lateral roots. Our results support a model in which FLP and MYB88 expression specifically determines the temporal-spatial patterns of PIN3 and PIN7 transcription that are closely associated with their preferential functions during root responses to gravity. PMID:26578169

  18. Suppression of Photosynthetic Gene Expression in Roots Is Required for Sustained Root Growth under Phosphate Deficiency1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun; Yu, Haopeng; Tian, Caihuan; Zhou, Wenkun; Li, Chuanyou; Jiao, Yuling; Liu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Plants cope with inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiencies in their environment by adjusting their developmental programs and metabolic activities. For Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the developmental responses include the inhibition of primary root growth and the enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs. Pi deficiency also inhibits photosynthesis by suppressing the expression of photosynthetic genes. Early studies showed that photosynthetic gene expression was also suppressed in Pi-deficient roots, a nonphotosynthetic organ; however, the biological relevance of this phenomenon remains unknown. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hypersensitive to Pi starvation7 (hps7), that is hypersensitive to Pi deficiency; the hypersensitivity includes an increased inhibition of root growth. HPS7 encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase. Accumulation of HPS7 proteins in root tips is enhanced by Pi deficiency. Comparative RNA sequencing analyses indicated that the expression of many photosynthetic genes is activated in roots of hps7. Under Pi deficiency, the expression of photosynthetic genes in hps7 is further increased, which leads to enhanced accumulation of chlorophyll, starch, and sucrose. Pi-deficient hps7 roots also produce a high level of reactive oxygen species. Previous research showed that the overexpression of GOLDEN-like (GLK) transcription factors in transgenic Arabidopsis activates photosynthesis in roots. The GLK overexpressing (GLK OX) lines also exhibit increased inhibition of root growth under Pi deficiency. The increased inhibition of root growth in hps7 and GLK OX lines by Pi deficiency was completely reversed by growing the plants in the dark. Based on these results, we propose that suppression of photosynthetic gene expression is required for sustained root growth under Pi deficiency. PMID:24868033

  19. Tomato root growth, gravitropism, and lateral development: correlation with auxin transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Haworth, P.

    1994-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) roots were analyzed during growth on agar plates. Growth of these roots was inhibited by the auxin transport inhibitors naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and semicarbazone derivative I (SCB-1). The effect of auxin transport inhibitors on root gravitropism was analyzed by measurement of the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90 degrees from the vertical. NPA and SCB-1 abolished both the response of these roots to gravity and the formation of lateral roots, with SCB-1 being the more effective at inhibition. Auxins also inhibited root growth. Both auxins tested has a slight effect on the gravity response, but this effect is probably indirect, since auxins reduced the growth rate. Auxins also stimulated lateral root growth at concentration where primary root growth was inhibited. When roots were treated with both IAA and NPA simultaneously, a cumulative inhibition of root growth was found. When both compounds were applied together, analysis of gravitropism and lateral root formation indicated that the dominant effect was exerted by auxin transport inhibitors. Together, these data suggest a model for the role of auxin transport in controlling both primary and lateral root growth.

  20. Tomato root growth, gravitropism, and lateral development: correlation with auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Muday, G K; Haworth, P

    1994-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) roots were analyzed during growth on agar plates. Growth of these roots was inhibited by the auxin transport inhibitors naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and semicarbazone derivative I (SCB-1). The effect of auxin transport inhibitors on root gravitropism was analyzed by measurement of the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90 degrees from the vertical. NPA and SCB-1 abolished both the response of these roots to gravity and the formation of lateral roots, with SCB-1 being the more effective at inhibition. Auxins also inhibited root growth. Both auxins tested has a slight effect on the gravity response, but this effect is probably indirect, since auxins reduced the growth rate. Auxins also stimulated lateral root growth at concentration where primary root growth was inhibited. When roots were treated with both IAA and NPA simultaneously, a cumulative inhibition of root growth was found. When both compounds were applied together, analysis of gravitropism and lateral root formation indicated that the dominant effect was exerted by auxin transport inhibitors. Together, these data suggest a model for the role of auxin transport in controlling both primary and lateral root growth. PMID:11540612

  1. Plant-in-chip: Microfluidic system for studying root growth and pathogenic interactions in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-06-01

    We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

  2. Effects of compaction and simulated root channels in the subsoil on root development, water uptake and growth of radiata pine.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, E K; Sands, R

    1992-04-01

    Effects of subsoil compaction and simulated root channels (perforations) through the compacted layer on root growth, water uptake, foliar nutrient concentration and growth of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) were studied in a field experiment where a range of treatments were applied in reconstituted soil profiles. Subsoil compaction adversely affected root penetration in deeper parts of the soil and consequently caused greater water stress in trees. However, the effect of compaction was largely overcome when the subsoil was perforated to render 0.2% of the soil volume into vertical channels. Roots showed a remarkable ability to reach the points of low penetration strength and to travel through them to deeper parts of the profile. Perforations through compacted soil layers at a relatively low frequency may be a practical solution to allow root development into deeper parts of the soil and allow greater soil water exploration by roots. PMID:14969986

  3. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites. PMID:27149034

  4. Rapid shoot-to-root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Vandeleur, Rebecca K; Sullivan, Wendy; Athman, Asmini; Jordans, Charlotte; Gilliham, Matthew; Kaiser, Brent N; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how root hydraulic conductance (normalized to root dry weight, Lo ) is regulated by the shoot. Shoot topping (about 30% reduction in leaf area) reduced Lo of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) by 50 to 60%. More detailed investigations with soybean and grapevine showed that the reduction in Lo was not correlated with the reduction in leaf area, and shading or cutting single leaves had a similar effect. Percentage reduction in Lo was largest when initial Lo was high in soybean. Inhibition of Lo by weak acid (low pH) was smaller after shoot damage or leaf shading. The half time of reduction in Lo was approximately 5 min after total shoot decapitation. These characteristics indicate involvement of aquaporins. We excluded phloem-borne signals and auxin-mediated signals. Xylem-mediated hydraulic signals are possible since turgor rapidly decreased within root cortex cells after shoot topping. There was a significant reduction in the expression of several aquaporins in the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) family of both grapevine and soybean. In soybean, there was a five- to 10-fold reduction in GmPIP1;6 expression over 0.5-1 h which was sustained over the period of reduced Lo . PMID:23926961

  5. Improving root-zone soil moisture estimations using dynamic root growth and crop phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Minoo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Crow, Wade T.; Kustas, William P.

    2015-12-01

    Water Energy Balance (WEB) Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modelling can be used to estimate soil moisture by forcing the model with observed data such as precipitation and solar radiation. Recently, an innovative approach that assimilates remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) observations into WEB-SVAT to improve the results has been proposed. However, the efficacy of the model-observation integration relies on the model's realistic representation of soil water processes. Here, we explore methods to improve the soil water processes of a simple WEB-SVAT model by adopting and incorporating an exponential root water uptake model with water stress compensation and establishing a more appropriate soil-biophysical linkage between root-zone moisture content, above-ground states and biophysical indices. The existing WEB-SVAT model is extended to a new Multi-layer WEB-SVAT with Dynamic Root distribution (MWSDR) that has five soil layers. Impacts of plant root depth variations, growth stages and phenological cycle of the vegetation on transpiration are considered in developing stages. Hydrometeorological and biogeophysical measurements collected from two experimental sites, one in Dookie, Victoria, Australia and the other in Ponca, Oklahoma, USA, are used to validate the new model. Results demonstrate that MWSDR provides improved soil moisture, transpiration and evaporation predictions which, in turn, can provide an improved physical basis for assimilating remotely sensed data into the model. Results also show the importance of having an adequate representation of vegetation-related transpiration process for an appropriate simulation of water transfer in a complicated system of soil, plants and atmosphere.

  6. How grow-and-switch gravitropism generates root coiling and root waving growth responses in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tzer Han; Silverberg, Jesse L; Floss, Daniela S; Harrison, Maria J; Henley, Christopher L; Cohen, Itai

    2015-10-20

    Experimental studies show that plant root morphologies can vary widely from straight gravity-aligned primary roots to fractal-like root architectures. However, the opaqueness of soil makes it difficult to observe how environmental factors modulate these patterns. Here, we combine a transparent hydrogel growth medium with a custom built 3D laser scanner to directly image the morphology of Medicago truncatula primary roots. In our experiments, root growth is obstructed by an inclined plane in the growth medium. As the tilt of this rigid barrier is varied, we find Medicago transitions between randomly directed root coiling, sinusoidal root waving, and normal gravity-aligned morphologies. Although these root phenotypes appear morphologically distinct, our analysis demonstrates the divisions are less well defined, and instead, can be viewed as a 2D biased random walk that seeks the path of steepest decent along the inclined plane. Features of this growth response are remarkably similar to the widely known run-and-tumble chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria, where biased random walks are used as optimal strategies for nutrient uptake. PMID:26432881

  7. How grow-and-switch gravitropism generates root coiling and root waving growth responses in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tzer Han; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Floss, Daniela S.; Harrison, Maria J.; Henley, Christopher L.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies show that plant root morphologies can vary widely from straight gravity-aligned primary roots to fractal-like root architectures. However, the opaqueness of soil makes it difficult to observe how environmental factors modulate these patterns. Here, we combine a transparent hydrogel growth medium with a custom built 3D laser scanner to directly image the morphology of Medicago truncatula primary roots. In our experiments, root growth is obstructed by an inclined plane in the growth medium. As the tilt of this rigid barrier is varied, we find Medicago transitions between randomly directed root coiling, sinusoidal root waving, and normal gravity-aligned morphologies. Although these root phenotypes appear morphologically distinct, our analysis demonstrates the divisions are less well defined, and instead, can be viewed as a 2D biased random walk that seeks the path of steepest decent along the inclined plane. Features of this growth response are remarkably similar to the widely known run-and-tumble chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria, where biased random walks are used as optimal strategies for nutrient uptake. PMID:26432881

  8. A Sec14p-nodulin domain phosphatidylinositol transfer protein polarizes membrane growth of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Patrick; Chua, Michael; Nogue, Fabien; Fairbrother, Ashley; Mekeel, Hal; Xu, Yue; Allen, Nina; Bibikova, Tatiana N.; Gilroy, Simon; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate signaling interfaces between lipid metabolism and membrane trafficking. Herein, we demonstrate that AtSfh1p, a member of a large and uncharacterized Arabidopsis thaliana Sec14p-nodulin domain family, is a PITP that regulates a specific stage in root hair development. AtSfh1p localizes along the root hair plasma membrane and is enriched in discrete plasma membrane domains and in the root hair tip cytoplasm. This localization pattern recapitulates that visualized for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in developing root hairs. Gene ablation experiments show AtSfh1p nullizygosity compromises polarized root hair expansion in a manner that coincides with loss of tip-directed PtdIns(4,5)P2, dispersal of secretory vesicles from the tip cytoplasm, loss of the tip f-actin network, and manifest disorganization of the root hair microtubule cytoskeleton. Derangement of tip-directed Ca2+ gradients is also apparent and results from isotropic influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular milieu. We propose AtSfh1p regulates intracellular and plasma membrane phosphoinositide polarity landmarks that focus membrane trafficking, Ca2+ signaling, and cytoskeleton functions to the growing root hair apex. We further suggest that Sec14p-nodulin domain proteins represent a family of regulators of polarized membrane growth in plants. PMID:15728190

  9. Root growth dynamics linked to aboveground growth in walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Examination of belowground plant responses to canopy and soil moisture manipulation is scant compared to that aboveground but needed to understand whole plant responses to environmental factors. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root growth in respon...

  10. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  11. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  12. A systems biology approach identifies new regulators of poplar root development under low nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dash, Madhumita; Yordanov, Yordan S; Georgieva, Tatyana; Kumari, Sapna; Wei, Hairong; Busov, Victor

    2015-10-01

    In Populus, low nitrogen (LN) elicits rapid and vigorous lateral root (LR) proliferation, which is closely mirrored by corresponding transcriptomic changes. Using transcriptomic data, we built a genetic network encompassing a large proportion of the differentially regulated transcriptome. The network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, centered on 11 genes. Transgenic manipulations of only three of the 11 genes had a strong impact on root development under LN. These three genes encoded an F-box protein similar to Hawaiian Skirt (PtaHWS) and two transcription factors (PtaRAP2.11 and PtaNAC1). Up- and downregulation of the three genes caused increased and decreased root proliferation under LN conditions, respectively. The transgenic manipulations had a strong positive effect on growth under greenhouse conditions including increased shoot and root biomass. The three genes appeared to encompass a putative yet-unknown mechanism that underlies root development under LN. Specifically, the genes are predominantly expressed in roots and have a similar temporal response to LN. More importantly, transgenic manipulation for each of the three genes had a highly significant impact on the expression of the other two. The transgenic manipulations appear to also affect the expression of the regulatory miRNA (PtamiRNA164e) of one of the transcription factors (PtaNAC1), albeit in an opposite fashion. Consistent with a putative function of PtaHWS in proteasome degradation, treatment with proteasome inhibitor reversed the expression changes in the transgenic plants. The insights from this study will allow genetic modifications of root architecture for more efficient and dynamic nitrogen foraging in biofuel crops like poplar. PMID:26315649

  13. Assessment of improved root growth representation in a 1-D, field scale crop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltin Mboh, Cho; Gaiser, Thomas; Ewert, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Many 1-D, field scale crop models over-simplify root growth. The over-simplification of this "hidden half" of the crop may have significant consequences on simulated root water and nutrient uptake with a corresponding reflection on the simulated crop yields. Poor representation of root growth in crop models may therefore constitute a major source of uncertainty propagation. In this study we assess the effect of an improved representation of root growth in a model solution of the model framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modeling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) compared to conventional 1-D approaches. The LINTUL5 crop growth model is coupled to the Hillflow soil water balance model within the SIMPLACE modeling framework (Gaiser et al, 2013). Root water uptake scenarios in the soil hydrological simulator Hillflow (Bronstert, 1995) together with an improved representation of root growth is compared to scenarios for which root growth is simplified. The improvement of root growth is achieved by integrating root growth solutions from R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) into the SIMPLACE model solution. R-SWMS is a three dimensional model for simultaneous modeling of root growth, soil water fluxes and solute transport and uptake. These scenarios are tested by comparing how well the simulated water contents match with the observed soil water dynamics. The impacts of the scenarios on above ground biomass and wheat grain are assessed

  14. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Lesley A.; Jackson, Brian E.; Fonteno, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain. PMID:27135334

  15. Nonfumigant Nematicides for Control of Root-knot Nematode to Protect Carrot Root Growth in Organic Soils

    PubMed Central

    Vrain, T. C.; Belair, G.; Martel, P.

    1979-01-01

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the effects of two kinds of Meloidogyne hapla inoculum on the growth and quality of carrot roots, and the protection afforded in each case by nonfumigant nematicides in organic soils. For all treatments the percentage of carrots damaged was greater with larvae alone as inoculum than with larvae and eggs, indicating that most of the damage occurs early during formation of the taproot. Fosthietan, aldicarb, and oxamyl at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha protected the roots during formation and gave a lasting control of root-knot nematode. There was some nematode damage to the roots with phenamiphos and carbofuran at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha. Isazophos, diflubenzuron, and fenvalerate gave little protection to carrot roots and did not control root-knot nematode effectively. PMID:19300652

  16. Nonfumigant Nematicides for Control of Root-knot Nematode to Protect Carrot Root Growth in Organic Soils.

    PubMed

    Vrain, T C; Belair, G; Martel, P

    1979-10-01

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the effects of two kinds of Meloidogyne hapla inoculum on the growth and quality of carrot roots, and the protection afforded in each case by nonfumigant nematicides in organic soils. For all treatments the percentage of carrots damaged was greater with larvae alone as inoculum than with larvae and eggs, indicating that most of the damage occurs early during formation of the taproot. Fosthietan, aldicarb, and oxamyl at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha protected the roots during formation and gave a lasting control of root-knot nematode. There was some nematode damage to the roots with phenamiphos and carbofuran at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha. Isazophos, diflubenzuron, and fenvalerate gave little protection to carrot roots and did not control root-knot nematode effectively. PMID:19300652

  17. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  18. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  19. Asymmetric growth of root epidermal cells is related to the differentiation of root hair cells in Hordeum vulgare (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The root epidermis of most vascular plants harbours two cell types, namely trichoblasts (capable of producing a root hair) and atrichoblasts. Here, in vivo analysis, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, histological analysis, and three-dimensional reconstruction were used to characterize the cell types present in the barley root epidermis and their distribution in the tissue. Both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts were present in the wild-type cultivars and could be distinguished from one another at an early stage. Trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation depended on asymmetric cell expansion after a period of symmetrical cell division. After asymmetric growth, only the shorter epidermal cells could produce root hairs, whereas the longer cells became atrichoblasts. Moreover, the root epidermis did not develop root hairs at all if the epidermal cells did not differentiate into two asymmetric cell types. The root hairless phenotype of bald root barley (brb) and root hairless 1.b (rhl1.b) mutants was caused by a mutation in a gene related to the asymmetric expansion of the root epidermal cells. Additionally, the results showed that the mechanism of trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation is not evolutionally conserved across the subfamilies of the Poaceae; in the Pooideae subfamily, both asymmetric division and asymmetric cell expansion have been observed. PMID:24043851

  20. Root gravitropism is regulated by a transient lateral auxin gradient controlled by a tipping-point mechanism.

    PubMed

    Band, Leah R; Wells, Darren M; Larrieu, Antoine; Sun, Jianyong; Middleton, Alistair M; French, Andrew P; Brunoud, Géraldine; Sato, Ethel Mendocilla; Wilson, Michael H; Péret, Benjamin; Oliva, Marina; Swarup, Ranjan; Sairanen, Ilkka; Parry, Geraint; Ljung, Karin; Beeckman, Tom; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Estelle, Mark; Owen, Markus R; Vissenberg, Kris; Hodgman, T Charlie; Pridmore, Tony P; King, John R; Vernoux, Teva; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2012-03-20

    Gravity profoundly influences plant growth and development. Plants respond to changes in orientation by using gravitropic responses to modify their growth. Cholodny and Went hypothesized over 80 years ago that plants bend in response to a gravity stimulus by generating a lateral gradient of a growth regulator at an organ's apex, later found to be auxin. Auxin regulates root growth by targeting Aux/IAA repressor proteins for degradation. We used an Aux/IAA-based reporter, domain II (DII)-VENUS, in conjunction with a mathematical model to quantify auxin redistribution following a gravity stimulus. Our multidisciplinary approach revealed that auxin is rapidly redistributed to the lower side of the root within minutes of a 90° gravity stimulus. Unexpectedly, auxin asymmetry was rapidly lost as bending root tips reached an angle of 40° to the horizontal. We hypothesize roots use a "tipping point" mechanism that operates to reverse the asymmetric auxin flow at the midpoint of root bending. These mechanistic insights illustrate the scientific value of developing quantitative reporters such as DII-VENUS in conjunction with parameterized mathematical models to provide high-resolution kinetics of hormone redistribution. PMID:22393022

  1. Growth-regulated synthesis and secretion of biologically active nerve growth factor by human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, E; Marchisio, P C; Bondanza, S; Franzi, A T; Cancedda, R; De Luca, M

    1991-11-15

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) transcripts were identified in normal human keratinocytes in primary and secondary culture. The expression of the NGF mRNA was strongly down-regulated by corticosteroids and was maximal when keratinocytes were in the exponential phase of growth. Immunofluorescence studies on growing keratinocytes colonies and on elutriated keratinocytes obtained from growing colonies and mature stratified epithelium showed specific staining of the Golgi apparatus only in basal keratinocytes in the exponential phase of growth. The keratinocyte-derived NGF was secreted in a biologically active form as assessed by neurite induction in sensory neurons obtained from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia. Based on these data we suggest that the basal keratinocyte is the cell synthesizing and secreting NGF in the human adult epidermis. The paracrine secretion of NGF by keratinocytes might have a major role in regulating innervation, lymphocyte function, and melanocyte growth and differentiation in epidermal morphogenesis as well as during wound healing. PMID:1718982

  2. Six genes strongly regulated by mercury in Pisum sativum roots.

    PubMed

    Sävenstrand, Helena; Strid, Ake

    2004-02-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate heavy metal-induced genes from Pisum sativum roots hydroponically exposed to 5 microM HgCl2 and 10 microM EDTA. Six genes were induced out of which one, PsHMIP6B, was novel. The other genes (PsSAMT, PsI2'H, PsNDA, PsAPSR, PsPOD) had not previously been isolated from pea and sequenced. All six genes were also induced after exposure to 5 microM HgCl2 in the absence of EDTA. The induction pattern was in some cases different for the two Hg species, demonstrating a quicker response to-free Hg2+ than Hg-EDTA. The stress-specificity of the gene regulation was investigated by hydroponically adding 5 microM Cd2+. Most Hg-induced cDNAs were also induced by Cd2+ but to a smaller extent than after Hg exposure. In addition, the gene expression was also probed for tissue specificity, which showed that all six genes were expressed in roots and not in leaves. PMID:15283129

  3. Involvement of 14-3-3 protein GRF9 in root growth and response under polyethylene glycol-induced water stress.

    PubMed

    He, Yuchi; Wu, Jingjing; Lv, Bing; Li, Jia; Gao, Zhiping; Xu, Weifeng; Baluška, František; Shi, Weiming; Shaw, Pang Chui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate a wide array of targets via direct protein-protein interactions. In this study, the role of a 14-3-3 protein, GRF9, in plant response to water stress was investigated. Arabidopsis wild-type, GRF9-deficient mutant (grf9), and GRF9-overexpressing (OE) plants were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce mild water stress. OE plant showed better whole-plant growth and root growth than the wild type under normal or water stress conditions while the grf9 mutant showed worse growth. In OE plants, GRF9 favours the allocation of shoot carbon to roots. In addition, GRF9 enhanced proton extrusion, mainly in the root elongation zone and root hair zone, and maintained root growth under mild water stress. Grafting among the wild type, OE, and grf9 plants showed that when OE plants were used as the scion and GRF9 was overexpressed in the shoot, it enhanced sucrose transport into the root, and when OE plants were used as rootstock and GRF9 was overexpressed in the root, it caused more release of protons into the root surface under water stress. Taken together, the results suggest that under PEG-induced water stress, GRF9 is involved in allocating more carbon from the shoot to the root and enhancing proton secretion in the root growing zone, and this process is important for root response to mild water stress. PMID:25873671

  4. Involvement of 14-3-3 protein GRF9 in root growth and response under polyethylene glycol-induced water stress

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuchi; Wu, Jingjing; Lv, Bing; Li, Jia; Gao, Zhiping; Xu, Weifeng; Baluška, František; Shi, Weiming; Shaw, Pang Chui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate a wide array of targets via direct protein–protein interactions. In this study, the role of a 14-3-3 protein, GRF9, in plant response to water stress was investigated. Arabidopsis wild-type, GRF9-deficient mutant (grf9), and GRF9-overexpressing (OE) plants were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce mild water stress. OE plant showed better whole-plant growth and root growth than the wild type under normal or water stress conditions while the grf9 mutant showed worse growth. In OE plants, GRF9 favours the allocation of shoot carbon to roots. In addition, GRF9 enhanced proton extrusion, mainly in the root elongation zone and root hair zone, and maintained root growth under mild water stress. Grafting among the wild type, OE, and grf9 plants showed that when OE plants were used as the scion and GRF9 was overexpressed in the shoot, it enhanced sucrose transport into the root, and when OE plants were used as rootstock and GRF9 was overexpressed in the root, it caused more release of protons into the root surface under water stress. Taken together, the results suggest that under PEG-induced water stress, GRF9 is involved in allocating more carbon from the shoot to the root and enhancing proton secretion in the root growing zone, and this process is important for root response to mild water stress. PMID:25873671

  5. Cyclic GMP is involved in auxin signalling during Arabidopsis root growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaomin; Bi, Yurong

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) plays an important role in plant development and responses to stress. Recent studies indicated that cGMP is a secondary signal generated in response to auxin stimulation. cGMP also mediates auxin-induced adventitious root formation in mung bean and gravitropic bending in soybean. Nonetheless, the mechanism of the participation of cGMP in auxin signalling to affect these growth and developmental processes is largely unknown. In this report we provide evidence that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induces cGMP accumulation in Arabidopsis roots through modulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. Application of 8-bromo-cGMP (a cell-permeable cGMP derivative) increases auxin-dependent lateral root formation, root hair development, primary root growth, and gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of endogenous cGMP synthesis block these processes induced by auxin. Data also showed that 8-bromo-cGMP enhances auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA protein modulated by the SCFTIR1 ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, it was found that 8-bromo-cGMP is unable to directly influence the auxin-dependent TIR1-Aux/IAA interaction as evidenced by pull-down and yeast two-hybrid assays. In addition, we provide evidence for cGMP-mediated modulation of auxin signalling through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our results suggest that cGMP acts as a mediator to participate in auxin signalling and may govern this process by PKG activity via its influence on auxin-regulated gene expression and auxin/IAA degradation. PMID:24591051

  6. Smad4-Shh-Nfic Signaling Cascade–Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction Is Crucial in Regulating Tooth Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Bringas, Pablo; Hung, Yee Ping; Chai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is crucial for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during organogenesis, and the canonical Smad pathway–mediated TGF-β/BMP signaling plays important roles during development and disease. During tooth development, dental epithelial cells, known as Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), participate in root formation following crown development. However, the functional significance of HERS in regulating root development remains unknown. In this study we investigated the signaling mechanism of Smad4, the common Smad for TGF-β/BMP signaling, in HERS in regulating root development. Tissue-specific inactivation of Smad4 in HERS results in abnormal enamel and dentin formation in K14-Cre;Smad4fl/fl mice. HERS enlarges but cannot elongate to guide root development without Smad4. At the molecular level, Smad4-mediated TGF-β/BMP signaling is required for Shh expression in HERS and Nfic (nuclear factor Ic) expression in the cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived dental mesenchyme. Nfic is crucial for root development, and loss of Nfic results in a CNC-derived dentin defect similar to the one of K14-Cre;Smad4fl/fl mice. Significantly, we show that ectopic Shh induces Nfic expression in dental mesenchyme and partially rescues root development in K14-Cre;Smad4fl/fl mice. Taken together, our study has revealed an important signaling mechanism in which TGF-β/BMP signaling relies on a Smad-dependent mechanism in regulating Nfic expression via Shh signaling to control root development. The interaction between HERS and the CNC-derived dental mesenchyme may guide the size, shape, and number of tooth roots. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:19888897

  7. SIZ1 regulation of phosphate starvation-induced root architecture remodeling involves the control of auxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Miura, Tomoko; Sato, Aiko; Bohnert, Hans J; Hasegawa, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes plants to modulate the architecture of their root systems to facilitate the acquisition of Pi. Previously, we reported that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 regulates root architecture remodeling in response to Pi limitation; namely, the siz1 mutations cause the inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation and the promotion of lateral root (LR) formation. Here, we present evidence that SIZ1 is involved in the negative regulation of auxin patterning to modulate root system architecture in response to Pi starvation. The siz1 mutations caused greater PR growth inhibition and LR development of seedlings in response to Pi limitation. Similar root phenotypes occurred if Pi-deficient wild-type seedlings were supplemented with auxin. N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux activity, reduced the Pi starvation-induced LR root formation of siz1 seedlings to a level equivalent to that seen in the wild type. Monitoring of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA indicated that auxin accumulates in PR tips at early stages of the Pi starvation response. Subsequently, DR5::uidA expression was observed in the LR primordia, which was associated with LR elongation. The time-sequential patterning of DR5::uidA expression occurred earlier in the roots of siz1 as compared with the wild type. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that several other auxin-responsive genes, including genes involved in cell wall loosening and biosynthesis, were up-regulated in siz1 relative to wild-type seedlings in response to Pi starvation. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively regulates Pi starvation-induced root architecture remodeling through the control of auxin patterning. PMID:21156857

  8. Disentangling the Intertwined Genetic Bases of Root and Shoot Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bouteillé, Marie; Rolland, Gaëlle; Balsera, Crispulo; Loudet, Olivier; Muller, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Root growth and architecture are major components of plant nutrient and water use efficiencies and these traits are the matter of extensive genetic analysis in several crop species. Because root growth relies on exported assimilate from the shoot, and changes in assimilate supply are known to alter root architecture, we hypothesized (i) that the genetic bases of root growth could be intertwined with the genetic bases of shoot growth and (ii) that the link could be either positive, with alleles favouring shoot growth also favouring root growth, or negative, because of competition for assimilates. We tested these hypotheses using a quantitative genetics approach in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bay-0×Shahdara recombinant inbred lines population. In accordance with our hypothesis, root and shoot growth traits were strongly correlated and most root growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs) colocalized with shoot growth QTLs with positive alleles originating from either the same or the opposite parent. In order to identify regions that could be responsible for root growth independently of the shoot, we generated new variables either based on root to shoot ratios, residuals of root to shoot correlations or coordinates of principal component analysis. These variables showed high heritability allowing genetic analysis. They essentially all yielded similar results pointing towards two regions involved in the root – shoot balance. Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families (a kind of near-isogenic lines), we validated part of the QTLs present in these two regions for different traits. Our study thus highlights the difficulty of disentangling intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth and shows that this difficulty can be overcome by using simple statistical tools. PMID:22384215

  9. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Maize Root Apex Responses to Nitrate are Regulated by Auxin and Strigolactones

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Alessandro; Trevisan, Sara; Voigt, Boris; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František; Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a key element for crop production but its levels in agricultural soils are limited. Plants have developed mechanisms to cope with these NO3- fluctuations based on sensing nitrate at the root apex. Particularly, the transition zone (TZ) of root apex has been suggested as a signaling-response zone. This study dissects cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying NO3- resupply effects on primary root (PR) growth in maize, confirming nitric oxide (NO) as a putative modulator. Nitrate restoration induced PR elongation within the first 2 h, corresponding to a stimulation of cell elongation at the basal border of the TZ. Xyloglucans (XGs) immunolocalization together with Brefeldin A applications demonstrated that nitrate resupply induces XG accumulation. This effect was blocked by cPTIO (NO scavenger). Transcriptional analysis of ZmXET1 confirmed the stimulatory effect of nitrate on XGs accumulation in cells of the TZ. Immunolocalization analyses revealed a positive effect of nitrate resupply on auxin and PIN1 accumulation, but a transcriptional regulation of auxin biosynthesis/transport/signaling genes was excluded. Short-term nitrate treatment repressed the transcription of genes involved in strigolactones (SLs) biosynthesis and transport, mainly in the TZ. Enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) transcription in presence of cPTIO indicated endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCDs activity. Finally, treatment with the SLs-biosynthesis inhibitor (TIS108) restored the root growth in the nitrate-starved seedlings. Present report suggests that the NO-mediated root apex responses to nitrate are accomplished in cells of the TZ via integrative actions of auxin, NO and SLs. PMID:26834770

  10. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Maize Root Apex Responses to Nitrate are Regulated by Auxin and Strigolactones.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Alessandro; Trevisan, Sara; Voigt, Boris; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František; Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3 (-)) is a key element for crop production but its levels in agricultural soils are limited. Plants have developed mechanisms to cope with these NO3 (-) fluctuations based on sensing nitrate at the root apex. Particularly, the transition zone (TZ) of root apex has been suggested as a signaling-response zone. This study dissects cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying NO3 (-) resupply effects on primary root (PR) growth in maize, confirming nitric oxide (NO) as a putative modulator. Nitrate restoration induced PR elongation within the first 2 h, corresponding to a stimulation of cell elongation at the basal border of the TZ. Xyloglucans (XGs) immunolocalization together with Brefeldin A applications demonstrated that nitrate resupply induces XG accumulation. This effect was blocked by cPTIO (NO scavenger). Transcriptional analysis of ZmXET1 confirmed the stimulatory effect of nitrate on XGs accumulation in cells of the TZ. Immunolocalization analyses revealed a positive effect of nitrate resupply on auxin and PIN1 accumulation, but a transcriptional regulation of auxin biosynthesis/transport/signaling genes was excluded. Short-term nitrate treatment repressed the transcription of genes involved in strigolactones (SLs) biosynthesis and transport, mainly in the TZ. Enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) transcription in presence of cPTIO indicated endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCDs activity. Finally, treatment with the SLs-biosynthesis inhibitor (TIS108) restored the root growth in the nitrate-starved seedlings. Present report suggests that the NO-mediated root apex responses to nitrate are accomplished in cells of the TZ via integrative actions of auxin, NO and SLs. PMID:26834770

  11. Influence of Merosesquiterpenoids from Marine Sponges on Seedling Root Growth of Agricultural Plants.

    PubMed

    Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K; Anisimov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the merosesquiterpenoids avarol (1), avarone (2), 18-methylaminoavarone (3), melemeleone A (4), isospongiaquinone (5), ilimaquinone (6), and smenoquinone (7), isolated from marine sponges of the Dictyoceratida order, was studied on the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyrumesculentum Moench), wheat (Triticumaestivum L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and barley (Hordeumvulgare L.). Compounds 2and 6 were effective for the root growth of wheat seedlings, compound 3 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and soy, compound 4 affected the roots of barley seedlings, and compound 5 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and barley. Compounds 1 and 7 showed no activity on the root growth of the seedlings of any of the studied plants. The stimulatory effect depends on the chemical structure of the compounds and the type of crop plant. PMID:26996006

  12. ROS Regulation of Polar Growth in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Silvina; Juárez, Silvina Paola Denita; Estevez, José M

    2016-07-01

    Root hair cells and pollen tubes, like fungal hyphae, possess a typical tip or polar cell expansion with growth limited to the apical dome. Cell expansion needs to be carefully regulated to produce a correct shape and size. Polar cell growth is sustained by oscillatory feedback loops comprising three main components that together play an important role regulating this process. One of the main components are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, together with calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and pH, sustain polar growth over time. Apoplastic ROS homeostasis controlled by NADPH oxidases as well as by secreted type III peroxidases has a great impact on cell wall properties during cell expansion. Polar growth needs to balance a focused secretion of new materials in an extending but still rigid cell wall in order to contain turgor pressure. In this review, we discuss the gaps in our understanding of how ROS impact on the oscillatory Ca(2+) and pH signatures that, coordinately, allow root hair cells and pollen tubes to expand in a controlled manner to several hundred times their original size toward specific signals. PMID:27208283

  13. ROS Regulation of Polar Growth in Plant Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Silvina; Juárez, Silvina Paola Denita

    2016-01-01

    Root hair cells and pollen tubes, like fungal hyphae, possess a typical tip or polar cell expansion with growth limited to the apical dome. Cell expansion needs to be carefully regulated to produce a correct shape and size. Polar cell growth is sustained by oscillatory feedback loops comprising three main components that together play an important role regulating this process. One of the main components are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, together with calcium ions (Ca2+) and pH, sustain polar growth over time. Apoplastic ROS homeostasis controlled by NADPH oxidases as well as by secreted type III peroxidases has a great impact on cell wall properties during cell expansion. Polar growth needs to balance a focused secretion of new materials in an extending but still rigid cell wall in order to contain turgor pressure. In this review, we discuss the gaps in our understanding of how ROS impact on the oscillatory Ca2+ and pH signatures that, coordinately, allow root hair cells and pollen tubes to expand in a controlled manner to several hundred times their original size toward specific signals. PMID:27208283

  14. Root growth of interspecific sunflower seedlings derived from wild perennial sunflower species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roots play a major role in maintaining an adequate water supply for plant growth and development. Since sunflower is a tap root plant and because the major limitation to yield in semiarid and arid regions is the availability of water, differences in the characteristics of the lateral root system aff...

  15. A GTPase-Dependent Fine ER Is Required for Localized Secretion in Polarized Growth of Root Hairs1.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingyun; Sun, Jiaqi; Zheng, Huanquan

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular network comprising membrane tubules and sheets stretching throughout the cytoplasm. Atlastin GTPases, including Atlastin-1 in mammals and RHD3 in plants, play a role in the generation of the interconnected tubular ER network by promoting the fusion of ER tubules. Root hairs in rhd3 are short and wavy, a defect reminiscent of axon growth in cells with depleted Atlastin-1. However, how a loss in the ER complexity could lead to a defective polarized cell growth of root hairs or neurons remains elusive. Using live-cell imaging techniques, we reveal that, a fine ER distribution, which is found in the subapical zone of growing root hairs of wild-type plants, is altered to thick bundles in rhd3 The localized secretion to the apical dome as well as the apical localization of root hair growth regulator ROP2 is oscillated in rhd3 Interestingly, the shift of ROP2 precedes the shift of localized secretion as well as the fine ER distribution in rhd3 Our live imaging and pharmacologic modification of root hair growth defects in rhd3 suggest that there is interplay between the ER and microtubules in the polarized cell growth of root hairs. We hypothesize that, under the guidance of ROP2, RHD3, together with the action of microtubules, is required for the formation of a fine ER structure in the subapical zone of growing root hairs. This fine ER structure is essential for the localized secretion to the apical dome in polarized cell growth. PMID:27231102

  16. Characterization of the growth and auxin physiology of roots of the tomato mutant, diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Lomax, T. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    Roots of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant (diageotropica (dgt) exhibit an altered phenotype. These roots are agravitropic and lack lateral roots. Relative to wild-type (VFN8) roots, dgt roots are less sensitive to growth inhibition by exogenously applied IAA and auxin transport inhibitors (phytotropins), and the roots exhibit a reduction in maximal growth inhibition in response to ethylene. However, IAA transport through roots, binding of the phytotropin, tritiated naphthylphthalamic acid ([3H]NPA), to root microsomal membranes, NPA-sensitive IAA uptake by root segments, and uptake of [3H]NPA into root segments are all similar in mutant and wild-type roots. We speculate that the reduced sensitivity of dgt root growth to auxin-transport inhibitors and ethylene is an indirect result of the reduction in sensitivity to auxin in this single gene, recessive mutant. We conclude that dgt roots, like dgt shoots, exhibit abnormalities indicating they have a defect associated with or affecting a primary site of auxin perception or action.

  17. Characterization of the growth and auxin physiology of roots of the tomato mutant, diageotropica.

    PubMed

    Muday, G K; Lomax, T L; Rayle, D L

    1995-01-01

    Roots of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant (diageotropica (dgt) exhibit an altered phenotype. These roots are agravitropic and lack lateral roots. Relative to wild-type (VFN8) roots, dgt roots are less sensitive to growth inhibition by exogenously applied IAA and auxin transport inhibitors (phytotropins), and the roots exhibit a reduction in maximal growth inhibition in response to ethylene. However, IAA transport through roots, binding of the phytotropin, tritiated naphthylphthalamic acid ([3H]NPA), to root microsomal membranes, NPA-sensitive IAA uptake by root segments, and uptake of [3H]NPA into root segments are all similar in mutant and wild-type roots. We speculate that the reduced sensitivity of dgt root growth to auxin-transport inhibitors and ethylene is an indirect result of the reduction in sensitivity to auxin in this single gene, recessive mutant. We conclude that dgt roots, like dgt shoots, exhibit abnormalities indicating they have a defect associated with or affecting a primary site of auxin perception or action. PMID:11536692

  18. [Effects of drip irrigation methods on the regulation between root and crown function of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' seedlings].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Yu, Song-lin; Liu, Huai-feng; Zhao, Bao-long; Wang, Wen-jing

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of three irrigation methods, i.e., subsurface drip irrigation with a tank system (SDI) , plastic film mulched-drip irrigation (MDI), and conventional drip irrigation (DI) on the regulation between root and crown function of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' seedlings. The results showed that both the SDI and MDI systems promoted the growth of the grape seedlings compared with DI, with the SDI system promoting the root growth, and MDI system promoting the aboveground growth. Root area, root volume, and root activity and SOD enzyme activity in the SDI treatment were greater than those of MDI or DI treatment in the 20-60 cm soil layer. SDI treatment increased root penetration and physiological activity. Symptoms of drought stress appeared earlier in DI treatment than in either MDI or SDI treatment in the same watering schedule. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) of leaves were higher in SDI and MDI treatments than in DI treatment. ΦPS II and qP at 12:00-14:00 were lower in the MDI treatment than in SDI treatment at 7 d after irrigation, suggesting that the degree of photoinhibition in the fluorescence process in MDI treatment was more than that in SDI treatment. The high biomass and physiological activity of roots in the 20-40 cm depth could increase both of total plant biomass and aboveground biomass. The regulation between root and crown function was better in SDI treatment than in MDI and DI treatments. Therefore, SDI could be used as an alternative technique of water-saving irrigation practices. PMID:26571649

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, R; Masson, P H

    1996-08-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation. PMID:8756492

  1. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    PubMed

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances. PMID:18055434

  2. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel gasotransmitter with pivotal role in regulating lateral root formation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Jun; Shi, Zhi-Qi; Gan, Li-Jun; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), is a critical neuromodulator in the pathogenesis of various diseases from neurodegenerative diseases to diabetes or heart failure. The crosstalk between NO and H2S has been well established in mammalian physiology. In planta, NO is demonstrated to regulate lateral root formation by acting downstream of auxin. The recent reports revealed that H2S is a novel inducer of lateral root (LR) formation by stimulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (CCRGs), acting similarly with NO, CO, and IAA. Interestingly, during the initiation of lateral root primordia, IAA is a potent inducer of endogenous H2S and CO, which is produced by L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), respectively. The increasing evidences suggest that H2S-promoted LR growth is dependent on the endogenous production of CO. In addition, our results indicate that the H2S signaling in the regulation of LR formation can be associated to NO and Ca2+. In this addendum, we advanced a proposed schematic model for H2S-mediated signaling pathway of plant LR development. PMID:24832131

  3. Ethylene-Induced Inhibition of Root Growth Requires Abscisic Acid Function in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development. PMID:25330236

  4. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penncross’) and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  5. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-03-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. 'Penncross') and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  6. Regulation of muscle growth in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review reports recent findings on the multiple factors that regulate skeletal muscle growth in neonates. Skeletal muscle is the fastest growing protein mass in neonates. The high rate of neonatal muscle growth is due to accelerated rates of protein synthesis accompanied by the rapid accumulatio...

  7. AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Voß, Ute; Harding, Susan A; Fannon, Jessica; Moody, Laura A; Yamada, Erika; Swarup, Kamal; Nibau, Candida; Bassel, George W; Choudhary, Anushree; Lavenus, Julien; Bradshaw, Susan J; Stekel, Dov J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Coates, Juliet C

    2014-01-01

    Plant root system plasticity is critical for survival in changing environmental conditions. One important aspect of root architecture is lateral root development, a complex process regulated by hormone, environmental and protein signalling pathways. Here we show, using molecular genetic approaches, that the MYB transcription factor AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis. We identify AtMYB93 as an interaction partner of the lateral-root-promoting ARABIDILLO proteins. Atmyb93 mutants have faster lateral root developmental progression and enhanced lateral root densities, while AtMYB93-overexpressing lines display the opposite phenotype. AtMYB93 is expressed strongly, specifically and transiently in the endodermal cells overlying early lateral root primordia and is additionally induced by auxin in the basal meristem of the primary root. Furthermore, Atmyb93 mutant lateral root development is insensitive to auxin, indicating that AtMYB93 is required for normal auxin responses during lateral root development. We propose that AtMYB93 is part of a novel auxin-induced negative feedback loop stimulated in a select few endodermal cells early during lateral root development, ensuring that lateral roots only develop when absolutely required. Putative AtMYB93 homologues are detected throughout flowering plants and represent promising targets for manipulating root systems in diverse crop species. PMID:24902892

  8. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  9. Early Events in the Life of Apple Roots: Variation in Root Growth Rate is Linked to Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Fungal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize early events of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization in newly-emerging roots of mature apple (Malus domestica) trees and to determine the relationship to fine root growth rate and development. New roots were traced on root windows to measure growt...

  10. Touch and gravitropic set-point angle interact to modulate gravitropic growth in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Gilroy, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots must sense and respond to a variety of environmental stimuli as they grow through the soil. Touch and gravity represent two of the mechanical signals that roots must integrate to elicit the appropriate root growth patterns and root system architecture. Obstacles such as rocks will impede the general downwardly directed gravitropic growth of the root system and so these soil features must be sensed and this information processed for an appropriate alteration in gravitropic growth to allow the root to avoid the obstruction. We show that primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis do appear to sense and respond to mechanical barriers placed in their path of growth in a qualitatively similar fashion. Both types of roots exhibited a differential growth response upon contacting the obstacle that directed the main axis of elongation parallel to the barrier. This growth habit was maintained until the obstacle was circumvented, at which point normal gravitropic growth was resumed. Thus, the gravitational set-point angle of the primary and lateral roots prior to encountering the barrier were 95 degrees and 136 degrees respectively and after growing off the end of the obstacle identical set-point angles were reinstated. However, whilst tracking across the barrier, quantitative differences in response were observed between these two classes of roots. The root tip of the primary root maintained an angle of 136 degrees to the horizontal as it traversed the barrier whereas the lateral roots adopted an angle of 154 degrees. Thus, this root tip angle appeared dependent on the gravitropic set-point angle of the root type with the difference in tracking angle quantitatively reflecting differences in initial set-point angle. Concave and convex barriers were also used to analyze the response of the root to tracking along a continuously varying surface. The roots maintained the a fairly fixed angle to gravity on the curved surface implying a constant resetting of this tip angle

  11. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  12. A comparison of two models to evaluate soil compaction effects on corn root growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several complex interactions among soil physical properties influence root growth of common crops. Models are used to combine limitations of temperature, aeration, water availability and soil strength to determine the zonal suitability for root growth. Two models are compared in this study, the Jone...

  13. Reduced expression of the SHORT-ROOT gene increases the rates of growth and development in hybrid poplar and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiehua; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Gaboreanu, Ioana; Hertzberg, Magnus; Tucker, Matthew R; Zheng, Bo; Leśniewska, Joanna; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Laux, Thomas; Sandberg, Göran; Jones, Brian

    2011-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1) as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89) in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height) and secondary (girth) growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species. PMID:22194939

  14. Growth and changes of endogenous hormones of mulberry roots in a simulated rocky desertification area.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dalan; Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2016-06-01

    We studied the growth of roots of white mulberry (Morus alba) trees in response to different water and nutrient conditions in sets of three or five containers connected via small pipes and arranged so as to simulate the heterogeneous soil conditions associated with rocky desertification. The experiment was conducted to improve understanding of the adaptation of M. alba to this stressful environment. The trees were grown for a year under constant water and nutrient conditions in the soils within each container of any set of containers. Differences in root activity and endogenous hormones within root tips were measured at the end of the experiment. We compared four treatment groups: H (variable moisture among containers), F (variable nutrients among containers), HF (both moisture and nutrients varied among containers), and CK (non-varied control). Results showed the following: (1) Mulberry roots showed obvious hydrotropic and chemotropic growth patterns, but chemotropism did not occur in the condition of water shortage. (2) Measurement of growth indices (root surface area, total root length, number of root tips, root biomass) showed that growth status was best in group HF once the roots were able to access containers with sufficient water and nutrients, followed by group H. The indices were significantly poorer in groups F and CK. (3) The content of auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellins in roots under soil drought conditions were lower than under wetter soil conditions. In contrast, abscisic acid content and root activity were higher under soil drought conditions than under wetter soil conditions. The results indicated that water is the key factor restricting growth of white mulberry trees in areas of rocky desertification but that the trees adjust endogenous hormones in their roots to promote tropic growth and obtain sufficient moisture and nutrients over the long term. Moreover, under long-term drought stress conditions, mulberry trees retained high root activity

  15. Dysfunctional mitochondria regulate the size of root apical meristem and leaf development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Liao, Jo-Chien; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in maintaining metabolic and energy homeostasis in the plant cell. Thus, perturbation of mitochondrial structure and function will affect plant growth and development. Arabidopsis slow growth3 (slo3) is defective in At3g61360 that encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein. Analysis of slo3 mitochondrial RNA metabolism revealed that the splicing of nad7 intron 2 is impaired, which leads to a dramatic reduction in complex I activity. So the SLO3 PPR protein is a splicing factor that is required for the removal of nad7 intron 2 in Arabidopsis. The slo3 mutant plants have obvious phenotypes with severe growth retardation and delayed development. The size of root apical meristem (RAM) is reduced and the production of meristem cells is decreased in slo3. Furthermore, the rosette leaves of slo3 are curled or crinkled, which may be derived from uneven growth of the leaf surface. The underlying mechanisms by which dysfunctional mitochondria affect these growth and developmental phenotypes have yet to be established. Nonetheless, plant hormone auxin is known to play an important role in orchestrating the development of RAM and leaf shape. It is possible that dysfunctional mitochondria may interact with auxin signaling pathways to regulate the boundary of RAM and the cell division arrest front during leaf growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:26237004

  16. Vigorous Root Growth Is a Better Indicator of Early Nutrient Uptake than Root Hair Traits in Spring Wheat Grown under Low Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration and content of macro- and micronutrients were identified. A significant genetic variability in root and root hair traits as well as nutrient uptake was found. Fast and early root proliferation and long and dense root hairs enhanced uptake of macro- and micronutrients under low soil nutrient availability. Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient concentrations in the shoots, which is assumed to be important for later plant development. PMID:27379145

  17. Modeling the hydraulics of root growth in three dimensions with phloem water sources.

    PubMed

    Wiegers, Brandy S; Cheer, Angela Y; Silk, Wendy K

    2009-08-01

    Primary growth is characterized by cell expansion facilitated by water uptake generating hydrostatic (turgor) pressure to inflate the cell, stretching the rigid cell walls. The multiple source theory of root growth hypothesizes that root growth involves transport of water both from the soil surrounding the growth zone and from the mature tissue higher in the root via phloem and protophloem. Here, protophloem water sources are used as boundary conditions in a classical, three-dimensional model of growth-sustaining water potentials in primary roots. The model predicts small radial gradients in water potential, with a significant longitudinal gradient. The results improve the agreement of theory with empirical studies for water potential in the primary growth zone of roots of maize (Zea mays). A sensitivity analysis quantifies the functional importance of apical phloem differentiation in permitting growth and reveals that the presence of phloem water sources makes the growth-sustaining water relations of the root relatively insensitive to changes in root radius and hydraulic conductivity. Adaptation to drought and other environmental stresses is predicted to involve more apical differentiation of phloem and/or higher phloem delivery rates to the growth zone. PMID:19542299

  18. Arabidopsis Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase Acts in the Auxin/PLETHORA Pathway in Regulating Postembryonic Maintenance of the Root Stem Cell Niche[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenkun; Wei, Lirong; Xu, Jian; Zhai, Qingzhe; Jiang, Hongling; Chen, Rong; Chen, Qian; Sun, Jiaqiang; Chu, Jinfang; Zhu, Lihuang; Liu, Chun-Ming; Li, Chuanyou

    2010-01-01

    Recent identification of the Arabidopsis thaliana tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST) and a group of Tyr-sulfated peptides known as root meristem growth factors (RGFs) highlights the importance of protein Tyr sulfation in plant growth and development. Here, we report the action mechanism of TPST in maintenance of the root stem cell niche, which in the Arabidopsis root meristem is an area of four mitotically inactive quiescent cells plus the surrounding mitotically active stem cells. Mutation of TPST leads to defective maintenance of the root stem cell niche, decreased meristematic activity, and stunted root growth. We show that TPST expression is positively regulated by auxin and that mutation of this gene affects auxin distribution by reducing local expression levels of several PIN genes and auxin biosynthetic genes in the stem cell niche region. We also show that mutation of TPST impairs basal- and auxin-induced expression of the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor genes and that overexpression of PLT2 rescues the root meristem defects of the loss-of-function mutant of TPST. Together, these results support that TPST acts to maintain root stem cell niche by regulating basal- and auxin-induced expression of PLT1 and PLT2. TPST-dependent sulfation of RGFs provides a link between auxin and PLTs in regulating root stem cell niche maintenance. PMID:21045165

  19. Effects of bisphenol A on growth and nitrogen nutrition of roots of soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that seriously threatens ecological systems. Plants are the primary producers in ecological systems, but little information is available concerning the toxic effect of BPA on plants. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the growth and nitrogen nutrition of roots of soybean seedlings were investigated by using a root automatic scan apparatus and biochemical methods. It was found that when soybean seedlings were treated with 1.5 mg/L BPA, the growth of roots was improved, the content of nitrate in roots was increased, the content of ammonium in roots was decreased, and the activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in roots were not changed. The opposite effects were observed in roots treated with 17.2 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L BPA, except for an increase in the content of nitrate in roots treated with 17.2 mg/L BPA and a decrease in the activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in roots of soybeans seedlings. Statistical analysis indicated that the change in the nitrogen nutrition of roots of soybean seedlings treated with BPA was one reason why the growth of roots was changed. The authors suggest that the potential environmental and ecological risk of BPA to plants should receive more consideration. PMID:23109293

  20. Is there an association between root architecture and mycorrhizal growth response?

    PubMed

    Maherali, Hafiz

    2014-10-01

    The symbiosis between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plants is evolutionarily widespread. The response of plant growth to inoculation by these fungi (mycorrhizal growth response; MGR) is highly variable, ranging from positive to negative. Some of this variation is hypothesized to be associated with root structure and function. Specifically, species with a coarse root architecture, and thus a limited intrinsic capacity to absorb soil nutrients, are expected to derive the greatest growth benefit from inoculation with AM fungi. To test this hypothesis, previously published literature and phylogenetic information were combined in a meta-analysis to examine the magnitude and direction of relationships among several root architectural traits and MGR. Published studies differed in the magnitude and direction of relationships between root architecture and MGR. However, when combined, the overall relationship between MGR and allocation to roots, root diameter, root hair length and root hair density did not differ significantly from zero. These findings indicate that possessing coarse roots is not necessarily a predictor of plant growth response to AM fungal colonization. Root architecture is therefore unlikely to limit the evolution of variation in MGR. PMID:25041241

  1. The regulation and plasticity of root hair patterning and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Henao, Jorge E; Vélez-Bermúdez, Isabel Cristina; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Root hairs are highly specialized cells found in the epidermis of plant roots that play a key role in providing the plant with water and mineral nutrients. Root hairs have been used as a model system for understanding both cell fate determination and the morphogenetic plasticity of cell differentiation. Indeed, many studies have shown that the fate of root epidermal cells, which differentiate into either root hair or non-hair cells, is determined by a complex interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic cues that results in a predictable but highly plastic pattern of epidermal cells that can vary in shape, size and function. Here, we review these studies and discuss recent evidence suggesting that environmental information can be integrated at multiple points in the root hair morphogenetic pathway and affects multifaceted processes at the chromatin, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27246711

  2. Endogenous rhythmic growth in oak trees is regulated by internal clocks rather than resource availability.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S; Recht, S; Boenn, M; Feldhahn, L; Angay, O; Fleischmann, F; Tarkka, M T; Grams, T E E; Buscot, F

    2015-12-01

    Common oak trees display endogenous rhythmic growth with alternating shoot and root flushes. To explore the mechanisms involved, microcuttings of the Quercus robur L. clone DF159 were used for (13)C/(15)N labelling in combination with RNA sequencing (RNASeq) transcript profiling of shoots and roots. The effect of plant internal resource availability on the rhythmic growth of the cuttings was tested through inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Piloderma croceum. Shoot and root flushes were related to parallel shifts in above- and below-ground C and, to a lesser extent, N allocation. Increased plant internal resource availability by P. croceum inoculation with enhanced plant growth affected neither the rhythmic growth nor the associated resource allocation patterns. Two shifts in transcript abundance were identified during root and shoot growth cessation, and most concerned genes were down-regulated. Inoculation with P. croceum suppressed these transcript shifts in roots, but not in shoots. To identify core processes governing the rhythmic growth, functions [Gene Ontology (GO) terms] of the genes differentially expressed during the growth cessation in both leaves and roots of non-inoculated plants and leaves of P. croceum-inoculated plants were examined. Besides genes related to resource acquisition and cell development, which might reflect rather than trigger rhythmic growth, genes involved in signalling and/or regulated by the circadian clock were identified. The results indicate that rhythmic growth involves dramatic oscillations in plant metabolism and gene regulation between below- and above-ground parts. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis may play a previously unsuspected role in smoothing these oscillations without modifying the rhythmic growth pattern. PMID:26320242

  3. Endogenous rhythmic growth in oak trees is regulated by internal clocks rather than resource availability

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, S.; Recht, S.; Boenn, M.; Feldhahn, L.; Angay, O.; Fleischmann, F.; Tarkka, M T.; Grams, T.E.E.; Buscot, F.

    2015-01-01

    Common oak trees display endogenous rhythmic growth with alternating shoot and root flushes. To explore the mechanisms involved, microcuttings of the Quercus robur L. clone DF159 were used for 13C/15N labelling in combination with RNA sequencing (RNASeq) transcript profiling of shoots and roots. The effect of plant internal resource availability on the rhythmic growth of the cuttings was tested through inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Piloderma croceum. Shoot and root flushes were related to parallel shifts in above- and below-ground C and, to a lesser extent, N allocation. Increased plant internal resource availability by P. croceum inoculation with enhanced plant growth affected neither the rhythmic growth nor the associated resource allocation patterns. Two shifts in transcript abundance were identified during root and shoot growth cessation, and most concerned genes were down-regulated. Inoculation with P. croceum suppressed these transcript shifts in roots, but not in shoots. To identify core processes governing the rhythmic growth, functions [Gene Ontology (GO) terms] of the genes differentially expressed during the growth cessation in both leaves and roots of non-inoculated plants and leaves of P. croceum-inoculated plants were examined. Besides genes related to resource acquisition and cell development, which might reflect rather than trigger rhythmic growth, genes involved in signalling and/or regulated by the circadian clock were identified. The results indicate that rhythmic growth involves dramatic oscillations in plant metabolism and gene regulation between below- and above-ground parts. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis may play a previously unsuspected role in smoothing these oscillations without modifying the rhythmic growth pattern. PMID:26320242

  4. Spatio-temporal sequence of cross-regulatory events in root meristem growth

    PubMed Central

    Scacchi, Emanuele; Salinas, Paula; Gujas, Bojan; Santuari, Luca; Krogan, Naden; Ragni, Laura; Berleth, Thomas; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    A central question in developmental biology is how multicellular organisms coordinate cell division and differentiation to determine organ size. In Arabidopsis roots, this balance is controlled by cytokinin-induced expression of SHORT HYPOCOTYL 2 (SHY2) in the so-called transition zone of the meristem, where SHY2 negatively regulates auxin response factors (ARFs) by protein–protein interaction. The resulting down-regulation of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is considered the key event in promoting differentiation of meristematic cells. Here we show that this regulation involves additional, intermediary factors and is spatio-temporally constrained. We found that the described cytokinin–auxin crosstalk antagonizes BREVIS RADIX (BRX) activity in the developing protophloem. BRX is an auxin-responsive target of the prototypical ARF MONOPTEROS (MP), a key promoter of vascular development, and transiently enhances PIN3 expression to promote meristem growth in young roots. At later stages, cytokinin induction of SHY2 in the vascular transition zone restricts BRX expression to down-regulate PIN3 and thus limit meristem growth. Interestingly, proper SHY2 expression requires BRX, which could reflect feedback on the auxin responsiveness of SHY2 because BRX protein can directly interact with MP, likely acting as a cofactor. Thus, cross-regulatory antagonism between BRX and SHY2 could determine ARF activity in the protophloem. Our data suggest a model in which the regulatory interactions favor BRX expression in the early proximal meristem and SHY2 prevails because of supplementary cytokinin induction in the later distal meristem. The complex equilibrium of this regulatory module might represent a universal switch in the transition toward differentiation in various developmental contexts. PMID:21149702

  5. Growth periodicity, biomass and nutrient content of fine roots in a northern hardwood forest

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M.K.; Raynal, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    Seasonal periodicity of growth, biomass and nutrient content of fine roots were estimated in a beech-birch-maple forest in the Adirondack Mountains. Root elongation rate was measured at regular intervals for one calendar using rhizotrons. Root growth was minimal from January to April and from September to December. Initiation of fine root growth occurred in mid-April, remained high throughout the summer months and declined sharply during August. Fine root biomass, necromass, length, and nutrient content (Ca, Mg, K, N, P and S) were estimated from soil core samples. Estimates for each parameter generally declined with depth in the profile. Fine root production is strongly seasonal, decreases with depth, and accounts for a significant portion of the soil nutrient capital.

  6. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  7. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  8. Ascorbic acid mitigation of water stress-inhibition of root growth in association with oxidative defense in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Qian; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Root growth inhibition by water stress may be related to oxidative damages. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exogenous application of ascorbic acid (ASA) could mitigate root growth decline due to water stress and whether ASA effects on root growth could be regulated through activating non-enzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant systems in perennial grass species. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. “K-31”) plants were grown in nutrient solution, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 was added into the solution to induce water stress. For exogenous ASA treatment, ASA (5 mM) was added into the solution with or without PEG-8000. Plants treated with ASA under water stress showed significantly increased root growth rate, and those roots had significantly lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2− content) than those without ASA treatment. Malondialdehyde content in root tips treated with ASA under water stress was also significantly reduced compared with those under water stress alone. In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. Transcripts of genes for expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases showed increased abundances in ASA-treated root maturation zone under water stress, indicating that ASA could accelerated cell wall loosening and cell expansion. The results suggested that exogenous treatment of roots with ASA enhanced root elongation under water

  9. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al(3+)-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al(3+)-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L(-1) IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al(3+) stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al(3+)-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips. PMID:27435109

  10. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al3+-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al3+-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L−1 IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al3+-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al3+ stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al3+-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips. PMID:27435109