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1

The amnestic syndrome: Applying the Rorschach Inkblot method for differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Dissociative processes were investigated in a man diagnosed with focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) following a traumatic head injury without any anterograde memory deficit. Findings were derived from the Rorschach Inkblot method, which was administered together with other performance-based tests and a self-report inventory for evaluating dissociative proneness in personality functioning. A substantial set of behavioral and test response variables indicated dissociation proneness and the activation of dissociative mechanisms. This conception was supported a few months following the evaluation when the patient reported a total spontaneous recovery of the memory deficit. The interplay between neurological and functional factors in FRA is discussed with a view for creating an integrated model. PMID:23985019

Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth; Kedem, Sagit; Hadar, Uri

2014-12-01

2

The Rorschach as an Alternate Form of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the comparability of Rorschach Inkblots and the Holtzman Inkblots. Subjects (N=27) were administered both instruments and their responses scored using the standard Holtzman Inkblot Technique variables. The number of responses was controlled when using the Rorschach. Results indicate that the Rorschach Inkblots were a satisfactory…

Vincent, Ken R.; Duthie, Bruce

1986-01-01

3

Comprehensive system indices, constellations, and supplemental aggression ratings for the Rorschach Inkblot method: Reliability and validity in a child and adolescent outpatient sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study had two primary objectives. The first objective was to examine the reliability and validity of the Comprehensive System (CS, Exner, 1986, 1993) for the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a population of children and adolescents treated over the past decade at a not-for-profit community mental health center in urban southern California. This examination included investigation of CS interrater

Jacob A Palm

2005-01-01

4

The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

Gosselin, Hope Lynette

5

Methodological Considerations in Rorschach Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the same general research principles that guide other investigations should apply to research with the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the nature of the Rorschach as a relatively unstructured measure of personality functioning calls for special attention to selection of research participants, choice of variables, and data collection and…

Weiner, Irving B.

1995-01-01

6

Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

Peske, Patric O.

7

Essentials of Rorschach Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide provides a clear and concise reference for those who want to understand and use the Rorschach inkblot test with confidence. The book reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the Rorschach, and offers advice on its clinical applications, with emphasis on the evaluation of adult personality. The chapters are: (1) "Overview";…

Rose, Tara; Kaser-Boyd, Nancy; Maloney, Michael P.

8

Dimensions of the Rorschach: A Matter of Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying dimensions of the 10 Rorschach inkblots by means of standard multidimensional scaling procedures. The question of whether such emergent dimensions would be related to standard Rorschach scoring categories was raised; and the possibility of individual characteristics was explored.…

Ewert, Lawrence D.; Wiggins, Nancy

1973-01-01

9

The Use of the Rorschach to Identify Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach's use of inkblots as a diagnostic tool has been quite useful in aiding in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In developing his Comprehensive System for the Rorschach, John Exner (1974) included an index designed to identify schizophrenic subjects. The Schizophrenia Index has evolved to reflect ongoing research. In its current state, the…

Entwistle, David Nelson

10

Rorschach Revisited: A New Look at an Old Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All pairs of Rorschach inkblots were scaled for perceived similarity by one normal and two psychopathological samples. The resulting data were analyzed using Carroll and Chang's INDSCAL model, which resulted in a good fit in two dimensions. These were interpreted as a dimension of color and one of form ("twoness"). (Author)

Wainer, Howard; And Others

1976-01-01

11

The Effect of Reading Ability on Rorschach Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach inkblot tests were administered to 25 second graders who had been classified either as poor or excellent readers. The poor readers showed perceptual difficulties, less capacity for organizing or integrating separate facts, and less emotional reactions to the environment. Implications for teaching poor readers are suggested. (Author/GDC)

Alheidt, Patricia

1980-01-01

12

The Rorschach butterfly effect: it L.L. a mistake.  

PubMed

Errors in Rorschach coding and interpretation have contributed substantially to the ink-blot literature, with reported discrepancies on even the simplest scoring tasks. A review of the underlying assumptions uncovered a long-standing location aberration, stemming from Beck's adaptation of Klopfer and perpetuated through Exner. The resulting coding errors (D3 or Dd28, and "o" or "u") in a highly-scrutinized and regularly selected domain of card II potentiates a "butterfly effect" escalation of interpretative malfeasance. It remains unclear whether review of the vast data-base of collected protocol summaries will undo the cumulative putative error, or whether the creation of a fresh approach to Rorschach may be the best way forward for Rorschach in the 21st century. PMID:18084910

King, Michael G

2007-01-01

13

Statistical power and the Rorschach: 1975-1991.  

PubMed

The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the source of long-standing controversies as to its nature and its psychometric properties. Consistent with behavioral science research in general, the concept of statistical power has been entirely ignored by Rorschach researchers. The concept of power is introduced and discussed, and a power survey of the Rorschach literature published between 1975 and 1991 in the Journal of Personality Assessment, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Journal of Personality, Psychological Bulletin, American Journal of Psychiatry, and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology was undertaken. Power was calculated for 2,300 statistical tests in 158 journal articles. Power to detect small, medium, and large effect sizes was .13, .56, and .85, respectively. Similar to the findings in other power surveys conducted on behavioral science research, we concluded that Rorschach research is underpowered to detect the differences under investigation. This undoubtedly contributes to the inconsistency of research findings which has been a source of controversy and criticism over the decades. It appears that research conducted according to the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is more powerful. Recommendations are offered for improving power and strengthening the design sensitivity of Rorschach research, including increasing sample sizes, use of parametric statistics, reduction of error variance, more accurate reporting of findings, and editorial policies reflecting concern about the magnitude of relationships beyond an exclusive focus on levels of statistical significance. PMID:16370849

Acklin, M W; McDowell, C J; Orndoff, S

1992-10-01

14

B.F. Skinner and the auditory inkblot: The rise and fall of the verbal summator as a projective technique.  

PubMed

Behaviorist B.F. Skinner is not typically associated with the fields of personality assessment or projective testing. However, early in his career Skinner developed an instrument he named the verbal summator, which, at one point, he referred to as a device for "snaring out complexes," much like an auditory analogue of the Rorschach inkblots. Skinner's interest in the projective potential of his technique was relatively short lived, but whereas he used the verbal summator to generate experimental data for his theory of verbal behavior, several other clinicians and researchers exploited this potential and adapted the verbal summator technique for both research and applied purposes. The idea of an auditory inkblot struck many as a useful innovation, and the verbal summator spawned the tautophone test, the auditory apperception test, and the Azzageddi test, among others. This article traces the origin, development, and eventual demise of the verbal summator as an auditory projective technique. PMID:14735913

Rutherford, Alexandra

2003-11-01

15

Challenges since Wikipedia: the availability of Rorschach information online and internet users' reactions to online media coverage of the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate.  

PubMed

We conducted 2 studies to assess the availability of Rorschach information online and Internet users' attitudes since the inkblots were published on Wikipedia. In the first study, the authors conducted 2 Google searches for Web sites containing Rorschach-related information. The top 88 results were classified by level of threat to test security; 19% posed a direct threat. The authors also found Web sites authored by psychologists that divulged sensitive Rorschach information. In the second study, 588 comments to online news stories covering the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate were coded as expressing favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding the field of psychology, psychologists, and the Rorschach. Eight percent of comments described unfavorable opinions toward psychology, 15% contained unfavorable opinions toward psychologists, and 35% portrayed unfavorable opinions of the Rorschach. Common themes and popular misconceptions of the Rorschach contained in these comments are described. Implications and recommendations for practice are discussed. Limitations, including the second study's narrow sample and self-selection bias, are also detailed. PMID:22176268

Schultz, Douglas S; Loving, James L

2012-01-01

16

On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

Haggard, Ernest A.

1978-01-01

17

The Rorschach in Forensic Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rorschach is one of the most widely used, openly accepted, and frequently requested tests in forensic psychology practice (Piotrowski, 1996; Meloy, 1991; Weiner, Exner, & Sciara, 1996). Well-trained psychologists with a sophisticated understanding of the individual, psychological constructs, base rates, and conditional probabilities, derive information from the Rorschach beyond what is available from diagnosis, self-report, and interview. The Rorschach

Carl B. Gacono; F. Barton Evans III; Donald J. Viglione

2002-01-01

18

An Aesthetic Value Scale of the Rorschach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An aesthetic value scale of the Rorschach cards was built by the successive interval method. This scale was compared with the ratings obtained by means of the Semantic Differential Scales and was found to successfully differentiate sexes in their judgment of card attractiveness. (Author)

Insua, Ana Maria

1981-01-01

19

Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

1985-01-01

20

Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

Smith, Jane E.; And Others

1991-01-01

21

Perceptual Development on the Rorschach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rorschach was given to 60 school children in two designs: chronological age (CA) and mental age (MA) orthogonal and CA=MA. Responses were scored for Form Accuracy, Complexity, Movement and Friedman's Developmental Level (DL) Scoring System. The results suggest that the DL system does assess MA independently of CA. (Author/DEP)

O'Neill, Patrick; And Others

1976-01-01

22

Coding and Interpreting Movement on the Rorschach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)

Holaday, Margot

1996-01-01

23

A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

Bricklin, Barry

1975-01-01

24

Theoretical Foundations of Rorschach by Piotrowski.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writer has tried to lift the veil of mystery from the Rorschach Cards by uncovering in simple form the ten basic principles of Zygmunt Protrowski which can be considered the foundation stones of Rorschach; they are composed of psycho-justifications as well as meaningful administrative procedures allowing the reader broader understanding of…

Daly, William C.

2005-01-01

25

The effects of violent media on adolescent inkblot responses: implications for clinical and forensic assessments.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to assess the degree to which violent media stimulate violent fantasy as depicted on inkblot responses. In Experiment I, 41 gifted high school students were exposed to a bucolic or violent film clip and then were asked to produce inkblot responses. In Experiment II, a second sample of 43 additional students were exposed to a verbal description of the bucolic or violent scene to assess whether the "hot" or "cooler" media (McLuhan, 1964) had different effects on the inkblot responses. In both experiments, the media exposure led to increased levels of violent responses, and in both cases males produced more violent responses. There was no sex by media interaction effect. Implications for clinical and forensic assessments are presented. PMID:10348406

Hess, T H; Hess, K D; Hess, A K

1999-04-01

26

Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing  

PubMed Central

Background The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls. Methods Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls. Results The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C) > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups. Conclusion The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder.

Kimura, Hiromi; Osaki, Akemi; Kawashima, Rui; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Suzuki, Katsuji; Asakura, Satoshi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kitaichi, Yuji; Masui, Takuya; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Kako, Yuki; Abekawa, Tomohiro; Kusumi, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Hiroyoshi; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa

2013-01-01

27

Model Errors in the Cross Cultural Use of the Rorschach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that efforts are being made to validate the Rorschach with minority cultures and that preliminary psychometric review of Rorschach data tends to confirm its usefulness in cross-cultural work, and the legitimacy of the concept of modal personality. Reviews several significant issues in cross-cultural use of Rorschach, including norms,…

Howes, Ronald D.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

1989-01-01

28

Rorschach Validity: An Empirical Approach to the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared two types of empirical study with two types of conceptual research on the validity of the Rorschach. Argues that the Rorschach does have some validity and that poor research is at least partly culpable for the Rorschach's perceived failure. (Author/BL)

Atkinson, L.; And Others

1986-01-01

29

Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

1994-01-01

30

Are Rorschach Responses Influenced by Society's Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the general belief that people "normally" see male figures on Rorschach Card III and females on Card VII; to see the opposite, according to some, would indicate a confusing of sex roles. This study makes two comparisons: age and time changes of individual responses to these cards in different decades. (DEP)

Ames, Louise Bates

1975-01-01

31

Rorschach Indices of Children Classified as Hyperactive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rorschach protocols of 20 boys (ages 6-11 years) rated by their teachers as hyperactive and those of 20 nonhyperactive boys were compared along 16 indices. Findings are discussed in terms of the assessment of hyperactivity within a conceptual framework which regards impulsivity as a major underlying dimension. (Author/SJL)

Gordon, Michael; Oshman, Harvey

1981-01-01

32

Wechsler Discrepancies and the Rorschach Experience Balance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested for a link between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and personality style by comparing WAIS scores with Rorschach Experience Balance scores in two studies using 47 children and 188 psychiatric patients. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationships, indicating lack of a common factor underlying the measures. (WAS)

Gordon, Michael; And Others

1983-01-01

33

Narcissism in the Rorschach Revisited: Some Reflections on Empirical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether the Rorschach test was able to identify pathological expressions of narcissism was studied in 91 patients with Axis II mental disorder. Results suggest that the Rorschach can differentiate narcissistic personality disorder patients from a nonclinical sample and a sample from Cluster A ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

1997-01-01

34

Methodological Issues in Evaluating Rorschach Validity: A Comment on Burns and Viglione (1996), Weiner (1996), and Ganellen (1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three recent studies of the validity of Rorschach test (H. Rorschach, 1921) that have not evaluated methodological issues carefully. Identifies methodological errors in each study and offers specific information for the interpretation of Rorschach results. (SLD)

Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.; Garven, Sena; West, Stephen G.

1999-01-01

35

The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the diagnostic utility of the Rorschach for assessing thought disorder and to increase clinical

Mark J. Hilsenroth; Erin M. Eudell-Simmons; Jared A. DeFife; Jocelyn W. Charnas

2007-01-01

36

Obesity, Level of Aspiration, and Rorschach and TAT Measures of Oral Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese Israelis and controls were administered the Rorschach, TAT, and a level-of-aspiration task. The obese Ss scored higher on oral dependence than the control Ss on both the Rorschach (p = .01) and TAT (p = .02). There were no differences on either test for oral sadism, although the Rorschach subcategories of overwhelming figures and burdens and TAT themes of

Joseph Masling; Lillie Rabie; S. H. Blondheim

1967-01-01

37

Influence of Examiner Differences on Rorschach Productivity in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach test protocols for a matched sample of male and female subjects, in the child and adolescent range, were scored for total responses. The data was analyzed for evidence of interactions between sex of experimenter and sex and age of subject. (Author/BJG)

Tuma, June M.; McCraw, Ronald K.

1975-01-01

38

Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

1995-01-01

39

Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

Martin, Frances G.

40

Rorschach Prediction of Success in Clinical Training: A Second Look  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Rorschach Index based on ego-psychological conceptualization of an optimal personality picture predicted for 155 trainees was compared with predictions from the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB). The Index predicted success and failure more effectively. (Author)

Carlson, Rae

1969-01-01

41

Temporal Factors of the Rorschach White Space Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The claim by Bandura that the Rorschach space response is an artifact of longer blot exposure is questioned because of failure to account for the relationship between productivity and space response rates. Results of this study indicate that no significant temporal effect operates on space response rate. (Author/BEF)

Carlson, Roy W.; Morris, Gary W.

1980-01-01

42

Rorschach Form Quality in Two Editions of Exner's Comprehensive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Form level is a major element in the scoring and interpretation of Rorschach responses. Exner's 1974 text and 1976 comprehensive system workbook provided helpful norms and scoring conventions for determining form quality, but its 1985 revision appeared to lead to generally lower levels of form quality. To examine this clinical impression, the…

Barley, William D.; And Others

43

Computerization of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SORTSCOR performs raw scoring of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT) and REPORT subsequently writes a narrative report in easily readable, nonclinical language. Complete documentation is available, at cost, from the author at Quinnipiac College, Hamden, Conn. 06518. (Author/CB)

Ingenohl, Ingo

1973-01-01

44

Studies in fantasy––daydreaming frequency and Rorschach scoring categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of female students in an introductory psychology course, a fantasy scale of 201 items and the Rorschach test were administered; fantasy scale dealt with the experience of daydreaming. Differences between high and low daydreaming groups were studied. Among the findings was some support \\

Horace A. Page

1957-01-01

45

What Might This Be? Rediscovering the Rorschach as a Tool for Personnel Selection in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I review the empirical status of the Rorschach as it relates to potential use of the instrument in personnel selection procedures. As part of this review, I outline developing trends in personnel selection practices, discuss the Rorschach literature relevant to organizational performance, and weigh the benefits and drawbacks of using the instrument in this capacity. Based on

Matthew J. Del Giudice

2010-01-01

46

The Reliability of the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach: A Comment on Meyer (1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

G. Meyer (1997) attempts to refute the present authors' criticisms of the interrater reliability of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) but misrepresents their position and offers a flawed meta-analysis in support of his own. Rorschach proponents need to undertake high-quality replicated studies of CS reliability and validity. (SLD)

Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.

1997-01-01

47

A Conceptual Critique of the EA:es Comparison in the Comprehensive Rorschach System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The EA:es index (part of the Comprehensive Rorschach System) is discussed, demonstrating how conceptual difficulties and abstract jargon can result in misleading and contradictory inferences. The comments of J. E. Exner, Jr., and the response of J. H. Kleiger concern the importance of theory in Rorschach interpretation. (SLD)

Kleiger, James H.; Exner, John E., Jr.

1992-01-01

48

Suicide andthe Representation of Transparency and Cross-Sections on the Rorschach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach protocols of all inpatients since 1960 known to have committed suicide either during or subsequent to hospitalization (n=12) are compared with the Rorschach protocols of a closely matched control group. The results suggest that the presence of transparency and cross-sectional representations is a reliable indicator of suicidal intent.…

Blatt, Sidney J.; Ritzler, Barry A.

1974-01-01

49

SEXUAL ABUSE IN EARLY VERSUS LATE CHILDHOOD: DIFFERING PATTERNS OF PATHOLOGY AS REVEALED ON THE RORSCHACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the Rorschach protocols of three groups of girls; 37 sexually abused before their ninth birthday; 43 sexually abused after their ninth birthday; and a control group of 72 patients with no history of abuse. Five Rorschach variables were found to reliably differentiate early from late-abuse-onset groups. The pattern of group differences revealed that over half of

Olivia Ann Zivney; Michael R. Nash; Timothy L. Hulsey

1988-01-01

50

Rorschach aggression variables: a study of reliability and validity.  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which 6 Rorschach variables of aggression (A1, A2, AG, MOR, AgC, AgPast) are related to one another, to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Cluster B personality disorder criteria, and to self-report measures of anger, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Seventy-eight patients were found to meet DSM-IV criteria for an Axis II disorder, Cluster A personality disorder (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal) = 9, Cluster B (antisocial personality disorder [ANPD] = 16, borderline personality disorder [BPD] = 23, histrionic personality disorder = 5, narcissistic personality disorder = 12) = 56, and Cluster C personality disorder (avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive) = 13. The results of this study indicated that (a) these 6 Rorschach aggression variables can be scored reliably; (b) 2 factors, revealed by factor analysis, accounted for 77% of the total variance; (c) selected variables were found to be empirically related to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ANPD and BPD; and (d) selected variables were found to be empirically related to a self-report measure of anger and antisocial practices. The conceptual nature and clinical utility of these Rorschach aggression variables as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:10205872

Baity, M R; Hilsenroth, M J

1999-02-01

51

Suppression of aggressive rorschach responses among violent offenders and nonoffenders.  

PubMed

This Rorschach study explored the suppression of aggression content when violent offenders and nonoffenders are asked to present themselves as not posing a threat of dangerousness in a court role-playing context. Aggressive content and complexity in this suppressive role-play context was compared to a neutral control condition. A total of 41 participants, approximately half violent offenders and half nonoffenders took the Rorschach under both conditions. Results indicate that both groups suppressed aggression content on the Rorschach without altering response complexity. This large effect size for testing condition may partly explain the inconsistencies across previous studies. It is possible that violent offenders have typically been tested in highly suppressive conditions whereas nonoffender or normative groups may have been tested in relatively low suppression conditions. If so, aggression score differences may be a reflection of the testing condition, not group differences. Both instructional sets produced similar levels of complexity, so that individuals do not simplify responses when they screen out aggressive attributions. Violent offenders did not differ from nonviolent offenders in terms of aggression content, but did produce more simplistic records. In addition, this study also undertook a semantic, textual analysis and found that individuals in the suppressive condition tended to eliminate many response elaborations, particularly those with negative of threatening connotations. PMID:23711990

Benjestorf, Sue TaVoularis; Viglione, Donald J; Lamb, Judy D; Giromini, Luciano

2013-10-01

52

Thinking Clearly about Reliability: More Critical Corrections Regarding the Rorschach Comprehensive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replies to Wood et al. and documents limitations of their conclusions about the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS), supporting Meyer's own meta-analysis, which finds adequate interrater reliability for the CS. (SLD)

Meyer, Gregory J.

1997-01-01

53

Noblesse Oblige Effect: The Interpretation of Rorschach Responses as a Function of Ascribed Social Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of a person's social class on the interpretations made of his Rorschach responses was investigated. Results clearly testify to the influence of social class on the clinician's judgment. (Author)

Koscherak, Stephen; Masling, Joseph

1972-01-01

54

[The Rorschach test in the diagnosis of schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Rorschach test was performed in 20 schizophrenics and 20 patients with endogenous depression. The results were interpreted according to Piotrowski system by using the computer elaboration of data. At least a half of schizophrenics showed abnormal values of following: index alpha indexes (impairment of external and internal activity), %D (analytic, practical thinking) %H + Hd (attitude toward people), %F + p (correctness of thinking). The comparison with the endogenous depression group revealed however only the %F + p significant difference between both groups of patients (values in depressed patients were within normal range). The comparison of schizophrenia and depression group regarding other results of the test their configuration showed more often answers of anatomic and sexual content, more often popular answers, and larger number of introverts in the group of schizophrenia. In the depressive group larger was the number of refusal to answer after presentation of some test tables. The results confirm several abnormalities in various indexes in Rorschach test psychogram among patients with schizophrenia. At the same time they shake the opinion of relative diagnostic specificity of the test because several similar abnormalities were found in patients with endogenous depression. PMID:2631129

Zaniecka, M; Rybakowski, J

1989-01-01

55

A relational interpretation of the Rorschach color determinants.  

PubMed

This article presents a contemporary relational interpretation of the Rorschach that is consistent with the empirical features of the Comprehensive System. The specific focus is on color determinants and the FC:CF+C ratio. The approach follows that of Schachtel ( 1959), who argued that how one perceives others reveals the quality of relatedness between oneself and others. Schachtel identified a developmental sequence of relatedness (perceptual-relatedness modes) and linked these levels of perceiving and relating to the Rorschach color determinants. I suggest that this developmental sequence, elaborated in a contemporary context, defines the expected or normative course of relatedness, whether across a lifetime, a particular relationship, or an interpersonal encounter. I further propose that relationships emerge and develop through organized trial-and-error activity, in the sense of Piaget's (1952) trying out (assimilating) and simultaneously modifying (accommodating) one's understanding within a relationship. Relatedness levels and the developmental transitions between them are described in terms of the underlying assimilation and accommodation processes. Within this general approach, the FC:CF+C ratio is defined as reflecting styles of relating to one's interpersonal environment, with each relational style based on normative or on variant relational development. Four fundamental relational styles-healthy, egocentric, veneered egocentric, and defensive-are described and coordinated with the Comprehensive System FC:CF+C potential findings. PMID:11117155

Overton, C G

2000-12-01

56

Rorschach Variables and Big Five Scales as Predictors of Military Training Completion: A Replication Study of the Selection of Candidates to the Naval Special Forces in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 140 male candidates at the Naval Special Forces (NFS) of Norway on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003; Rorschach, 1921\\/1942) and the Norwegian version of the Big Five personality dimensions (Engvik & Føllesdal, 2005). Rorschach variables significantly correlated with training completion (effect sizes of re = .14–.25), whereas none of the Big Five factors or facets did. The combination of

Ellen Hartmann; Cato Grønnerød

2009-01-01

57

Test Review: Exner, J. E. (2003). "The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System" (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is a major work in psychology that continues to evolve. The Basic Foundations text (Exner, 1974, 1986, 1993, 2003) is now in its fourth edition. The Exner system and the Rorschach have been the subjects of extensive research and publications, and the Exner system has its share of proponents and critics.…

Flanagan, Rosemary

2006-01-01

58

Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 41 adult nonpatients from Israel.  

PubMed

This study presents data concerning Rorschach protocols of 41 Jewish Israeli students. The sample includes 20 males and 21 females, ranging in age from 19 to 35, who were selected from a larger sample of 50 undergraduates by applying psychiatric exclusion criteria. The results concerning the main Rorschach Comprehensive System's (CS; Exner, 2003) measures of distress (D and Adj D scores, S-Constellation, and DEPI) revealed substantial elevation. These results are analyzed in relation to the constant threat of terror, which the participants are exposed to within the context of the ongoing political conflict in the Middle East. The analysis is supported by data concerning a new Rorschach index, the Reality-Fantasy scale (RFS; Tibon, Handelzalts, & Weinberger, 2005), which applies the CS to psychoanalytic conceptualization of transitional space. PMID:18039174

Tibon, Shira

2007-01-01

59

Psychodiagnostic Testing in Forensic Psychology: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article comments on five articles in a series designed to provide some current guidelines concerning the forensic applicability of five widely used psychological tests: the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). The author's observations and recommendations make a valuable

Irving B. Weiner

2002-01-01

60

The Rorschach Ego Impairment Index in heterogeneous psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

There is a need for test measures of ego functioning that identify treatment needs and predict treatment response. Perry and Viglione's Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII; Perry & Viglione, 1991) is a composite measure assessing reality testing, thought process, defensive regulation, and object relations. It has been shown to correlate with Minnesota Multiphastic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) scales and subscales and other measures of psychosis in a schizophrenic sample and to predict antidepressant treatment of outcome in a depressed sample. This investigation examined the EII as a measure of ego impairment in a sample of 85 heterogeneous psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. In this sample, the EII did discriminate between inpatients and outpatients; it did not discriminate between psychotic and nonpsychotic patients, though there was a trend in this direction and one of the EII's object relations variables (Good H) did so. The EII did not generally show significant relations with MMPI indices of ego impairment (Ex or Scale 8), though there were some significant patterns of relation with with Scale 8 subscales. The study provides some, though not unequivocal, support for the EII as measure of ego impairment and for its utility compared to other measures and adds credence to earlier suggestions of the importance of object relations measures to ego functioning assessment. PMID:8609582

Adrian, C; Kaser-Boyd, N

1995-12-01

61

Assessing Reliability: Critical Corrections for a Critical Examination of the Rorschach Comprehensive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reply to criticism of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) by J. Wood, M. Nezworski, and W. Stejskal (1996), this article presents a meta-analysis of published data indicating that the CS has excellent chance-corrected interrater reliability. It is noted that the erroneous assumptions of Wood et al. make their assertions about validity…

Meyer, Gregory J.

1997-01-01

62

Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory, MMPI, and Rorschach in Assessing Adolescent Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale (MMPI-D), and the Rorschach Depression Index in measuring adolescent depression. Retroactive charts of 118 hospitalized adolescents were divided into depressed (n=66) and nondepressed (n=52) groups. Results indicated…

Carter, Cynthia L.; Dacey, Christine M.

1996-01-01

63

Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

Billingsley, Ralph C.

1995-01-01

64

A Comparison of Normals and Schizophrenics on a New Scale of the Rorschach CET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new scale for scoring the number of correct responses on the Rorschach Concept Evaluation Technique was developed, based on the responses of 250 normal subjects. Using this scale the scores of 125 hospitalized schizophrenics were compared with the normals. The two groups we're differentiated at better than the .001 level.

Paul Mcreynolds

1966-01-01

65

The Study of Some Personality Traits in Theological Students Using the Rorschach Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesquisa realizada com 50 alunos da Faculdade de Teologia de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, com objetiva de analisar alguns traços comuns no Feitio de Personalidade e quanto ao Tipo de Trabalho Mental, a partir da prova de Rorschach. Optou-se para verificar dados que aparecem com mais freqüência e não construir um protocolo médio. Apresenta-se os dados mais

Maria Célia Esgaib Kayatt Lacoski; Vera Nice Assumpção do Nascimento

2000-01-01

66

Appraisal of Suicidal Risk Among Adolescents and Young Adults Through the Rorschach Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group

Sybilla Blasczyk-Schiep; Miguel Kazén; Julius Kuhl; Micha? Grygielski

2011-01-01

67

The Utility of Rorschach in Forensic Psychiatric Evaluations – A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS) in forensic psychiatric evaluations has evoked criticism. This study examined the use of the RCS in forensic psychiatric evaluations by studying to what extent a valid interpretation and an assessment can be made on information based solely on the RCS. Psychological assessments (N 34) based solely on RCS information were compared with

Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius; Erkki Kivilinna; Markku Eronen

2010-01-01

68

Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

1980-01-01

69

Refinements in the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index incorporating the human representational variable.  

PubMed

The Ego Impairment Index (EII; Perry & Viglione, 1991) is a composite measure of psychological impairment and thought disturbance developed from the empirical and theoretical literature on the Rorschach. In this article, we summarize reliability and validity data regarding the EII. Our major goal was to present the rationale and empirical basis for recent refinements in the EII. Among the subcomponents of the original EII was the Human Experience variable (HEV), which has recently been revised and replaced with the Human Representational variable (HRV; Viglione, Perry, Jansak, Meyer, & Exner, 2003). In this study, we replaced the HEV with the HRV to create the EII-2. This was accomplished by recalculating the factor coefficients with a sample of 363 Rorschach protocols. We present additional validity data for the new EII-2. Research recommendations and interpretive guidelines are also presented. PMID:12946921

Viglione, Donald J; Perry, William; Meyer, Gregory

2003-10-01

70

Application to Rat Lung of the Extended Rorschach–Hazlewood Model of Spin–Lattice Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spin–lattice relaxation timeT1was measured in excised degassed (airless) rat lungs over the frequency range 6.7 to 80.5 MHz. The observed frequency dependence was fitted successfully to the water–biopolymer cross-relaxation theory proposed by H. E. Rorschach and C. F. Hazlewood (RH) [J. Magn. Reson.70,79 (1986)]. The rotating frame spin–lattice relaxation timeT1?was also measured in rat lung fragments over the frequency

Andreas Hackmann; David C. Ailion; Krishnamurthy Ganesan; K. Craig Goodrich; Songhua Chen; Gernot Laicher; Antonio G. Cutillo

1996-01-01

71

A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.  

PubMed

We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context. PMID:23844937

Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

2013-01-01

72

Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the Rorschach, in explaining functional and social skills capacity in 72 middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age = 51.2). Participants responded to the Rorschach administered using the R-Optimized administration instructions and scored using the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. Relationships with neuropsychological performance and psychopathology were also explored. Psychological complexity, which refers to a person’s cognitive capacity for problem-solving and organizing their surroundings, was correlated with functional capacity (r = .30) and social skills capacity (r = .34). Healthy interpersonal representations were correlated with positive social skills (r’s = .24 to .28). In multiple regression models, psychological complexity accounted for significant variation in functional (? = 0.23, p = 0.02) and social skills capacity (? = 0.35, p < 0.01) after controlling for neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology. These data suggest that psychological complexity plays a significant role in the functional limitations seen in schizophrenia, above and beyond the contributions of neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms. Support was also found for the impact of healthy object relations functioning with social functioning. Clinical implications include novel information for future development of cognitive remediation treatment strategies based on a patient’s developmental level of psychological capacity and healthy interpersonal schemas.

Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

2012-01-01

73

Normative Data from Rorschach (Exner) and MMPI Tests for Students Assessed in an Alberta Government Youth Assessment Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was intended to provide descriptive data of the students in the Medicine Hat Youth Assessment Center, (YAC) in terms of psychological variables obtained from the Rorschach and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The adolescent subjects were 55 males assessed by the MMPI and 63 males and females assessed by the…

Anderson, Laurence E.

74

Quantified judgments of mental health from the Rorschach, TAT, and Clinical Status Interview by means of a scaling technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaningful measures of mental health derived from clinical instruments such as the Rorschach, TAT, and Clinical Status Interview (CSI) are not ordinarily quantifiable without sacrificing the subjective, clinical, and global nature of the data. A practical technique for scaling clinical judgments is described. Judgments of 35 schizophrenic patients yielded intrajudge reliabilities from .79-.96, and interjudge reliabilities from .87-.95. Days hospitalized

Bertram P. Karon; Paul OGrady

1970-01-01

75

The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

Martin, John D.; And Others

1978-01-01

76

Rorschach Aggressive Content (AgC) variable: a study of criterion validity.  

PubMed

This study adds to the existing literature on the clinical utility of the Aggressive Content (AgC) variable proposed by Gacono and Meloy (1994). Criterion validity is evaluated by examining the relation between AgC and behavior. Rorschach and clinical chart material taken from psychological assessments were examined for 94 patients in Exner's (1993) psychiatric reference groups. An Aggression Chart Rating Scale (ACRS) was created to score the level of aggressiveness of each patient's diagnostic report. Analyses revealed good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .73) for ACRS scores and Aggressive Movement (AG; kappa = .73) and excellent reliability for AgC (kappa =.88) and Morbid Content (MOR: kappa = .79). Pearson's correlation revealed significant relations between AgC and both AG and MOR. All 3 Rorschach variables were significantly related to scores on the ACRS. A stepwise regression analysis utilizing these 3 variables resulted in AgC being the only nonredundant predictor of scores on the ACRS. This suggests that AgC was more strongly related to more aggressive ACRS scores than either AG or MOR. The continued support for the clinical utility of AgC as well as recommendations for the addition of the AgC variable to Exner's (1993) Comprehensive System's list of Special Scores are discussed. PMID:12067193

Baity, Matthew R; Hilsenroth, Mark J

2002-04-01

77

The Rorschach Ego Impairment Index: prediction of treatment outcome in a child psychiatric population.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the treatment utility of the revision of Perry and Viglione's (1991) Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) in a sample of 53 child psychiatric inpatients. Parent ratings of symptomatic functioning on the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (DSMD; Naglieri, LeBuffe, & Pfeiffer, 1994) were obtained at admission, 30 days postdischarge, and 120 days postdischarge. EII-2 scores correlated with initial symptom elevations on the Critical Pathology at admission. EII-2 scores did not predict short-term response to treatment. However, EII-2 scores demonstrated moderate correlations with long-term outcome and relapse. EII-2 was related to prediction of worsening of symptoms between 30-day and 120-day follow-up as measured by Reliable Change Index scores that were computed for the Externalizing, Internalizing, Critical Pathology, and Total DSMD scales. PMID:12842799

Stokes, John M; Pogge, David L; Powell-Lunder, Jennifer; Ward, Alfred W; Bilginer, Lale; DeLuca, Victoria A

2003-08-01

78

Application to Rat Lung of the Extended Rorschach-Hazlewood Model of Spin-Lattice Relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin-lattice relaxation time T1was measured in excised degassed (airless) rat lungs over the frequency range 6.7 to 80.5 MHz. The observed frequency dependence was fitted successfully to the water-biopolymer cross-relaxation theory proposed by H. E. Rorschach and C. F. Hazlewood (RH) [ J. Magn. Reson.70,79 (1986)]. The rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation time T1?was also measured in rat lung fragments over the frequency range 0.56 to 5.6 kHz, and the observed frequency dependence was explained with an extension of the RH model. The agreement between the theory and the experimental data in both cases is good.

Hackmann, Andreas; Ailion, David C.; Ganesan, Krishnamurthy; Goodrich, K. Craig; Chen, Songhua; Laicher, Gernot; Cutillo, Antonio G.

79

Dissociative trance disorder: clinical and Rorschach findings in ten persons reporting demon possession and treated by exorcism.  

PubMed

Although dissociative trance disorders, especially possession disorder, are probably more common than is usually though, precise clinical data are lacking. Ten persons undergoing exorcisms for devil trance possession state were studied with the Dissociative Disorders Diagnostic Schedule and the Rorschach test. These persons had many traits in common with dissociative identity disorder patients. They were overwhelmed by paranormal experiences. Despite claiming possession by a demon, most of them managed to maintain normal social functioning. Rorschach findings showed that these persons had a complex personality organization: Some of them displayed a tendency to oversimplify stimulus perception whereas others seemed more committed to psychological complexity. Most had severe impairment of reality testing, and 6 of the participants had an extratensive coping stile. In this group of persons reporting demon possession, dissociative trance disorder seems to be a distinct clinical manifestation of a dissociative continuum, sharing some features with dissociative identity disorder. PMID:8667145

Ferracuti, S; Sacco, R; Lazzari, R

1996-06-01

80

More challenges since Wikipedia: the effects of exposure to internet information about the Rorschach on selected comprehensive system variables.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of reading the Wikipedia article on the Rorschach on Comprehensive System variables, participants in this study (recruited from parent-teacher associations, online message boards, and graduate schools; N = 50) were provided with either a copy of the Wikipedia article on the Rorschach (from April 2010) or an irrelevant article, then administered the Rorschach and instructed to "fake good." Monetary incentives were used to increase motivation to dissimulate. Initial results indicated that participants given the Wikipedia article produced a lower number of responses (R) and had higher scores on Populars, X+%, XA%, and WDA% as compared to controls. However, post-hoc analyses revealed that when the influence of Populars was controlled, significant differences for X+%, XA%, and WDA% disappeared. No significant differences were found for Form%, Zf, Blends, or PER, although post-hoc analyses controlling for differences in R revealed a significant difference between groups on Zf%. Limitations of the study and implications for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:23030722

Schultz, Douglas S; Brabender, Virginia M

2013-01-01

81

Association between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index and the Level of Personality Organization interview assessment in depressive and anxiety disorder patients.  

PubMed

The level of personality functioning, relevant for treatment planning, can be evaluated by the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Ego Impairment Index-2 (EII-2) and by interview assessment of the severity of personality pathology. However, few studies on the association between these assessment methods have been reported. This study examines the strength of association between the EII-2 and its subcomponents with the interview-based Level of Personality Organization (LPO) assessment scale, and investigates their mutual associations with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses, and history. Altogether, 315 mood or anxiety disorder outpatients without severe personality pathology were assessed with the LPO and tested with the CS, on which the EII-2 and its subcomponents (FQ-, WSum6, Critical contents, M-, PHR, GHR, and R) were calculated. Significant, but weak association between the EII-2 and the LPO was found. The WSum6, a measure of thought disorder, was the only EII-2 subcomponent significantly associated with the LPO. Both measures were consistently associated with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses and history. The findings partially support the EII-2 and the LPO as consistently associated, relatively independent measures of the severity of personality pathology. More research on the incremental benefits of the measures is needed in clinical populations, covering non-severe and complex psychopathology. PMID:22633010

Valkonen, Harri; Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul

2012-12-30

82

Further exploration of the Rorschach Aggressive Content (AgC) variable.  

PubMed

Based on the recommendations of Baity and Hilsenroth (1999), this study further investigated the reliability and validity of the Rorschach Aggressive Content (AgC) variable developed by Gacono and Meloy (1994). Eighty-five aggressive objects identified by Gacono and Meloy, 19 potentially aggressive objects and 22 neutral (nonaggressive) objects were rated for aggressiveness based on the definition of AgC. Two hundred seventy-six participants rated objects on the Object Rating Scale (0-6), where a score of 0 indicates that an object does not fit the definition of AgC. In addition, objects rated a 4 (moderately aggressive) or higher were then classified into 5 qualitative groupings (weapons, animal/part of animal, environmental danger, fictional creature, and other). Analysis of the results indicates that the AgC list can be replicated and that objects rated as at least moderately aggressive (4) can be reliably classified into distinct categories. One-month test-retest reliability (r = .99) suggests that objects can be scored consistently using the definition of AgC and provides support for the utility of the AgC variable. Based on the results of this study, recommendations for the addition of the AgC variable to the list of content categories of Exner's (1993) Comprehensive System are presented and discussed along with scoring examples. PMID:10879353

Baity, M R; McDaniel, P S; Hilsenroth, M J

2000-04-01

83

A Meta-Analysis of the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Search procedures yielded 13 independent samples (total N = 1402, average n = 108, standard deviation = 90) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Inter-rater reliability analyses demonstrated that coding of effect sizes and moderator variables was completed with good to excellent reliability. Results indicated that higher EII scores were associated with greater psychiatric severity, with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.29, p = 0.000002 (95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.40), supporting the EII's validity as a measure of psychological impairment. Publication bias analyses did not indicate any significant cause for concern regarding the results. The data were demonstrably heterogeneous (Q = 56.82, p = 0.0000001), and results of post-hoc tests indicated that effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via researcher ratings were significantly larger than any of the following: effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via clinician ratings, informant ratings, information about level of treatment or placement status or self-report ratings (p's = 0.0005, 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a trend for effect sizes based on performance-based measures to be larger than those based on information about level of treatment or placement status (p = 0.098) as well as those based on self-report measures (p = 0.076). Other moderator analyses were non-significant (p 's > 0.10). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • The Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) demonstrated validity in measuring psychiatric severity across a range of normative, outpatient, residential, and inpatient samples. • The degree of the EII's validity in assessing psychiatric severity compared favorably to the overall validity of the Rorschach and the MMPI. • The EII appears to be most valid in capturing psychiatric severity as measured by researcher ratings of social competency or estimated ego impairment. PMID:20941796

Diener, Marc J; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Shaffer, Seth A; Sexton, James E

2011-01-01

84

The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined potential correlates of the CDI using

Rebecca Vauter Stredny; J. D. Ball

2005-01-01

85

Multidimensional Scaling of the TAT and the Measurement of Achievement Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achievement motivation was successfully measured among male and female college students by having the students rate eight Thematic Apperception Test cards for similarity and scaling the results in two dimensions: number of persons and degree of strong affect. The Rorschach Inkblot Test was not effective in determining need for achievement. (CTM)

Vestewig, Richard E.; Paradise, Carol A.

1977-01-01

86

Simulation of psychosis on a multiple-choice projective test.  

PubMed

The ability of a new multiple-choice group Rorschach instrument to differentiate 62 undergraduate students asked to simulate psychosis from 75 students and 55 schizophrenics given standard instructions was investigated. For each of 50 responses to miniature inkblots, normals and psychotics chose one of four alternative answers as most descriptive of what the stimulus looked like. Simulators responded as they thought a psychotic or insane person would. As hypothesized, simulators chose significantly more "good form but bizarre wording" responses than normals or psychotics, suggesting that the test is promising as a practical clinical indicator of attempts to simulate psychosis. PMID:6634328

Pettigrew, C G; Tuma, J M; Pickering, J W; Whelton, J

1983-10-01

87

METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermoelectric method monitors the thermoelectric power which is sensitive to small changes in the kinetics of the conduction electrons near the Fermi surface that can be caused by changes in the local microstructure. The technique has been applied to metal sort- ing, quality testing, fl aw detection, thickness gauging of layers, and microscopic structural analysis(1-6). To demonstrate the effectiveness

J. P. Fulton; B. Wincheski; M. Namkung

88

Methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting declines in population size is one of the highest priorities of the shorebird initiatives in Canada and the United States. The quantitative goal is 80% power to detect a 50% decline, occurring during no more than 20 years, with a significance level of 0.15, using a two-tailed test, and incorporating effects of potential bias into the estimator. The Arctic PRISM program was designed to achieve this goal for arctic-nesting shorebird populations. The survey methods are an application of double sampling. Rapid surveys were made on a large number of plots selected from throughout arctic Alaska and Canada using stratified random sampling. Intensive surveys were made on a subsample of the plots to obtain detection rates, which were used to calibrate results from rapidly surveyed plots. Surveys will be made of the entire arctic region, each lasting several years and producing an estimate of average population size during the survey period. Results from two or more survey periods will be used to estimate change, or trend, in population size.

Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria; Smith, Paul A.; Manning, Ann; Rausch, Jennie; Brown, Stephen

2012-01-01

89

Beyond the Rorschach: Media and Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media can be used to expand the methodological options open to counselors and psychotherapists in assessment, record-keeping, testing, evaluation, creative therapy, and preparation for treatment. The job of the media specialist is becoming one of developing treatment options for clients to consider. (CMV)

Holman, Neil

1979-01-01

90

The Helsinki Test. The Inkblots and Using the Test. Research Bulletin 62.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karl Bruhn, professor of education at Helsinki University for almost 20 years, in addition to writing a history of education, concentrated particularly on carrying out further investigations with his Helsinki Test which was publicly released in 1953. The use of this test is presented in this posthumous article by Bruhn. The Helsinki Test is a…

Bruhn, Karl

91

B. F. SKINNER AND THE AUDITORY INKBLOT: The Rise and Fall of the Verbal Summator as a Projective Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviorist B. F. Skinner is not typically associated with the fields of personality assessment or projective testing. However, early in his career Skinner developed an instrument he named the verbal summator, which, at one point, he referred to as a device for \\

Alexandra Rutherford

2003-01-01

92

Assessing disturbed thinking and cognition using the Ego Impairment Index in older schizophrenia patients: paranoid vs. nonparanoid distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We compared thought-disturbance via the Rorschach-derived Ego Impairment Index (EII) between DSM-IV paranoid vs. nonparanoid (undifferentiated and disorganized) subtypes of older schizophrenia patients. Methods: 44 DSM-IV medically stable outpatients with schizophrenia (27 paranoid, 17 nonparanoid) and 45 normal comparison participants aged 45–100years were assessed using the EII, a Rorschach-derived cognitive-based measure of disturbed thinking. Group differences on the EII

Lisa A Auslander; William Perry; Dilip V Jeste

2002-01-01

93

The Ego Impairment Index and schizophrenia: a validation study.  

PubMed

This study is an extension of our work on a new scale, the Ego Impairment Index (EII; Perry & Viglione, 1991). The index is theoretically based on Beres's (1956) model of ego assessment and was empirically developed on a sample of melancholic, depressed outpatients, diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. [DSM-III]; American Psychiatric Association, 1980). The EII is derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Test and offers a single composite score of ego impairment. This study validates the use of the EII with a heterogeneous sample of schizophrenic patients. In support of the trait-like characteristics of the scale, the EII continues to be expressed as a single factor, with a correlation of .98 when comparing the original factor derived from a melancholic population with this sample of schizophrenic patients. Significant correlations were also found between the EII and other clinical indices, including the Magical Ideation Scale, the Schizophrenia Index, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Finally, the EII was found to differentiate between a paranoid subgroup and a mixed undifferentiated/disorganized subgroup who theoretically have more ego impairment. These results offer support for the use of the EII as an empirical means of quantitatively and qualitatively assessing thought disorder within a theoretical framework. Further research is needed to understand the application of the EII across different diagnostic groups and its relationship to other indices of psychological disturbance. PMID:1512674

Perry, W; Viglione, D; Braff, D

1992-08-01

94

[Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].  

PubMed

Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role. PMID:24946440

Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

2014-01-01

95

Geophysical methods  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

Robert, E.S.

1989-01-01

96

Geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how

1989-01-01

97

Unstructured Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of unstructured grid generation is discussed in Chap. 11. Unstructured grids may be composed of cells of arbitrary shape, but they are generally composed of triangles and tetrahedrons. Triangular and tetrahedral grid methods described in the chapter include Delaunay procedures and the advancing-front method.

Liseikin, Vladimir D.

98

Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

2013-01-01

99

Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still

Kazumi Yamamoto; Kenji Kanbara; Hiromi Mutsuura; Ikumi Ban; Yasuyuki Mizuno; Tetsuya Abe; Maki Yoshino; Aran Tajika; Yoshihide Nakai; Mikihiko Fukunaga

2010-01-01

100

Problems of the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach in Forensic Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Com pre hen sive Sys tern for the Ror schach is currently the sub ject of heated con tro versy among psy chol o gists. Much “com mon knowl edge” about the test is ei ther in cor rect or in dis pute. Psychologists who use the Ror schach in fo ren sic settings can often be sue cess

James M. Wood; M. Teresa Nezworski; Wil liam J. Stejskal; R. K. McKinzey

2001-01-01

101

OBV Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of OB relaxation of Varga iterative methods are investigated, with particular emphasis on diagonal relaxation. Generalizations of the results of Beauwens and Quenon (SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 13, 615-643 (1976)) are presented, and their relatio...

R. Beauwens

1979-01-01

102

Developmental methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief accounts are included of three nondestructive evaluation methods that have been introduced within the past few years: (1) acoustic emission, (2) the use of coherent (laser) light, and (3) ultrasonic holography.

Gardner, C. G.

1973-01-01

103

Electre Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades a large body of research in the field of ELECTRE family methods appeared. This research has been conducted by several researchers mainly in Europe. The purpose of this chapter\\u000a is to present a survey of the ELECTRE methods since their first appearance in mid-sixties, when ELECTRE I was proposed by Bernard Roy and his colleagues

José Figueira; Vincent Mousseau; Bernard Roy

104

Ensemble Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been proposed to explain the characteristics and the successful application of ensembles to different application domains. For instance, Allwein, Schapire, and Singer interpreted the improved generalization capabilities of ensembles of learning machines in the framework of large margin classifiers [4,177], Kleinberg in the context of stochastic discrimination theory [112], and Breiman and Friedman in the light of the bias-variance analysis borrowed from classical statistics [21,70]. Empirical studies showed that both in classification and regression problems, ensembles improve on single learning machines, and moreover large experimental studies compared the effectiveness of different ensemble methods on benchmark data sets [10,11,49,188]. The interest in this research area is motivated also by the availability of very fast computers and networks of workstations at a relatively low cost that allow the implementation and the experimentation of complex ensemble methods using off-the-shelf computer platforms. However, as explained in Section 26.2 there are deeper reasons to use ensembles of learning machines, motivated by the intrinsic characteristics of the ensemble methods. The main aim of this chapter is to introduce ensemble methods and to provide an overview and a bibliography of the main areas of research, without pretending to be exhaustive or to explain the detailed characteristics of each ensemble method. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, the main theoretical and practical reasons for combining multiple learners are introduced. Section 26.3 depicts the main taxonomies on ensemble methods proposed in the literature. In Section 26.4 and 26.5, we present an overview of the main supervised ensemble methods reported in the literature, adopting a simple taxonomy, originally proposed in Ref. [201]. Applications of ensemble methods are only marginally considered, but a specific section on some relevant applications of ensemble methods in astronomy and astrophysics has been added (Section 26.6). The conclusion (Section 26.7) ends this pap

Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

2012-03-01

105

Eigenvalue Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eigenvalues, Enl, of the radial Schrödinger equation are approximated by ck(E=Enl)=0 (k=2, 3, ...?), where E is the energy and the ck are the power-series coefficients of f(r)=?(r)[rl+1w(r)] with ?(r) the wave function and w(r) a weight function. This is an extension of the method used to solve certain potentials exactly where ck(E=Enl)=0 terminates a power series.

Ginsburg, Charles A.

1982-03-01

106

Stretching Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of Chap. 4 acquaints the reader with various types of singularity arising in solutions to equations with a small parameter affecting the higher derivatives. The chapter gives a concise description of the qualitative properties of solutions in boundary and interior layers and an identification of the invariants governing the location and structure of these layers. The second part of Chap. 4 describes a stretching method based on the application of special nonuniform stretching coordinates in regions of large variation of the solution. The chapter ends with the description of a procedure to generate intermediate coordinate transformations which are suitable for smoothing both exponential and power layers.

Liseikin, Vladimir D.

107

Deracemisation methods.  

PubMed

New methods continue to be developed for the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) and deracemisation of racemic chiral compounds, in particular alcohols, amines and amino acids. Many of the DKR processes involve the combination of an enantioselective enzyme, often a lipase or protease, with a metal racemisation catalyst. A greater range of ruthenium-based racemisation catalysts is now available with some showing good activity for the racemisation of amines that are more difficult to epimerise than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of deracemisation processes, further improvements have been achieved with the deracemisation of alcohols, using combinations of stereocomplementary ketoreductases, and additionally transaminases have been applied to the deracemisation of racemic amines. PMID:20044298

Turner, Nicholas J

2010-04-01

108

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

109

[Contraceptive methods].  

PubMed

Interest in contraceptive devices has increased in recent years due to their safety and protection offered against venereal disease. Use of the devices prevents sperm from entering the uterine canal. Failure of a device is usually caused either because the contraceptive outside the uterus is wrongly positioned or because not enough active spermicidal ingredients were released before ejaculation. Mass production of condoms was made possible through utilization of latex rubber. Different color and shape alternatives have made condom usage more popular in developing countries. The diaphragm and its variation, the cervical cap, are treated with spermicide and then placed inside the vagina. Correct size of the contraceptive is an important consideration. Spermicides consist of active substances that kill sperm, as well as a carrier substance such as foam, ointment and jelly. The newest preventive device is the contraceptive sponge, which can stay in place for up to 36 hours. IN vitro studies show that effectiveness of condoms is 0.5-2.0 (Pearl's index). Combination use of diaphragm and spermicide yields a protection rate of 2-20 (life-table index), and spermicides 0.3-30.0. Risks associated with these methods include local irritation. It was believed that some spermicides increased rats of miscarriage, Down's Syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities, as well as limb anomalies. Diaphragm use increases potential for urinary tract infections. Toxic shock may occur with some users of sponge and diaphragm. All the mentioned contraceptives protect from infection, and are most suitable for people who cannot tolerate hormonal preparations or IUD's, who are in a casual sexual relationship or nursing mothers or youth. PMID:3331144

Toivonen, J

1987-01-01

110

Turbine blade testing methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

1984-01-01

111

Method of Reducing Angiogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention features methods of identifying a compound capable of modulating angiogenesis. Further features of the invention are methods of promoting or inhibiting angiogenesis. Methods for the diagnosis of a CD39-associated condition and for determinin...

C. Goepfert C. Sundberg S. C. Robson T. Hoshi

2004-01-01

112

Uranium price forecasting methods  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

Fuller, D.M.

1994-03-01

113

Identification evaluation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for airplane parameter estimation, the equation error method, output error method, and two advanced methods are presented and their basic properties described. The advanced methods include the maximum likelihood and extended Kalman filter method. For a better understanding of the estimation techniques a first-order scalar differential equation is used as a model of the system under test. Application of the methods to a general multivariable linear system is briefly outlined. A note on the parameter estimation in the frequency domain is also presented. Numerical examples along with the comparison of results from various methods are given.

Klein, V.

1979-01-01

114

On waveform multigrid method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waveform multigrid method is an efficient method for solving certain classes of time dependent PDEs. This paper studies the relationship between this method and the analogous multigrid method for steady-state problems. Using a Fourier-Laplace analysis, practical convergence rate estimates of the waveform multigrid iterations are obtained. Experimental results show that the analysis yields accurate performance prediction.

Taasan, Shlomo; Zhang, Hong

1993-01-01

115

Failure combination method  

SciTech Connect

The method described in this paper is an inductive method for combining failures (called the Failure Combination Method (FCM)). It is based on a preliminary analysis of the systems performed with an FMEA. As a study has been undertaken to test the method, the organization of the study as well as its first results from a methodological point of view are stressed. 8 refs.

Hedin, F.; Le Coguiec, A.; Le Floch, C.; Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

1981-01-01

116

Designing ROW Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.

Freed, Alan D.

1996-01-01

117

Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic Analysis(Chap. 20)Computational Geometry(Chap. 19)Computer Vision(Chaps, 16, 17)Optimality and Control(Chap. 20)Fluid Mechanics(Chap. 18)Combustion(Chap. 18)Materials Sciences(Chap. 18)Semiconductor Manufacturing(Chap. 21)This book is an introduction to level set methods and Fast MarchingMethods, which are powerful numerical techniques for analyzing andcomputing interface motion in a host of settings. They rely on a fundamentalshift in how one views...

J. a. Sethian

1999-01-01

118

Radiochemical method development  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1994-09-01

119

Complexity systems management method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The Complexity Systems Management (CSM) Method is a scientifically derived business process method for managing complex events and situations. The CSM Method.TM. is based on new scientific evidence that explains the behaviors of complex adaptive systems. This same scientific evidence gives rise to a new method of science, known as a priori optionality. A priori optionality is based on six scientifically derived tenets that are systematically applied using the CSM Method.TM. to more accurately characterize the behaviors of complex adaptive systems and manage complex events and situations. Applications of the CSM Method are integrally tied to specialized knowledgebases and a plurality of automated software applications.

2012-01-24

120

'Giardia' Methods Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the workshop were to familiarize participants with the use-and limitations of Giardia cyst detection methodology; to critically review the tentative Giardia method appearing in the 16th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of ...

W. Jakubowski

1985-01-01

121

Methods of Physical Geodesy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is made of the progress of physical geodesy as of 1963. The gravimetric measurements and astrogeodetic methods, base lines, geopotential methods, the earth constants, flattening and the normal figure of the earth are discussed. (Author)

W. A. Heiskanen H. Moritz

1964-01-01

122

26 CFR 3. - method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...method. 3. Example 3. Changing inventory sub Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...contemplated by P. Example 3. Changing inventory sub-method. (a) Corporation...has historically manufactured all its inventory and has used one natural business...

2011-04-01

123

Probiotic Bacteria and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provided herein are molecular methods for assessing the state of gastrointestinal microflora of an animal, especially a species of poultry, and methods for identifying probiotic bacteria by comparing certain bacteria present in animals fed a diet not cont...

B. G. Harmon, C. L. Hofacre, M. D. Lee

2005-01-01

124

Clubfoot Treatment -- Ponseti Method  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Treatment for clubfoot is usually started in infancy. The Ponseti method is the most common treatment ... birth. Treatment for clubfoot is usually started in infancy. The Ponseti method is the most common treatment ...

125

Parallel text search methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of recently proposed parallel text search methods to alternative available search strategies that use serial processing machines suggests parallel methods do not provide large-scale gains in either retrieval effectiveness or efficiency.

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1988-01-01

126

The Productivity of Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I point out that method is not neutral and innocent, but rather productive, performative and creative. In other words, method does not simply represent reality (the world) but distorts and reconstructs it. Conventional methods are useful but distort the world giving the imprecision that it is simple, predictable and decidable.…

Le Grange, Lesley

2008-01-01

127

Access methods for text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares text retrieval methods intended for office systems. The operational requirements of the office environment are discussed, and retrieval methods from database systems and from information retrieval systems are examined. We classify these methods and examine the most interesting representatives of each class. Attempts to speed up retrieval with special purpose hardware are also presented, and issues such

Christos Faloutsos

1985-01-01

128

Multivariate methods in rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The complexity of relationships between variables in a variety of rehabilitation settings can be appropriately addressed by the use of multivariate methods,of statistical analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe (a) some,basic concepts and principles of multivariate methods as well as (b) common misconceptions in the application of such methods. Specifically, the authors focus on the use

Dimiter Dimitrov; Phillip D. Rumrill

129

Secret Ninja Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of formal methods can signicantly improve software quality. However, many instructors and students consider formal meth- ods to be too dicult, impractical, and esoteric for use in undergraduate classes. This paper describes a method, used successfully at several uni- versities, that combines ninja stealth with the latest advances in formal methods tools and technologies to integrate applied formal

Joseph R. Kiniry; Daniel M. Zimmerman

2008-01-01

130

The Escrow transactional method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for permitting record updates by long-lived transactions without forbidding simultaneous access by other users to records modified. Earlier methods presented separately by Gawlick and Reuter are comparable but concentrate on “hot-spot” situations, where even short transactions cannot lock frequently accessed fields without causing bottlenecks. The Escrow Method offered here is designed to support nonblocking record updates

Patrick E. O'Neil

1986-01-01

131

Redefining the "Scientific Method".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

2000-01-01

132

Space methods in oceanology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

Bolshakov, A. A.

1985-01-01

133

Topics in spectral methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After detailing the construction of spectral approximations to time-dependent mixed initial boundary value problems, a study is conducted of differential equations of the form 'partial derivative of u/partial derivative of t = Lu + f', where for each t, u(t) belongs to a Hilbert space such that u satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that L is an unbounded, time-independent linear operator. Attention is given to Fourier methods of both Galerkin and pseudospectral method types, the Galerkin method, the pseudospectral Chebyshev and Legendre methods, the error equation, hyperbolic partial differentiation equations, and time discretization and iterative methods.

Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

1985-01-01

134

DOE methods compendium  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements.

Leasure, C.S.

1992-01-01

135

DOE methods compendium  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE`s Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements.

Leasure, C.S.

1992-10-01

136

Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-04

137

An extended Lagrangian method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. Unlike the Lagrangian method previously imposed which is valid only for supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

Liou, Meng-Sing

1992-01-01

138

Inexact Newton dogleg methods.  

SciTech Connect

The dogleg method is a classical trust-region technique for globalizing Newton's method. While it is widely used in optimization, including large-scale optimization via truncated-Newton approaches, its implementation in general inexact Newton methods for systems of nonlinear equations can be problematic. In this paper, we first outline a very general dogleg method suitable for the general inexact Newton context and provide a global convergence analysis for it. We then discuss certain issues that may arise with the standard dogleg implementational strategy and propose modified strategies that address them. Newton-Krylov methods have provided important motivation for this work, and we conclude with a report on numerical experiments involving a Newton-GMRES dogleg method applied to benchmark CFD problems.

Shadid, John Nicolas; Simonis, Joseph P. (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA); Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Walker, Homer Franklin (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA)

2005-05-01

139

An extended Lagrangian method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. The present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multidimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in 1D problems.

Liou, Meng-Sing

1993-01-01

140

The Explicit Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simplest method of simulating for pdes, and in particular for odes, is the Euler method, in the present context usually called the [explicit method], or EX hereafter. It has many drawbacks (to be outlined) but it does have the advantage of simplicity of programming and if you are willing to let your computer do the hard work, it can yield adequate results in many cases. There are recent examples of the use of the method even for rather complex systems [324, 349] and a textbook on cyclic voltammetry [274] advocates the method (and provides a program in Pascal). One might thus choose the method as such, or choose to use it as a learning tool. The present author prefers the latter. Having learned how to use EX and aware of its drawbacks, one might be ready to learn something more advanced.

Britz, Dieter

141

Suicide by different methods  

PubMed Central

The annual numbers of suicide deaths for the past 100 years by different methods in England and Wales are presented. It is shown that the numbers of deaths by 2 methods, domestic gas poisoning and poisoning by solid or liquid substances, vary independently of all other methods. It is concluded that inferences as to cause drawn from aggregated data should be viewed with great caution.

Farmer, R. D. T.

1979-01-01

142

Spectral methods for CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1989-01-01

143

New Dry Fractionation Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

144

WASHER METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of demos that can be used to illustrate the washer method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the washer method. Two formats, animated gif and mov, are provided for the method of washers examples.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2002-04-23

145

The Schwinger Variational Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

Huo, Winifred M.

1995-01-01

146

Multigrid contact detection method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

2007-03-01

147

An Extended Lagrangian Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

Liou, Meng-Sing

1995-01-01

148

Parallel Spectral Numerical Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module teaches the principals of Fourier spectral methods, their utility in solving partial differential equation and how to implement them in code. Performance considerations for several Fourier spectral implementations are discussed and methods for effective scaling on parallel computers are explained.

Chen, Gong; Cloutier, Brandon; Li, Ning; Muite, Benson; Rigge, Paul

149

Methods of Electrical Prospecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical methods of prospecting are becoming increasingly important as the search for hidden deposits of ore extends deeper and deeper below the surface of the earth. Electrical prospecting is not limited to this use, however; it has found many valuable applications in engineering and in geology. The 4 general methods of electrical prospecting are described briefly in this paper.

Donald G. Fink

1935-01-01

150

Method of Targeting DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a method of forming a three-stranded DNA molecule wherein each strand of the three-stranded DNA molecule is hybridized (that is, non-covalently bound) to at least one other strand of the three-stranded DNA molecule. The method com...

R. D. Camerini-Otero M. McIntosh C. S. Camerini-Otero L. J. Ferrin

1991-01-01

151

Scaled angular spectrum method.  

PubMed

The angular spectrum method (ASM) calculates diffraction calculation in a high numerical aperture, unlike Fresnel diffraction. However, this method does not allow us to calculate at different sampling rates on source and destination planes. In this Letter, we propose a scaled ASM that calculates diffraction at different sampling rates on source and destination planes using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. PMID:23027301

Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Matsushima, Kyoji; Kakue, Takashi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2012-10-01

152

Reading Methods Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…

Montgomery, Joel R.

2008-01-01

153

Comparison of Aldehyde Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three widely documented methods for the analysis of aliphatic aldehydes in air, i.e., chromotropic acid, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone (MBTH), and 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone (DNPH), and a modified version of the MBTH method are frequently used for...

K. T. Menzies K. J. Beltis R. E. Fasano

1982-01-01

154

The Wavelet Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) combines biorthogonal wavelet systems with the philosophy of Spectral Element Methods in order to obtain a biorthogonal wavelet system on fairly general bounded domains in some Rn. The domain of interest is split into subdomains which are mapped to a simple reference domain, heren-dimensional cubes. Thus, one has to construct appropriate biorthogonal wavelets on the

Claudio Canuto; Anita Tabacco; Karsten Urban

1999-01-01

155

Research Methods in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

2011-01-01

156

Validating Analytical Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

Ember, Lois R.

1977-01-01

157

Geothermal gas sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for geothermal gas collection for chemical and isotopic gas analysis is described. The COâ and HâS are absorbed in a NaOH solution and the residual gas collected in a bottle. The method can be used for sampling gases from hot springs, fumaroles, steam wells, hot water wells, etc. (WHK)

A. H. Truesdell; K. L. Pering

1973-01-01

158

Poetry Methods Rating Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for teaching literature.…

Gallo, Donald R.

159

Light microscope alignment methods.  

PubMed

Instructions for proper alignment for each of the most common wide field light microscopy contrast techniques are presented: bright field, polarization, dark field, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence. These are then followed by methods on photomicrography, measurement, and cleaning. An extensive set of Notes provides practical tips for each of these methods. PMID:25015142

Bagnell, Robert

2014-01-01

160

Numerical methods for quasicrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasicrystals are one kind of space-filling structures. The traditional crystalline approximant method utilizes periodic structures to approximate quasicrystals. The errors of this approach come from two parts: the numerical discretization, and the approximate error of Simultaneous Diophantine Approximation which also determines the size of the domain necessary for accurate solution. As the approximate error decreases, the computational complexity grows rapidly, and moreover, the approximate error always exits unless the computational region is the full space. In this work we focus on the development of numerical method to compute quasicrystals with high accuracy. With the help of higher-dimensional reciprocal space, a new projection method is developed to compute quasicrystals. The approach enables us to calculate quasicrystals rather than crystalline approximants. Compared with the crystalline approximant method, the projection method overcomes the restrictions of the Simultaneous Diophantine Approximation, and can also use periodic boundary conditions conveniently. Meanwhile, the proposed method efficiently reduces the computational complexity through implementing in a unit cell and using pseudospectral method. For illustrative purpose we work with the Lifshitz-Petrich model, though our present algorithm will apply to more general systems including quasicrystals. We find that the projection method can maintain the rotational symmetry accurately. More significantly, the algorithm can calculate the free energy density to high precision.

Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Pingwen

2014-01-01

161

Spectral collocation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.

Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.

1987-01-01

162

Methods for data classification  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

Garrity, George (Okemos, MI); Lilburn, Timothy G. (Front Royal, VA)

2011-10-11

163

Improved nonlinear prediction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2014-06-01

164

REVA DATA INTEGRATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The core of the research effort in the Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) is a set of data integration methods ranging from simple overlays to complex multivariate statistics. These methods are described in the EPA publication titled, "Regional Vulnerability Assess...

165

WWW: The Scientific Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

2006-01-01

166

DISK METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of demos for illustrating the disk method for volumes of solids of revolution. The animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background relating to the steps of disk method. Three file formats, gif, mov, and avi are available.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2002-02-24

167

The Oxygen Flask Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

Boulton, L. H.

1973-01-01

168

Trustworthy biometric hashing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel biometric hashing method. We employ a password-generated random projection matrix applied to the face images directly instead of applying to the features extracted from face images and improve the methods in the literature. We aim to preserve privacy while achieving desirable accuracy in a biometric verification system. We do the verification in the

C. Karabat; H. Erdogan

2009-01-01

169

Quantitative Methods for Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An elementary treatment of some of the better known and widely used analytical methods in operations research/systems analysis. The material is presented in a manner which attempts to indicate why quantitative methods are useful in managerial decision-mak...

G. Suzuki

1967-01-01

170

DISCUSS: Sampling Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Sidney Tyrrell and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces different types of sampling methods. Links to Excel spreadsheet files with exercises for exploring sampling methods are given at the end of the module. Topics include random, systematic, cluster, stratified, and quota sampling. This software require Microsoft Excel. Without this software, these programs will not work.

Hunt, Neville; Tyrrell, Sidney

2009-08-25

171

Coping with Alinsky Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Alinsky methods," designed for confrontation, can include packing meetings, requesting marathon sessions, and using dramatic advertising. Developed by Saul Alinsky for oppressed people, the methods can be mitigated by 10 administrator actions, including building openness and trust, having good legal and public relations advice, and preparing for…

Rowson, Joseph

1983-01-01

172

SHELL METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of animations that can be used to illustrate the shell method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the shell method.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2002-02-02

173

Vector potential methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

Hafez, M.

1989-01-01

174

The Method of Archimedes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

Del Grande, John

1993-01-01

175

Probabilistic boundary element method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

1989-01-01

176

The Schwinger Variational Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

Huo, Winifred M.

1995-01-01

177

Scientific method lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why is the scientific method important to the study of science? This instructional tutorial, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 7-12, introduces students to the scientific method. Here the five steps of the scientific method are presented and used to solve crimes. Students choose whether information is fact or inference, practice identifying hypotheses, and identify errors in experiments. Many student answers to written questions are saved and available for later viewing. The second part of the activity applies the scientific method to a historical study of astronomy. Students explore the Ptolemaic and Copernican views of planetary motion while applying the scientific method through the work of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Aristarchus, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2002-01-01

178

John Herschel's Graphical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

Hankins, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

179

Generalized Schwarzschild's method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new finite element method (FEM) to construct continuous equilibrium distribution functions (DFs) of stellar systems. The method is a generalization of Schwarzschild’s orbit superposition method from the space of discrete functions to continuous ones. In contrast to Schwarzschild’s method, FEM produces a continuous DF and satisfies the intra-element continuity and Jeans equations. The method employs two finite element meshes, one in configuration space and one in action space. The DF is represented by its values at the nodes of the action-space mesh and by interpolating functions inside the elements. The Galerkin projection of all equations that involve the DF leads to a linear system of equations, which can be solved for the nodal values of the DF using linear or quadratic programming, or other optimization methods. We illustrate the superior performance of FEM by constructing ergodic and anisotropic equilibrium DFs for spherical stellar systems (Hernquist models). We also show that explicitly constraining the DF by the Jeans equations leads to smoother and/or more accurate solutions with both Schwarzschild’s method and FEM.

Jalali, Mir Abbas; Tremaine, Scott

2011-01-01

180

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

181

psych-methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new electronic mailing list will serve as a forum for the scholarly discussion of psychological research methodology. The forum will encompass both quantitative and qualitative methods and provide an opportunity for researchers and others to discuss issues surrounding research methods and results. An archive of past messages and a FAQ are available at the Website. To subscribe, send a message to:     mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk In the body of the message, type:     join psych-methods firstname lastname

182

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOEpatents

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL) [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL) [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL) [Palos Park, IL

2008-09-09

183

Introduction to multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.

Wesseling, P.

1995-01-01

184

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Gerhard D. (Velarde, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

185

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOEpatents

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14

186

Project Delivery Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

Dolan, Thomas G.

2003-01-01

187

Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods  

SciTech Connect

Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

2004-04-09

188

Methods of Inducing Vasodilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provided herein are methods of inducing vasodilation in a subject diagnosed with a need for vasodilation, comprising administering into a blood vessel of the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition consisting essentially of adenosine m...

I. Biaggioni

2005-01-01

189

Ignitability test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1989-01-01

190

Spectral Methods in Econometrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the spectral methods of time series analysis and its use in econometrics. The theory of covariance stochastic processes is introduced, with special emphasis on its application in econometrics. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate s...

G. S. Fishman

1968-01-01

191

Numerical Methods Lecture Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains lecture notes from the Spring 1998 Numerical Methods course taught in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge, UK. The topics include finding roots, linear equations, numerical integration, and differential equations.

Dalziel, Stuart

2003-10-10

192

Glycoconjugates and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (1) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (2) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (1) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (2) biochemically processes the first...

C. Bertozzi K. J. Yarema L. K. Mahal

2005-01-01

193

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that h...

F. L. Markley J. L. Crassidis Y. Cheng

2005-01-01

194

Critical Path Method Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer system for the Critical Path Method Reports consists of three programs. The programs are CPM Calculation, CPM Calendar Dating and CPM Time-Sequence Plot. The CPM Calculations Program is used for doing the arithmetic calculations associated wi...

R. C. Tennent

1964-01-01

195

Method for Treating Glaucoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for increasing outflow facility and reducing intraocular pressure from an eye of a subject having glaucoma includes the step of administering to the eye an amount of an ADP ribosyltransferase protein effective to reduce intraocular pressure and i...

P. L. Kaufman X. Liu

2005-01-01

196

Method for producing biomass  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a method for producing biomass from halophilic organisms, in which the halophilic organisms are fermented in a hollow space in a salt dome and said halophilic organisms or components thereof are isolated as biomass.

2009-05-19

197

Method for synthesizing boracities  

DOEpatents

A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.

Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA

1982-01-01

198

Methods of Inhibiting Inflammation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method of inhibiting inflammation in a mammal, by administering to the mammal composition containing a compound which inhibits the expression or activity of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

R. S. Blumberg

2004-01-01

199

Methods of Inhibiting Inflammation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method of inhibiting inflammation in a mammal, by administering to the mammal composition containing a compound which inhibits the expression or activity of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

R. S. Blumberg

2005-01-01

200

The Directed Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many instructors think that by incorporating case study analysis into the science classroom they will sacrifice course content. The directed case method, however, is a proven strategy for deepening and solidifying understanding of facts and concepts when

Curtin, Leslie N.; Cliff, William H.

2000-09-01

201

Improved radioanalytical methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on i...

M. D. Erickson, J. H. Aldstadt, J. S. Alvarado, J. S. Crain, K. A. Orlandini

1995-01-01

202

Ensemble Data Mining Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

Oza, Nikunj C.

2004-01-01

203

Spectral Methods for Discontinuities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigators pursued research on the use of spectral methods in computational fluid dynamics. The implementation is examined for the solution of time dependent partial differential equations. Other topics pursued included the adaptation of spectral m...

Gottlieb

1985-01-01

204

Method for Scavenging Mercury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one ...

N. Yan S. Chang S. Liu Z. Liu

2005-01-01

205

Skeletal Examination Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Critical to the appropriate interpretation of possible child abuse is consistent and ­complete documentation of skeletal injury\\u000a by all practitioners, including radiologists, clinicians, pathologists, and anthropologists [1, 2]. Complete documentation\\u000a of skeletal injury by anthropologists requires a standardized method for evaluating the entire skeleton in any case in which\\u000a injury is suspected. The authors employ a method referred to as

Jennifer C. Love; Sharon M. Derrick; Jason M. Wiersema

206

Boundary Element Method Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boundary Element Method is a numerical scheme for solving partial differential equations. In this tutorial, we illustrate this method using the example of temperature distribution in a two dimensional plate. The tutorial was developed by Professor Jerry Dwyer and Kathy Hichcock of the Mathematics Departments of the University of Tennessee and Leonard Gray of the Mathematical Sciences Section of Oak Ridge National Laboratory . The zip file contains a word file.

Dwyer, Jerry; Hitchcock, Kathy; Gray, Leonard

2004-09-21

207

Ignitability test method. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1990-01-01

208

Formal Methods for Privacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy means something different to everyone. Against a vast and rich canvas of diverse types of privacy rights and violations, we argue technology’s dual role in privacy: new technologies raise new threats to privacy rights and new technologies can help preserve privacy. Formal methods, as just one class of technology, can be applied to privacy, but privacy raises new challenges, and thus new research opportunities, for the formal methods community.

Tschantz, Michael Carl; Wing, Jeannette M.

209

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

1983-05-13

210

Methods of Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

Carlone, Mrs.

2006-11-12

211

Improved radioanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore {trademark} membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1995-12-31

212

Method of treating depression  

DOEpatents

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz

2013-04-09

213

Exoplanet Detection Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the existence of planetary companions as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals using each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the first detections to current state-of-the-art surveys for rocky worlds.

Wright, Jason T.; Gaudi, B. Scott

214

The ICARE Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance. The ICARE method can be used to improve all elements of a system and, consequently, the system-level functional, physical and operational performance. Even though ICARE was specifically designed for a systems engineer, any person whose job is to examine another person, product, or process can use the ICARE method to improve effectiveness, implementation, usefulness, value, capability, efficiency, integration, design, and/or marketability. This paper provides the details of the ICARE method, emphasizing the method s application to systems engineering. In addition, a sample of other, non-systems engineering applications are briefly discussed to demonstrate how ICARE can be tailored to a variety of diverse jobs (from project management to parenting).

Henke, Luke

2010-01-01

215

Optimization Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

2009-09-01

216

Panel methods: An introduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.

Erickson, Larry L.

1990-01-01

217

Bayesian Methods in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

2009-12-01

218

Bayesian Methods in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

2014-02-01

219

[Needle sticking method].  

PubMed

Needle sticking method, which can be combined with multiple needling techniques, has been attached with great importance in recent years by doctors in clinic. Combining with the clinical experiences, the authors expounded the needle sticking method through its unified concept, differences between needle sticking method, which was an acupuncture technique, and stuck needle which was an accident during acupuncture, selection of needles, manipulations, mechanism of treatment, range of application, attentions and advantages of popularization. It is held that the technique can be widely applied for treatment of acute and chronic diseases of various departments with filiform needles. Easy to be manipulated, understood and mastered, the technique is without side effect and valuable to be popularized. PMID:21644309

Wang, Shang-Chen; Shan, Wen-Zhe; Sun, Shu-Fen

2011-03-01

220

Actinide extraction methods  

DOEpatents

Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

2010-09-21

221

Membrane Protein Prediction Methods  

PubMed Central

We survey computational approaches that tackle membrane protein structure and function prediction. While describing the main ideas that have led to the development of the most relevant and novel methods, we also discuss pitfalls, provide practical hints and highlight the challenges that remain. The methods covered include: sequence alignment, motif search, functional residue identification, transmembrane segment and protein topology predictions, homology and ab initio modeling. Overall, predictions of functional and structural features of membrane proteins are improving, although progress is hampered by the limited amount of high-resolution experimental information available. While predictions of transmembrane segments and protein topology rank among the most accurate methods in computational biology, more attention and effort will be required in the future to ameliorate database search, homology and ab initio modeling.

Punta, Marco; Forrest, Lucy R.; Bigelow, Henry; Kernytsky, Andrew; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard

2007-01-01

222

Shape Bonding method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

223

Method of grid generation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

2002-01-01

224

Portable reel pipelaying method  

SciTech Connect

A method for laying a substantially continuous length of pipe on the sea bottom from a carrier vessel is described. The method consists of which a pipe carrying reel rotatably mounted on the carrier vessel, pipe straightening means mounted to the carrier vessel downstream of the reel in the direction of unspooling for movement in a direction substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel, and pipe guide means mounted to the carrier vessel downstream of the straightener means in the direction of pipe unspooling for movement in a direction substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel, wherein the method comprises the steps of rotating the reel in a direction to unspool the pipe and maintain a substantially constant dynamic braking force on the reel to maintain tension on the pipe as it is unspooled.

Cha, J.; Uyeda, S.T.

1981-04-07

225

New color anaglyph method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anagliphs generally means a stereoscopic method using 2 principal color filters and is impossible to perceive the full-color stereo-pair for the viewers as above. A new anagliph method using 3 principal color filters (RGB) is presented in this paper. The method enables the complete full- color stereoscopic image taking and output technique. We produced the prototype system which composed of an ordinal TV camera with RGB color optical filters positioned at the pupil or the iris as a function of a single lens stereoscopic image taking device and using a special electrical circuit for a stereoscopic image output devices. Time-parallel full-color stereo pair was delivered to the several viewers by a prototype system with an ordinal our stereoscopic liquid crystal display (STEREVIQ) which permits the observation of a stereo pair by several persons simultaneously without the use of special glasses. Especially the system's cost performance is excellent except STEREVIQ.

Hattori, Tomohiko; Arita, Eiji; Nakamura, Toshihisa; Kurio, Masaru; Sakuma, Sadayuki

1997-05-01

226

Typing methods for legionella.  

PubMed

In this chapter we describe the methods currently used for subgrouping Legionella pneumophila and other non-pneumophila species. In the first part we describe monoclonal antibody (mAb) subgrouping, either by indirect immunofluorescence or indirect ELISA methods. These monoclonal antibodies are not commercially available but can be obtained for noncommercial purposes from one of the authors. Further, we describe pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence-based typing (SBT) as well standardized and reproducible methods for genotyping. The SBT schema is currently available for L. pneumophila whereas PFGE and AFLP can be used for all Legionella species. For certain applications it might be useful to use spoligotyping to distinguish strains belonging to the same sequence type (ST). PMID:23150392

Lück, Christian; Fry, Norman K; Helbig, Jürgen H; Jarraud, Sophie; Harrison, Timothy G

2013-01-01

227

Membrane protein prediction methods.  

PubMed

We survey computational approaches that tackle membrane protein structure and function prediction. While describing the main ideas that have led to the development of the most relevant and novel methods, we also discuss pitfalls, provide practical hints and highlight the challenges that remain. The methods covered include: sequence alignment, motif search, functional residue identification, transmembrane segment and protein topology predictions, homology and ab initio modeling. In general, predictions of functional and structural features of membrane proteins are improving, although progress is hampered by the limited amount of high-resolution experimental information available. While predictions of transmembrane segments and protein topology rank among the most accurate methods in computational biology, more attention and effort will be required in the future to ameliorate database search, homology and ab initio modeling. PMID:17367718

Punta, Marco; Forrest, Lucy R; Bigelow, Henry; Kernytsky, Andrew; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard

2007-04-01

228

Experimental Physics - Modern Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

Dunlap, R. A.

1988-10-01

229

Computer intensive statistical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special session “Computer-Intensive Statistical Methods” was held in morning and afternoon parts at the 1985 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Calif. Its mission was to provide a forum for hydrologists and statisticians who are active in bringing unconventional, algorithmic-oriented statistical techniques to bear on problems of hydrology. Statistician Emanuel Parzen (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex.) opened the session by relating recent developments in quantile estimation methods and showing how properties of such methods can be used to advantage to categorize runoff data previously analyzed by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela). Statistician Eugene Schuster (University of Texas, El Paso) discussed recent developments in nonparametric density estimation which enlarge the framework for convenient incorporation of prior and ancillary information. These extensions were motivated by peak annual flow analysis. Mathematician D. Myers (University of Arizona, Tucson) gave a brief overview of “kriging” and outlined some recently developed methodology.

Yakowitz, S.

230

Clinical Assessment of Psychopathology in Violent and Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach test are frequently used in juvenile justice settings to assess current psychological functioning and to predict future behavior. The Exner Comprehensive System, which standardized the Rorschach, made possible a comparison of the Rorschach and the MMPI in an investigation of…

Richardson, Linda M.; And Others

231

Multigrid-sinc methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Galerkin method using Whittaker cardinal or 'sinc' functions as basis functions is described for the solution of boundary-value problems. When the solution is analytic in the interior of the domain, the error of approximation using 2N + 1 points is O(e exp /-gamma sq rt N/) even if derivatives of the solution are singular at the boundaries. A multigrid method with overall complexity O(N log N) is used to solve the discrete equations. This paper contains a description of the multigrid-sinc algorithm along with some preliminary numerical results for two-point boundary-value problems.

Schaffer, Steve; Stenger, Frank

1986-01-01

232

Hyman's method revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The QR algorithm is considered one of the most reliable methods for computing matrix eigenpairs. However, it is unable to detect multiple eigenvalues and Jordan blocks. Matlab's eigensolver returns heavily perturbed eigenvalues and eigenvectors in such cases and there is no hint for possible principal vectors. This paper calls attention to Hyman's method as it is applicable for computing principal vectors and higher derivatives of the characteristic polynomial that may help to estimate multiplicity, an important information for more reliable computation. We suggest a test matrix collection for Jordan blocks. The first numerical tests with these matrices reveal that the computational problems are deeper than expected at the beginning of this work.

Galántai, A.; Hegedus, C. J.

2009-04-01

233

Contaminant treatment method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

Shapiro, Andrew Philip (Schenectady, NY); Thornton, Roy Fred (Schenectady, NY); Salvo, Joseph James (Schenectady, NY)

2003-01-01

234

Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

235

Methods of visualizing graphs  

DOEpatents

Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

Wong, Pak C. (Richland, WA); Mackey, Patrick S. (Kennewick, WA); Perrine, Kenneth A. (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2008-12-23

236

Unorthodox theoretical methods  

SciTech Connect

The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

Nedd, Sean

2012-06-20

237

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

1996-03-12

238

Enhanced slurrification method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of slurrifying oil contaminated materials by introducing a microemulsion or microemulsion-forming surfactant(s) to the material and subjecting the mixture to suitable shear or mixing forces to suitably blend such mixtures. The method may be applied directly to wastes such as waste drill mud cuttings and muds, emulsions, sludges, or soil substrates contaminated with water and/or oil drilling fluids in order to both reduce the viscosity and improve the lubricity, wetting, and flow properties of the substrate.

2013-01-29

239

Remarks on unitarization methods  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the unitarized {ital P}-wave Nambu-Goldstone scattering amplitude, constructed from the one-loop chiral perturbation theory by the {ital K}-matrix method, does not have a resonant behavior, but has instead one nearby pair of complex-conjugate poles on the physical sheet and should be rejected. This result is in constrast with other unitarization schemes such as the Pade, the inverse amplitude, and the {ital N}/{ital D} methods, which produce a {ital P}-wave resonance and have the correct analytic property.

Truong, T.N. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France))

1991-10-21

240

Teaching Materials and Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve abstracts of papers presented at the 33rd Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society are listed, focusing on teaching materials/methods. Topics, among others, include trends in physiology laboratory programs, cardiovascular system model, cardiovascular computer simulation with didactic feedback, and computer generated figures…

Physiologist, 1982

1982-01-01

241

Gravel pack method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This completion method can be performed in the following sequence: (1) deforming the formation by injecting a fluid therein to form a cavity adjacent the well bore; and (2) pressure packing the cavity with an aggregate to further displace the formation outward, the aggregate being graded to form an outer sand exclusion zone and an inner high permeability zone. In

D. B. Wood; O. M. Kiel

1972-01-01

242

Methods of Making Monolayers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. Th...

G. E. Fryxell J. Liu K. L. Alford K. L. Simmons T. S. Zemanian W. D. Samuels Y. Shin

2006-01-01

243

Heart imaging method  

DOEpatents

A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

1991-01-01

244

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar.

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

245

Multirate linear multistep methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a code which uses different stepsizes for different components of a system of ordinary differential equations is discussed. Methods are suggested which achieve moderate efficiency for problems having some components with a much slower rate of variation than others. Techniques for estimating errors in the different components are analyzed and applied to automatic stepsize and order control.

C. W. Gear; D. R. Wells

1984-01-01

246

Similarities between rarefaction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of species in a community is one of the most commonly used measures of diversity. This measure is, however, affected by sample size. The rarefaction method attempts to correct sample size bias by assuming an underlying sampling model. Several rarefaction models are shown to be similar analytically. This similarity holds not only for the expected number of species

Eric P. Smith; Paul M. Stewart; John Cairns

1985-01-01

247

Fluid dynamics test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

Gayman, W. H.

1974-01-01

248

Labeling Method in Steganography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a way of hiding text message (Steganography) in the gray image has been presented. In this method tried to find binary value of each character of text message and then in the next stage, tried to find dark places of gray image (black) by converting the original image to binary image for labeling each object of image

Amir Hatami Hardoroudi; M. Norouzi; H. Motameni

2007-01-01

249

Relativistic Implicit Moment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many plasma physics problems in astrophysics, laboratory and space systems require the development of suitable relativistic plasma simulation methods. Collisionless particle-in-cell (PIC) methods are often used to this purpose. We investigate here the possibility of a relativistic extension of an existing implicit PIC code (CELESTE), based on a moment equation closure model (1). Four possible ways of formulating the relativistic moment expansion are analysed from a purely numerical point of view, studying truncation errors and stability properties. Based on the analysis a new method is implemented into the 1D pilot code, PARSEK (2). The classical equation of motion from CELESTE is modified in order to keep a similar implicit integration method. The field solver is also presented, taking into account the previous results of the classical version. (1) J.U. Brackbill, D.W. Forslund, J. Computat. Physics, 46, 271, 1982. (2) S. Markidis, G. Lapenta, W.B. VanderHeyden, Z. Budimlic, Concurrency Comput Practice Experience, 17, 821, 2005.

Tronci, Cesare; Zuccaro, Gianluca

2005-10-01

250

METHOD OF WEIGHT DETERMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate method for measuring the weight of large masses of material ; such as oil, molten metals, rubber, water, and other liquids during processing is ; patented. A short-lived radioisotope is added to the material, whose weight is ; to be determined, and uniformly dispersed in the material. A sample is taken ; from the material and weighed, and

1963-01-01

251

Improved photoetching fabrication method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoetching method producing well-defined lines with minimum undercutting was developed for etching coolant passages in nickel sheet. Phosphate coating is applied over conventional silver plate maskant and phosphoric acid solution is used to remove silver maskant. Phosphoric acid prevents etching of silver edges and mask has sharply-defined lines.

Kistler, C. L.

1972-01-01

252

Ergonomics research methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

1973-01-01

253

Orbit determination: Statistical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of finding a satellite trajectory from position and\\/or velocity measurements taken at a given instant in time is examined. A trajectory evolution model including a random vector which represents measurement error is presented. Assuming an iterative approach, the problem is linearized using a previous orbital position estimation. The least squares method is considered in terms of the linear

P. Legendre

1980-01-01

254

Method of Laser Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of welding two HY-steel members to produce a weld joint having improved impact toughness. The surface to be welded are first machined, roto-blasted and cleaned with acetone. Then, an inset of Inconel 600 is provided and cleaned with acetone. Next...

D. W. Moon E. A. Metzbower

1983-01-01

255

Method for determining sumoylation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for determining SUMOylation and utilizing said SUMOylation patterns for identifying specific interaction between different binding partners. In another aspect, the present invention relates to systems allowing the determination of SUMOylation and for determining specific interaction between binding partners. Furthermore, the present invention relates to vectors and proteins relating to SUMOylation.

2013-10-08

256

Method for Treating Glaucoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for reducing intraocular pressure and increasing outflow facility from an eye of a subject having glaucoma includes the step of providing in the trabecular meshwork of the eye an amount of caldesmon effective to reduce intraocular pressure and in...

A. Bershadsky B. Geiger P. L. Laufman T. Borras

2005-01-01

257

The Wonder of Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postmodern and deconstructionist approaches are necessarily concerned with "making visible" and working with marginalized "others". This article explores how theory as method might enable us to revisit methodological approaches that have conventionally relied upon semantic readings of the text. Deconstruction clears the way for such approaches…

Pearce, Cathie; MacLure, Maggie

2009-01-01

258

The Independent Investigation Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Independent Investigation Method is presented, a model developed to enable gifted students to grow in their independence as they move through a research assignment. The seven-step process guides elementary students from beginning to end in the research process, including topic, goal setting, research, organizing, goal evaluation, product, and…

Morse, Virginia; Nottage, Cindy

2001-01-01

259

Chemical Methods of Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab, learners evaluate the relative effectiveness of various chemical substances (i.e. garlic powder, bathroom cleaner, mouthwash, etc.) as antimicrobial agents. Learners use the agar diffusion method to determine "zones of inhibition." This lesson guide includes background information, questions for learners, and additional activity ideas.

Fran Slowiczek, Ed D.; Peters, Pamela M.

2009-01-01

260

Lime Application Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High calcium lime is widely used for the modification and stabilization of subgrades composed of fine-grained soils. Lime is available in a variety of forms and may be applied using several methods. This report contains the results of a study on the mixin...

M. O'Connor R. L. Parsons

2006-01-01

261

Method for Piercing Peas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method relates to the piercing of fresh green peas. In preparing dehydrated peas, the peas are preferably pierced prior to the application of the drying procedure. The piercing is advantageous in that evaporation of moisture can occur at an acceptable...

E. Lowe E. L. Durkee

1965-01-01

262

Soccer Coaching Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic principles and techniques of soccer are explained and illustrated with photographs and diagrams to aid teachers who are introducing soccer into the physical education curriculum. In addition, it is designed to guide youth soccer coaches who wish to improve their presentations. The book discusses: (1) coaching methods; (2) passing and…

Thomson, Bill

263

Method of Fusion Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Author Certificate has been issued for a method of fusion welding in which the welding pool is treated by a traveling stray magnetic field. To increase the welding speed and improve the quality of welds by moving the molten metal of the welding pool al...

B. E. Paton S. L. Mandelberg V. K. Lebedev B. G. Sidorenko V. E. Lopata

1970-01-01

264

Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA

2003-12-30

265

Generalized fast multipole method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast multipole method (FMM) is a technique allowing the fast calculation of long-range interactions between N points in O(N) or O(N ln N) steps with some prescribed error tolerance. The FMM has found many applications in the field of integral equations and boundary element methods, in particular by accelerating the solution of dense linear systems arising from such formulations. Original FMMs required analytical expansions of the kernel, for example using spherical harmonics or Taylor expansions. In recent years, the range of applicability and the ease of use of FMMs has been extended by the introduction of black box [1] or kernel independent techniques [2]. In these approaches, the user only provides a subroutine to numerically calculate the interaction kernel. This allows changing the definition of the kernel with minimal change to the computer program. In this talk we will present a novel kernel independent FMM, which leads to diagonal multipole-to-local operators. This results in a significant reduction in the computational cost [1], in particular when high accuracy is needed. The approach is based on Cauchy's integral formula and the Laplace transform. We will present a numerical analysis of the convergence, methods to choose the parameters in the FMM given some tolerance, and the steps required to build a multilevel scheme from the single level formulation. Numerical results are given for benchmark calculations to demonstrate the accuracy as a function of the number of multipole coefficients, and the computational cost of the different steps in the method.

Létourneau, Pierre-David; Cecka, Cristopher; Darve, Eric

2010-06-01

266

Method of storing hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnesium powder composition is used in a method for the reversible storage of hydrogen by absorption thereof in the magnesium to form the hydride which consists of an intimate mixture of magnesium powder and an inert powder which is stable under the conditions of formation and decomposition of the hydride. The stable inert powder, which prevents the agglomeration of

de Pous

1983-01-01

267

Piezoelectric Generator and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus and method is provided to produce energy from movement of a user. At least one pair of plates is utilized to secure an array of cymbal transducers there between. The array of cymbal transducers is electrically interconnected with signal condi...

T. R. Howarth

2008-01-01

268

Seismic Inversion Methods  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

Jackiewicz, Jason [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2009-09-16

269

Coating Method for Graphite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y sub 2 O sub 3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium...

J. G. Banker C. E. Holcombe

1975-01-01

270

Method of purifying isosaccharinate  

DOEpatents

A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

Rai, Dhanpat (Yachats, OR) [Yachats, OR; Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM) [Edgewood, NM; Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2010-09-07

271

Method for forming ammonia  

DOEpatents

A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

Kong; Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Pink, Robert J. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID; Zuck, Larry D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-08-19

272

Hybrid methods are helpful  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple scattering problems in a plane layer often permit the convenient use of different methods joined together. Sample numerical results to illustrate this point refer to X- and Y-functions, asymptotic fitting, the small-loss approximations, polarization in high orders, and photon path distribution.

Vandehulst, H. C.

1977-01-01

273

Flavor composition and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vanilla flavor composition is produced by vanilla-plant callus cells suspended in tissue culture, under conditions which promote secretion of vanilla flavor components into the culture medium. The flavor components may be separated from the medium by adsorption resins. Also disclosed are methods for preparing callus cells capable of secreting flavor components in tissue culture, and callus cells produced thereby.

1991-10-15

274

Meshless methods in computational mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, two meshless methods, the element free Galerkin (EFG) method and the meshless method based on the local boundary integral equation (LBIE), are described. The first part (Chapters II and III) of the thesis is to propose efficient methods in enforcing the essential boundary conditions in the EFG method. A modified collocation method has been proposed for enforcing

Tulong Zhu

1998-01-01

275

Cold isopressing method  

DOEpatents

A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

2003-01-01

276

Visionlearning: Research Methods: Experimentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructional module on the process of experimentation as a scientific research method. The authors use a contextual approach, which includes a brief history of experimental research and a case study of Louis Pasteur's experiment on spontaneous generation of microorganisms. A question set is also included, along with background information for teachers. Editor's Note: Experimentation is a research method in which one or more variables are consciously manipulated and the outcome or effect of that manipulation on other variables is observed. This resource is designed to guide beginning students in designing experiments that meet the standards of a "fair test". It is appropriate for use in both secondary and lower-level undergraduate courses.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

2010-10-19

277

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

278

Proximal Point Methods Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.

Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moro?anu, Gheorghe

2011-09-01

279

The Scientific Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is designed to introduce the students to the format of the lab portion of the course. They have an opportunity to meet and work with the other students in the lab, especially important in a freshman-level course. The content of the lab is based on the Scientific Method and acts as an introduction to the entire course, as it is the first lab exercise of the semester. All of the information we discuss in the course is ultimately linked back to the scientific method, and I make a concerted effort to reiterate this linkage throughout the semester. Students are initiated into the world of scientific thinking and it is demonstrated that they use this critical skill all the time in their everyday lives.

Fredrick, Kyle

280

RNA Crosslinking Methods  

PubMed Central

RNA–RNA crosslinking provides a rapid means of obtaining evidence for the proximity of functional groups in structurally complex RNAs and ribonucleoproteins. Such evidence can be used to provide a physical context for interpreting structural information from other biochemical and biophysical methods and for the design of further experiments. The identification of crosslinks that accurately reflect the native conformation of the RNA of interest is strongly dependent on the position of the crosslinking agent, the conditions of the crosslinking reaction, and the method for mapping the crosslink position. Here, we provide an overview of protocols and experimental considerations for RNA–RNA cross-linking with the most commonly used long- and short-range photoaffinity reagents. Specifically, we describe the merits and strategies for random and site-specific incorporation of these reagents into RNA, the crosslinking reaction and isolation of crosslinked products, the mapping crosslinked sites, and assessment of the crosslinking data.

Harris, Michael E.; Christian, Eric L.

2011-01-01

281

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

282

Implementation of Rosenbrock methods  

SciTech Connect

Rosenbrock formulas have shown promise in research codes for the solution of initial-value problems for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). To help assess their practical value, the author wrote an item of mathematical software based on such a formula. This required a variety of algorithmic and software developments. Those of general interest are reported in this paper. Among them is a way to select automatically, at every step, an explicit Runge-Kutta formula or a Rosenbrock formula according to the stiffness of the problem. Solving linear systems is important to methods for stiff ODEs, and is rather special for Rosenbrock methods. A cheap, effective estimate of the condition of the linear systems is derived. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the developments.

Shampine, L. F.

1980-11-01

283

Coal seam fracing method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well. The method consists of: injecting a fracing fluid into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has fine proppants suspended with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid at a rate ranging from about 2 to about 12 pounds per gallon of the fluid; and injecting an acidizing solution into the formation adjacent the well immediately following each of the fracing fluid injection stages, the injections of fracing fluid and acidizing solution being at a rate of from about 15 to about 35 barrels per minute and continuing until at least 3,000 pounds of the fine proppants have been deposited in the formation fracture per linear vertical foot of the formation.

Perlman, W.

1986-01-28

284

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn C. (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal; Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2008-04-01

285

Glycoconjugates And Methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2005-08-30

286

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-10-01

287

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

288

Automatic transmission control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

1989-07-04

289

Methods of producing superconductors  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed of coating products such as metallic coil formers and wire containing the components of an intermetallic superconductive compound in which the coating is flexible at room temperatures but which has good insulating properties after heat treatment, the coating comprising a mixture of sodium silicate, chalk and China clay which reacts on heat treatment to form an insulating ceramic but which is flexible when merely dried.

Sutcliffe, G.R.; Humpherson, D.; Warden, S.J.

1983-10-04

290

Method of producing imines  

DOEpatents

A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

Sithambaram, Shanthakumar (Storrs, CT); Son, Young-Chan (Storrs, CT); Suib, Steven L. (Storrs, CT)

2008-04-08

291

Comments on PDF methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

Chen, J.-Y.

1992-01-01

292

Extrusion die and method  

DOEpatents

A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

1994-04-26

293

Geometrical method of decoupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E?, B?, and P?, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling algorithm can also be applied to n-dimensional systems and requires O(n2) iterations to converge to a given precision.

Baumgarten, C.

2012-12-01

294

17. Choose a Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 15 minute video, Mary Holden and her 4th/5th grade class reason about the appropriateness of different computational methods (base-ten blocks, calculators, mental math, or paper and pencil) to specific problems. The video includes a description of how the teacher manages her multi-level class and encourages hands on exploration and discussion in small group learning sessions. At the conclusion of the video are reflection questions for professional development.

2013-01-01

295

Mining apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A mining apparatus and method for dislodging material from a mine face. The dislodged material is transported from the front to the rear of the mine for further handling. The apparatus has a lifting mechanism for raising cross beams to the roof of the mine wherein beam jacks are permitted to engage the cross beams to provide support to the mine roof. The temporary roof support permits advancement of miner as dislodged material is removed.

Hakes, G.A.; Mccracken, W.E.

1982-05-11

296

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

297

Methods in Cell Separations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the field of cell biology and biomedicine relies on technologies that fractionate cell\\u000a populations and isolate rare cell types to high purity. A brief overview of methods and commercially\\u000a available products currently used in cell separations is presented. Cell fractionation by size and density\\u000a and highly selective affinity-based technologies such as affinity chromatography, fluorescence-activated\\u000a cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic

Maria B. Dainiak; Ashok Kumar; Igor Galaev; Bo Mattiasson

298

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOEpatents

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

299

Method of infusion extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

300

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

301

Method for making nanomaterials  

DOEpatents

A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

2013-06-04

302

Shallow Seismic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter covers the fundamentals of near-surface seismic techniques, including refraction, reflection, borehole, and surface-wave\\u000a methods. Typical seismic applications to hydrogeology include examining sedimentology and stratigraphy, detecting geologic\\u000a faults, evaluating karst conditions, and mapping the top of bedrock and the base of landslides. Other less common but promising\\u000a applications include mapping hydrogeological features, assessing hydrological characteristics, measuring the depth to

DON W. STEEPLES

303

Method for detecting biomolecules  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

Huo, Qisheng (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2008-08-12

304

Seismogram display and method  

SciTech Connect

A novel seismogram display and method for making same are provided wherein a portion of the areas under certain ones of the positive and negative wavelet lobes of each seismic trace is shaded. Each shaded area originates at or near a null point. The novel seismogram allows an interpreter to correlate both partially shaded lobes per wavelet, instead of one completely shaded, single lobe per wavelet. The invention therefore greatly simplifies and enhances the correlation and interpretation process.

Thompson, J.F.

1980-10-21

305

Method of electromagnetic exploration  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of electromagnetic exploration comprising the following steps: obtaining measures of two horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field at each reference sites; obtaining a measure of the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field for at least one exploratory site; and determining a measure of a multidimensional earth resistivity structure by correlating the measures of horizontal and vertical components of the earth's magnetic field.

Nekut, A.G. Jr.

1987-05-05

306

Efficiency comparison method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the system integration and operation of Southern Methodist University (SMU) - University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) anechoic chamber; far-field measurements of antenna parameters such as radiation efficiency, radiation patterns, directivity, and gain; and methodologies to improve measurement results. Also, it provides a brief explanation of the different methods used to make near-field measurements. This study primarily focuses on the ways to improve chamber's performance for far-field measurements. First, a methodology to improve the measurement results for broad-beam antennas such as Dipole is proposed. A few experiments were performed to identify the source of scattering, and accordingly, the mounting structure for the antenna under test (AUT) was changed to improve the results for the AUT's radiation pattern. Second, a method to compute the radiation efficiency of the antenna with broad beam is introduced. In this method, the total radiated power of Standard Gain Horn (SGH) antenna is compared with that of the AUT to evaluate the radiation efficiency of the AUT with the least possible uncertainties.

Mehta, Bhavyang

307

Facility life management method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved method of selecting and planning the performance of various maintenance activities on a facility such as a nuclear power plant includes determining the net present value of a number of future net savings that are expected to result from performance of the maintenance activity at a given time, and selecting and planning the maintenance activities in a fashion that maximizes net present value. The method includes, for each of a number of components and a number of time periods, determining a change in the probability that a component will fail within a time period, with the change resulting from an assumption that a maintenance activity is performed. The change in probability is multiplied with the losses associated with a failure in order to determine a gross savings from which costs are subtracted to determine net savings. The probabilities of failure may be determined from a probability failure model that has been derived from multiple sets of failure data that are characterized by Weibull distributions and are mathematically combined according to Bayes' Theorem. The maintenance activities may also be optimized according to a number of budget figures. An apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

2013-10-29

308

The data embedding method  

SciTech Connect

Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

1996-06-01

309

Lidar system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A ground-based method is disclosed which determines the spatial statistics of fragmented and spatially variably dispersed objects in a transmissive medium, by generating a plurality of pulsed beams of laser energy, the beams having selectively variable width and shape; selectively varying the width and shape of the beams; directing the beams toward the dispersed objects; measuring the time and/or phase and intensity of signals returned by the dispersed objects, and calculating the apparent reflectance of the dispersed objects as a function of the range of the dispersed objects for each beam width and beam shape.

2007-03-06

310

Tool decontamination method  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a system and method for cleaning radioactively contaminated articles, including tools and like items of hardware. The system includes a cleaning chamber for receiving and sealing therein the contaminated articles, a high pressure spray gun disposed within the cleaning chamber for spraying the contaminated articles with a clean solvent to dislodge and dissolve the contaminants, and a system for decontaminating the solvent for reuse. The cleaning chamber includes a drain having the capacity to remove contaminated solvent at a rate at least as great as that at which the solvent is sprayed into the chamber, such that substantially no contaminated solvent collects in the cleaning chamber.

Capella, J.A.; Fowler, D.E.

1984-04-17

311

Laser pulse stacking method  

DOEpatents

A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

312

Magnetic imager and method  

DOEpatents

A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

Powell, James (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Kew Garden Hills, NY); Danby, Gordon (Wading River, NY)

1997-07-22

313

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

314

Interior-point methods.  

SciTech Connect

The modern era of interior-point methods dates to 1984, when Karmarkar proposed his algorithm for linear programming. In the years since then, algorithms and software for linear programming have become quite sophisticated, while extensions to more general classes of problems, such as convex quadratic programming, semi-definite programming, and nonconvex and nonlinear problems, have reached varying levels of maturity. We review some of the key developments in the area, including comments on both the complexity theory and practical algorithms for linear programming, semi-definite programming, monotone linear complementarity, and convex programming over sets that can be characterized by self-concordant barrier functions.

Potra, F. A.; Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Maryland

2000-01-01

315

Adaptive Shape Optimization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this work is to introduce an adaptive strategy to monitor the convergence rate of a Newton-like\\u000a method in shape optimization. Shape optimization problems are characterized by a cost function and a partial differential\\u000a equation (P.D.E.) which depend both of the geometrical domain. Typically we want to compute a shape * such that \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a W<\\/font\\u000a>* = argmin{

Jean R. Roche

316

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

317

Adventures with Implicit Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this lecture we trace the historical developments of alternating direction implicit methods. In particular, we emphasize contributions originating in the Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch at Ames Research Center in the 1970's and early 1980's. Joe Steger played a seminal role in demonstrating the practicality of using an efficient, vectorized, implicit code for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerous discussions with Joe had a significant impact on our own research and it is a pleasure to dedicate this lecture to honor his memory.

Warming, Robert F.; Beam, Richard M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

318

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

319

Fragrancing system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

System and method for emanating fragrance vapor into a region. Fragrance liquid within a receptacle exhibits a liquid phase-vapor phase interface surface when in a quiescent state. Utilizing sub-pressure generators such as fan driven systems, the pressure above the interface is lowered to promote the escape of vapor molecules for dissemination into the atmosphere. The surface area of the fragrance fluid may be increased through the use of a bubbling technique to derive an effective area permitting a larger vapor molecule escape.

2008-05-27

320

Method for resonant measurement  

DOEpatents

A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

1996-03-05

321

Method of drying articles  

DOEpatents

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

322

Method of drying articles  

DOEpatents

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

1999-03-23

323

Methods of making monolayers  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-12-08

324

Introduction to Scientific Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit exposes students to the tools, methods, and processes used by scientists to study our Universe. This includes: safe laboratory practices, quantitative data gathering (measurement, qualitative data gathering (observation), scientific experimentation, and scientific modeling. The second purpose of this unit is to introduce students to the two explanatory themes that underpin much of the Earth Sciences: density and convection. These two broad purposes are presented primarily through a combination of experiments, demonstrations, and readings, combined, to a lesser extent, with lectures and discussions.

2002-01-01

325

Visualizing Numerical Methods (2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These movies are designed to help students visualize various numerical approaches to evaluating functions or solving equations. The methods themselves may be familiar to students from their mathematics courses, but they may have forgotten the material or never made the connection between a statement such as "the derivative of a curve at a given point is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point" and the way that one might evaluate such a derivative. All of the movies have VCR-style controls that enable the student to step through them one frame at a time and to move backwards as well as forwards.

326

Method for resonant measurement  

DOEpatents

A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

Rhodes, George W. (5201 Rio Grande Blvd., N.W., Albuquerque, NM 87107); Migliori, Albert (Rte. 4, Box 258 Tano Rd., Sante Fe, NM 87501); Dixon, Raymond D. (396 Connie Ave., White Rock, NM 87544)

1996-01-01

327

Method of joining ceramics  

DOEpatents

According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Kennewick, WA); Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

328

Construction Material And Method  

DOEpatents

A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2006-02-21

329

Geophysics I. Seismic Methods  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades, the technology of geophysics has exploded. At the same time, the petroleum industry has been forced to look for more and more subtle traps in more and more difficult terrain. The choice of papers in this geophysics reprint volume reflects this evolution. The papers were chosen to help geologists, not geophysicists, enhance their knowledge of geophysics. Math-intensive papers were excluded because those papers are relatively esoteric and have limited applicability for most geologists. This volume concentrates on different seismic survey methods. Each of the 38 papers were abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

Beaumont, E.A.; Foster, N.H. (comps.)

1989-01-01

330

Leap-Frogging Newton's Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Newton's method as an intermediate step, we introduce an iterative method that approximates numerically the solution of f(x) = 0. The method is essentially a leap-frog Newton's method. The order of convergence of the proposed method at a simple root is cubic and the computational efficiency in general is less, but close to that of Newton's…

Kasturiarachi, A. Bathi

2002-01-01

331

FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD ON TRIANGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDE). This method combines the use of features of both Finite Element Methods (FEM) and Finite Difference methods (FDM). Similar to the FEM, this method uses the triangulation technique and function approximation. Moreover, it uses direct discretization of the PDE, similar to the FDM. The basic idea

FAISAL A. FAIRAG

332

Accelerated adaptive integration method.  

PubMed

Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to ?, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain ? values. AIM adaptively changes the value of ? in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of ? seed the conformational space sampled at another ? value. Adapting the value of ? throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the ? value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of ?, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083

Kaus, Joseph W; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; McCammon, J Andrew

2014-05-15

333

Nucleic Acid Detection Methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

1998-05-19

334

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

335

Sound method of testing  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic emission devices, which have been available for more than 20 years, have become widely used and applied only during the last 5 years because of system refinements. Acoustic emission (AE) systems can now locate cracks and fractures as small as one-thousandth of a millimeter in pressurized vessels and steam valves, or any plastic or metal material that is subject to stress or pressure. The same systems can also hear fracture emissions from geologic masses. Because AE systems are relatively inexpensive and provide information quickly, they often appear in conjunction with other nondestructive testing methods such as radiography, ultrasonics, thermography, optical holography, eddy curent, and computer tomography. The future points to AE devices that may detect structural defects on offshore oil rigs, and in oil and gas pipelines. (SC)

Not Available

1983-09-01

336

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01

337

Method for forming materials  

DOEpatents

A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-10-06

338

Postantifungal effect methods.  

PubMed

Postantifungal effect (PAFE) is the evaluation of antifungal activity after the suppression of fungal growth when the drug is removed from the fungal suspension. In vitro, this effect might simulate the in vivo situation when the concentration of the drug falls to less than the minimum inhibitory concentration values and could be another tool, together with the classic in vitro susceptibility tests, to optimize the interaction of drugs-fungi. In this chapter, two model methods to evaluate the PAFE of yeasts and filamentous fungi are described in which practical advices and tricks are given to help the worker to develop the techniques. The procedures outlined include preparation of stock solutions of the drugs, concentration medium, exposure time colony count determination, and interpretation of the results to quantify the PAFE. PMID:15888941

Vitale, Roxana G

2005-01-01

339

The algebraic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining the effect of an intermediate renormalization prescription (zero momentum subtraction) and the background field method (BFM), we show that the algebraic renormalization procedure needed for the computation of radiative corrections within non-invariant regularization schemes is drastically simplified. The present technique is suitable for gauge models and, here, is applied to the Standard Model. The use of the BFM allows a powerful organization of the counterterms and avoids complicated Slavnov-Taylor identities. Furthermore, the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) variation of background fields plays a special role in disentangling Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI) and Slavnov-Taylor identities (STI). Finally, the strategy to be applied to physical processes is exemplified for the process b? s?.

Grassi, P. A.; Hurth, T.; Steinhauser, M.

2001-09-01

340

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01

341

Shaft sinking method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of sinking shafts comprising excavating a series of lifts wherein each lift is excavated by drilling a pattern of blast holes for the full depth of the lift boring a large diameter hole for the full depth of the lift. Then creating a chamber only at the lower end of the large diameter hole, blasting a portion of the walls of the chamber to deposit rock material into the chamber, extracting at least a portion of the rock material created by the blast and repeating the blasting and extraction step throughout the length of the lift from the bottom to the top and when the volume of the lift is blasted extracting the remaining rock broken material.

Sainsbury, G.M.

1987-10-20

342

Radiofrequency attenuator and method  

DOEpatents

Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ) [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ) [Palmerston North, NZ

2009-01-20

343

Methods for studying oogenesis.  

PubMed

Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis. PMID:24440745

Hudson, Andrew M; Cooley, Lynn

2014-06-15

344

Connector pin and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

2011-01-01

345

Acoustophoresis separation method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.

Heyman, Joseph S. (inventor)

1993-01-01

346

Improved catalysts and method  

SciTech Connect

An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.

1990-12-31

347

Method of making bisimides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a method for preparing relatively insoluble bisimides under conditions which afford high imidization reaction rates and which permit the monitoring and adjustment of reactant stoichiometry at any stage of the reaction. The bisimides provided by the present invention are prepared either by reaction of a diamine such as 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) with an anhydride, for example 3-chlorophthalic anhydride (3-ClPA) in the presence of a solvent at a pressure greater than one atmosphere and at a temperature above the normal boiling point of the solvent, or by reaction of a monoamine with a dianhydride under the same conditions. In one embodiment, the relatively insoluble product bisimides provided by the present invention have a solubility in ortho-dichlorobenzene of less than about 10 percent by weight at a temperature of about 180.degree. C.

2011-07-19

348

Method for controlling brazing  

DOEpatents

A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Hall, Aaron C. (Albuquerque, NM); Givler, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-01

349

Methods in Biostatistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of biostatistics, which combines a number of different disciplines, is one that more people seek to enter. The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health's Brian Caffo created these course materials for his Methods in Biostatistics I class. As the site notes, these materials present "fundamental concepts in applied probability, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference, focusing on probability and analysis of one and two samples." Visitors can look over the syllabus here, check out the original course schedule, peruse the lecture materials, and look over the readings. The lecture notes cover set theory basics and probability, expected values, random vectors, distribution, and confidence intervals. The site is rounded out by the Other Resources area, which includes links to free statistical software programs and other supplemental items.

2006-01-01

350

Microencapsulation system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

351

Microencapsulation system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

352

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30

353

Method for maskless lithography  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

Sweatt, William C. (13027 Arrovo de Vista, Albuquerque, NM 87111); Stulen, Richard H. (5258 Roxanne Ct., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01

354

Bayesian Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian Framework for modeling the high energy astrophysics data has been implemented in Sherpa, a modeling and fitting application in CIAO. Sherpa is written in Python and the latest version can be installed and used with Python 2.7. We describe the concept of models with priors, the MCMC options for exploring the posterior probability distributions, and available algorithms for hypothesis testing and model selection. The methods correctly account for the Poisson nature of high energy astrophysics data from space-based X-ray and gamma-ray missions such as Chandra or Fermi. In most situations the modeling has to account for instrumental effects characterized by a probability of detecting photons of a given energy at a particular detector channel, or a particular location on the detector. We provide variety of examples based on the high energy data with ready to use recipes. Some future directions and potential linking with other Python packages will also be presented.

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Aldcroft, T. L.; Kashyap, V.; Chandra X-ray Center CIAO Team

2013-04-01

355

Freeze drying method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

356

Floating Silicon Method  

SciTech Connect

The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

Kellerman, Peter

2013-12-21

357

Surface analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

This workshop proposes a strategy for improving measurements of dry deposition so that the uncertainty in dry deposition is no longer the dominant uncertainty regarding model predictions of the fate and effects of dry deposition. This near term need of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program provided guidance for the activities of the group during the workshop. The objectives of the panel on surface analysis methods were as follows: (1) Critique various surface analysis approaches for their capabilities in routine monitoring and research; and determine their limitations, with respect to addressable chemical species, accuracy, and results expected by 1990; (2) develop a program for the remainder of NAPAP to address needs in dry deposition measurements, and an extension of this program beyond NAPAP in the general area of atmosphere/canopy exchange processes.

Lindberg, S.E.; Davidson, C.I.; Bondietti, E.A.; Graustein, W.C.; Livingston, R.; Lovett, G.; Peters, J.

1986-01-01

358

Hydroforming device and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.

Guza, David E. (Powell, OH)

2007-09-11

359

Pharmaceutical compositions and methods  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Some otherwise desirable oil compositions derived from natural sources are characterized by an unpleasant odor. Fractions or combinations of such oils may also be so characterized. Stable, deodorized oils may be prepared by adding an amount of a deodorizing agent effective to substantially reduce the odor of the derived oil composition, fraction or combination thereof to that oil composition, fraction or combination. The pharmaceutical topical compositions of the present invention contain these stable, deodorized oil compositions and exhibit enhanced penetration properties and achieve enhanced patient response. The improved pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be used to manage pain and/or to treat the underlying ailments. Methods of making such topical pharmaceutical compositions are also discussed.

1997-07-22

360

Image forming method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An image forming method comprising the steps of: (a) superposing a heat development photosensitive material on a sheet after or simultaneously with imagewise exposing the heat development photosensitive material, wherein the photosensitive material comprises a support having thereon at least a photosensitive silver halide, a hydrophilic binder and a slightly water-soluble basic metal compound, and the sheet comprises a support having thereon at least a compound which forms a complex with the metal ion constituting the basic metal compound, a solvent for a silver halide and a physical development nucleus; and (b) heat developing the laminate in the presence of a reducing agent and water to form an image on either or both of the photosensitive material and the sheet, wherein the reducing agent comprises a 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone compound and a dihydroxybenzene compound having an inorganic value of not less than 215 and an organic value of from 120 to 400.

1998-04-07

361

Geophysical methods: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

1992-01-01

362

Rail shear test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of both an experimental test program and a finite element analysis of selected graphite/polyimide rail shear test specimens are discussed. The two dimensional finite element analysis includes both mechanical and thermal loading (differential expansion) of the specimens and their elastic rails. Parameters in this analysis of unidirectional and symmetric, balanced angle-ply laminates include ply layup angles, the effect of flexible rails, the method of load introduction to the specimen and the effect of uniform heating of the specimen and rails. Two types of tensile rail shear fixtures were investigated experimentally: a uniform thickness, bolted-rail shear fixture loaded diagonally across the specimen test section; and a tapered thickness, bonded-rail shear fixture loaded axially along the center-line of the specimen test section. Test results include room-temperature and 589K strain data taken from the center of the specimen test section during loading.

Garcia, R.; Mcwithey, R. R.

1979-01-01

363

The Parabolic Spline Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and efficient parabolic spline based remapping algorithm is developed and tested herein. To ensure mass conservation, the scheme solves an integral form of the transport equation rather than the differential form. The integrals are computed from reconstructed parabolic splines with mass conservation constraints. For higher dimensions, this remapping can be used within a standard directional splitting methodology or within the flow-dependent cascade splitting approach. A grid and sub-grid based monotonic filter is also incorporated into the overall scheme. A truncation error analysis of the scheme is presented and discussed in terms of results from test cases. The analysis shows that although it has a similar truncation error in the converged limit as that of the widely used Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) for infinitely differentiable functions, PSM is more accurate than PPM for problems with slow spectral decay. Additionally, an operation count of the scheme is given which demonstrates the computational advantage of PSM compare

Zerroukat, M.; Wood, N.; Staniforth, A.

2006-08-01

364

Compressor surge control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling surge in a centrifugal compressor having a predetermined surge condition line and providing a combined output with a base load means. It comprises: establishing a main surge control line offset from the centrifugal compressor surge condition line according to a function of pressure differentials across the centrifugal compressor and across an orifice in the inlet line of the centrifugal compressor; establishing a feed forward control signal which is a function of a variable associated with the base load means which may cause the surge condition in the centrifugal compressor; and establishing an anticipatory surge control line offset from the main surge control line as a function of the established main surge control line and the established feed forward control signal.

Dziubakowski, D.J.; Keys, M.A.I.V.; Shaffer, J.J.

1990-02-13

365

Method of bonding  

DOEpatents

1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

1987-12-01

366

Teaching Social Workers Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the debate in the scientific community in which some protagonists suggest that there is no such thing as a scientific method, and given a student population with a minimal bgackground in research methods, what do social work educators teach social work students about research methods? The implications of this methods debate for social work education are reviewed and curriculum

Teresa Morris

1992-01-01

367

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-03-12

368

Science Methods, Fall 09  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources for Science Methods Pre-service Teachers IA Help: Basic Instruction: How to use the IA, step by step Connecting People with Online Reources: USU OpenCourseWare Site on how to use the IA Advanced IA Features: Adding an Image to your IA project using Google Picasa Adding a YouTube video to an IA project Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Adding a TeacherTube video to an IA project Digital Libraries arXiv: Open access to 560,904 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Science Education Communities Directory of open access journals Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library National Science Digital Library NSDL: Expert Voices Blog Gateway NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL: Science Refreshers OER (Open Educational Resources) Commons OpenCourseWare Consortium Websites Physics at NIST Virtual Library The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online The Franklin Institute Online Weather Science Hotlist The Goddard Library K-6 IA Science Projects A Desert Adventure Advertising the Animals of Utah Mister Twister Simple Machines There's Nothing Better Than a Clean, Shiny Penny The Wonders of Water!!! 7-12 IA Science Projects Electrical Engineering Global Warming and Our Future Group 1 - DDT Newton's First Law of Motion World of Enzymes ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2009-09-24

369

Detector Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

2003-01-01

370

Methods in Tubulin Proteomics  

PubMed Central

New analytical methods are needed for the successful outcome of experiments aimed at characterizing mechanisms of microtubule dynamics and at understanding the effects of drugs on microtubules. The identification of tubulin isotypes and of regions of the microtubule involved in drug interactions has been advanced by proteomic methodologies. The diversity of tubulin sequences and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can generate a complex mixture of heterodimers with unique molecular dynamics driving specific functions. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been developed, and in combination with chromatographic and/or electrophoretic separation of tubulin polypeptides or peptides, they have contributed to our understanding of tubulin proteomics. We present protocols that we have used for the analysis of tubulin isotypes and PTMs present in tubulin isolated from cells in culture or tissues and for the identification of tubulin regions altered by microtubule-stabilizing agents. Tubulin proteomics complements structural and computer modeling information for a high-resolution view of microtubule dynamics and its alteration by drugs. These methodologies will help in providing insights into tubulin isotype-specific functions and in the design of drugs targeting either all tubulin heterodimers indiscriminately or only those containing specific isotypes.

Miller, Leah M.; Xiao, Hui; Burd, Berta; Horwitz, Susan Band; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal

2014-01-01

371

Beach cleaning method  

SciTech Connect

A method of separating oil and other floatatable debris from the sand on a beach by localized flooding of the beach is disclosed. Suitable large diameter conduits are provided to introduce large quantities of water to a selected area of the beach, the water mixing with the sand and causing oil and other debris on or buried in the sand to float, and thus to rise toward the surface of the sand. A second flooding operation refloats the debris and a skimmer mechanism then removes the floating oil and other material while allowing the water to return to the beach area. The water supply is provided by means of suitable conduits carried by a truck, tractor, or other beach vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, the water required for flooding is obtained from the ocean by an extension of the supply conduits, with the forward motion of the tractor providing the required water flow through the conduits to the area to be cleaned. Alternatively, the desired water flow can be obtained by means of a low lift pump in the conduits, the pumps being hydraulically operated from the beach vehicle. The first flooding operation provides water to move the oil and other debris toward a center line, while the second provides water to refloat the material in the vicinity of the intake for the skimmer.

Cloutier, C.C.

1981-11-24

372

Method for biological purification  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

Lucido, John A. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Keenan, Daniel (Rockville Centre, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Shelenkova, Ludmila (Yaphank, NY)

2001-03-27

373

Standing footprint diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

2013-10-01

374

Chromatographic methods of fractionation.  

PubMed

Chromatography's functional versatility, separation efficiency, gentle non-denaturing separating process and ease of automation and scale-up make it attractive for industrial scale protein purification. The Winnipeg Rh Institute's new Plasma Fractionation facility is an example of the use of chromatography for the large scale purification of plasma protein fractions. The fractionation facility has a capacity to process 800 litres of plasma per batch into blood clotting factor VIII and IX, albumin and intravenous immune serum globulin (i.v. ISG). Albumin and i.v. ISG are purified using ion exchange columns of DEAE-Sepharose (230 litre size), DEAE-Biogel (150 litre size) and CM-Sepharose (150 litre size). The chromatographic process is automated using a Modicon 584 Programmable Logic Controller to regulate valves, pumps and sensors which control plasma flow during fractionation. The stainless steel tanks and piping are automatically cleaned-in-place. The high degree of automation and cleaning provides efficient operation and sanitary processing. Chromatographic methods (DEAE-Sepharose and metal chelation) are also being used at the pilot scale to purify the human blood products superoxide dismutase and hemoglobin from outdated red blood cells. Characterization of the protein fractions produced by chromatography has shown them to be of equal or higher quality than fractions produced by other techniques. PMID:3609484

Friesen, A D

1987-01-01

375

Laser amplifier and method  

DOEpatents

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

1997-07-01

376

Desulfurization apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

2013-06-18

377

Numerical methods for tracking interfaces  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of special numerical methods for tracking discontinuous fronts and interfaces. These methods include: surface tracking methods based on connected marker points along the interface, volume-tracking methods that track the volume occupied by the solution regions bounded by the interfaces, and moving mesh methods where the underlying mesh is aligned and moved with the interface. The pros and cons of the current methods are discussed, and a new method is proposed that overcomes some of the difficulties encountered in approximating equations with multiply interacting interfaces.

Hyman, J.M.

1983-01-01

378

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff

2003-02-28

379

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

2008-01-18

380

Class of Incomplete Orthogonal Factorization Methods. 1. Methods and Theories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors study the solution of large sparse nonsingular and unsymmetric systems of linear equations. The authors present a class of incomplete orthogonal factorization methods based on Givens rotations. These methods include: Incomplete Givens Orthogon...

Z. Z. Bai I. S. Duff A. J. Wathen

1999-01-01

381

Methods of Producing Cermet Materials and Methods of Utilizing Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of fabricating cermet materials and methods of utilizing the same such as in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The cermet material may be made from a transition m...

P. C. Kong

2005-01-01

382

Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the "complexation method", complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocapsules, and complex formation in an aqueous solution is used to form alginate nano-aggregates. In a second method w/o emulsification coupled with gelation of the alginate emulsion droplet can be used to form alginate nanospheres. We review advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and give an overview of the properties of the alginate particles produced with these methods. PMID:24745976

Paques, Jerome P; van der Linden, Erik; van Rijn, Cees J M; Sagis, Leonard M C

2014-07-01

383

This Is The Scientific Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The research process is not just a collection of miscellaneous "scientific methods." Scientists and other researchers do not proceed in a haphazard fashion. Centuries of trial and error, research, discussions and debates have led to a realization of the general pattern of the scientific method. The pattern represents the major stages of how we obtain, refine and apply knowledge in all fields. The method of science has been called by many names, most commonly the scientific method. It is also a complete method of creative problem solving and decision making for all fields. This article describes the stages and components of the scientific method.

Norman Edmund (ScientificMethod.com)

2012-01-06

384

Meshless methods in computational mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, two meshless methods, the element free Galerkin (EFG) method and the meshless method based on the local boundary integral equation (LBIE), are described. The first part (Chapters II and III) of the thesis is to propose efficient methods in enforcing the essential boundary conditions in the EFG method. A modified collocation method has been proposed for enforcing the discrete essential boundary conditions in the element free Galerkin (EFG) method. The present method substantially improves the computational accuracy as compared to the previous direct collocation method reported in literature. A penalty method has also been developed for imposing the essential boundary conditions in the EFG method. The penalty method is easy to implement and can reduce computational costs while retaining high accuracy. Compared with the Lagrange multiplier method which will increase the number of unknowns and result in a non-positive system stiffness matrix, the present penalty method is able to yield a banded, symmetric and positive definite system matrix. In the second part (Chapters IV--VI), new local boundary integral equation (LBIE) formulations, for linear and nonlinear potential problems, and for problems in linear elasticity, have been proposed, and the new meshless method based on the LBIE formulations and the moving least squares approximation has been developed. This new method is a true meshless method as no boundary and domain elements are needed in the implementation. The essential boundary conditions can be easily and directly imposed even when a non-interpolative approximation scheme such as the MLS approximation is used to approximate the trial function. Numerical examples show that the present LBIE formulation possesses a tremendous potential in solving linear and non-linear problems in computational mechanics.

Zhu, Tulong

1998-11-01

385

NEW ACCELERATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect

But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many machines greater than 27 km, and soon one will run out of space or money (almost surely money before space). This argument seems terribly wrong to me, and worse than that possibly destructive, for it will have a serious effect if it causes, as it well might, young people to elect to go into fields other than high energy physics. The proper response, I believe, is to point--in considerable detail--to some of the new concepts which show by example that we are far from being out of new ideas. Some of these concepts shall, in my view, be, or lead to, the 'stocks in trade' of the next century, and thus they will allow high energy physics to be as exciting then as it is now. It is our job to make it all happen.

Sessler, A.M.

1984-07-01

386

Method for Determining Artillery Position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for determinig artillery positions. Two groups of four closely spaced microphones are placed at known positions, and radio bearings are determined by projectile flight time differences of muzzle blasts. The advantages of the method are discussed.

Fischer, Johannes; Meuser, Wilfried

1988-01-01

387

Method for Preparing Macromolecular Polyoxymethylene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is concerned with the methods for preparing macromolecular polyoxymethylene (polyformaldehyde) from crystalline trioxane. A method for preparing macromolecular polyoxymethylene from polycrystalline trioxane by means of shock compress...

L. V. Barbare F. I. Dubovitsky A. N. Dremin

1979-01-01

388

Random Logic Oxide Screening Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the work performed on the Random Logic Oxide Screening Methods study in which techniques were investigated to improve oxide reliability screening methods in CMOS random logic devices. This effort included modeling of time dependent diel...

D. N. Krening

1990-01-01

389

Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

1981-01-01

390

Quantitative Methods of Edge Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most local operators used in edge detection can be modelled by one of two methods: edge enhancement/thresholding and edge fitting. This dissertation presents a quantitative design and performance evaluation of these methods. The design techniques are base...

I. E. Abdou

1978-01-01

391

Method of Reducing Cell Differentiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to methods and compositions for culturing embryonic stem (ES) cells. The methods relate to growing the cells in culture on a flexible solid porous matrix, suitably without conditioned media or fibroblast feeder cells and appl...

J. J. de Pablo L. Ji S. P. Palecek

2003-01-01

392

Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods  

PubMed Central

The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA. This paper provides a brief overview of the topic “alternative methods in toxicology” and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology.

Kandarova, Helena; Letasiova, Silvia

2011-01-01

393

a Method to Change Phase Transition Nature -- Toward Annealing Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review a way to change nature of phase transition with annealing methods in mind. Annealing methods are regarded as a general technique to solve optimization problems efficiently. In annealing methods, we introduce a controllable parameter which represents a kind of fluctuation and decrease the parameter gradually. Annealing methods face with a difficulty when a phase transition point exists during the protocol. Then, it is important to develop a method to avoid the phase transition by introducing a new type of fluctuation. By taking the Potts model for instance, we review a way to change the phase transition nature. Although the method described in this paper does not succeed to avoid the phase transition, we believe that the concept of the method will be useful for optimization problems.

Tamura, Ryo; Tanaka, Shu

2014-03-01

394

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2003-01-01

395

Projector augmented-wave method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for electronic structure calculations is described that generalizes both the pseudopotential method and the linear augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) method in a natural way. The method allows high-quality first-principles molecular-dynamics calculations to be performed using the original fictitious Lagrangian approach of Car and Parrinello. Like the LAPW method it can be used to treat first-row and transition-metal elements with affordable

P. E. Blöchl

1994-01-01

396

Optical measurement methods in thermogasdynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of a number of optical methods of flow measurements. Consideration is given to such spectroscopic methods as emission and absorption techniques, electron beam-stimulated fluorescence, and light scattering - Rayleigh, Raman and Mie - methods. The following visualization methods are also discussed: shadow photography, schlieren photography, interferometry, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, particle holography, and electron-excitation imaging. A large bibliography is presented and the work is copiously illustrated with figures and photographs.

Stursberg, K.; Erhardt, K.; Krahr, W.; Becker, M.

1978-01-01

397

Method for treating aquatic pests  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A novel method for eliminating or reducing, or otherwise treating, aquatic pests using juglone or juglone analogs is described. The methods are useful for removing zebra mussels and quagga mussels from water intake pipes and various other underwater hard surfaces. In addition, the methods are useful for treating dinoflaggellates, algae and amphipods, among other pests, from ballast water. A great advantage that these methods have over current protocols is that they have low environmental risk.

2000-12-26

398

Particle Methods for Dispersive Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new dispersion-velocity particle method for approximating solutions of linear and nonlinear dispersive equations. This is the first time in which particle methods are being used for solving such equations. Our method is based on an extension of the diffusion-velocity method of Degond and Mustieles (SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.11(2), 293 (1990)) to the dispersive framework. The main

Alina Chertock; Doron Levy

2001-01-01

399

Methods of Estimating Additive Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additive utility formulations for risky and nonrisky multiple-factor decision situations are reviewed. Twenty-four methods of estimating additive utilities are listed and classified. References to the theory and technique of each method are given along with a short discussion of each. A number of examples are used to illustrate the methods.

Peter C. Fishburn

1967-01-01

400

Methods of making textured catalysts  

DOEpatents

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17

401

Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a

John Campbell

2010-01-01

402

Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent Champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a

John Campbell

2009-01-01

403

COARSE PARTICLE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing a new Federal Reference Method for PM in the range of 2.5 to 10 microns aerodynamic diameter, for possible use in a possible new Ambient Air Quality Standard for particles in this size range. Federal Reference Methods are the first-approved methods used to meas...

404

Index to EPA Test Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To respond to frequent requests for agency test methods, Region 1 Library staff developed this methods index as a tool to help locate copies of them. Confirming that there was no one volume containing all agency methods and no comprehensive list of them, ...

P. Nelson

2003-01-01

405

Simple method for adhesion measurements  

SciTech Connect

An indentation method for determining the adhesion of interfaces between thin films and substrates has been developed. The method provides a quantitative measure of the interface fracture resistance and has the advantage of simplicity and reproducibility. The method has been demonstrated for a range of ZnO/Si systems and the adherence has been correlated with acoustic properties.

Chiang, S.S.; Marshall, D.B.; Evans, A.G.

1980-08-01

406

Developments of the payback method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of its theoretical deficiencies, the payback (PB) method is commonly used for appraisals of capital investments in companies. Sometimes the method is used when aspects such as liquidity and project time risk are focused, but it is also commonly used in pure profit evaluations as a single criterion. The two main deficiencies of the PB method are that

Stefan Yard

2000-01-01

407

Automated 4AAP Phenolic Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automated colorimetric method for the determination of phenol in water and wastes is presented. This method is an automated version of the 4AAP method, capable of analyzing from ten to twenty samples per hour. The minimum detectable levelis 1 microgram...

M. E. Gales R. L. Booth

1976-01-01

408

ANALYSIS OF IMPLICIT LES METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit LES methods are numerical methods that capture the energy-containing and inertial ranges of turbulent flows, while relying on their own intrinsic dissi- pation to act as a subgrid model. We present a scheme-dependent Kolmogorov scaling analysis of the solutions produced by such methods. From this analysis we can define an effective Reynolds number for implicit LES simulations of inviscid

ANDREW ASPDEN; NIKOS NIKIFORAKIS; STUART DALZIEL; JOHN B. BELL

2008-01-01

409

Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)  

Cancer.gov

The Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB) focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches developed in the context of other research endeavors for use as biomarkers and methods to understand cancer susceptibility.

410

MRI segmentation: Methods and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current literature on MRI segmentation methods is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the relative merits of single image versus multispectral segmentation, and supervised versus unsupervised segmentation methods. Image pre-processing and registration are discussed, as well as methods of validation. The application of MRI segmentation for tumor volume measurements during the course of therapy is presented here as an

L. P. Clarke; R. P. Velthuizen; M. A. Camacho; J. J. Heine; M. Vaidyanathan; L. O. Hall; R. W. Thatcher; M. L. Silbiger

1995-01-01

411

On the variational iteration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter, we will consider He's variational iteration method with considering Adomian's polynomials for finding approximate and exact solutions of some nonlinear equations. Two models of interest in mathematical physics are considered and solved by means of variational iteration method. This method is based on the use of Lagrange multipliers for identification of optimal value of a parameter in

M. A. Abdou

2007-01-01

412

Immersed interface methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1996-11-01

413

Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

1999-02-08

414

Overview of paint removal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

Foster, Terry

1995-04-01

415

Relation between heat kernel method and scattering spectral method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we establish the connection between the heat kernel method and the scattering spectral method in quantum field theory. First, we provide the relation between the heat kernel and the scattering phase shift. Then as applications, we derive a large-time approximation of the heat kernel through the low-energy approximation of the phase shift, and we also derive a high-energy expansion of the phase shift expressed with heat kernel coefficients. Finally, we compare the renormalization schemes in the heat kernel method with that in the scattering spectral method. Concretely, we calculate the first- and second-order contributions to the vacuum energy by heat-kernel and Feynman-diagram methods, respectively, and show the coincidence of the results. Especially, in the heat-kernel framework, we perform both dimensional and zeta-function regularization to calculate the vacuum energy, and the result shows that dimensional renormalization procedure works well in the heat kernel method.

Pang, Hai; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

2012-05-01

416

The WST method, a fracture mechanics test method for FRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of the wedge-splitting test method (WST), for determining fracture properties of fibre-reinforced concrete,\\u000a is discussed. Experimental results, using the WST method, are compared with results from uniaxial tension tests (UTT) and\\u000a three-point bending tests (3PBT) for five different FRC compositions. Furthermore, for the WST method, two different specimen\\u000a sizes have been investigated. Results from this investigation demonstrate the

I. Löfgren; H. Stang; J. F. Olesen

2008-01-01

417

On the method of moving planes and the sliding method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of moving planes and the sliding method are used in proving monotonicity or symmetry in, say, thex1 direction for solutions of nonlinear elliptic equationsF(x, u, Du, D2u)=0 in a bounded domain O in Rn which is convex in thex1 direction. Here we present a much simplified approach to these methods; at the same time it yields improved results.

H. Berestycki; L. Nirenberg

1991-01-01

418

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

419

Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

2000-01-01

420

The spaced antenna drift method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spaced antenna drift method is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determination of atmospheric wind velocities using radars. The technique has been extensively tested in the mesosphere at high and medium frequencies, and found to give reliable results. Recently, the method has also been applied to VHF observations of the troposphere and stratosphere, and results appear to be reliable. This paper discusses briefly the principle of the method, and investigates both its strengths and weaknesses. Some discussions concerning criticisms of the technique are also given, and it is concluded that while these criticisms may be of some concern at times, appropriate care can ensure that the method is at least as viable as any other method of remote wind measurement. At times, the technique has definite advantages.

Hocking, W. K.

1983-01-01

421

Aircraft digital control design methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

1976-01-01

422

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 29, METHOD 624--PURGEABLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The work which is described in the report was performed for the purpose of validating, through an interlaboratory study, Method 624 for the analysis of the volatile organic priority pollutants. This method is based on purging and concentration of the various analytes on an adsorb...

423

The connection between symmetric method and symplectic method.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symmetric methods are described in a certain sense as symplectic methods for integrating linear conservative dynamical systems. They are applicable to nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. However, the authors have found that they are not suitable for the systems that depend on velocity explicitly.

Huang, Tianyi; Wang, Changbin; Zhao, Zhangyin

1997-09-01

424

Extended VIKOR method in comparison with outranking methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VIKOR method was developed to solve MCDM problems with conflicting and noncommensurable (different units) criteria, assuming that compromising is acceptable for conflict resolution, the decision maker wants a solution that is the closest to the ideal, and the alternatives are evaluated according to all established criteria. This method focuses on ranking and selecting from a set of alternatives in

Serafim Opricovic; Gwo-hshiung Tzeng

2007-01-01

425

A review of spectral methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline for spectral methods for partial differential equations is presented. The basic spectral algorithm is defined, collocation are emphasized and the main advantage of the method, the infinite order of accuracy in problems with smooth solutions are discussed. Examples of theoretical numerical analysis of spectral calculations are presented. An application of spectral methods to transonic flow is presented. The full potential transonic equation is among the best understood among nonlinear equations.

Lustman, L.

1984-01-01

426

Kalman Filter Based Synchronization Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes single and three-phase synchronization methods based on the optimum filtering theory. The proposed methods incorporate, explicitly, in the problem formulation the presence of harmonics, voltage unbalance, measurement noise, transients and frequency variation, which can degrade the performance of many synchronization methods. The solution is based on the Kalman filter. Experimental results using a DSP TMS320F2812 are presented

Rafael Cardoso; R. F. de Camargo; Humberto Pinheiro; H. A. Grundling

2006-01-01

427

Projector Method: theory and examples  

SciTech Connect

The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

Dahl, E.D.

1985-01-01

428

Semistochastic projector Monte Carlo method.  

PubMed

We introduce a semistochastic implementation of the power method to compute, for very large matrices, the dominant eigenvalue and expectation values involving the corresponding eigenvector. The method is semistochastic in that the matrix multiplication is partially implemented numerically exactly and partially stochastically with respect to expectation values only. Compared to a fully stochastic method, the semistochastic approach significantly reduces the computational time required to obtain the eigenvalue to a specified statistical uncertainty. This is demonstrated by the application of the semistochastic quantum Monte Carlo method to systems with a sign problem: the fermion Hubbard model and the carbon dimer. PMID:23368167

Petruzielo, F R; Holmes, A A; Changlani, Hitesh J; Nightingale, M P; Umrigar, C J

2012-12-01

429

Explicit, implicit, and hybrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time integration methods can be separated into two groups: explicit and implicit. Methods which do not involve the solution of any algebraic equations are called explicit, while those that require the solution of equations are called implicit. The relative advantages and disadvantages of explicit and implicit methods are summarized. The major trend in the past decade of research was to use hybrization methods to take advantage of the complementary nature of the positive attributes of explicit and implicit integration. These trends are briefly discussed.

Belytschko, T.

1989-01-01

430

Evaluation of Two New Smoothing Methods in Equating: The Cubic B-Spline Presmoothing Method and the Direct Presmoothing Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers two new smoothing methods in equipercentile equating, the cubic B-spline presmoothing method and the direct presmoothing method. Using a simulation study, these two methods are compared with established methods, the beta-4 method, the polynomial loglinear method, and the cubic spline postsmoothing method, under three sample…

Cui, Zhongmin; Kolen, Michael J.

2009-01-01

431

Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-09-21

432

Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

1982-11-02

433

Another Method of Generating Glint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The baseline method of computing angle glint offsets for the Distributed Sources Generation System is based on the concept of a glint centroid. In this memo, we derive an alternate method that is simpler to implement and somewhat more general. Let us assu...

R. L. Mitchell G. W. Lank

1977-01-01

434

THE {gamma}SF METHOD  

SciTech Connect

The {gamma}-ray strength function ({gamma}SF) interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission as a common ingredient in the statistical model. Outlined here is an indirect method of determining radiative neutron-capture cross sections for unstable nuclei based on the {gamma}-ray strength function. Application examples of the {gamma}SF method are demonstrated.

Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Okamoto, A. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Goriely, S. [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP-226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Harada, H.; Kitatani, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Goko, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Lui, Y.-W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hilaire, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Koning, A. J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2011-10-28

435

Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations  

DOEpatents

An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

Bostick, William D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Denton, Mark S. (Clinton, TN); Dinsmore, Stanley R. (Norris, TN)

1982-01-01

436

GROUND AND AIRBORNE ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. SUMMARY Electromagnetic (EM) methods are used to map variations in electrical properties. The main physical property involved in these methods is inductive electrical conductivity, which is a measure of how easily electrical current can pass through a material. Conductivity is a complex function of several variables including the conductivity of solid materials, conductivity of pore fluids, porosity, arrangement of

437

Fluid recovery system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid recovery method is described for use in open water such as rivers, harbors, ports, lakes, and the like. The method is concerned with recovering fluids, whose specific gravity is lower than that of water, which are escaping from flow lines submerged in open water. This process consists of locating the leak in the submerged flow line, then centering,

Logan

1968-01-01

438

Fluid recovery system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for recovering fluid leaking from a crack or other opening in a flow line or the like beneath a body of water having a current flow with the fluid having a specific gravity lower than that of water and substantially immiscible with the water. The steps of the method include locating the crack in the flow

Logan

1970-01-01

439

A quadratically convergent VBSCF method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quadratically convergent valence bond self-consistent field method is described where the simultaneous optimisation of orbitals and the coefficients of the configurations (VB structures) is based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in actual calculations. The convergence and efficiency are compared with the Super-CI method. A necessary condition to achieve convergence in the Newton-Raphson method is that the Hessian is positive definite. When this is not the case, a combination of the Super-CI and Newton-Raphson methods is shown to be an optimal choice instead of shifting the eigenvalues of the Hessian to make it positive definite. In the combined method, the first few iterations are performed with the Super-CI method and then the Newton-Raphson scheme is switched on based on an internal indicator. This approach is found computationally a more economical choice than using either the Newton-Raphson or Super-CI method alone to perform a full optimisation of the nonorthogonal orbitals.

Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H.

2013-02-01

440

Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

2012-01-01

441

A Legendre Pseudospectral Viscosity Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the Legendre spectral viscosity method to solve nonlinear conservation laws. This method essentially consists in adding a spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wavenumbers of the numerical solution. This viscosity is sufficient to stabilize the numerical scheme while small enough to retain spectral accuracy. Several tests are considered including the 1D and 2D Euler equations of

S. M. Ould Kaber

1996-01-01

442

Method for Treating Renal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for preventing and treating a renal disorder in a human or non-human animal is disclosed. The method involves administering 20-HETE or a 20-HETE agonist to the human or non-human animal in an amount sufficient to prevent or treat the renal disord...

A. J. Dahly-Vernon M. Sharma R. J. Roman

2005-01-01

443

HISTOCHEMICAL METHODS APPLIED TO HEMATOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

morphologic basis for the understanding of the chemical and functional activities of cells. It attempts to develop histologic staining methods which will have chem- ical significance and which will characterize and differentiate various kinds of cell- ular lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes and inorganic substances. In addition to the use of staining methods, the chemical and physical milieu of cells can

JACK J. RHEINGOLD; GEORGE B. WISL

444

GLIMM'S METHOD FOR GAS DYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate Glimm's method, a method for constructing approximate solutions to systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in one space variable by sampling explicit wave solutions. It is extended to several space variables by operator splitting. We consider two functional problems. 1) We propose a highly accurate form of the sampling procedure, in one space variable, based on the van der Corput sampling sequence. We test the improved sampling procedure numerically in the case of inviscid compressible flow in one space dimension and find that it gives high resolution results both in the smooth parts of the solution, as well as the discontinuities. 2) We investigate the operator splitting procedure by means of which the multidimensional method is constructed. An 0(1) error stemming from the use of this procedure near shocks oblique to the spatial grid is analyzed numerically in the case of the equations for inviscid compressible flow in two space dimensions. We present a hybrid method which eliminates this error, consisting of Glimm's method, used in continuous parts of the flow, and the nonlinear Godunov's method, used in regions where large pressure jumps are generated. The resulting method is seen to be a substantial improvement over either of the component methods for multidimensional calculations.

Colella, Phillip

1980-07-01

445

Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

Terrell, Steven R.

2012-01-01

446

Direct methods for recovering motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed direct methods for recovering the motion of an observer in a static environment in th e case of pure rotation, pure translation, and arbitrary motion when the rotation is known . Some of thes e methods are based on the minimization of the difference between the observed time derivative of bright - ness and that predicted from

Berthold K. P. Horn; E. J. WELDON JR

1988-01-01

447

Chain-Ring Coding Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article considers a coding method on the basis of a binary code, with which correcting properties are obtained without using a large number of supplementary digits. The method is based on the formation of a chain-ring group sequence possessing the fol...

I. A. Nabiev M. S. Granovskii

1968-01-01

448

Filter desulfation system and method  

SciTech Connect

A method of removing sulfur from a filter system of an engine includes continuously passing an exhaust flow through a desulfation leg of the filter system during desulfation. The method also includes sensing at least one characteristic of the exhaust flow and modifying a flow rate of the exhaust flow during desulfation in response to the sensing.

Lowe, Michael D. (Metamora, IL); Robel, Wade J. (Normale, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

2010-08-10

449

Method for Valve Height Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research report concerns a method (developed earlier) to determine the position of a valve in a single action piston pump. The method uses a transducer with three magnetoresistive sensors (which detect magnetic field variations) and a valve with a bui...

F. Couweleers

1988-01-01

450

Fingerprint Verification Using Perturbation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new, powerful technique of fin- gerprint verification based on a perturbation method. The proposed method consists of four parts. The first part performs local FFT band-pass filtering to enhance the cyclic ridge structure in respective local areas. The second part is optimal block-wise shift for preliminary matching. Then, the third part is application of GAT cor-

Satoshi Otaka; Yoshihisa Nishiyama; Takahiro Hatano; Toru Wakahara

2007-01-01

451

The Mapmark Standard Setting Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…

Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

2005-01-01

452

3 Methods for Measuring Volume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on lesson plan allows students to investigate three methods for measuring volume. Students will learn to measure volume for liquids, regular-sized solids, and irregular sized objects. During the lesson students are exposed to demonstrations from the teacher and will participate in hands-on investigations utilizing three methods for measuring volume that they conduct and report to the class.

Tarver, Christine

2011-02-22

453

Computational methods for multiphase flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance equations of multiphase flows are classified and techniques are reviewed for rendering these partial differential into partially or completely discretized equations. Numerical methods are presented for integrating the partially, and for solving the completely discretized, equations. The issues of computing accuracy and economy are discussed. Numerical methods used in major computer codes for multiphase flow analyses are reviewed,

Wulff

1987-01-01

454

The method of finite spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present some of our recent developments in meshless methods. In particular, a technique is given - the method of finite spheres - that is truly meshless in nature in the sense that the nodes are placed and the numerical integration is performed without a mesh. The method can be viewed as a special case of the general formulation known as the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) procedure. Some of the novel features of the method of finite spheres are the numerical integration scheme and the way in which the Dirichlet boundary conditions are incorporated. A new way of modeling doubly-connected domains is also presented. Various example problems are solved to demonstrate the method.

De, S.; Bathe, K. J.

455

Methods for computing color anaglyphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

2010-02-01

456

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 15, METHOD 605--BENZIDINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Seventeen laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study conducted to provide precision and accuracy statements for the proposed EPA Method 605 for measuring concentrations of the Category 7 chemicals benzidine and 3,3'dichlorobenzidine (DCB) in municipal and industrial aq...

457

Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

Seddik Saad, Al-Hussien

2011-10-01

458

An enhanced splined saddle method.  

PubMed

We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)]. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C(60) fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time. PMID:21744889

Ghasemi, S Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan

2011-07-01

459

New Methods of Celestial Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edited by Daniel Goroff, Harvard University This English-language edition of Poincare's landmark work is of interest not only to historians of science, but also to mathematicians. Beginning from an investigation of the three-body problem of Newtonian mechanics, Poincare lays the foundations of the qualitative solutions of differential equations. To investigate the long-unsolved problem of the stability of the Solar System, Poincare invented a number of new techniques including canonical transformations, asymptotic series expansions, and integral invariants. These "new methods" are even now finding applications in chaos and other contemporary disciplines. Contents: Volume I: Periodic and asymptotic solutions: Introduction by Daniel Goroff. Generalities and the Jacobi method. Series integration. Periodic solutions. Characteristic exponents. Nonexistence of uniform integrals. Approximate development of the perturbative function. Asymptotic solutions. Volume II: Approximations by series: Formal calculus. Methods of Newcomb and Lindstedt. Application to the study of secular variations. Application to the three-body problem. Application to orbits. Divergence of the Lindstedt series. Direct calculation of the series. Other methods of direct calculation. Gylden methods. Case of linear equations. Bohlin methods. Bohlin series. Extension of the Bohlin method. Volume III: Integral invariants and asymptotic properties of certain solutions: Integral invariants. Formation of invariants. Use of integral invariants. Integral invariants and asymptotic solutions. Poisson stability. Theory of consequents. Periodic solutions of the second kind. Different forms of the principle of least action.

Poincare, Henri; Goroff, David

460

Multidimensional methods for hyperbolic problems  

SciTech Connect

The numerical solution of multidimensional wave-propagation problems is considerably more complex than solutions for one-dimensional problems, but improving a method`s accuracy produces more significant increases in efficiency. This is particularly true for first-order accurate methods. Higher-order methods, which are already comparatively efficient, are especially difficult to construct on irregular meshes. The passive-scalar advection equation provides an ideal vehicle for investigating the relationships between accuracy, efficiency, and physical acceptability for a variety of finite-difference schemes. Development and analysis of methods for this equation provide insight into solving more complicated problems involving material and/or neutron transport. We found that three approaches to two-dimensional upwind differencing led to schemes equivalent to the dimensionally split Lax-Wendroff method. Assuming stability, we were able to prove that both the split-Lax-Wendroff and a new two-dimensional, predictor-corrector scheme yielded second-order convergence on nonuniform tensor-product grids, despite first-order discretization errors for such grids. We were able to prove that in some cases, Roe`s upwinding for triangulations (which is locally inconsistent) converges with first-order accuracy. The sensitivity of fourth-order accurate, conservative, mimetic methods to the roughness of nonuniform grid-spacing was explored analytically and numerically in one-dimension and for logically-rectangular two-dimensional grids. We also considered the application of a novel set of unknowns towards conservative second-order methods on irregular polyhedral grids. Queried, we noted that convergent, stable, split schemes for ill-posed problems could not exist. This prompted us to reconsider conditions implying that splitting is stable for the differential operators and for related difference methods.

Hyman, J.; Shashikov, M.; Swartz, B.; Wendroff, B.

1996-04-01

461

The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

van de Water, Manon

1994-01-01

462

The FEM-2 design method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FEM-2 parallel computer is designed using methods differing from those ordinarily employed in parallel computer design. The major distinguishing aspects are: (1) a top-down rather than bottom-up design process; (2) the design considers the entire system structure in terms of layers of virtual machines; and (3) each layer of virtual machine is defined formally during the design process. The result is a complete hardware/software system design. The basic design method is discussed and the advantages of the method are considered. A status report on the FEM-2 design is included.

Pratt, T. W.; Adams, L. M.; Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.; Voigt, R. G.; Patrick, M.

1983-01-01

463

A method of phenomenological interviewing.  

PubMed

In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews. PMID:24413767

Bevan, Mark T

2014-01-01

464

Manufacturing method of photonic crystal  

SciTech Connect

A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

2013-01-29

465

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, M.W.

1990-06-19

466

Population Set based Optimization Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an population set based optimization method is proposed for solving some benchmark functions and also to solve optimal power flow problem like `combined economic and emission dispatch problem (CEED)' with multiple objective functions. This algorithm has taken into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints. The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss. The proposed algorithms have been compared with the other methods like GA, PSO etc reported in the literature. The results are impressive and encouraging. The study results show that the proposed method holds better solutions in CEED problems.

Manekar, Y.; Verma, H. K.

2013-09-01

467

Global properties of pseudospectral methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present application of polynomial interpolation methods to function-approximation and numerical solutions for hyperbolic and elliptic PDEs allows the explicit construction of the derivative matrix for a general sequence of collocation points. An evaluation of the effect of several factors on the performance of these methods indicates an inability to interpret global methods in terms of local ones; the accuracy of the approximation will differ when the function's large gradients occur near the center of the region or near the boundary, irrespective of the boundary vicinity's collocation-point density.

Solomonoff, A.; Turkel, E.

1989-01-01

468

Network operating system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for a network operating system includes a complex data medium that enables the continuous reconciliation of the collaborative information process and product. The system and related methods generally increases productivity by enabling a network dynamic among knowledge workers. In another aspect, system and related method may unify e-mail and shared filed management, synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, serial and parallel work flow, top-down and bottom-up collaboration, and information lifecycle management, for examples. Moreover, a managed exclusion may be applied and/or released to control access sharing.

2011-07-19

469

Security control methods for CEDR  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to summarize the findings of recent studies on the security problem in statistical databases and examine their applicability to the specific needs of CEDR. The document is organized as follows: In Section 2 we describe some general control methods which are available on most commercial database software. In Section 3 we provide a classification of statistical security methods. In Section 4 we analyze the type of users of CEDR and the security control methods which may be applied to each type. In Section 5 we summarize the findings of this study and recommend possible solutions.

Rotem, D.

1990-09-01

470

Phosphorylated pyrone analogs and methods  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to phosphorylated polyphenols, phosphorylated flavonoids, and phosphorylated pyrone analogs. Methods and compositions for the modulation of side effects of substances using such phosphorylated compounds are described. Methods and compositions are described for the modulation of blood-tissue barrier (BTB) transporter activity to increase the efflux of drugs and other compounds out of a physiological compartment and into an external environment. In particular, the methods and compositions disclosed herein provide lowered side effects when phosphorylated pyrone analogs are coadministered with therapeutic agents.

2011-05-24

471

Standardized Methods for Electronic Shearography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research was conducted in development of operating procedures and standard methods to evaluate fiber reinforced composite materials, bonded or sprayed insulation, coatings, and laminated structures with MSFC electronic shearography systems. Optimal operating procedures were developed for the Pratt and Whitney Electronic Holography/Shearography Inspection System (EH/SIS) operating in shearography mode, as well as the Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) SC-4000 and Ettemeyer SHS-94 ISTRA shearography systems. Operating practices for exciting the components being inspected were studied, including optimal methods for transient heating with heat lamps and other methods as appropriate to enhance inspection capability.

Lansing, Matthew D.

1997-01-01

472

Efficient method for paired comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a more efficient paired comparison method that reduces the number of trials necessary for converting a table of paired comparisons into scaler data. Instead of comparing every pair of samples (the complete method), a partial method is used that makes more comparisons between closer samples than between more distant samples. A sorting algorithm is used to efficiently order the samples with paired comparisons, and each comparison is recorded. When the sorting is completed, more trials will have been conducted between closer samples than between distant samples. Regression is used to scale the resulting comparison matrix into a 1D perceptual quality estimate.

Silverstein, D. Amnon; Farrell, Joyce E.

2001-04-01

473

Method of monolithic module assembly  

DOEpatents

Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

474

Computational Methods Development at Ames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

475

Cooperating Formal Methods Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formal methods research has developed a variety of mathematical tools and techniques applicable to the development of software systems, but they are greatly underused. The reasons include the limited mathematical backgrounds of many end-users and develope...

D. Guaspari

1996-01-01

476

Appropriate Teaching and Learning Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults making the transition from full time education to employment will be challenged by jobs requiring considerable or limited skills which require training. Vocational education programs should adapt instructional methods to meet students' vocational needs. (ABM)

Robinson, Eric

1976-01-01

477

Method of Obtaining Contact Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of obtaining contact composition on basis of epoxy resin and ferromagnetic metallic filler are noted for hardening metal-filled epoxy composition in magnetic field. However, the obtained contact composition does not make it possible to carry out a...

V. Y. Gul M. G. Golubyeva N.I. Siprikova L. Z. Shenfil F. A. Tarakanovskiy

1990-01-01

478

Method of Joining Diamond Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to diamond materials and more particular to methods of bonding diamond pieces together. Diamond is the ideal material for a large number of applications. Diamond is highly transparent to infrared radiation (IR) and radar, has the hi...

L. T. Kabacoff J. Barkyoumb

1991-01-01

479

NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)

1990-01-01

480

Geometrical Methods of Space Geodesy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fundemental principles and geometrical origins of the development of coordinated geodetic grids and the methods of coordinate tie-in of fixed and moving objects from observations of artificial earth satellites are discussed. The topics discussed inclu...

A. P. Tishchenko

1972-01-01

481

Improvements of image fusion methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

2014-03-01

482

Methods of delivering pharmaceutical agents  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided are methods of delivering at least one pharmaceutical agent to the central nervous system (CNS) of a subject, methods of treating a neurological disorder or pain in a subject that include administering at least one pharmaceutical agent onto a SEM graft in the skull base of the subject. Also provided are methods of treating a neurological disorder or pain in a subject that include forming a SEM graft in the skull base of the subject and administering at least one pharmaceutical agent onto the SEM graft in the skull base of the subject. Also provided are methods of forming a SEM graft in the skull base of a subject, compositions for administration onto a SEM graft in the skull base or into an endonasal reservoir or endonasal reservoir device in a subject, and devices for administering such compositions onto a SEM graft in the skull base of a subject.

2014-03-18

483

A contribution Monte Carlo method  

SciTech Connect

A Contribution Monte Carlo method is developed and successfully applied to a sample deep-penetration shielding problem. The random walk is simulated in most of its parts as in conventional Monte Carlo methods. The probability density functions (pdf's) are expressed in terms of spherical harmonics and are continuous functions in direction cosine and azimuthal angle variables as well as in position coordinates; the energy is discretized in the multigroup approximation. The transport pdf is an unusual exponential kernel strongly dependent on the incident and emergent directions and energies and on the position of the collision site. The method produces the same results obtained with the deterministic method with a very small standard deviation, with as little as 1,000 Contribution particles in both analog and nonabsorption biasing modes and with only a few minutes CPU time.

Aboughantous, C.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Nuclear Science Center)

1994-11-01

484

Method of Etching Zirconium Diboride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention described herein may be manufactured, used, and licensed by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to us of any royalty thereon. This invention relates in general to a method of etching zirconium diboride, zircon...

L. S. Heath B. Kwiatkowski

1988-01-01

485

Cholera and the Scientific Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

Cronin, Jim

1993-01-01

486

Data transmission system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.

Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)

2010-01-01

487

Method of Installing Subsurface Barrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are use...

J. G. Richardson K. M. Kostelnik P. A. Sloan R. A. Nickelson

2005-01-01

488

Comparison of Hartmann analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensors for the eye is traditionally performed by locating and centroiding the sensor spots. These centroids provide the gradient, which is integrated to yield the ocular aberration. Fourier methods can replace the centroid stage, and Fourier integration can replace the direct integration. The two—demodulation and integration—can be combined to directly retrieve the wavefront, all in the Fourier domain. Now we applied this full Fourier analysis to circular apertures and real images. We performed a comparison between it and previous methods of convolution, interpolation, and Fourier demodulation. We also compared it with a centroid method, which yields the Zernike coefficients of the wavefront. The best performance was achieved for ocular pupils with a small boundary slope or far from the boundary and acceptable results for images missing part of the pupil. The other Fourier analysis methods had much higher tolerance to noncentrosymmetric apertures.

Canovas, Carmen; Ribak, Erez N.

2007-04-01

489

Methods for Treating Adhesive Capsulitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the discovery that collagenase injections are effective in lyse the collagenous adhesions in the shoulder and treat the disorder, adhesive capsulitis. As such, the invention relates to methods of treating or preventing adhesive ca...

M. A. Badalamente

2006-01-01

490

Nuclear Methods in Coal Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear methods, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA) provide useful information about elemental constituents in coal and fly ash, but often other techniques are required to supplement NAA data. Spark source mass spectrometry and atomic absorpti...

W. S. Lyon

1980-01-01

491

Method for Modifying Polyhydroxy Ethers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application provides a method for modifying polyhydroxy eithers, derived from epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A. It comprises mixing such an ether with a material selected from the group consisting of dianisidine diisocyanate, polymethylene polyp...

Dauksys

1972-01-01

492

Methods of Producing Human Interferon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work was concerned with methods of production of two types of human interferon: fibroblast (beta) and immune (gamma) interferon. In addition to the FS-35 cell strain that was selected earlier for fibroblast interferon production, the authors have init...

J. T. Vilcek Y. K. Yip R. H. L. Pang

1980-01-01

493

Spectral methods for discontinuous problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral methods yield high-order accuracy even when applied to problems with discontinuities, though not in the sense of pointwise accuracy. Two different procedures are presented which recover pointwise accurate approximations from the spectral calculations.

Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

1985-01-01

494

The combined Lagrangian advection method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and test a new hybrid numerical method for simulating layerwise-two-dimensional geophysical flows. The method radically extends the original Contour-Advective Semi-Lagrangian (CASL) algorithm [5] by combining three computational elements for the advection of general tracers (e.g. potential vorticity, water vapor, etc.): (1) a pseudo-spectral method for large scales, (2) Lagrangian contours for intermediate to small scales, and (3) Lagrangian particles for the representation of general forcing and dissipation. The pseudo-spectral method is both efficient and highly accurate at large scales, while contour advection is efficient and accurate at small scales, allowing one to simulate extremely fine-scale structure well below the basic grid scale used to represent the velocity field. The particles allow one to efficiently incorporate general forcing and dissipation.

Dritschel, David G.; Fontane, Jérôme

2010-08-01

495

Intranasal Scopolamine Preparation and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method and preparation for intranasal delivery of scopolamine provides a safe and effective treatment for motion sickness and other conditions requiring anticholinergic therapy. The preparation can be in the form of aqueous nasal drops, mist spray, ...

L. Putcha N. M. Cintron

1991-01-01

496

Method of modifying a surface  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

Renk, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM); Senft, Donna Cowell (Albuquerque, NM); Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G. (Columbus, OH); Thompson, Michael O. (Ithaca, NY); Grabowski, Kenneth S. (Alexandria, VA)

2000-01-01

497

Peptides and methods against diabetes  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

2000-01-01

498

Introduction to Renormalisation Group Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Homogeneity and its consequences; Kadanoff block scaling; Simple example of renormalization group concepts-percolation by decimation; Formal aspects of renormalization group theory; Particular methods of constructing renormalization group transf...

R. B. Stinchcombe

1983-01-01

499

New Cultivation Methods for Microbes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on continuous fermentation has produced a novel method for exploring and exploiting microbial cells. The new development, known as continuous phased growth, produces a continuous culture having most of the cells 'in synchrony', that is, doing the...

P. S. S. Dawson

1967-01-01

500

Coarsening Method for Linear Peridynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is obtained for deriving peridynamic material models for a sequence of increasingly coarsened descriptions of a body. The starting point is a known detailed, small scale linearized state-based description. Each successively coarsened model exclud...

S. A. Silling

2009-01-01