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1

Rorschach Test Correlates of Dreaming and Dream Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of frequency of dream recall for 47 Ss and of amount of dreaming for 18 Ss, as determined by the Dement-Kleitman method, were available as part of a larger investigation of the influence of personality factors on dream recall. Rorschach Test indices obtained from these Ss were intercorrelated among themselves and correlated with the appropriate dream variable in order

David E. Orlinsky

1966-01-01

2

Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing  

PubMed Central

Background The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls. Methods Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls. Results The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C) > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups. Conclusion The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder. PMID:23682214

Kimura, Hiromi; Osaki, Akemi; Kawashima, Rui; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Suzuki, Katsuji; Asakura, Satoshi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kitaichi, Yuji; Masui, Takuya; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Kako, Yuki; Abekawa, Tomohiro; Kusumi, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Hiroyoshi; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa

2013-01-01

3

Response Inhibition and the Rorschach ‘M’ Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicated that a relationship existed between production of the Rorschach M response and inhibition of motor activity. The present study investigated this relationship under conditions which approximated those involved in the normal process of impulse control. Volunteer college students were used as subjects. Ss who engaged in a response inhibition task subsequently produced significantly more M responses than

Joel Darby; Kees Hofman; Barry Melnick

1967-01-01

4

A Rorschach Test for Visual Classification Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contemporary models of pattern, detection and discrimination often employ template matching, but there have been few direct tests of this proposition. Adopting a method developed by Ahumada, we have analyzed how human observers discriminate between two letters of the alphabet ('c' and 'x'). The stimulus consisted of a one degree tall letter plus a four degree field of static white noise, both displayed for 16 frames at a 67 Hz frame rate. Our font and display dimensions approximated those of Solomon and Pelli. The observer identified the letter presented. A QUEST staircase varied letter contrast to maintain a 75% correct rate. For each trial, we preserved the information required to reconstruct the noise field. Possible trial categories based on (signal, response) pairs are: (c,c), (c,x), (x,c), (x,x). Noise fields were averaged separately for each category, and a final classification image was obtained by averaging the four mean images after inverting the sign of categories in which x was the response. If the observer employs a template, it should be revealed in the classification image. The lowpass-filtered classification image derived from 2048 responses of one observer is shown here, along with the corresponding ideal template. An approximation to the ideal template can be seen appropriately located within the classification image. We have also simulated and will discuss the classification images expected from various discrimination models in this experimental context. The construction of classification images appears to be a powerful tool for studying classification strategies used by human observers. Like a Rorschach test, it surreptitiously discovers the inner desires of the visual system.

Watson, Andrew B.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

5

One more datum on Rorschach form quality.  

PubMed

The central purpose of this work is to examine to what extent Form Quality (FQ) scoring of Rorschach responses, using Exner's (2003) Table A, is the reason for lower FQ to often be found in normative data outside the United States. The Rorschach protocols of 180 Portuguese boys and girls between 6 and 10 years of age were codified with respect to Form Quality in accordance with Exner's table of objects classified as ordinary, unusual, and minus, based on frequencies seen among U.S. adults and on an analogous Portuguese table (Table P) constructed from the protocols of 400 nonpatient children. Mean differences between the various FQ variables of the 2 tables were found to be insignificant. However, use of Janson's (2003) iota coefficient to evaluate agreement between the 2 approaches to scoring on the same protocols revealed that the more striking differences occurred in the FQu variable when agreement was assessed on the basis of each individual response. In view of these results, the authors recognize the possibility of Rorschach normative data to be universally applied, but still consider the possible advantage of each country or culture to build its own FQ table that will permit preservation of its particularities. PMID:21516590

Silva, Danilo R; Pires, Antonio A

2011-05-01

6

Under Skinner's skin: gauging a behaviorist from his Rorschach protocol.  

PubMed

Behaviorism and psychodynamic psychology have been regarded as polar opposites. Contrary to popular belief, B. F. Skinner took an interest in Freud and many of his concepts, and agreed to be tested with the Rorschach method and the Thematic Apperception Test by Roe in her study of scientists (Roe, 1953 ). We looked for signs of creativity defined as complex responses, an intriguing emotional tone, novelty, and liveliness. Skinner displayed an enormous number of responses characterized by simplicity, an intellectualized tone, a driven quality rather than creative complexity, and a sense of strained social relationships and lack of liveliness. The findings are in line with Roe's study of other scientists. Skinner's intellectual productivity and high ambition fits well with the commanding figure history describes. PMID:22731841

Grűnnerűd, Cato; Overskeid, Geir; Hartmann, Ellen

2013-01-01

7

Introducing a Bayesian Approach to Determining Degree of Fit With Existing Rorschach Norms.  

PubMed

This article offers a new methodological approach to investigate the degree of fit between an independent sample and 2 existing sets of norms. Specifically, with a new adaptation of a Bayesian method, we developed a user-friendly procedure to compare the mean values of a given sample to those of 2 different sets of Rorschach norms. To illustrate our technique, we used a small, U.S. community sample of 80 adults and tested whether it resembled more closely the standard Comprehensive System norms (CS 600; Exner, 2003), or a recently introduced, internationally based set of Rorschach norms (Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007 ). Strengths and limitations of this new statistical technique are discussed. PMID:25257792

Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; McCullaugh, Joseph

2014-09-25

8

Effects of instructions for visual imagery on Rorschach responses.  

PubMed

The Rorschach was administered to two groups of 12 subjects under two conditions. The first group was classified as imagery Reactors based upon their prior responsivity to imagery instructions during therapy. The second group was labelled Nonreactors using the same clinical criteria. The condition administered first utilized the standard Rorschach; in the second, subjects were asked to produce sequences of visual imagery using Rorschach cards as stimuli. Both groups received both Rorschach administrations. Responses were scored without knowledge of the two classifications of subjects. Instructions for imagery appeared to have a disinhibiting effect and led to significant changes in several major Rorschach scoring categories and in a specially derived index of the amount of clinically relevant conflictual and affective material manifested. There were a number of significant differences between Reactors and Nonreactors in Rorschach response levels under the imagery condition, among other changes. Reactors yielded significantly more complex and clinically revealing material under imagery than did Nonreactors. The findings were considered to be particularly useful for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions with certain types of patients. The results also suggest the possibility of differences in personality structure between imagery Reactors and Nonreactors which warrant further investigation. PMID:745921

Yanovski, A; Fogel, M L

1978-12-01

9

Obesity, Level of Aspiration, and Rorschach and TAT Measures of Oral Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese Israelis and controls were administered the Rorschach, TAT, and a level-of-aspiration task. The obese Ss scored higher on oral dependence than the control Ss on both the Rorschach (p = .01) and TAT (p = .02). There were no differences on either test for oral sadism, although the Rorschach subcategories of overwhelming figures and burdens and TAT themes of

Joseph Masling; Lillie Rabie; S. H. Blondheim

1967-01-01

10

The role of perceptual laws in the Rorschach test.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is twofold: to ascertain the perceptual deficits in schizophrenic subjects and to test the assumption that the Rorschach is mainly a perceptual task. Forty-eight subjects participated in the study, distributed in six groups of eight subjects each: normals, affective disorders, and four groups of schizophrenics (chronic paranoid, chronic nonparanoid, acute paranoid, and acute nonparanoid). They were given a perceptual test developed by Fernández-Trespalacios, Bermudez, and Luna (1979). Contrary to previous findings, no differences in the perceptual test were found among the groups. In the second part of the study, a group of schizophrenic subjects was given the Rorschach and the perceptual test in a balanced order. Subsequently, subjects in the experimental group were trained in the perceptual laws they had failed. Comparison of the Rorschach protocols obtained before and after this training failed to show any significant differences in the expected direction, thus questioning the perceptual nature of this test. Interestingly, an increase in negative categories of the Rorschach subsequent to the perceptual training was observed. PMID:3572712

Vizcarro-Guarch, C; Fernández-Ballesteros, R; Fernández-Trespalacios, J L

1987-01-01

11

Rorschach Concept Evaluation Test as a diagnostic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the CET as a diagnostic tool independent of the Rorschach was evaluated by comparing the clinical scores J. V, E, and R received by [63] schizophrenics, [34] neurotics, and [27] sociopathic personality disorders. No difference between the neurotics and the sociopathic group was found. Only the V score significantly differentiated between the schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic groups  Acute

L. C. Johnson

1958-01-01

12

Rorschach Depression indices with children and adolescents: concurrent validity findings.  

PubMed

Exner (1983, 1986) developed and recently revised (1990b) a Rorschach Depression Index based on scores from variables in the Comprehensive System. This study evaluated both the original and the revised DEPIs for child and adolescent outpatient (n = 67) and inpatient (n = 99) samples in order to assess the diagnostic utility of these indices. There were no significant relationships between the original form and the revised form of the DEPI and clinical elevations on the Depression scale of the Personality Inventory for Children in the outpatient sample or treatment team diagnostic judgments in the inpatient sample. These findings sound a strong cautionary note for using only Rorschach Depression indices to diagnose depression in children and adolescents. PMID:1757872

Ball, J D; Archer, R P; Gordon, R A; French, J

1991-12-01

13

Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Reference Data for Israeli Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974, 2003) data for a sample of 100 Israeli nonpatient adolescents divided into 2 age-based groups: 11–14 (n = 42) and 15–18 (n = 58). The data are compared to those derived from the international project of Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). The results suggest that contemporary Israeli adolescents demonstrate age-appropriate inclination

Shira Tibon Czopp; Lily Rothschild-Yakar; Liat Appel

2012-01-01

14

The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

2007-01-01

15

On the validity of hypotheses derived from the Rorschach: 1. The relationship between color and affect.  

PubMed

Interpretation of response to color on the Rorschach rests on Rorschach's assertion that color has affective connotations. His assumption was based on the connection of color and affect in culture and as regards the differential response to color by patients he tested. This review focused on research which could lend support to Rorschach's empirically derived notion. Ignoring clinical studies of psychiatric patients (in the absence of any theory of affects unique to specific psychiatric groups), this review focuses primarily on psychological tests of the hypothesis. Affect does seem to be associated with colors but not so specifically as to be useful in interpreting the meaning of the response by any one person. Moreover, affect was seen to affect the many dimensions of the Rorschach stimuli. Interpretation of the response to color must take into account the unsystematic way in which factors influence response to color on the Rorschach, e.g. saturation, context, area covered, etc, vary from card to card. These factors alone influence the response to color and make it impossible to draw conclusions using the plates as constructed. The interpretation of affect from response to color on the Rorschach was seriously questioned. PMID:980638

Frank, G

1976-10-01

16

An investigation of the relationship between personality traits and differential salience of Rorschach dimensions  

E-print Network

were given. Subjects were given the opportunity to clarify instructions. All participants were requested to read each statement care- fully before responding, and to take as much time as needed to complete the inventory. 18 RESULTS... qualities of the inkblots evidencing particular prominence are of importance. The investigations cited above, however, specify the particular characteristic to which sub- jects should attend. Studies allowing subjects to use any aspects of the stimuli...

Osterholm, Karen Patricia Cochran

2012-06-07

17

Personality dimensions reflected by the Rorschach and the 16PF.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships between Rorschach variables and the 16PF in a sample of 62 university students. Good form level was associated with ego strength, and Popular responses were associated inversely with a scale of rebelliousness. The results did not support some hypotheses, for example, that the Difference score, inanimate movement, and diffuse shading would correlate with 16PF indicators of good coping. On the contrary, the Difference score was associated with a scale that suggests anxiety. Further examination revealed that EA, M, and M+ also were associated with 16PF scales of guilt and anxiety. FC+, T, and to a lesser extent S, were associated with indications of good, relatively anxiety-free functioning. PMID:1939719

Greenwald, D F

1991-09-01

18

Concepts of Development and the Rorschach: The Contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner in Historical Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rorschach Test has been approached from 3 fundamentally different developmental perspectives: those growing out of the empiricist tradition, psychoanalysis, and the developmental psychologies of Piaget and Werner. In this article, I highlight the distinctive characteristics of each perspective, explore how they have shaped approaches to Rorschach theory and practice, and examine the contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner

Martin Leichtman

2009-01-01

19

Failure of Rorschach-Comprehensive-System-Based Testimony to Be Admissible Under the  

E-print Network

for the Rorschach (RCS) is currently the subject of intense scientific criticism. The normative data for many RCS is inadequate for many RCS scores, and validity for the great majority of RCS scores has not been adequately, and G. Pettigrew (2002) as supportive of the RCS, are unavailable for examination. Finally, B. Ritzler

Grove, William M.

20

Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory, MMPI, and Rorschach in Assessing Adolescent Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale (MMPI-D), and the Rorschach Depression Index in measuring adolescent depression. Retroactive charts of 118 hospitalized adolescents were divided into depressed (n=66) and nondepressed (n=52) groups. Results indicated…

Carter, Cynthia L.; Dacey, Christine M.

1996-01-01

21

The Validity of Individual Rorschach Variables: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of the Comprehensive System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We systematically evaluated the peer-reviewed Rorschach validity literature for the 65 main variables in the popular Comprehensive System (CS). Across 53 meta-analyses examining variables against externally assessed criteria (e.g., observer ratings, psychiatric diagnosis), the mean validity was r = 0.27 (k = 770) as compared to r = 0.08 (k = 386)…

Mihura, Joni L.; Meyer, Gregory J.; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

2013-01-01

22

Meta-Analytic Methods, the Rorschach, and the MMPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to concerns described by H. N. Garb, J. M. Wood, M. T. Nezworski, W. M. Grove, and W. J. Stejskal (2001), the authors present the weighted and unweighted means and medians of the effect sizes obtained by J. B. Hiller, R. Rosenthal, R. F. Bornstein, D. T. R. Berry, and S. Brunell-Neuleib (1999). These indices of central tendency

Robert Rosenthal; Jordan B. Hiller; Robert F. Bornstein; David T. R. Berry; Sherrie Brunell-Neuleib

2001-01-01

23

Rorschach oral dependency in psychopaths, sexual homicide perpetrators, and nonviolent pedophiles.  

PubMed

Rorschach Oral Dependency scores (Masling, Rabie, & Blondheim, 1967) were compared among nonsexually offending psychopaths (NSOPs, n = 32), sexual homicide perpetrators (SHPs, n = 38), and non-violent pedophiles (NVPs, n = 39) as initially reported by Gacono, Meloy, and Bridges (2000). The aggressive special scores of Gacono and Meloy (1994; Gacono, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1998) were also scored and compared with ROD scores. Consistent with theory and predictions, NVPs were found to have significantly higher levels of oral dependency scores than NSOPs or SHPs. Additionally, there was a high degree of association between oral dependency and aggression in the SHP and NSOP groups. These Rorschach differences support the validity of the ROD as an implicit measure of dependency and add to the understanding of the dynamics that fuel sexually deviant violence. PMID:15211556

Huprich, Steven K; Gacono, Carl B; Schneider, Robert B; Bridges, Michael R

2004-01-01

24

A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.  

PubMed

We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context. PMID:23844937

Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

2013-01-01

25

The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with rorschach scores.  

PubMed

We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

2015-02-01

26

Normative Data from Rorschach (Exner) and MMPI Tests for Students Assessed in an Alberta Government Youth Assessment Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was intended to provide descriptive data of the students in the Medicine Hat Youth Assessment Center, (YAC) in terms of psychological variables obtained from the Rorschach and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The adolescent subjects were 55 males assessed by the MMPI and 63 males and females assessed by the…

Anderson, Laurence E.

27

Should I stay or should I go? Personality Assessment Inventory and Rorschach indices of early withdrawal from psychotherapy.  

PubMed

The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Rorschach were used to investigate differences between patients who withdrew early from university-based outpatient psychodynamic psychotherapy and those who continued in treatment. The study employs two sets of analyses, one utilizing the complete sample (N = 101) and a second comprised of comparison pairs matched on the specific therapist delivering treatment (n = 36 for Rorschach; n = 38 for PAI). It was hypothesized that early withdrawers would score higher on the PAI Treatment Rejection Scale (RXR) and the PAI Treatment Process Index (TPI) than treatment continuers. It was also hypothesized that early treatment withdrawers will have better overall interpersonal relationships, less need for closeness and intimacy, less available psychological resources and more current stimulus demands, and lower levels of psychological/cognitive disturbance as measured by the Rorschach. In addition, differences between the two groups on PAI treatment and clinical scales and subscales were examined. Results indicated that PAI RXR differentiated between the two groups (p< .05) in the expected direction. Limited differences between withdrawers and continuers were found on the Rorschach and other PAI scales. Potential explanations for the findings as well as a discussion of clinical applicability are presented. PMID:21198237

Charnas, Jocelyn W; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Zodan, Jennifer; Blais, Mark A

2010-12-01

28

A second look at the validity of widely used Rorschach indices: Comment on Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel (2013).  

PubMed

We comment on the meta-analysis by Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel (2013), which examined the validity of scores in Exner's Comprehensive System (CS) for the Rorschach. First, we agree there is compelling evidence that 4 categories of cognitive scores-the "Rorschach cognitive quartet"-are related to cognitive ability/impairment and thought disorder. We now feel comfortable endorsing the use of these scores in some applied and research settings. Second, we conducted new meta-analyses (k = 44) for the 4 noncognitive Rorschach scores with highest validity in the Mihura et al. findings. Unlike Mihura et al., we included unpublished dissertations (although we did not attempt to exhaustively unearth all unpublished studies), calculated correlations instead of semipartial correlations, and used the Rorschach International Norms for a larger proportion of comparisons. Our validity estimates for the Suicide Constellation and Weighted Sum of Color were similar to or even higher than those of Mihura et al., although we concluded that support for the Suicide Constellation is limited and that Weighted Sum of Color probably does not measure its intended target. Our validity estimates for Sum Shading and the Anatomy and X-ray score were much lower than those of Mihura et al. We conclude that their meta-analysis accurately reflects the published literature, but their exclusion of unpublished studies led to substantial overestimates of validity for some and perhaps many Rorschach scores. Therefore, the evidence is presently insufficient to justify using the CS to measure noncognitive characteristics such as emotionality, negative affect, and bodily preoccupations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25581287

Wood, James M; Garb, Howard N; Nezworski, M Teresa; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Duke, Misty C

2015-01-01

29

Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.  

PubMed

This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines. PMID:25297806

Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

2014-10-01

30

Dissociative trance disorder: clinical and Rorschach findings in ten persons reporting demon possession and treated by exorcism.  

PubMed

Although dissociative trance disorders, especially possession disorder, are probably more common than is usually though, precise clinical data are lacking. Ten persons undergoing exorcisms for devil trance possession state were studied with the Dissociative Disorders Diagnostic Schedule and the Rorschach test. These persons had many traits in common with dissociative identity disorder patients. They were overwhelmed by paranormal experiences. Despite claiming possession by a demon, most of them managed to maintain normal social functioning. Rorschach findings showed that these persons had a complex personality organization: Some of them displayed a tendency to oversimplify stimulus perception whereas others seemed more committed to psychological complexity. Most had severe impairment of reality testing, and 6 of the participants had an extratensive coping stile. In this group of persons reporting demon possession, dissociative trance disorder seems to be a distinct clinical manifestation of a dissociative continuum, sharing some features with dissociative identity disorder. PMID:8667145

Ferracuti, S; Sacco, R; Lazzari, R

1996-06-01

31

Self-Reported Attachment Patterns and Rorschach-Related Scores of Ego Boundary, Defensive Processes, and Thinking Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we addressed associations between self-reported attachment scales (anxiety and avoidance) and Rorschach (1921\\/1942) indexes indicating ego-boundary perception (barrier and penetration), use of projective identification, devaluation and splitting defenses, and Comprehensive System (Exner, 2005) scores that represent boundary blurring (incongruous and fabulized combinations). In this study, we extended the sample and findings described by Berant, Mikulincer, Shaver, and

Ety Berant; Yaarit Wald

2009-01-01

32

[Pathology of adaptation according to Sami-Ali and index of conformity to the Rorschach test in ulcerative rectocolitis].  

PubMed

According to Sami-Ali's theoretical model the psychosomatic personality is characterised by an adaptation pathology whose main elements are the repression of imaginative thought and conformity to socio-cultural standards. This study examines adaptation pathology using the Rorschach test. The Authors have formulated a conformity index by relating kinestheses (M) and banal perceptions (BAN). The study was carried out on a sample of 41 patients suffering from ulcerous rectocolitis comprising 24 males and 17 women with a mean age of 32 years. As expected in the hypothesis 97.6% of the sample showed M values below the norm, and 68.3% had Ban values higher than normal, whereas the conformity index was positive and tendentially positive in 65.9% of cases. These findings confirm Sami-Ali's theory. Subjects with ulcerous rectocolitis form part of the adaptation pathology which characterised the psychosomatic personality, with an inverse proportionality between imaginative activity (kinesthesia below normal) and conformism (banal perceptions above the norm). PMID:1297906

Porcelli, P; Zaka, S; Tarantino, S; Sisto, G

1992-01-01

33

Relationship between the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in psychotic patients: A validity study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) in the assessment of reality testing in patients with psychosis. We evaluated the relationship between the PTI criteria and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in 98 psychotic disorder affected patients. Thirty four were evaluated during the acute episode (AP) and 64 were chronically treated and stable (CP). The PANSS positive score resulted significantly higher in AP than in CP group, but no significant difference was found in the PTI score. The PTI positively correlated with the PANSS total score. The PTI1 and PTI2 criteria significantly correlated with the PANSS negative score, the PTI4 and PTI5 with the positive. The Rorschach variable X-% significantly correlated with the negative symptoms; the WSum6 with thought disorders; and the M- with delusions. PTI score, X-% and WSum6 predicted impaired judgment and insight. These results suggest that PTI is a valid instrument to assess impairment in reality testing, regardless of the patient?s current psychiatric presentation. The presence of conceptual disorganization, delusions, lack of judgment and insight don?t have effects on the PTI, supporting its strength as an assessment tool for psychotic disorders. PMID:25560479

Mario, Biagiarelli; Paolo, Roma; Anna, Comparelli; Maria Paola, Andraos; Ileana, Di Pomponio; Valentina, Corigliano; Martina, Curto; Grace Allison, Masters; Stefano, Ferracuti

2015-02-28

34

Rorschach animal responses and intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the number of responses given by the subject was taken into account, there was no over-all relationship between the number of animal responses and Wechsler-Bellevue verbal IQ for a psychiatric population. However, there was a small but statistically significant positive relationship between animal movement responses and IQ.

Robert Sommer

1957-01-01

35

On Teletrofono and Inkblots ? SCIImpact FactorH-Index  

E-print Network

) : ()(Lise Meitner; 18781968) ; () (Otto Hahn; 1879 ­1968) (bad fault)? [] : #12;[] http; 1874 ­1932); ()(Jumper) [] [] (Nuclear Fission) (UC Berkeley) [] (Lise Meitner; 18781968; ()) (Otto Hahn; 1879 ­1968;())(Fritz Strassmann; 1902 1980) 1938 Bellcore Bellcore Bellcore C++ ( Bellcore

Hung, Shih-Hao

36

Creativity and Regression on the Rorschach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the results of a study to further test and replicate previous studies partially supporting Kris's view that creativity is a regression in the service of the ego. For this sample of 42 female art and business college students, it was predicted that (1) highly creative Ss (measured by the Torrance Tests) produce more, and more…

Lazar, Billie S.

37

Methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting declines in population size is one of the highest priorities of the shorebird initiatives in Canada and the United States. The quantitative goal is 80% power to detect a 50% decline, occurring during no more than 20 years, with a significance level of 0.15, using a two-tailed test, and incorporating effects of potential bias into the estimator. The Arctic PRISM program was designed to achieve this goal for arctic-nesting shorebird populations. The survey methods are an application of double sampling. Rapid surveys were made on a large number of plots selected from throughout arctic Alaska and Canada using stratified random sampling. Intensive surveys were made on a subsample of the plots to obtain detection rates, which were used to calibrate results from rapidly surveyed plots. Surveys will be made of the entire arctic region, each lasting several years and producing an estimate of average population size during the survey period. Results from two or more survey periods will be used to estimate change, or trend, in population size.

Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria; Smith, Paul A.; Manning, Ann; Rausch, Jennie; Brown, Stephen

2012-01-01

38

[Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].  

PubMed

Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role. PMID:24946440

Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

2014-01-01

39

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

40

Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

2013-01-01

41

Nutritional Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Espańol Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

42

[Contraceptive methods].  

PubMed

The definitions, mode of action, use instructions, effectiveness, and advantages and disadvantages of the major contraceptive methods are described in general terms and in nontechnical language. Method failures and user failures are distinguished, and probabilities of pregnancy attributable to each are given. The longest section concerns the pill, with the mode of action and major and minor side effects discussed in slightly greater detail than for other methods. The section of the IUD mentions the newer devices and describes contraindications and possible complications of IUD use. The diaphragm, with a method failure rate estimated at 2-4/100 woman years and a user failure rate of 10-15/100 woman years, is discussed in the section with the pill and IUD. A section on "less effective methods" considers the condom, with 2-4 method failures and 6-13 user failures/100 woman years; contraceptive foam, with a slightly higher user failure rate, and periodic abstinence, including the calendar, temperature, and vaginal mucus methods, with method failure of 5-10 and user failure of 9-28/100 woman years. Finally, male and female sterilization techniques are briefly described. PMID:6907709

1980-05-01

43

[Contraceptive methods].  

PubMed

This brief article provides a review of the most common contraceptive methods. Contraceptive methods may be classified into primitive, traditional, and modern categories. Among primitive methods, coitus interruptus has a failure rate of 10-38%. It is not recommended by sexologists because of its possible physical and psychic secondary effects. Vaginal irrigation or washing immediately after intercourse are not effective because sperm arrive in the uterus seconds after ejaculation into the vagina. Prolonged lactation is not an effective method because of the impossibility of predicting the return of ovulation. Among traditional methods, the condom and diaphragm are relatively effective but not usually well accepted. Condoms are effective if the material is of high quality and they are properly positioned and removed before detumescence. The failure rate varies from 8-28%. Diaphragms are inserted into the vagina 2-4 hours or immediately before coitus and must remain in place for 6 hours after ejaculation. The correct size is determined by a physician. The proportion of failures is 20% for the diaphragm used alone and 10% when a spermicide is added. Local spermicides have the double objectives of mechanically blocking the cervix and chemically destroying sperm. They should be inserted deep into the vagina immediately before coitus and remain in place for 6 hours. They have a failure rate of 30% when used without other contraceptive methods. They are available in the form of creams, jellies, sprays, vaginal suppositories or tablets, and effervescent pills. Periodic continence methods require total sexual abstinence during the fertile periods of the menstrual cycle. The Ogino-Knaus method is based on a calendar estimation of the fertile days which normally occur between 19 and 12 days prior to the next menstrual period. The proportion of failures is over 14%. The method is without secondary effects but its acceptability is limited because of its interfrence with sexual expression and high failure rate. The basal temperature method requires sexual abstinence between the beginning of the cycle and the 3rd day after the periovulatory temperature rise. The method has a failure rate of 1-4% but is less widely used than the Ogino-Knaus calendar method because of its inconvenience, greater sexual restrictions, and difficulty of interpretation. Among modern methods, combined oral contraceptives (OCs) have the lowest failure rate, .1%. They function by interfering with the mechanism of ovulation. OC formulations vary by dose, hormones utilized, and form of administration. The physician must decide the appropriate formulation for each woman. IUDs have a failure rate of 3%. They are contraindicated for women with alterations of the genital organs, infections, abnormal uterine bleeding or pregnancy. Among permanent methods, vasectomy is a simple and quick operation which provides complete sterility for men about 8-10 weeks after operation. Tubal ligation by various surgical techniques is the most common form of contraceptive surgical sterilization for women. No currently used contraceptive method can be considered ideal. PMID:6914729

Creus, M E

1981-05-01

44

Ensemble Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been proposed to explain the characteristics and the successful application of ensembles to different application domains. For instance, Allwein, Schapire, and Singer interpreted the improved generalization capabilities of ensembles of learning machines in the framework of large margin classifiers [4,177], Kleinberg in the context of stochastic discrimination theory [112], and Breiman and Friedman in the light of the bias-variance analysis borrowed from classical statistics [21,70]. Empirical studies showed that both in classification and regression problems, ensembles improve on single learning machines, and moreover large experimental studies compared the effectiveness of different ensemble methods on benchmark data sets [10,11,49,188]. The interest in this research area is motivated also by the availability of very fast computers and networks of workstations at a relatively low cost that allow the implementation and the experimentation of complex ensemble methods using off-the-shelf computer platforms. However, as explained in Section 26.2 there are deeper reasons to use ensembles of learning machines, motivated by the intrinsic characteristics of the ensemble methods. The main aim of this chapter is to introduce ensemble methods and to provide an overview and a bibliography of the main areas of research, without pretending to be exhaustive or to explain the detailed characteristics of each ensemble method. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, the main theoretical and practical reasons for combining multiple learners are introduced. Section 26.3 depicts the main taxonomies on ensemble methods proposed in the literature. In Section 26.4 and 26.5, we present an overview of the main supervised ensemble methods reported in the literature, adopting a simple taxonomy, originally proposed in Ref. [201]. Applications of ensemble methods are only marginally considered, but a specific section on some relevant applications of ensemble methods in astronomy and astrophysics has been added (Section 26.6). The conclusion (Section 26.7) ends this pap

Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

2012-03-01

45

Eigenvalue Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eigenvalues, Enl, of the radial Schrödinger equation are approximated by ck(E=Enl)=0 (k=2, 3, ...?), where E is the energy and the ck are the power-series coefficients of f(r)=?(r)[rl+1w(r)] with ?(r) the wave function and w(r) a weight function. This is an extension of the method used to solve certain potentials exactly where ck(E=Enl)=0 terminates a power series.

Ginsburg, Charles A.

1982-03-01

46

Correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for processing complex radar data with a computer using correlation functions is reviewed. Parameters including data storage, data reduction, and real time operation are addressed. Since complex auto- and cross-correlation functions are calculated and stored, almost no information is lost. These also can be analyzed in terms of the full correlation analysis of the spaced-antenna-drifts technique. The proposed approach therefore appears to be very feasible to suit most Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar applications.

Rottger, J.

1983-01-01

47

Genotyping methods.  

PubMed

Genotyping allows for the identification of bacterial isolates to the strain level and provides basic information about the evolutionary biology, population biology, taxonomy, ecology, and genetics of bacteria. Depending on the underlying question and available resources, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains may be typed by anonymous fingerprinting techniques or electronically portable sequence-based typing methods such as multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing, or oligonucleotide microarray. Macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis is a genotyping method that is globally applicable to all bacteria and hence has been and still is the reference method for strain typing in bacteriology. Agarose-embedded chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a rare-cutting restriction endonuclease and the generated 20-70 fragments are then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The chapter provides a detailed step-by-step manual for SpeI genome fingerprinting of Pseudomonas chromosomes that has been optimized for SpeI fragment pattern analysis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24818895

Tümmler, Burkhard

2014-01-01

48

Gelcasting methods  

DOEpatents

A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kirby, Glen H. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Knoxville, TN); Nunn, Stephen D. (Knoxville, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

49

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

50

JacobiDavidson Methods 38 Davidson's method  

E-print Network

Chapter IX Jacobi­Davidson Methods 38 Davidson's method The method of Davidson [1975] is sometimes not much in common. The main idea behind Davidson's method is the following one. Suppose we have some \\Gamma `y: In view of the fast convergence of Shift­and­invert with Rayleigh quotients, Davidson

Vorst, Henk A.

51

An Improved Newton's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Newton's method to locate roots of an equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration formula. Develops an adaptive method overcoming limitations of the iteration method. Provides the algorithm and computer program of the adaptive Newton-Raphson method. (YP)

Mathews, John H.

1989-01-01

52

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods  

E-print Network

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods § to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary

Leistikow, Bruce N.

53

Designing ROW Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.

Freed, Alan D.

1996-01-01

54

Behavioral Methods of Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total sexual abstinence is the most effective method of birth control, but incomplete commitment can result in high rates\\u000a of unintended pregnancies. Periodic abstinence and fertility awareness methods rely on menstrual calendars, CycleBeads, BBT,\\u000a the Billings method, or the symptothermal method to detect at-risk fertile days. Coitus interruptus has failure rates similar to the female barrier methods. LAM is very

Jennefer A. Russo; Anita L. Nelson

55

Lesson 5: Newton's method Newton's method  

E-print Network

things are working well). The formula for Newton's method is I defined a function newt to do one iteration of Newton's method: newt := x -> evalf(x - f(x)/D(f)(x)); This was my function f f:= x -> sin the iterations. for count from 0 to 6 do x[count + 1] := newt(x[count]) end do; Some things to notice about

Israel, Robert

56

Radiochemical method development  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1994-09-01

57

Proven Weight Loss Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... still feel full. FACT SHEET Proven Weight loss Methods the diabetes prevention program (dpp) In this large ... 2 diabetes. www.hormone.org proven Weight loss methods fact sheet What other strategies can help you ...

58

Electromagnetic induction methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

59

MSW PREREQUISITES: RESEARCH METHODS  

E-print Network

MSW PREREQUISITES: STATISTICS RESEARCH METHODS ALL PREREQUISITE COURSES: Are at an undergraduate-square Graph data What counts as a RESEARCH METHODS course? Derived from one of the social science disciplines

Barthelat, Francois

60

Lethality of suicide methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To (a) quantify the lethality of suicide methods used in Australia in the period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 2003, (b) examine method-specific case fatality by age and sex, and (c) identify changes in case fatality during the study period. Methods: Two sources of data on episodes of self-harm in Australia were used, mortality and hospital separation data.

A A Elnour; J Harrison

2008-01-01

61

Wavelet frequency decomposition method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wavelet variation of the frequency decomposition multigrid method of Hackbusch is presented. The perfect reconstruction property of the wavelet system enable us to perform the convergence analysis of the frequency decomposition method. Some applications of this method are also presented.

Rieder, Andreas; Wells, Raymond O., Jr.; Zhou, Xiaodong

1994-03-01

62

Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods  

E-print Network

Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods in Computer Science (Serge Demeyer -- University of Antwerp) Lab on Reengineering http://lore.ua.ac.be/ Zurich Kunsthaus Antwerp Middelheim Research Methods Introduction · Origins of Computer Science · Research Philosophy Research Methods · Feasibility study · Pilot

Nierstrasz, Oscar

63

Space methods in oceanology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

Bolshakov, A. A.

1985-01-01

64

Methods in human cytogenetics  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

65

Principles and Methods Chromatography  

E-print Network

Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

Lebendiker, Mario

66

Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-04

67

Topics in spectral methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After detailing the construction of spectral approximations to time-dependent mixed initial boundary value problems, a study is conducted of differential equations of the form 'partial derivative of u/partial derivative of t = Lu + f', where for each t, u(t) belongs to a Hilbert space such that u satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that L is an unbounded, time-independent linear operator. Attention is given to Fourier methods of both Galerkin and pseudospectral method types, the Galerkin method, the pseudospectral Chebyshev and Legendre methods, the error equation, hyperbolic partial differentiation equations, and time discretization and iterative methods.

Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

1985-01-01

68

On Everhart Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the Everhart numerical integration method, a well-known method in astronomical research. This method, a single-step one, is widely used for numerical integration of motion equation of celestial bodies. For an integration step, this method uses unequally-spaced substeps, defined by the roots of the so-called generating polynomial of Everhart's method. For this polynomial, this paper proposes and proves new recurrence formulae. The Maple computer algebra system was used to find and prove these formulae. Again, Maple seems to be well suited and easy to use in mathematical research.

Pârv, Bazil

69

Halftone screen encoding methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halftone screen encoding method provides a means for seamlessly tiling a digital halftone screen to cover the whole image plane. The encoding method has a major effect on the performance of the digital halftoning. Three encoding methods - Holladay algorithm, PostScript Type 10 halftone dictionary, and single-square encoding - are reviewed. We derive the relationships and develop conversion mechanisms between them. Finally, we compare these encoding methods with respect to the implementation complexity and memory cost. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed.

Kang, Henry R.

2001-12-01

70

[Kangaroo method and care].  

PubMed

The kangaroo-mother method was initiated by colombian pediatricians in 1979. The method is based on a permanent skin to skin contact of low birth weight infants with their mother. It has spread out in many developing countries as an alternative cheap method for the care of low birth weight infants with several advantages: temperature regulation, prolonged breast-feeding, promotion of mother-infant interaction, decreased mortality. The kangaroo method has been adapted in European countries as kangaroo care that consists in daily mother-infant skin to skin contact during few hours. Introducing the incubator in the mother's room is an other derivative of the method which allows prolonged early contact of the mother with her infant. A major interest of these methods is that they favour parent-infant interaction; however this requires qualified and devoted staffs. PMID:9033793

Vaivre-Douret, L; Papiernik, E; Relier, J P

1996-12-01

71

Spectral methods for CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1989-01-01

72

WASHER METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of demos that can be used to illustrate the washer method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the washer method. Two formats, animated gif and mov, are provided for the method of washers examples.

Roberts, Lila F.

2002-04-23

73

Rossi Alpha Method  

SciTech Connect

The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-..alpha.. is no longer an ..alpha..-eigenvalue.

Hansen, G.E.

1985-01-01

74

The Schwinger Variational Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

Huo, Winifred M.

1995-01-01

75

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA  

PubMed Central

This is an analytical study of the Diagnostic methods Prescribes in Ayurveda. As in the case of disease and treatments the concept of diagnosis also is unique in Ayurveda. It goes to the Nidana of Doshicimbalance by studying the physical, physiological, psychic and behavoural aspects of the patient. The paper gives an insight into the various diagnostic methods enunciated in Sastras which turns out to be a fore-runner of any of modern diagnostic methods. PMID:22556480

Thakar, V. J.

1982-01-01

76

COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

E-print Network

COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS By Rebecca DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS By Rebecca Burgett. Ashli Brown Title of Study: COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN

Ray, David

77

Signature Generation method, Agent Signature Verification method.  

E-print Network

Abstract—This paper presents a novel method that allows an agent host to delegate its signing power to an anonymous mobile agent in such away that the mobile agent does not reveal any information about its host’s identity and, at the same time, can be authenticated by the service host, hence, ensuring fairness of service provision. The solution introduces a verification server to verify the signature generated by the mobile agent in such a way that even if colluding with the service host, both parties will not get more information than what they already have. The solution incorporates

Omaima Bamasak

78

Medical informatics: reasoning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of medical informatics has been characterized by the development of a wide range of reasoning methods. These reasoning methods are based on organizing principles that make use of the various relations existing in medical domains: associations, probabilities, causality, functional relationships, temporal relations, locality, similarity, and clinical practice. Some, such as those based on associations and probabilities have been

William J. Long

2001-01-01

79

Methods of beam cooling  

SciTech Connect

Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

Sessler, A.M.

1996-02-01

80

The Monte Carlo Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We shall present here the motivation and a general description of a method dealing with a class of problems in mathematical physics. The method is, essentially, a statistical approach to the study of differential equations, or more generally, of integro-differential equations that occur in various branches of the natural sciences.

S. Ulam

1949-01-01

81

Speechreading Using Probabilistic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust method for locating and tracking lips in gray-level image sequences is described. The method learns patterns of shape variability from a training set which constrains the model during image search to only deform in ways similar to the training examples. Image search is guided by a learned gray-level model which is used to describe the large appearance variability

Jürgen Lüttin; Neil A. Thacker

1997-01-01

82

Faster, cheaper radioanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods, with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for the separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. Among the novel techniques for separation that are being used are element and class-specific resins and membranes. The authors have also developed methods for the simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Because of its mass-selective mode of detection, ICP-MS requires less rigorous chemical separations than does radiochemical analysis. In addition, improvements in the limits of detection, the volume of the sample and the time of analysis were obtained by using other techniques of sample introduction, such as ultrasonic nebulization, automated batch separation and electrothermal vaporization. Investigation of integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS method using flow injection analysis is underway. A solid scintillation device has been developed and tested for measurement and identification of low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides; application of this technique will eliminate the generation of mixed-waste counting cocktails. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available and are acceptable for use in regulatory situations. Concerted efforts are being made to facilitate implementation of the methods at DOE sites to realize the improvements offered.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1995-04-01

83

Methods for data classification  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

Garrity, George (Okemos, MI); Lilburn, Timothy G. (Front Royal, VA)

2011-10-11

84

Computational methods working group  

SciTech Connect

During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

Gabriel, T. A.

1997-09-01

85

DISCOURSE ON METHODS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

BOUCHER, JOHN G.

86

Improved nonlinear prediction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2014-06-01

87

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30

88

REVA DATA INTEGRATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The core of the research effort in the Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) is a set of data integration methods ranging from simple overlays to complex multivariate statistics. These methods are described in the EPA publication titled, "Regional Vulnerability Assess...

89

SHELL METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of animations that can be used to illustrate the shell method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the shell method.

Roberts, Lila F.

2002-02-02

90

DISK METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of demos for illustrating the disk method for volumes of solids of revolution. The animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background relating to the steps of disk method. Three file formats, gif, mov, and avi are available.

Roberts, Lila F.

2002-02-24

91

ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS METHODS  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS METHODS LABORATORY PRACTICES #12;Foundations of Environmental Science Lecture Enviromental Physics Methods Laboratory Practices #12;Eötvös Lorånd University Faculty of Science ENVIRONMENTAL tankönyvsorozat" (KMR Foundations of Environmental Science Lecture Series). KEYWORDS: Environmental physics

Horvåth, Ákos

92

Parallel Spectral Numerical Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module teaches the principals of Fourier spectral methods, their utility in solving partial differential equation and how to implement them in code. Performance considerations for several Fourier spectral implementations are discussed and methods for effective scaling on parallel computers are explained.

Gong Chen

93

Research Methods in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

2011-01-01

94

The Oxygen Flask Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

Boulton, L. H.

1973-01-01

95

Evaluating Geophysical Equipment & Methods  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologists monitor data collection during a geophysical survey using the horizontal-to-vertical ambient-noise seismic method. This method can be used to estimate unconsolidated sediment thickness and map the bedrock surface as part of groundwater investigations. The survey was conducted as pa...

96

Method of forming nanodielectrics  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

2014-01-07

97

DISCUSS: Sampling Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Sidney Tyrrell and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces different types of sampling methods. Links to Excel spreadsheet files with exercises for exploring sampling methods are given at the end of the module. Topics include random, systematic, cluster, stratified, and quota sampling. This software require Microsoft Excel. Without this software, these programs will not work.

Hunt, Neville; Tyrrell, Sidney

2009-08-25

98

Sampling system and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.

Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee

2014-05-20

99

The kernel polynomial method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and stable algorithms for the calculation of spectral quantities and correlation functions are some of the key tools in computational condensed-matter physics. In this paper basic properties and recent developments of Chebyshev expansion based algorithms and the kernel polynomial method are reviewed. Characterized by a resource consumption that scales linearly with the problem dimension these methods enjoyed growing popularity

Alexander Weiße; Gerhard Wellein; Andreas Alvermann; Holger Fehske

2006-01-01

100

Electrostatic test methods compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that electrostatic materials can be evaluated and ranked from highest to lowest in triboelectric generating capacity, and that the ranking is a function of the material, and not a function of the rubbing material. The test methods used were: (1) the NASA triboelectric tester; (2) the modified Shirley Method 18 test; and (3) the JCI ad-hoc tribocharging

R. Gompf; P. Holdstock; J. Chubb

1999-01-01

101

Water treatment method  

SciTech Connect

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02

102

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30

103

Method for dissolving clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for dissolving clay which comprises contacting the clay alternately with separate slugs of a hydrogen ion-containing chemical and a fluoride ion-containing chemical. The hydrogen ions and fluoride ions react on the surface of the clay to produce hydrofluoric acid to dissolve the clay. The method is particularly valuable in dissolving the clay in a mixture of

Hall

1977-01-01

104

Ecological Methods & Experimentation  

E-print Network

­ Stratified random sampling ­ Systematic sampling · Number of samples ­ 20-25 is minimum ­ Statistically more1 Ecological Methods & Experimentation Ecology · Study of ecological systems ­ Organisms/Functional Hypotheses ·First test observations, then design controlled experiment Scientific Method · Deduction used

Malcolm, Stephen

105

'GIARDIA' METHODS WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the workshop were to familiarize participants with the use-and limitations of Giardia cyst detection methodology; to critically review the tentative Giardia method appearing in the 16th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; to ...

106

Scientific method lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why is the scientific method important to the study of science? This instructional tutorial, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 7-12, introduces students to the scientific method. Here the five steps of the scientific method are presented and used to solve crimes. Students choose whether information is fact or inference, practice identifying hypotheses, and identify errors in experiments. Many student answers to written questions are saved and available for later viewing. The second part of the activity applies the scientific method to a historical study of astronomy. Students explore the Ptolemaic and Copernican views of planetary motion while applying the scientific method through the work of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Aristarchus, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2002-01-01

107

The Schwinger Variational Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

Huo, Winifred M.

1995-01-01

108

Probabilistic boundary element method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

1989-01-01

109

Basics of Bayesian methods.  

PubMed

Bayesian methods are rapidly becoming popular tools for making statistical inference in various fields of science including biology, engineering, finance, and genetics. One of the key aspects of Bayesian inferential method is its logical foundation that provides a coherent framework to utilize not only empirical but also scientific information available to a researcher. Prior knowledge arising from scientific background, expert judgment, or previously collected data is used to build a prior distribution which is then combined with current data via the likelihood function to characterize the current state of knowledge using the so-called posterior distribution. Bayesian methods allow the use of models of complex physical phenomena that were previously too difficult to estimate (e.g., using asymptotic approximations). Bayesian methods offer a means of more fully understanding issues that are central to many practical problems by allowing researchers to build integrated models based on hierarchical conditional distributions that can be estimated even with limited amounts of data. Furthermore, advances in numerical integration methods, particularly those based on Monte Carlo methods, have made it possible to compute the optimal Bayes estimators. However, there is a reasonably wide gap between the background of the empirically trained scientists and the full weight of Bayesian statistical inference. Hence, one of the goals of this chapter is to bridge the gap by offering elementary to advanced concepts that emphasize linkages between standard approaches and full probability modeling via Bayesian methods. PMID:20652503

Ghosh, Sujit K

2010-01-01

110

John Herschel's Graphical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

Hankins, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

111

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOEpatents

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

2008-09-09

112

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOEpatents

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

2003-04-15

113

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOEpatents

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14

114

psych-methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new electronic mailing list will serve as a forum for the scholarly discussion of psychological research methodology. The forum will encompass both quantitative and qualitative methods and provide an opportunity for researchers and others to discuss issues surrounding research methods and results. An archive of past messages and a FAQ are available at the Website. To subscribe, send a message to:     mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk In the body of the message, type:     join psych-methods firstname lastname

115

Introduction to multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.

Wesseling, P.

1995-01-01

116

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

117

Modern Methods of Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

Seeber, F

1939-01-01

118

Principles of electroanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Using a structured approach, this book offers a basic understanding of theoretical and practical aspects of a wide range of electroanalytical techniques. It provides basic definitions, conventions, principles, and approaches and covers approximately fifteen analytical methods based on electrochemical cells and electrolysis cells. Reflecting the latest advances in the field, it is designed to teach the reader to select a suitable method for a particular application, identify similarities between methods, and prepare for further study. The book features self-assessment work and suggests experiments for three-hour lab periods. SI units are used extensively.

Riley, T.; Tomlinson, C.; James, A.M.

1987-01-01

119

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Gerhard D. (Velarde, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

120

Polynomial Supertree Methods Revisited  

PubMed Central

Supertree methods allow to reconstruct large phylogenetic trees by combining smaller trees with overlapping leaf sets into one, more comprehensive supertree. The most commonly used supertree method, matrix representation with parsimony (MRP), produces accurate supertrees but is rather slow due to the underlying hard optimization problem. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study comparing the performance of MRP and the polynomial supertree methods MinCut Supertree, Modified MinCut Supertree, Build-with-distances, PhySIC, PhySIC_IST, and super distance matrix. We consider both quality and resolution of the reconstructed supertrees. Our findings illustrate the tradeoff between accuracy and running time in supertree construction, as well as the pros and cons of voting- and veto-based supertree approaches. Based on our results, we make some general suggestions for supertree methods yet to come. PMID:22229028

Brinkmeyer, Malte; Griebel, Thasso; Böcker, Sebastian

2011-01-01

121

The Myopia of Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)

Zahorik, John A.

1973-01-01

122

Numerical Methods Lecture Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains lecture notes from the Spring 1998 Numerical Methods course taught in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge, UK. The topics include finding roots, linear equations, numerical integration, and differential equations.

Dalziel, Stuart

2003-10-10

123

Methods of Studying Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)

Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

1985-01-01

124

Smoothed Finite Element Method  

E-print Network

In this paper, the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) is proposed for 2D elastic problems by incorporation of the cell-wise strain smoothing operation into the conventional finite elements. When a constant smoothing ...

Dai, K.Y.

125

Ignitability test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1989-01-01

126

A Generalized Multigroup Method  

E-print Network

The standard multigroup (MG) method for energy discretization of the transport equation can be sensitive to approximation in the weighting spectrum chosen for cross-section averaging. As a result, MG often inaccurately treats important phenomena...

Till, Andrew Thomas

2014-04-29

127

The Directed Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many instructors think that by incorporating case study analysis into the science classroom they will sacrifice course content. The directed case method, however, is a proven strategy for deepening and solidifying understanding of facts and concepts when

Curtin, Leslie N.; Cliff, William H.

2000-09-01

128

Semiparametric Methods and Applications  

E-print Network

theoretical semiparametric methods, we study the dynamic effectiveness of marketing mix variables and the competition among the pioneer and early followers in pharmaceutical industry. With two pharmaceutical categories data, we find dynamic effectiveness...

Lin, Zhongjian

2014-05-02

129

GEM simulation methods development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of methods used in the simulation of processes in gas electron multipliers (GEMs) and in the accurate calculation of detector characteristics is presented. Such detector characteristics as effective gas gain, transparency, charge collection and losses have been calculated and optimized for a number of GEM geometries and compared with experiment. A method and a new special program for calculations of detector macro-characteristics such as signal response in a real detector readout structure, and spatial and time resolution of detectors have been developed and used for detector optimization. A detailed development of signal induction on readout electrodes and electronics characteristics are included in the new program. A method for the simulation of charging-up effects in GEM detectors is described. All methods show good agreement with experiment.

Tikhonov, V.; Veenhof, R.

2002-02-01

130

Improved radioanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore {trademark} membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1995-12-31

131

[The Billings method].  

PubMed

The Billings method, or cervical mucus method, is a natural family planning method developed during the 1970s by the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings. The method requires periodic abstinence during the periods recognized as fertile according to the characteristics of the mucus. The method can be used to avoid pregnancy or to favor it through identification of the day of maximum fecundity. The method does not alter the natural rhythms of the body or entail unpleasant side effects. At the beginning of the menstrual cycle, the cervix is closed by a mucus plug and the sperm survive less than two hours in the acidic environment of the vagina. Several days before ovulation, the cervix begins to secrete mucus that will protect the sperm from the acidity of the vagina and permit their passage to the uterus. Thus protected, the sperm can survive up to four days. Mucus at this stage has an elastic quality. After ovulation, the mucus thickens and becomes increasingly impenetrable to sperm. It feels sticky and gelatinous. The Billings method requires observation of the sensation of wetness or dryness and the characteristics of the mucus. Each evening the woman should note that day's observations on a chart. The "peak day" is the last day of elastic mucus that gives a sensation of wetness. The peak day is the most visible sign of ovulation and can be recognized only on the next day. The three days following the peak day are considered fertile, because ovulation can occur up to 48 hours after the peak and the ovum can survive up to 24 hours. If the Billings method is used to avoid pregnancy, intercourse should be avoided during menstruation as the appearance of mucus may be masked in a short cycle. Intercourse is permissible in the evening of every second day until the appearance of the mucus. PMID:8278884

Delangue, A F

1993-02-01

132

Natural family planning methods.  

PubMed

Wade et al.'s report, entitled "A randomized prospective study of the use-effectiveness of 2 methods of natural family planning," contains items worthy of emphasis. These includes the following: 1) less than 5% of the women in the study were prevented from using the method assigned them because of problems in identifying their cervical mucus pattern; 2) those who were unable or unwilling to adhere to the methodology were encouraged to drop out; 3) the largest single category of pregnancies occurred in both groups when the volunteers failed to follow the rules for avoiding pregnancy; 4) it was judged that there were 6 pregnancies in the ovulation method group to be classified as method failures, apparently for a total of 4501 cycles, which gives a method-failure rate of 1.6%; 5) couples were required to sign an informed consent statement of their awareness that the chances of the occurrence of pregnancy could be as high as 25% for the ovulation method; 6) recruiting difficulties constituted an important finding, primarily because they were unexpected by the investigators; 7) the volunteers recruited into the trial were restricted to those women whose menstrual cycles were 24-36 days; 8) the couples who failed to continue with the use of these 2 natural methods--ovulation and temperature rhythm--were on the average younger, more sexually active, and had fewer children; and 9) the ovulation method brings the partners into confrontation with their fertility in each cycle, and this has marked psychological results, including an awakening of the suppressed desire for that fertility to become creative of human life. PMID:7081306

Billings, J J

1982-05-01

133

Methods of Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

Carlone, Mrs.

2006-11-12

134

Methods in Molecular Medicine  

PubMed Central

In this article we describe the needed instrumentation and the methods to be followed for the observation and measurement of the birefringence of single and bundled microtubules and of their ordered arrays using a polarizing microscope. As instruments, the traditional polarizing microscope and the recently developed LC-PolScope are discussed. As methods we describe qualitative and quantitative observations, including notes on specimen preparations, that optimize the sensitivity and accuracy of measuring specimen retardance. PMID:18085225

Oldenbourg, Rudolf

2008-01-01

135

Lingual straight wire method.  

PubMed

The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

2009-12-01

136

Method of treating depression  

DOEpatents

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz

2013-04-09

137

Method of treating depression  

DOEpatents

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz (East Patchogue, NY)

2012-01-24

138

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

1983-05-13

139

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

1985-09-10

140

Boundary Element Method Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boundary Element Method is a numerical scheme for solving partial differential equations. In this tutorial, we illustrate this method using the example of temperature distribution in a two dimensional plate. The tutorial was developed by Professor Jerry Dwyer and Kathy Hichcock of the Mathematics Departments of the University of Tennessee and Leonard Gray of the Mathematical Sciences Section of Oak Ridge National Laboratory . The zip file contains a word file.

Dwyer, Jerry; Hitchcock, Kathy; Gray, Leonard

2004-09-21

141

Plating methods, a survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

1972-01-01

142

Exoplanet Detection Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the existence of planetary companions as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals using each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the first detections to current state-of-the-art surveys for rocky worlds.

Wright, Jason T.; Gaudi, B. Scott

143

Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) Biophysical Methods in Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) Biophysical Methods in Neuroscience #12;Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) The Fluorescence Process Stage 1 : Excitation A photon photons. Fluorescein #12;Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) Fluorescence Microscope http

Kersting, Roland

144

The ICARE Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance. The ICARE method can be used to improve all elements of a system and, consequently, the system-level functional, physical and operational performance. Even though ICARE was specifically designed for a systems engineer, any person whose job is to examine another person, product, or process can use the ICARE method to improve effectiveness, implementation, usefulness, value, capability, efficiency, integration, design, and/or marketability. This paper provides the details of the ICARE method, emphasizing the method s application to systems engineering. In addition, a sample of other, non-systems engineering applications are briefly discussed to demonstrate how ICARE can be tailored to a variety of diverse jobs (from project management to parenting).

Henke, Luke

2010-01-01

145

[The Billings method].  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) has financed a study of the Billings method of family planning in 3 developing and 2 developed countries to obtain objective data on the effectiveness of the method. Although 40% of the 870 couples had previously used another abstinence method and all were highly motivated to use the technique, the life-table pregnancy rate for the year following training in the method reached 20%. 11 studies of the cervical mucus method have been carried out in India, Tonga, Colombia, and Chile and in the US and Australia, often in new programs which did not employ uniform teaching methods. 2 Indian studies showed pregnancy rates of under 6/100 woman years, while 2 studies in developed countries showed rates under 15 and 2 showed rates over 30/100 woman years. Most of the studies have attributed the high pregnancy rates to the failure of couples to observe abstinence. Pregnancy occurred in the 5 countries partcipating in the WHO studies primarily as a result of the failure of couples to abstain from sexual relations during periods identified as fertile, despite active promotion of natural family planning and assistance from instructors at monthly intervals. Other reasons for the high failure rate were late occurrance of mucus flow relative to the time of ovulation, overly early appearance of mucus, and failure to observe or to interpret correctly the mucus symptom. Mucus patterns and facility of interpretation can be affected by various physiological or psychological factors, such as vaginal or cervical infection, vaginal secretion due to sexual stimulation, medicines, tension, and illness. The common observation of higher pregnancy rates among couples who wish to postpone rather than prevent a birth appears to be particularly important in the case of abstinence methods. PMID:12311398

1981-05-01

146

Optimization Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

2009-09-01

147

Manual of Scaling Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

2004-01-01

148

Methods of forming steel  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

2001-01-01

149

Method of grid generation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

2002-01-01

150

Bayesian Methods in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

2014-02-01

151

Shape Bonding method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

152

Structures and stochastic methods  

SciTech Connect

Studies and research on structures and stochastic methods in the soil dynamics and earthquake engineering filed are covered in this book. The first section is on structures and includes studies on bridges, loaded tanks, sliding structures and wood-framed houses. The second section covers dams, retaining walls and slopes. The third section on underground structures covers pipelines, water supply, fire loss, buried lifeline, and underground transmission lines. The final section is on stochastic methods and includes applications in earthquake response spectra, lifeline aqueduct systems, and various other areas.

Cakmak, A.S.

1987-01-01

153

Unorthodox theoretical methods  

SciTech Connect

The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

Nedd, Sean

2012-06-20

154

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01

155

Contaminant treatment method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

Shapiro, Andrew Philip (Schenectady, NY); Thornton, Roy Fred (Schenectady, NY); Salvo, Joseph James (Schenectady, NY)

2003-01-01

156

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

1996-03-12

157

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar. PMID:21445054

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

158

Mindfulness: Method and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes and principles that underlie mindfulness is a needed step, because this method enters into the armamentarium of empirical clinical psychology. Mindfulness is closely related to several procedures, in- cluding acceptance, cognitive defusion, and exposure. Although each of these procedures seems to target dif- ferent behavioral processes, they are all interrelated, be- cause ultimately all of them target

Steven C. Hayes; Kelly G. Wilson

2003-01-01

159

INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES · Bloodstain pa,ern analysis Academy of Forensic Sciences, 16:116. · Willis, C., Piranian, A.K., Donaggio, J of fall and angles of impact blood drops. Forensic Science Interna.onal, 123, 1

Farritor, Shane

160

Biomass treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26

161

Plato's Method of Dialectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

cases of the elenchus follow one another in quick succession in the early works; but when we looked for discussions of the elenchus, we found them few and not very abstract. The middle dialogues, on the other hand, abound in abstract words and proposals concerning method, but it is by no means obvious whether these proposals are being actually followed,

Hugh H. Benson

162

Gas scrubber and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and method for scrubbing gases such as flue gases by subjecting the gases to a shower of gas scrubbing solid particulate material is disclosed. The scrubbing is desirably effected in a downwardly extending passage leading from the top of a stack from which flue gases are diverted into the top of the passage. The aggregate mass of the solid

Johnson

1981-01-01

163

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

164

Extrusion die and method  

DOEpatents

A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

1994-05-03

165

Ergonomics research methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

1973-01-01

166

Teaching Materials and Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

Physiologist, 1987

1987-01-01

167

The immersed boundary method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the mathematical structure of the immersed boundary (IB) method, which is intended for the computer simulation of fluid{structure interaction, especially in biological fluid dynamics. The IB formulation of such problems, derived here from the principle of least ac- tion, involves both Eulerian and Lagrangian variables, linked by the Dirac delta function. Spatial discretization of the

Charles S. Peskin

2002-01-01

168

Supplementary Methods Neural recordings  

E-print Network

Supplementary Methods Neural recordings Neural recordings were made using Pt/Ir electrodes for a minimum of 100 trials per search task were included in the database regardless of task response. Another database of recordings was obtained during the centre-out task using the same procedure. Recordings during

Andersen, Richard

169

Fluid dynamics test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

Gayman, W. H.

1974-01-01

170

Projecting the Scientific Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

Uthe, R. E.

2000-01-01

171

Ferrari's Method and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…

Althoen, Steve

2005-01-01

172

Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2003-12-30

173

Improved photoetching fabrication method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoetching method producing well-defined lines with minimum undercutting was developed for etching coolant passages in nickel sheet. Phosphate coating is applied over conventional silver plate maskant and phosphoric acid solution is used to remove silver maskant. Phosphoric acid prevents etching of silver edges and mask has sharply-defined lines.

Kistler, C. L.

1972-01-01

174

Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

1989-01-01

175

Different Methods 1.Statistical  

E-print Network

· Potential variables: ­ labor market data ­ data on price indices (and subcomponents) ­ Wages ­ money: ­ Many factors influence price · Supply demand · World events · Technologies · Etc. ­ Past trends may (or demand/technology development/etc. ­ Hard to forecast into the distant future Method 3 · Combination

Boisvert, Jeff

176

Methods of Improving Visibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE observations of Prof. C. V. Raman (NATURE, October 20, p. 242) on a method of improving the visibility of distant objects by the elimination of reflected light by means of a Nicol's prism placed in the eye-piece of a telescope are certainly interesting, but at the same time they are thoroughly well known, and the idea of increasing the

A. G. Lowndes

1921-01-01

177

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods  

E-print Network

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Christian P. Robert Universit Monte Carlo Methods Textbook: Monte Carlo Statistical Methods by Christian. P. Robert and George Casella Monte Carlo Methods with R by Christian. P. Robert and George Casella [trad. franžcaise 2010; japonaise

Robert, Christian P.

178

Groundwater contamination field methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

Johnson, Ivan

179

The Scientific Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is designed to introduce the students to the format of the lab portion of the course. They have an opportunity to meet and work with the other students in the lab, especially important in a freshman-level course. The content of the lab is based on the Scientific Method and acts as an introduction to the entire course, as it is the first lab exercise of the semester. All of the information we discuss in the course is ultimately linked back to the scientific method, and I make a concerted effort to reiterate this linkage throughout the semester. Students are initiated into the world of scientific thinking and it is demonstrated that they use this critical skill all the time in their everyday lives.

Fredrick, Kyle

180

Die singulation method  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

2014-01-07

181

Implementation of Rosenbrock methods  

SciTech Connect

Rosenbrock formulas have shown promise in research codes for the solution of initial-value problems for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). To help assess their practical value, the author wrote an item of mathematical software based on such a formula. This required a variety of algorithmic and software developments. Those of general interest are reported in this paper. Among them is a way to select automatically, at every step, an explicit Runge-Kutta formula or a Rosenbrock formula according to the stiffness of the problem. Solving linear systems is important to methods for stiff ODEs, and is rather special for Rosenbrock methods. A cheap, effective estimate of the condition of the linear systems is derived. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the developments.

Shampine, L. F.

1980-11-01

182

Proximal Point Methods Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.

Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moro?anu, Gheorghe

2011-09-01

183

Method for welding beryllium  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1995-12-31

184

The unified method rules  

SciTech Connect

Any methodology for information systems development defines rules and conditions that are to be followed and satisfied when applying it to developing analysis and design models of a system. The newest attempt to achieve a successful systems development and establish standards in object oriented analysis and design technologies resulted in the unified method documentation set, version 0.8 being published in late 1995. In this paper I will analyse the first draft and present a set of rules that must be satisfied by the valid unified method. The rules are divided into different sections: (A) classes/objects and categories, (B) attributes and operations, (C) associations and inheritance, (D) message trace diagram/object message diagram/state diagram/use cases.

Juric, R. [South Bank Univ. Business School, London (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

185

Visionlearning: Research Methods: Experimentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructional module on the process of experimentation as a scientific research method. The authors use a contextual approach, which includes a brief history of experimental research and a case study of Louis Pasteur's experiment on spontaneous generation of microorganisms. A question set is also included, along with background information for teachers. Editor's Note: Experimentation is a research method in which one or more variables are consciously manipulated and the outcome or effect of that manipulation on other variables is observed. This resource is designed to guide beginning students in designing experiments that meet the standards of a "fair test". It is appropriate for use in both secondary and lower-level undergraduate courses.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

2010-10-19

186

Cold isopressing method  

DOEpatents

A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

2003-01-01

187

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

188

Die singulation method  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

2013-06-11

189

RNA Crosslinking Methods  

PubMed Central

RNA–RNA crosslinking provides a rapid means of obtaining evidence for the proximity of functional groups in structurally complex RNAs and ribonucleoproteins. Such evidence can be used to provide a physical context for interpreting structural information from other biochemical and biophysical methods and for the design of further experiments. The identification of crosslinks that accurately reflect the native conformation of the RNA of interest is strongly dependent on the position of the crosslinking agent, the conditions of the crosslinking reaction, and the method for mapping the crosslink position. Here, we provide an overview of protocols and experimental considerations for RNA–RNA cross-linking with the most commonly used long- and short-range photoaffinity reagents. Specifically, we describe the merits and strategies for random and site-specific incorporation of these reagents into RNA, the crosslinking reaction and isolation of crosslinked products, the mapping crosslinked sites, and assessment of the crosslinking data. PMID:20946768

Harris, Michael E.; Christian, Eric L.

2011-01-01

190

Geometrical method of decoupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E?, B?, and P?, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling algorithm can also be applied to n-dimensional systems and requires O(n2) iterations to converge to a given precision.

Baumgarten, C.

2012-12-01

191

Measured Performance Signature Method  

E-print Network

MEASURED PERFORMANCE SIGNATURE METHOD Manager Power Schenectady, David J. Ahner Generation Technology Technologies, Inc. New York ABSTRACT The performance correction of systems that have many thermally integrated components is complex... and subject to error if individual component misperformance and/or deterioration is present. The performance correction involves a set of equations or curves which relate the expected changes in dependent performance parameters (i.e. output, fuel...

Ahner, D. J.

192

Brush Management Methods  

E-print Network

effective for removal of pricklypear. Figure 12. Stacker for uprooting or shearing off woody plants at ground line and gathering debris with minimum loss. Chemical Methods Herbicides used on rangeland may be formu- lated as liquids or pellets and applied..., Aerial herbicide application for brush control, gallons per acre (Figure 14), Pelleted herbi- cides may be applied aerially with special applicators. They may also be broadcast by ground equipment, such as backpack-airblast applicators and whirlwind...

Welch, Tommy G.

2000-07-14

193

Thermal coupling measurement method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

1974-01-01

194

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

195

Extrusion die and method  

DOEpatents

A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

1994-04-26

196

Method for detecting biomolecules  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

Huo, Qisheng (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-08-12

197

Method of infusion extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

198

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

199

Review of Godunov Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.

Holt, Maurice

1996-01-01

200

Comments on PDF methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

Chen, J.-Y.

1992-01-01

201

17. Choose a Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 15 minute video, Mary Holden and her 4th/5th grade class reason about the appropriateness of different computational methods (base-ten blocks, calculators, mental math, or paper and pencil) to specific problems. The video includes a description of how the teacher manages her multi-level class and encourages hands on exploration and discussion in small group learning sessions. At the conclusion of the video are reflection questions for professional development.

2013-01-01

202

Method for making nanomaterials  

DOEpatents

A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

2013-06-04

203

Vector wave propagation method.  

PubMed

In this paper, we extend the scalar wave propagation method (WPM) to vector fields. The WPM [Appl. Opt.32, 4984 (1993)] was introduced in order to overcome the major limitations of the beam propagation method (BPM). With the WPM, the range of application can be extended from the simulation of waveguides to simulation of other optical elements like lenses, prisms and gratings. In that reference it was demonstrated that the wave propagation scheme provides valid results for propagation angles up to 85 degrees and that it is not limited to small index variations in the axis of propagation. Here, we extend the WPM to three-dimensional vectorial fields (VWPMs) by considering the polarization dependent Fresnel coefficients for transmission in each propagation step. The continuity of the electric field is maintained in all three dimensions by an enhanced propagation vector and the transfer matrix. We verify the validity of the method by transmission through a prism and by comparison with the focal distribution from vectorial Debye theory. Furthermore, a two-dimensional grating is simulated and compared with the results from three-dimensional RCWA. Especially for 3D problems, the runtime of the VWPM exhibits special advantage over the RCWA. PMID:20360813

Fertig, M; Brenner, K-H

2010-04-01

204

Practical dust control methods  

SciTech Connect

At a remediation project in Granite City, Illinois, the presence of lead was detected in and below the surface soil in the form of construction debris and contaminated soil. Contamination was also present in the form of airborne dust as well as surface contamination. The contaminated dust was present on equipment, tools, and the clothing of laborers working inside of the exclusion zone. OHM established an exclusion zone to limit access to the area and required that protective equipment be worn inside of the exclusion zone to allow for more efficient decontamination. Wetting methods were used as well as a foam material which was used to cover larger piles. Formal decontamination methods were implemented to limit the spread of contamination from the exclusion zone. These methods included specific procedures to remove protective equipment, water washing for equipment, and an inspection before leaving the zone. To the extent practical, transportation equipment was staged at the edge of the exclusion zone rather than entering the zone. Plastic tarpaulins were used to collect contaminated debris near the edge of the zone.

Thomas, B.R.; Blassingame, S.R. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

205

MANOVA versus alternative methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3Ś3 and large: 7Ś7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

2014-12-01

206

Leap-Frogging Newton's Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Newton's method as an intermediate step, we introduce an iterative method that approximates numerically the solution of f(x) = 0. The method is essentially a leap-frog Newton's method. The order of convergence of the proposed method at a simple root is cubic and the computational efficiency in general is less, but close to that of Newton's…

Kasturiarachi, A. Bathi

2002-01-01

207

GLIMM'S METHOD FOR GAS DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

stratified random sampling, Figure 9 Diagonal Reimann problem 3.2 computed using Glimm's method,method with, respectively, a random sampling sequence, a stratifiedstratified random sampling. On the other hand, comparing di erence methods

Colella, Phillip

2013-01-01

208

GLIMM'S METHOD FOR GAS DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

A Survey of Several Finite Difference Methods for Systems ofa conservative finite difference method; the method we usemethod used for computing such solutions has been to solve a set of finite difference

Colella, Phillip

2013-01-01

209

Methods as Action Knowledge: Exploring the Concept of Method Rationale in Method Construction, Tailoring and Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems development methods are used to express and communicate knowledge about systems and software development processes; i.e. methods encapsulate knowledge. Since methods encapsulate knowledge, they also encapsulate rationale. Rationale can in this context be understood as the reasons and arguments for particular method prescriptions. In this paper we show how the combination of two different aspects of method rationale can

Pär J Ćgerfalk; Brian Fitzgerald

210

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

211

Method for resonant measurement  

DOEpatents

A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

Rhodes, George W. (5201 Rio Grande Blvd., N.W., Albuquerque, NM 87107); Migliori, Albert (Rte. 4, Box 258 Tano Rd., Sante Fe, NM 87501); Dixon, Raymond D. (396 Connie Ave., White Rock, NM 87544)

1996-01-01

212

Methods of making monolayers  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-09-15

213

Methods of making monolayers  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-12-08

214

Visualizing Numerical Methods (2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These movies are designed to help students visualize various numerical approaches to evaluating functions or solving equations. The methods themselves may be familiar to students from their mathematics courses, but they may have forgotten the material or never made the connection between a statement such as "the derivative of a curve at a given point is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point" and the way that one might evaluate such a derivative. All of the movies have VCR-style controls that enable the student to step through them one frame at a time and to move backwards as well as forwards.

215

Method for resonant measurement  

DOEpatents

A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

1996-03-05

216

Laser pulse stacking method  

DOEpatents

A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

217

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

218

Handbook of Methods: BLS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics has made available the April 1997 edition of its Handbook of Methods, in both HTML and Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. This 202 page book details the methodology by which BLS "obtains and prepares the economic data it publishes," providing the structural underpinning for such data topics as employment and unemployment, compensation and working conditions, occupational safety and health, productivity and technology, economic growth, and prices and living conditions. As such, it is a crucial information source for economists, statisticians, instructors, librarians, and business analysts.

1997-01-01

219

Methods of urolith removal.  

PubMed

Multiple techniques exist to remove uroliths from each section of the urinary tract. Minimally invasive methods for removing lower urinary tract stones include voiding urohydropropulsion, retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by dissolution or removal, catheter retrieval, cystoscopic removal, and cystoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy and surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy is less invasive than surgical cystotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used for nephroliths and ureteroliths. Nephrotomy, pyelotomy, or urethrotomy may be recommended in certain situations. This article discusses each technique and gives guidance for selecting the most appropriate technique for an individual patient. PMID:20949423

Langston, Cathy; Gisselman, Kelly; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John

2010-06-01

220

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

221

Magnetic imager and method  

DOEpatents

A magnetic imager includes a generator for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager also includes a sensor for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object. 25 figs.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Danby, G.

1997-07-22

222

Magnetic imager and method  

DOEpatents

A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

Powell, James (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Kew Garden Hills, NY); Danby, Gordon (Wading River, NY)

1997-07-22

223

Method of joining ceramics  

DOEpatents

According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Kennewick, WA); Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

224

Method of drying articles  

DOEpatents

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

1999-03-23

225

Method of drying articles  

DOEpatents

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

226

Computational Methods for Crashworthiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.

Noor, Ahmed K. (compiler); Carden, Huey D. (compiler)

1993-01-01

227

Birth control - slow release methods  

MedlinePLUS

Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch (Ortho Evra) is ...

228

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods  

E-print Network

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Christian P. Robert Universit Monte Carlo Methods Outline Motivation and leading example Random variable generation Monte Carlo for variable dimension problems Sequential importance sampling #12;Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods New [2004

Robert, Christian P.

229

Fluorescence-sensing methods.  

PubMed

Novel approaches to sensor design, based on the use of an internal standard with appropriate spectral properties, provide new possibilities for designing simple devices for fluorescence sensing. Detection of combined emission from the reference and an analyte-sensitive fluorophore has been achieved in numerous measurements in cuvettes, tissues, and high-throughput formats. These methods have been used with a long-lifetime reference to measure pH, O2, pCO2, glucose, and calcium by means of modulation-sensing methods as well as by the use of oriented films as the reference for polarization sensing of glucose, pH, oxygen, and lactate. Polarization sensing has also been developed with visual detection to measure the concentration of rhodamine B and pH. Modulation and polarization sensing was found to be effective in highly scattering media such as Intralipid or tissue. The applicability of these technologies to transdermal diagnostics depends on the availability of red fluorophores that can be used in vivo. One dye that could possibly be used is indocyanine green (IcG), which absorbs and emits at wavelengths above 700 nm. Furthermore, IcG has already been approved for use in humans for monitoring burn severity and it has been detected through the skin. It appears likely that modern optics and electronic technology will allow the development of practical devices for biomedical use as shown in Scheme 1. PMID:12622146

Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Lakowicz, Joseph R

2003-01-01

230

Method for forming materials  

DOEpatents

A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-10-06

231

Methods of hyperthermia control  

SciTech Connect

This book deals with the major problem of hyperthermia control - which has not yet been optimally solved - by considering the invasion techniques of thermometry as well as the noninvasive methods of radiothermometry and thermal imaging. The various techniques of thermometry as currently practiced in clinical settings using implanted probes are reviewed and discussed extensively, emphasis being placed upon the procedures for locating probes in tissue. The possible methodological approaches to noninvasive control of hyperthermia based upon different principles of radiometry and imaging (x-ray, NMR, ultrasound, microwave, electric impedance) are reviewed, addressing questions such as the compromise of sensitivities (thermal, spatial, temporal) the problem of noise rejection, the space constraint (heater and imager targeted at the same volume), and the sensitivity of the thermometric parameter to other physiological variables. To exemplify the potentials of noninvasive control, the development and practical implementation of a system integrating microwave heating and radiometry into a totally engineered package are described.

Cetas, T.C.; Samulski, T.V.; Fessenden, P.; Bolomey, J.C.; Hawley, M.S.; Chive, M.

1990-01-01

232

Hydroforming device and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.

Guza, David E. (Powell, OH)

2007-09-11

233

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01

234

Methods in Biostatistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of biostatistics, which combines a number of different disciplines, is one that more people seek to enter. The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health's Brian Caffo created these course materials for his Methods in Biostatistics I class. As the site notes, these materials present "fundamental concepts in applied probability, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference, focusing on probability and analysis of one and two samples." Visitors can look over the syllabus here, check out the original course schedule, peruse the lecture materials, and look over the readings. The lecture notes cover set theory basics and probability, expected values, random vectors, distribution, and confidence intervals. The site is rounded out by the Other Resources area, which includes links to free statistical software programs and other supplemental items.

2006-01-01

235

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30

236

Connector pin and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

2011-01-01

237

Waveguide disturbance detection method  

DOEpatents

A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

Korneev, Valeri A. (Albany, CA); Nihei, Kurt T. (Oakland, CA); Myer, Larry R. (Benicia, CA)

2000-01-01

238

Method for synthesizing HMX  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA); Coon, Clifford L. (Fremont, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA)

1984-01-01

239

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1997-04-01

240

Radiofrequency attenuator and method  

DOEpatents

Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

2009-11-10

241

Floating Silicon Method  

SciTech Connect

The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

Kellerman, Peter

2013-12-21

242

Hazardous Waste Cleanup Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand some of the reasoning and science involved in choosing technologies for cleaning up Superfund hazardous waste sites. They discover that the responsibility for selecting the most appropriate cleanup method for a specific site rests with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Remedial Project Manager (RPM) or On-Scene Coordinator (OSC), with input from the affected community. An important step in this selection process is narrowing the field of alternatives and developing a list of options that make sense for dealing with the contamination at the site. The students analyze the pros and cons of using various technologies for cleaning up specific hazardous waste problems, weighing factors such as contaminant-specific requirements, technological limitations, reliability, cleanup time, and cost.

243

Freeze drying method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

244

Catalysts and method  

DOEpatents

An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01

245

Microencapsulation system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

246

nanotubes via hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red long-lasting phosphor Y2O2S:Eu3+, Zn2+, Ti4+ nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra (TL) were used to characterize the long-lasting phosphor. XRD investigation revealed that the product synthesised under 750 °C for 6 h was a pure phase of Y2O2S. SEM observation showed that the sulfuretted phosphor inherited the tube-like shape from the precursor. Under 325 nm UV excitation, the result indicated the strongest red-emission lines at 627 nm, corresponded to the transition from 5D0 to 7F2 level of Eu3+ ion. Both the afterglow decay curves and TL curves revealed that the phosphor had efficient luminescent and excellent long-lasting properties.

Huang, Ping; Liu, Dan; Cui, Cai E.; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Guowei

2014-08-01

247

Rail shear test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of both an experimental test program and a finite element analysis of selected graphite/polyimide rail shear test specimens are discussed. The two dimensional finite element analysis includes both mechanical and thermal loading (differential expansion) of the specimens and their elastic rails. Parameters in this analysis of unidirectional and symmetric, balanced angle-ply laminates include ply layup angles, the effect of flexible rails, the method of load introduction to the specimen and the effect of uniform heating of the specimen and rails. Two types of tensile rail shear fixtures were investigated experimentally: a uniform thickness, bolted-rail shear fixture loaded diagonally across the specimen test section; and a tapered thickness, bonded-rail shear fixture loaded axially along the center-line of the specimen test section. Test results include room-temperature and 589K strain data taken from the center of the specimen test section during loading.

Garcia, R.; Mcwithey, R. R.

1979-01-01

248

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01

249

Method for controlling brazing  

DOEpatents

A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Hall, Aaron C. (Albuquerque, NM); Givler, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-01

250

Radiofrequency attenuator and method  

DOEpatents

Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

2009-01-20

251

Method of bonding  

DOEpatents

1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

1987-12-01

252

Numerical methods for tracking interfaces  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of special numerical methods for tracking discontinuous fronts and interfaces. These methods include: surface tracking methods based on connected marker points along the interface, volume-tracking methods that track the volume occupied by the solution regions bounded by the interfaces, and moving mesh methods where the underlying mesh is aligned and moved with the interface. The pros and cons of the current methods are discussed, and a new method is proposed that overcomes some of the difficulties encountered in approximating equations with multiply interacting interfaces.

Hyman, J.M.

1983-01-01

253

Slope stability and stabilization methods  

SciTech Connect

Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.

Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.

1995-12-01

254

The Hierarchical Basis Multigrid Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive and analyze the hierarchical basis-multigrid method for solvingdiscretizations of self-adjoint, elliptic boundary value problems using piecewiselinear triangular finite elements. The method is analyzed as a blocksymmetric Gau-Seidel iteration with inner iterations, but it is strongly relatedto 2-level methods, to the standard multigrid V-cycle, and to earlierJacobi-like hierarchical basis methods. The method is very robust, and hasa nearly optimal

Randolph E. Bank; Todd F. Dupont; Harry Yserentant

1987-01-01

255

The hierarchical basis multigrid method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We derive and analyze the hierarchical basis-multigrid method for solving discretizations of self-adjoint, elliptic boundary value problems using piecewise linear triangular finite elements. The method is analyzed as a block symmetric Gauß-Seidel iteration with inner iterations, but it is strongly related to 2-level methods, to the standard multigridV-cycle, and to earlier Jacobi-like hierarchical basis methods. The method is very

Randolph E. Bank; Todd F. Dupont; Harry Yserentant

1988-01-01

256

Laser amplifier and method  

DOEpatents

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

Backus, Sterling (Ann Arbor, MI); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Ann Arbor, MI); Murnane, Margaret M. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1997-01-01

257

Laser amplifier and method  

DOEpatents

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

1997-07-01

258

Method for biological purification  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

Lucido, John A. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Keenan, Daniel (Rockville Centre, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Shelenkova, Ludmila (Yaphank, NY)

2001-03-27

259

Science Methods, Fall 09  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources for Science Methods Pre-service Teachers IA Help: Basic Instruction: How to use the IA, step by step Connecting People with Online Reources: USU OpenCourseWare Site on how to use the IA Advanced IA Features: Adding an Image to your IA project using Google Picasa Adding a YouTube video to an IA project Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Adding a TeacherTube video to an IA project Digital Libraries arXiv: Open access to 560,904 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Science Education Communities Directory of open access journals Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library National Science Digital Library NSDL: Expert Voices Blog Gateway NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL: Science Refreshers OER (Open Educational Resources) Commons OpenCourseWare Consortium Websites Physics at NIST Virtual Library The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online The Franklin Institute Online Weather Science Hotlist The Goddard Library K-6 IA Science Projects A Desert Adventure Advertising the Animals of Utah Mister Twister Simple Machines There's Nothing Better Than a Clean, Shiny Penny The Wonders of Water!!! 7-12 IA Science Projects Electrical Engineering Global Warming and Our Future Group 1 - DDT Newton's First Law of Motion World of Enzymes ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2009-09-24

260

Measurement System and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

261

Methods in Tubulin Proteomics  

PubMed Central

New analytical methods are needed for the successful outcome of experiments aimed at characterizing mechanisms of microtubule dynamics and at understanding the effects of drugs on microtubules. The identification of tubulin isotypes and of regions of the microtubule involved in drug interactions has been advanced by proteomic methodologies. The diversity of tubulin sequences and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can generate a complex mixture of heterodimers with unique molecular dynamics driving specific functions. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been developed, and in combination with chromatographic and/or electrophoretic separation of tubulin polypeptides or peptides, they have contributed to our understanding of tubulin proteomics. We present protocols that we have used for the analysis of tubulin isotypes and PTMs present in tubulin isolated from cells in culture or tissues and for the identification of tubulin regions altered by microtubule-stabilizing agents. Tubulin proteomics complements structural and computer modeling information for a high-resolution view of microtubule dynamics and its alteration by drugs. These methodologies will help in providing insights into tubulin isotype-specific functions and in the design of drugs targeting either all tubulin heterodimers indiscriminately or only those containing specific isotypes. PMID:20466132

Miller, Leah M.; Xiao, Hui; Burd, Berta; Horwitz, Susan Band; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal

2014-01-01

262

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

263

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-03-12

264

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

265

Detector Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

2003-01-01

266

Mimetic finite difference method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

2014-01-01

267

Standing footprint diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

2013-10-01

268

Bismuth generator method  

DOEpatents

A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

Bray, Lane Allan (Richland, WA); DesChane, Jaquetta R. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01

269

Bismuth generator method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

1998-05-05

270

Numerical Methods for Differential 2 NUMERICAL METHODS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS  

E-print Network

on the programming. 1.1 FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS A simple first order differential equation has general form basic methods and techniques for programming simulations of differential equations. First, we1 Numerical Methods for Differential Equations 1 #12;2 NUMERICAL METHODS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Storey, Brian D.

271

BU Social Science Methods Network Inventory of Graduate Methods Courses  

E-print Network

concepts covered in a first statistics course (e.g., CAS MA 613) and presents, in detail, more advancedBU Social Science Methods Network Inventory of Graduate Methods Courses School Course number Course RS 653 Quantitative Research Methods 4 Req. RS 600 Descriptive and inferential statistics most

Goldberg, Bennett

272

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 21, METHOD 611--HALOETHERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Described herein are the experimental design and the results of an interlaboratory study of an analytical method to detect haloethers in water. The method, EPA Method 611 - Haloethers, consisted of a liquid/liquid extraction using methylene chloride, an evaporation step using Kud...

273

Hydrogen storage methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a system mass ratio close to one. The highest volumetric densities of hydrogen are found in metal hydrides. Many metals and alloys are capable of reversibly absorbing large amounts of hydrogen. Charging can be done using molecular hydrogen gas or hydrogen atoms from an electrolyte. The group one, two and three light metals (e.g. Li, Mg, B, Al) can combine with hydrogen to form a large variety of metal-hydrogen complexes. These are especially interesting because of their light weight and because of the number of hydrogen atoms per metal atom, which is two in many cases. Hydrogen can also be stored indirectly in reactive metals such as Li, Na, Al or Zn. These metals easily react with water to the corresponding hydroxide and liberate the hydrogen from the water. Since water is the product of the combustion of hydrogen with either oxygen or air, it can be recycled in a closed loop and react with the metal. Finally, the metal hydroxides can be thermally reduced to metals in a solar furnace. This paper reviews the various storage methods for hydrogen and highlights their potential for improvement and their physical limitations.

Züttel, Andreas

274

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

2008-01-18

275

Health and Beyond... Strategies for a Better India: Concept Paper on Primary Health Care in India  

PubMed Central

Background: India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world, and is posed to overtake China in terms of being the most populous nation of the world. The very essential components of primary health care – promotion of food supply, proper nutrition, safe water and basic sanitation and provision for quality health information concerning the prevailing health problems – is largely ignored. Access to healthcare services, provision of essential medicines and scarcity of doctors are other bottlenecks in the primary health care scenario. Complete absence of evidence-based guidelines on clinical scenarios and treatment plans in the primary health care sector, together with overburdening of the secondary and tertiary care sectors, has substantially lowered the quality of care in the nation. Aim: To discuss a strategy for a better primary healthcare model. Methods: This is a concept paper with an exploratory view of various problems and a suggested strategy to counter it. Results: This concept paper suggests a triad of strategies (technology, accountability and ink-blot strategy) that can be adapted to various problems in the primary healthcare scenario. Discussion: The concept paper is a preliminary document on a suggested model that needs to be worked out on a broader basis across all stakeholders with operational definitions, standards of procedure and protocols finalised. PMID:25161962

Bhaumik, Soumyadeep

2014-01-01

276

Method for Determining Artillery Position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for determinig artillery positions. Two groups of four closely spaced microphones are placed at known positions, and radio bearings are determined by projectile flight time differences of muzzle blasts. The advantages of the method are discussed.

Fischer, Johannes; Meuser, Wilfried

1988-01-01

277

Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)  

Cancer.gov

The vision of the Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB) is to advance population science through innovative cancer epidemiology utilizing state-of-the-art, emerging and advanced methods and technologies.

278

Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

Dobbs, David E.

2001-01-01

279

Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods  

PubMed Central

The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA. This paper provides a brief overview of the topic “alternative methods in toxicology” and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology. PMID:22058651

Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia

2011-01-01

280

Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.

Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.

1990-01-01

281

Examined the direct carburizing method  

SciTech Connect

The endothermic gas carburizing method, where air and methane, propane or butane gas are mixed and generated, has been operated for over 40 years at least. The mechanism of the endothermic gas carburizing method has already been solved and is known. The other method, the direct carburizing method by flowing hydrocarbon gas into a carburizing furnace directly without using the gas generator, has been recently adopted and popular from the point of saving energy.

Naito, T. [Dowa Mining Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Ogihara, K. [Dowa Mining Co., Ltd., Hamamatsu (Japan)

1995-12-31

282

Computational methods of neutron transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This books presents a balanced overview of the major methods currently available for obtaining numerical solutions in neutron and gamma ray transport. It focuses on methods particularly suited to the complex problems encountered in the analysis of reactors, fusion devices, radiation shielding, and other nuclear systems. Derivations are given for each of the methods showing how the transport equation is

E. E. Lewis; W. F. Miller

1984-01-01

283

AUTOMATED 4AAP PHENOLIC METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

An automated colorimetric method for the determination of phenol in water and wastes is presented. This method is an automated version of the 4AAP method, capable of analyzing from ten to twenty samples per hour. The minimum detectable levelis 1 microgram phenol/l....

284

ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY  

E-print Network

ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 ­ 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

285

The Discovery Method in Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the form of a discussion between faceless people, this booklet concerns discovery learning and its advantages. Subjects covered in the discussions are: Introducing the Discovery Method; An Experiment with British Railways; The OECD Research Projects in U.S.A., Austria, and Sweden; How the Discovery Method Differs from Other Methods; Discovery…

Belbin, R. M.

286

COARSE PARTICLE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing a new Federal Reference Method for PM in the range of 2.5 to 10 microns aerodynamic diameter, for possible use in a possible new Ambient Air Quality Standard for particles in this size range. Federal Reference Methods are the first-approved methods used to meas...

287

5) Management ii) Mechanical methods  

E-print Network

follow-up treatments · Inadvertent damage #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods (1) Weeding with rhizomes #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods (1) Weeding · Effective: annuals, tap;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods (1) Weeding · Effective: annuals, tap-rooted plants, some woody

Nowak, Robert S.

288

Methods of making textured catalysts  

DOEpatents

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17

289

Quantitative Methods II Winter 2012  

E-print Network

1 of 3 Quantitative Methods II Winter 2012 Meets: Thursdays 9am ­ 11:50am Professor: Jonathan.northwestern.edu This course is intended to be a continuation of the quantitative methods sequence that began with Quantitative assumptions are violated. We will then discuss various methods researchers use to overcome these obstacles

Bustamante, FabiĂĄn E.

290

Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods

Samir Mahfoud

1995-01-01

291

METHOD OF IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF  

E-print Network

METHOD OF IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) METHOD OF IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS EISG AWARDEE Robert G. Surette://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Method of Improving Efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plants EISG Grant # 00-28 Awardee

292

Spectral methods on arbitrary grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.

Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David

1995-01-01

293

Generalized high order compact methods.  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub (University of California at Berkeley)

2010-09-01

294

The very fast multipole method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast multipole method (FMM) has become an important alternative to traditional methods such as the Ewald method for computing the long-range interactions necessary to simulate charged or dipolar systems. In this paper, we present an improvement of this method, which we shall call the very fast multipole method (VFMM). The VFMM is shown to be a factor of about 1.2 faster than the FMM for two-dimensional systems and a factor about 2-3 times faster for three-dimensional systems without losing any accuracy for the worst case error.

Petersen, H. G.; Soelvason, D.; Perram, J. W.; Smith, E. R.

1994-11-01

295

Numerical methods in rock mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Reflects the major changes in rock mechanics during the last decade, particularly in the use of computational methods. The authors discuss the properties and behavior of rocks and rock masses and the ways in which these properties and behaviors can be modelled numerically. The book describes the most important methods used in this numerical modelling-the finite element method, boundary element methods, and the discrete element method-and their applications. Examples of the applications for which they can be used are also provided.

Pande, G.; Beer, G.; Williams, J.

1990-01-01

296

Computational Methods in Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Computer-aided drug discovery/design methods have played a major role in the development of therapeutically important small molecules for over three decades. These methods are broadly classified as either structure-based or ligand-based methods. Structure-based methods are in principle analogous to high-throughput screening in that both target and ligand structure information is imperative. Structure-based approaches include ligand docking, pharmacophore, and ligand design methods. The article discusses theory behind the most important methods and recent successful applications. Ligand-based methods use only ligand information for predicting activity depending on its similarity/dissimilarity to previously known active ligands. We review widely used ligand-based methods such as ligand-based pharmacophores, molecular descriptors, and quantitative structure-activity relationships. In addition, important tools such as target/ligand data bases, homology modeling, ligand fingerprint methods, etc., necessary for successful implementation of various computer-aided drug discovery/design methods in a drug discovery campaign are discussed. Finally, computational methods for toxicity prediction and optimization for favorable physiologic properties are discussed with successful examples from literature. PMID:24381236

Sliwoski, Gregory; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Meiler, Jens

2014-01-01

297

Fourier methods for biosequence analysis.  

PubMed Central

Novel methods are discussed for using fast Fourier transforms for DNA or protein sequence comparison. These methods are also intended as a contribution to the more general computer science problem of text search. These methods extend the capabilities of previous FFT methods and show that these methods are capable of considerable refinement. In particular, novel methods are given which (1) enable the detection of clusters of matching letters, (2) facilitate the insertion of gaps to enhance sequence similarity, and (3) accommodate to varying densities of letters in the input sequences. These methods use Fourier analysis in two distinct ways. (1) Fast Fourier transforms are used to facilitate rapid computation. (2) Fourier expansions are used to form an 'image' of the sequence comparison. PMID:2243777

Benson, D C

1990-01-01

298

Dynamical Methods in Algebra Dynamical Methods in Algebra [1] Dynamical Methods in Algebra  

E-print Network

Dynamical Methods in Algebra Dynamical Methods in Algebra [1] Dynamical Methods in Algebra We present a possible realisation of Hilbert's program for (some part of) abstract algebra G in number theory) that cannot be eliminated Surprisingly this is not the case for abstract algebra 1 #12

Coquand, Thierry

299

Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.  

PubMed

Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131?000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, ?-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum mechanical calculations on fragment-fragment (dimer) interactions. The EFMO method is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than the most commonly used FMO implementation (FMO2), in which all dimers are explicitly included in the calculation. While the FMO2 method itself does not incorporate three-body interactions, such interactions are included in the EFMO method via the EFP self-consistent induction term. Several applications (ranging from clusters to proteins) of the three methods are discussed to demonstrate their efficacy. The EFMO method will be especially exciting once the analytic gradients have been completed, because this will allow geometry optimizations, the prediction of vibrational spectra, reaction path following, and molecular dynamics simulations using the method. PMID:24810424

Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

2014-09-16

300

Structural Embeddings: Mechanization with Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most powerful tools for analysis of formal specifications are general-purpose theorem provers and model checkers, but these tools provide scant methodological support. Conversely, those approaches that do provide a well-developed method generally have less powerful automation. It is natural, therefore, to try to combine the better-developed methods with the more powerful general-purpose tools. An obstacle is that the methods and the tools often employ very different logics. We argue that methods are separable from their logics and are largely concerned with the structure and organization of specifications. We, propose a technique called structural embedding that allows the structural elements of a method to be supported by a general-purpose tool, while substituting the logic of the tool for that of the method. We have found this technique quite effective and we provide some examples of its application. We also suggest how general-purpose systems could be restructured to support this activity better.

Munoz, Cesar; Rushby, John

1999-01-01

301

Aircraft digital control design methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

1976-01-01

302

Method of manufacturing superconductor wire  

SciTech Connect

A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

Motowidlo, Leszek

2014-09-16

303

Methods of manipulating stressed epistructures  

DOEpatents

A method of processing an epistructure or processing a semiconductor device including associating a conformal and flexible handle with the epistructure and removing the epistructure and handle as a unit from the parent substrate. The method further includes causing the epistructure and handle unit to conform to a shape that differs from the shape the epistructure otherwise inherently assumes upon removal from the parent substrate. A device prepared according to the disclosed methods.

Wanlass, Mark W

2014-04-08

304

The Method of Least Squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The method of least squares was the cause of a famous dispute between two giants of the scientific world of the early 19th century: Adrien Marie Legendre and Carl Friedrich Gauss. The first published treatment of the method of least squares was\\u000a included in an appendix to Legendre's book Nouvelles methods pour la determination des orbites des cometes. The 9

Emeritus John Wolberg

305

Methods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different  

E-print Network

will not accept a P-Card When: the total dollar amount is less than $1,000 Example: Ordering business cards through the State #12;Method of Purchase Procurement Card (P-Card) Soon to be combined with the Travel Card into a "One Card" Why: Most efficient method of purchasing (does not require the processing

306

Chapter 2 Deposition Methods 39 Chapter 2 Deposition methods  

E-print Network

with chamber walls and be lost. A plasma is only stable if the rate of production of charged particles exceeds the rate of destruction of these charged particles. The stability of the plasma is a function of manyChapter 2 ­ Deposition Methods 39 Chapter 2 ­ Deposition methods In this chapter the deposition

Bristol, University of

307

Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience Methods  

E-print Network

1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 768 Cognitive Neuroscience Methods I. Neuroimaging Raja Neuroscience · CT and MRI: Confirmation of lesion sites previously known only from neuropsychological test

Parasuraman, Raja

308

[Family planning: "Billing's" ovulation method].  

PubMed

The Billings method of contraception, or cervical mucus method, is being introduced, apparently with great success, in Brazil. This method was studied and perfected by the Drs. Billings during the 1950s in Australia; the book explaining how the method works, was published in 1964, and it was soon followed by many other studies. The method is based on the observation of the cyclic changes of cervical mucus. During the first phase of the cycle, or proliferative phase, the increased estrogen secretion produces abundant, wet, elastic mucus, of a quality very conducive to sperm transport; the peak of the mucus symptom coincides with ovulation or precedes it about 1 day. Couples must refrain from intercouse during this period. The second phase of the cycle, or secretory phase, is characterized by increased progesterone secretion which inhibits production of cervical mucus; these are the infertile days of the cycle; mucus will be scant, and dry. This method, which implies periodic sexual abstinence, can by very advantageously used to prevent or to obtain pregnancy. A couple wanting to use this method will have to carefully chart the daily appearance in quantity and quality of cervical mucus, and will have to be instructed on how to do so. The failure rate of the method goes from 0.48 to 2.9/100 women year. The method is totally safe and it promotes marital communication and understanding. PMID:6910749

Bhering, M S; Kajiyama, H

1980-12-01

309

Projector Method: theory and examples  

SciTech Connect

The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

Dahl, E.D.

1985-01-01

310

Failure rates of contraceptive methods.  

PubMed

A discussion of the measures used to determine the failure rates of contraceptive methods precedes the presentation of a table that presents the theoretical and use failure rates for the following contraceptive methods: condom; coitus interruptus; diaphragm; IUD; oral contraceptive combined; oral contraceptive, progestogen only; vasectomy; tubal ligation; spermicidal foam; depo-provera; chance; lactation for 12 months; and the symptothermal method of natural family planning. A commonly used measure of contraceptive effectiveness is the Pearl Index. It measures the percentage of sexually active women who become pregnant while using a method for 1 year and can be expressed as either the minimum failure rate (theoretical failure rate) or as a maximum failure rate (use failure rate). Whether an individual or a couple operates at the minimum or maximum failure rate or somewhere in-between is dependent on: the basic contraceptive priorities of the method; the information provided by the practitioner for its use; and the extent of the user's compliance with the instructions. Theoretical failure rate is defined as the method's failure rate when the user receives correct instructions and follows these instructions conscientiously. The use failure rate is defined as the method's failure rate in actual use which includes: the user receiving incorrect instructions as to method use; the user forgetting to use the method sometimes or not using the method correctly. Theoretical failure rates listed in the table are: condom, 0.4-1.6; diaphragm, 2; IUD, 1-3; combined OC, 0.1; progestogen only OC, 1-2; vasectomy 0.1; tubal ligation 0.04; spermicidal foam, 3; depo-provera, 1; lactation for 12 months, 25; coitus interruptus, 9; and the symptothermal method -- variant A, 1.5; variant B, 3.39; and variant C, 11.2. PMID:12263458

Mclure, Z

1981-04-01

311

Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-09-21

312

The Mapmark Standard Setting Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…

Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

2005-01-01

313

Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations  

DOEpatents

An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

Bostick, William D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Denton, Mark S. (Clinton, TN); Dinsmore, Stanley R. (Norris, TN)

1982-01-01

314

Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

2010-01-01

315

Krylov subspace methods on supercomputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a short survey of recent research on Krylov subspace methods with emphasis on implementation on vector and parallel computers. Conjugate gradient methods have proven very useful on traditional scalar computers, and their popularity is likely to increase as three-dimensional models gain importance. A conservative approach to derive effective iterative techniques for supercomputers has been to find efficient

Youcef Saad

1989-01-01

316

Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview about the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering over the last 15 years. We discuss the paradigm shift from a transfer view to a modeling view and describe two approaches which considerably shaped research in Knowledge Engineering: Role-limiting Methods and Generic Tasks. To illustrate various concepts and methods which evolved in the last years

Rudi Studer; V. Richard Benjamins; Dieter Fensel

1998-01-01

317

Current preoperative bowel cleansing methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mail survey of 300 members of The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) was conducted to document the current methods of bowel preparation in use. Two hundred six questionnaires (69 percent) were returned. The majority of respondents (104 or 51 percent) used cathartics and enemas as the primary method of mechanical bowel cleansing. Eighty-nine (43 percent) used

David E. Beck; Victor W. Fazio

1990-01-01

318

Immersed interface methods. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Short summaries are given for the following related projects: Multigrid methods for Poisson problems; Domain embedding; Groundwater flow; Solidification; The explicit jump IIM and conductivity inverse problems; Numerical methods for acoustic and visco-acoustic inverse problems; Finite element version of the IIM; Computation of seismic traveltimes in discontinuous media; and CLAWPACK (Conservation LAWs PACKage) and AMRCLAW (Adaptive Mesh Refinement CLAW).

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1997-06-09

319

The Descriptive Experience Sampling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) is a method for exploring inner experience. DES subjects carry a random beeper in natural environments; when the beep sounds, they capture their inner experience, jot down notes about it, and report it to an investigator in a subsequent expositional interview. DES is a fundamentally idiographic method, describing faithfully the pristine inner experiences of persons. Subsequently,

Russell T. Hurlburt; Sarah A. Akhter

2006-01-01

320

Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

Terrell, Steven R.

2012-01-01

321

FIRST-COLLISION MOMENTS METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose rates resulting from fast neutrons that penetrate the walls of a ; shielded compartment were calculated by a First-Collision Moments (FCM) Method. ; The particular advantage of this method is that it can be applied to incident ; neutrons having arbitrary angular and energy distribution. A combination of ; single-scattering theory and momentsmethod data was used in the development

Farries

1961-01-01

322

Laboratory method used for bioremediation  

DOEpatents

An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

Carman, M. Leslie (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert T. (Roseville, CA)

2000-01-01

323

A quadratically convergent VBSCF method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quadratically convergent valence bond self-consistent field method is described where the simultaneous optimisation of orbitals and the coefficients of the configurations (VB structures) is based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in actual calculations. The convergence and efficiency are compared with the Super-CI method. A necessary condition to achieve convergence in the Newton-Raphson method is that the Hessian is positive definite. When this is not the case, a combination of the Super-CI and Newton-Raphson methods is shown to be an optimal choice instead of shifting the eigenvalues of the Hessian to make it positive definite. In the combined method, the first few iterations are performed with the Super-CI method and then the Newton-Raphson scheme is switched on based on an internal indicator. This approach is found computationally a more economical choice than using either the Newton-Raphson or Super-CI method alone to perform a full optimisation of the nonorthogonal orbitals.

Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H.

2013-02-01

324

A quadratically convergent VBSCF method.  

PubMed

A quadratically convergent valence bond self-consistent field method is described where the simultaneous optimisation of orbitals and the coefficients of the configurations (VB structures) is based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in actual calculations. The convergence and efficiency are compared with the Super-CI method. A necessary condition to achieve convergence in the Newton-Raphson method is that the Hessian is positive definite. When this is not the case, a combination of the Super-CI and Newton-Raphson methods is shown to be an optimal choice instead of shifting the eigenvalues of the Hessian to make it positive definite. In the combined method, the first few iterations are performed with the Super-CI method and then the Newton-Raphson scheme is switched on based on an internal indicator. This approach is found computationally a more economical choice than using either the Newton-Raphson or Super-CI method alone to perform a full optimisation of the nonorthogonal orbitals. PMID:23406096

Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H

2013-02-01

325

Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines  

SciTech Connect

A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.

Elangovan, Arumugasamy

2014-02-25

326

Algebraic methods and bounded formulas  

E-print Network

than what is obtain­ able by the topological method. Namely, the non­definability result is extendedAlgebraic methods and bounded formulas Domenico Zambella 1 Department of Mathematics and Computer of the purposes of these article is to expose them to a public with interests ranging from arithmetic to finite

Amsterdam, University of

327

Computational methods for local regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local regression is a nonparametric method in which the regression surface is estimated by fitting parametric functions locally in the space of the predictors using weighted least squares in a moving fashion similar to the way that a time series is smoothed by moving averages. Three computational methods for local regression are presented. First, fast surface fitting and evaluation is

William S. Cleveland; E. Grosse

1991-01-01

328

Tribological test methods and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribology is the term that has been applied since 1966 to the science of friction, wear, lubrication, and the interaction of contacting surfaces when they are displaced relative to each other. Tribology characteristically employs a broad circle of experimental methods. This circle is expanding continuously, and the methods are being improved. Even the prescientific period of development of engineering thought

I. A. Buyanovskii

1994-01-01

329

NEWTON'S METHOD FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an extension of Newton's Method for unconstrained multiobjective optimization (multicriteria optimization). The method does not scalarize the original vector optimization problem, i.e. we do not make use of any of the classical techniques that transform a multiobjective problem into a family of standard optimization problems. Neither ordering information nor weighting factors for the dieren t objective functions need

J. FLIEGE; ENCIAS CONT ABEIS; ERAL DO RIO DE JANEIRO-FACC-UFRJ; RIO DE JANEIRO; ESTRADA DONA CASTORINA; JARDIM BOT

330

Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the new generation of discrete choice methods, focusing on the many advances that are made possible by simulation. Researchers use these statistical methods to examine the choices that consumers, households, firms, and other agents make. Each of the major models is covered: logit, generalized extreme value, or GEV (including nested and cross-nested logits), probit, and mixed logit,

Kenneth E. Train

2003-01-01

331

Extensions of the operational method  

SciTech Connect

The operational method of data analysis is used to develop new formulas for first and second derivatives on equidistant, curvilinear data consisting of three or more measurements. Echo functions are used to suggest the paths followed by moving data points, and a method of interpolating into rectangles by non-Euclidean geometry is proposed. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Silver, G.L.

1986-08-25

332

Ground-penetrating radar methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

333

Multicriteria methods for technology foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many countries have carried out foresight exercises to better exploit scientific and technological opportunities. Often, these exercises have sought to identify 'critical' or 'key' technologies or, more broadly, to establish research priorities. In this paper, we consider the potential of multicriteria decision-making methods in this kind of priority-determination and examine the limitations of these methods in the

Tommi Gustafsson; Ahti Salo; Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

2003-01-01

334

Adaptive methods for dynamical micromagnetics  

E-print Network

from implicit backward Euler time discretisation, the second method is based on midpoint rule the time interval (0, T ) into subintervals (ti, ti+1), i = 0, . . . , n with variable time step size i+1.1 Backward Euler projection scheme The implicit backward Euler time discretisation method for the LLG

Banas, Lubomir

335

Nodal methods in transport theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodal transport methods are a class of improved numerical techniques to solve the Boltzmann equation. Nodal algorithms are computationally more intensive than conventional finite difference and diffusion-theory-based methods but, in general, yield more accurate solutions. This results in considerable savings in computing time and storage which is especially significant in three dimensions. Nodal techniques have been widely used in solving

Badruzzaman

1990-01-01

336

The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

van de Water, Manon

1994-01-01

337

Inverse methods for radiation transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implicit optimization methods for solving the inverse transport problems of interface location identification, source isotope weight fraction identification, shield material identification, and material mass density identification are explored. Among these optimization methods are the Schwinger inverse method, Levenberg-Marquardt method, and evolutionary algorithms. Inverse problems are studied in one-dimensional spherical and two-dimensional cylindrical geometries. The scalar fluxes of unscattered gamma-ray lines, leakages of neutron-induced gamma-ray lines, and/or neutron multiplication in the system are assumed to be measured. Each optimization method is studied on numerical test problems in which the measured data is simulated using the same deterministic transport code used in the optimization process (assuming perfectly consistent measurements) and using a Monte Carlo code (assuming less-consistent, more realistic measurements). The Schwinger inverse method and Levenberg-Marquardt methods are found to be successful for problems with relatively few (i.e. 4 or fewer) unknown parameters, with the former being the best for unknown isotope problems and the latter being more adept at interface location, unknown material mass density, and mixed parameter problems. A study of a variety of evolutionary algorithms indicates that the differential evolution method is the best for inverse transport problems, and outperforms the Levenberg-Marquardt method on problems with large numbers of unknowns. An algorithm created by combining different variants of the differential evolution method is shown to be highly successful on spherical problems with unscattered gamma-ray lines, while a basic differential evolution approach is more useful for problems with scattering and in cylindrical geometries. A hybrid differential evolution/Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm also was found to show promise for fast and robust solution of inverse problems.

Bledsoe, Keith C.

338

MULTIPOLLUTANT METHODS - METHODS FOR OZONE AND OZONE PRECURSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task involves the development and testing of methods for monitoring ozone and compounds associated with the atmospheric chemistry of ozone production both as precursors and reaction products. Although atmospheric gases are the primary interest, separation of gas and particl...

339

Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects of low- and medium turbulence conditions. Both methods are capable of processing static and dynamic scenes. The first method consists of local registration, frame selection, blur estimation and deconvolution. The second method consists of local motion compensation, fore- /background segmentation and weighted iterative blind deconvolution. A comparative evaluation using quantitative measures is done on some representative sequences captured during a NATO SET 165 trial in Dayton. The amount of blurring and tilt in the imagery seem to be relevant measures for such an evaluation. It is shown that both methods improve the imagery by reducing the blurring and tilt and therefore enlarge the recognition range. Furthermore, results of a recognition experiment using simulated data are presented that show that turbulence mitigation using the first method improves the recognition range up to 25% for an operational optical system.

van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Huebner, Claudia S.; Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Schwering, Piet B. W.

2014-05-01

340

An enhanced splined saddle method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2916716. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C60 fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time.

Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan

2011-07-01

341

An enhanced splined saddle method.  

PubMed

We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)]. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C(60) fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time. PMID:21744889

Ghasemi, S Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan

2011-07-01

342

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 24, METHOD 601--PURGEABLE HALOCARBONS BY THE PURGE TRAP METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The experimental design and results of a validations study for an analytical method to detect 29 halocarbons in water are described herein. In Method 601, the halocarbons are purged by an inert gas which is bubbled through the aqueous sample. The vapors are then trapped in a shor...

343

'Natural' methods of family planning.  

PubMed

There are currently signs that more women are considering the natural family planning methods as an alternative to medical contraception. In response to this revival of interest, the World Health Organization is now conducting field work on 'natural' family planning methods in New Zealand, the Philippines, India, California, and Columbia and is also preparing a teaching package to be pilot tested in several countries. The natural methods of family planning are all based on the woman correctly ascertaining the pattern of her natural menstrual cycle and abstaining from sexual intercourse during the fertile time. In most women this means that there are 2 "safe periods" - at the beginning of the 28-day cycle until a few days before ovulation and at the end of the cycle from 3 or 4 days after ovulation has occurred. Originally, the "safe period" was taught by the calendar method, which involved a woman carefully plotting her menstrual cycle over a period of six months to a year and making calculations as to the shortest possible and longest possible cycle length, and thus the likely time of ovulation. A more accurate measure is to actually find out the point of ovulation by measuring basal body temperature. With this method the woman must take her temperature every morning immediately upon waking, before rising, smoking, eating or drinking. The Billings' ovulation method is the method now becoming increasingly popular. The method involves noticing the natural changes in the body over the whole menstrual cycle, particularly the quantity and quality of the cervical mucous. 1 new aid for pinpointing the exact time of ovulation is the Ovutime Fertility Detection System developed at Harvard University Medical School and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the long-term, the rhythm method is unlikely to prove the answer to the problem of fertility regulation for the modern woman. PMID:12260793

Jones, M

1978-10-01

344

Population Set based Optimization Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an population set based optimization method is proposed for solving some benchmark functions and also to solve optimal power flow problem like `combined economic and emission dispatch problem (CEED)' with multiple objective functions. This algorithm has taken into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints. The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss. The proposed algorithms have been compared with the other methods like GA, PSO etc reported in the literature. The results are impressive and encouraging. The study results show that the proposed method holds better solutions in CEED problems.

Manekar, Y.; Verma, H. K.

2013-09-01

345

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, M.W.

1990-06-19

346

Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01

347

Nonparametric Statistical Methods in Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonparametric statistical methods allow one to analyze data without making strong assumptions about the process that generated the data. For example, instead of assuming that the data have a Gaussian distribution, we might assume only that the distribution has a probability density that satisfies some weak, smoothness conditions. I will discuss three methods for estimating probability density functions: mixture models, kernel density estimation and wavelets. Finally, I will illustrate these methods applied to Astrophysics data. These applications are based on a collaboration between Astrophysicists (Andy Connolly, Bob Nichol), Computer Scientists (Andrew Moore, Jeff Schneider) and Statisticians (Chris Genovese and me).

Wasserman, L.

2000-05-01

348

Standardized Methods for Electronic Shearography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research was conducted in development of operating procedures and standard methods to evaluate fiber reinforced composite materials, bonded or sprayed insulation, coatings, and laminated structures with MSFC electronic shearography systems. Optimal operating procedures were developed for the Pratt and Whitney Electronic Holography/Shearography Inspection System (EH/SIS) operating in shearography mode, as well as the Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) SC-4000 and Ettemeyer SHS-94 ISTRA shearography systems. Operating practices for exciting the components being inspected were studied, including optimal methods for transient heating with heat lamps and other methods as appropriate to enhance inspection capability.

Lansing, Matthew D.

1997-01-01

349

The FEM-2 design method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FEM-2 parallel computer is designed using methods differing from those ordinarily employed in parallel computer design. The major distinguishing aspects are: (1) a top-down rather than bottom-up design process; (2) the design considers the entire system structure in terms of layers of virtual machines; and (3) each layer of virtual machine is defined formally during the design process. The result is a complete hardware/software system design. The basic design method is discussed and the advantages of the method are considered. A status report on the FEM-2 design is included.

Pratt, T. W.; Adams, L. M.; Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.; Voigt, R. G.; Patrick, M.

1983-01-01

350

Security control methods for CEDR  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to summarize the findings of recent studies on the security problem in statistical databases and examine their applicability to the specific needs of CEDR. The document is organized as follows: In Section 2 we describe some general control methods which are available on most commercial database software. In Section 3 we provide a classification of statistical security methods. In Section 4 we analyze the type of users of CEDR and the security control methods which may be applied to each type. In Section 5 we summarize the findings of this study and recommend possible solutions.

Rotem, D.

1990-09-01

351

Computational Methods Development at Ames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

352

The Modified Embedded Atom Method  

SciTech Connect

Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideal for examining interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how parameters of MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examine the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show nonuniform deformation of the fiber.

Baskes, M.I.

1994-08-01

353

Data transmission system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.

Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)

2010-01-01

354

Peptides and methods against diabetes  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

2000-01-01

355

The Modified Embedded Atom Method  

SciTech Connect

Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

Baskes, M.I.

1994-08-01

356

Mathematical Methods of Quantum Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides an accessible introduction to the mathematical methods of quantum optics. Starting from first principles, it reveals how a given system of atoms and a field is mathematically modelled. The method of eigenfunction expansion and the Lie algebraic method for solving equations are outlined. Analytically exactly solvable classes of equations are identified. The text also discusses consequences of Lie algebraic properties of Hamiltonians, such as the classification of their states as coherent, classical or non-classical based on the generalized uncertainty relation and the concept of quasiprobability distributions. A unified approach is developed for determining the dynamics of a two-level and a three-level atom interacting with combinations of quantized fields under certain conditions. Simple methods for solving a variety of linear and nonlinear dissipative master equations are given.

Puri, Ravinder R.

357

SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

358

Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience Methods  

E-print Network

1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Cognitive Neuroscience Methods I. Human Brain Imaging) · Siemens 3-T Allegra · Head-only scanner Slide 14 CT and MRI in Cognitive Neuroscience · CT and MRI

Parasuraman, Raja

359

Reduced shedding regenerator and method  

DOEpatents

A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

2007-05-22

360

Decision Support Methods and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is one of a set of papers, developed simultaneously and presented within a single conference session, that are intended to highlight systems analysis and design capabilities within the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). This paper focuses on the specific capabilities of uncertainty/risk analysis, quantification, propagation, decomposition, and management, robust/reliability design methods, and extensions of these capabilities into decision analysis methods within SACD. These disciplines are discussed together herein under the name of Decision Support Methods and Tools. Several examples are discussed which highlight the application of these methods within current or recent aerospace research at the NASA LaRC. Where applicable, commercially available, or government developed software tools are also discussed

Green, Lawrence L.; Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Gumbert, Clyde r.; Sorokach, Michael R.; Burg, Cecile M.

2006-01-01

361

Analysis methods for airborne radioactivity.  

E-print Network

??High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is an analysis method well suitable for monitoring airborne radioactivity. Many of the natural radionuclides and a majority of anthropogenic nuclides are… (more)

Ala-Heikkilä, Jarmo J

2008-01-01

362

Nonconventional methods for obtaining hexaferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small particles of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by a new coprecipitation method. The influence of precursors' history upon their thermal behavior and phase composition evolution were investigated.

Oana Carp; Ruxandra Barjega; E. Segal; Maria Brezeanu

1998-01-01

363

Cholera and the Scientific Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

Cronin, Jim

1993-01-01

364

STP Widom Insertion Method Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Widom Insertion Method program estimates the chemical potential of a Lennard-Jones fluid using the Widom insertion method. The default system is a box with linear dimension L = 20 with N =100 particles at a temperature T = 1.0. STP WidomInsertionMethod is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_WidomInsertionMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-06

365

Semiclassical Methods in Chemical Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of semiclassical theory in chemical physics both as a computational method and conceptual framework for interpreting quantum mechanical experiments and calculations. Topics covered include energy wells and eigenvalues, scattering, statistical mechanics and electronically nonadiabiatic processes. (JM)

Miller, William H.

1986-01-01

366

Algorithm in the Multisignal Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with an algorithm in a multisignal method instead of the binary notation system that has been used in the computer information processing. The remarkable feature in this method is to be able to express a plural meaning or different meanings in just one bit. A bit in the proposed method can serve as, so to speak, an extended bit by itself. So hereafter we call it a “mut, ” a newly coined word for a multiple digit. With a mut, a multisignal is produced, which belongs to one of the following three systems of the multisignal method: the fixed multi-notation system, the selective multi-notation system, and the general multisignal system. Consequently, this algorithm may be applied to many aspects of the multimedia. Moreover, using this system, a large quantity of expressions can be made with high speed, and the programming can be done easily.

Fukuda, Hiroshi; Negishi, Teruo

367

Editorial: The Scientific Method Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nope, that title is not a typographical error. The following paragraphs are not about teaching the scientific method. That assumption may be easily forgiven, though. JCST' s mission of publishing exemplary works about teaching and learni

Cutler, Ann

2010-05-01

368

NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)

1990-01-01

369

New methods for econometric inference  

E-print Network

Monotonicity is a key qualitative prediction of a wide array of economic models derived via robust comparative statics. It is therefore important to design effective and practical econometric methods for testing this ...

Chetverikov, D. N. (Denis Nikolaevich)

2013-01-01

370

regularized sequential quadratic programming methods  

E-print Network

Oct 2, 2011 ... tiable trajectory or central path that approaches the solution as ” ? 0. Penalty methods approximate this ... Preliminary numerical experiments on a subset of problems from the. CUTEr test collection ..... of the composite variables vk = (xk,yk

2011-10-30

371

Overview of pharmacoeconomic modelling methods  

PubMed Central

In the current climate of burgeoning health care costs, pharmacoeconomics is becoming increasingly important, but knowledge about pharmacoeconomic methods is limited among most clinicians. This review provides an introduction to, and overview of, common methods used in pharmacoeconomic modelling: decision analysis, Markov modelling, discounting and uncertainty analyses via Monte Carlo simulation. It will conclude with a suggested approach to reading and appraising published pharmacoeconomic analyses. PMID:22882459

Ademi, Zanfina; Kim, Hansoo; Zomer, Ella; Reid, Christopher M; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Liew, Danny

2013-01-01

372

Method of sterilization using ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

2002-01-01

373

Method for determining gene knockouts  

DOEpatents

A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

Maranas, Costa D; Burgard, Anthony R; Pharkya, Priti

2013-06-04

374

Method for determining gene knockouts  

DOEpatents

A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

Maranas, Costas D. (Port Matilda, PA); Burgard, Anthony R. (State College, PA); Pharkya, Priti (State College, PA)

2011-09-27

375

Information storage media and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for storing and retrieving information. More specifically, the present invention is a method for forming predetermined patterns, or data structures, using materials which exhibit enhanced absorption of light at certain wavelengths or, when interrogated with a light having a first wavelength, provide a luminescent response at a second wavelength. These materials may exhibit this response to light inherently, or may be made to exhibit this response by treating the materials with ionizing radiation.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA); Endres, George W. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

376

Method for grinding precision components  

DOEpatents

A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19-380 cm.sup.3 /min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

Ramanath, Srinivasan (Holden, MA); Kuo, Shih Yee (Westboro, MA); Williston, William H. (Holden, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA)

2000-01-01

377

PDV Uncertainty Estimation & Methods Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Several methods are presented for estimating the rapidly changing instantaneous frequency of a time varying signal that is contaminated by measurement noise. Useful a posteriori error estimates for several methods are verified numerically through Monte Carlo simulation. However, given the sampling rates of modern digitizers, sub-nanosecond variations in velocity are shown to be reliably measurable in most (but not all) cases. Results support the hypothesis that in many PDV regimes of interest, sub-nanosecond resolution can be achieved.

Machorro, E.

2011-11-01

378

An adaptive level set method  

SciTech Connect

This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

Milne, R.B.

1995-12-01

379

Method of generating chemiluminescent light  

DOEpatents

A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

1986-01-01

380

Progress in NODAL transport methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-of-the-art methods in nodal transport are discussed. Two major classes of these methods have been developed in multi- dimensional cartesian geometry. The first can be viewed as a set of general difference schemes of the discrete ordinates (S\\/sub N\\/) transport equation. In the second, the angular dependence of the cell-edge fluxes is treated by interface-current techniques of varying degrees

Badruzzaman

1988-01-01

381

Analytical methods under emergency conditions  

SciTech Connect

This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references. (ACR)

Sedlet, J.

1983-01-01

382

Linearization Method and Linear Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(?2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

Tanaka, Hidema

383

Methods of verifying net carbon  

SciTech Connect

Problems currently exist with using net carbon as an industrial standard to gauge smelter performance. First, throughout the industry there are a number of different methods used for determining net carbon. Also, until recently there has not been a viable method to cross check or predict change in net carbon. This inherently leads to differences and most likely inaccuracies when comparing performances of different plants using a net carbon number. Ravenswood uses specific methods when calculating the net carbon balance. The R and D Carbon, Ltd. formula developed by Verner Fisher, et al, to predict and cross check net carbon based on baked carbon core analysis has been successfully used. Another method is used, as a cross check, which is based on the raw materials (cokes and pitch) usage as related to the metal produced. The combination of these methods gives a definitive representation of the carbon performance in the reduction cell. This report details the methods Ravenswood Aluminum uses and the information derived from it.

McClung, M. [Ravenswood Aluminum, WV (United States)

1996-10-01

384

Physical methods for gene transfer.  

PubMed

The key impediment to the successful application of gene therapy in clinics is not the paucity of therapeutic genes. It is rather the lack of nontoxic and efficient strategies to transfer therapeutic genes into target cells. Over the past few decades, considerable progress has been made in gene transfer technologies, and thus far, three different delivery systems have been developed with merits and demerits characterizing each system. Viral and chemical methods of gene transfer utilize specialized carrier to overcome membrane barrier and facilitate gene transfer into cells. Physical methods, on the other hand, utilize various forms of mechanical forces to enforce gene entry into cells. Starting in 1980s, physical methods have been introduced as alternatives to viral and chemical methods to overcome various extra- and intracellular barriers that limit the amount of DNA reaching the intended cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that it is quite feasible to directly translocate genes into cytoplasm or even nuclei of target cells by means of mechanical force, bypassing endocytosis, a common pathway for viral and nonviral vectors. Indeed, several methods have been developed, and the majority of them share the same underlying mechanism of gene transfer, i.e., physically created transient pores in cell membrane through which genes get into cells. Here, we provide an overview of the current status and future research directions in the field of physical methods of gene transfer. PMID:25620006

Alsaggar, Mohammad; Liu, Dexi

2015-01-01

385

Substituted 6-nitroquipazines, methods of preparation, and methods of use  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a substituted 6-nitroquipazine of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are each selected from the group consisting of H, Fl, CL, Br, I, CF.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 F, CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, and --CH(CH.sub.3).sub.2, and wherein one of R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 is other than H. Also disclosed is a method for measurement of serotonin uptake sites in a sample, in which a radioligand is incubated with a sample and then the radioactivity of the radioligand bound to the sample is determined, utilizing a radio labeled substituted 6-nitroquipazine as the radioligand. Also disclosed is a method of manufacture and method of use.

Mathis, Jr., Chester A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Biegon, Anat (Rohovot, IL); Taylor, Scott E. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Enas, Joel D. (Pittsburg, CA)

1994-01-01

386

Conventional laboratory methods for cyanotoxins.  

PubMed

It is clear from the literature that numerous methods are available for most cyanotoxins, although many publications on monitoring data indicate that the favored approach is the use proven, robust methods for individual toxins. The most effective approach is the utilization of a robust rapid screen, where positive samples are followed up by qualitative and quantitative analysis to provide the essential decision making data needed for successful management strategies (Fig. 2). Currently, rapid screens are available for microcystins, saxitoxins and anatoxin-a(s), whilst optimisation and validation is needed, many publications report good correlation with the mouse bioassay and HPLC. There is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and inexpensive assays for cylindrospermopsins, anatoxin-a and BMAA. Although methods exist for analysis of BMAA, the fact that a recent study showed 95% of cyanobacteria producing this, some at levels > 6,000 microg g(-1) dry wt, is of concern and rapid screening followed by robust analysis needed. An ideal approach would be a single method capable of extracting and detecting all cyanotoxins. Several publications describe such approaches using LC-MS, but as expected from a group of compounds with diverse chemistry, there are obvious limitations in recoveries during sample processing, chromatographic performance and sensitivity (Dahlmann et al. 2003, Dell'Aversano et al. 2004, Pietsch et al. 2001). Selection of methods must be based on the application requirements, equipment available and cost. For many organisations it may be more cost effective to out-source the occasional analysis. However, as the incidence of blooms appears to be increasing, the need for more rigorous monitoring is needed, sensible investment is needed to meet recommended guidelines. Most of the methods discussed in this paper are suitable for achieving this goal, although clean-up and concentration is usually necessary for physicochemical methods. PMID:18461782

Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, C

2008-01-01

387

Comparison between performances of Monte Carlo method and method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo method was used to predict the incident radiative heat fluxes on the freeboard walls of the METU 0.3 MWt atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustor based on the data reported previously. The freeboard was treated as a rectangular enclosure with gray interior walls and gray, absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium. A Monte Carlo solver was developed and the performance of the solver was assessed by comparing its predictions with those of method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method and experimental measurements reported previously. Parametric studies were carried out to examine the effects of particle load and anisotropic scattering on the predicted incident radiative heat fluxes. The comparisons show that Monte Carlo method reproduces the measured incident radiative heat fluxes reasonably well for the freeboard problem.

Demirkaya, Gokmen; Arinç, Faruk; Selçuk, Nevin; Ayranci, Isil

2005-06-01

388

Advanced probabilistic method of development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced structural reliability methods are utilized on the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project to provide a tool for analysis and design of space propulsion system hardware. The role of the effort at the University of Arizona is to provide reliability technology support to this project. PSAM computer programs will provide a design tool for analyzing uncertainty associated with thermal and mechanical loading, material behavior, geometry, and the analysis methods used. Specifically, reliability methods are employed to perform sensitivity analyses, to establish the distribution of a critical response variable (e.g., stress, deflection), to perform reliability assessment, and ultimately to produce a design which will minimize cost and/or weight. Uncertainties in the design factors of space propulsion hardware are described by probability models constructed using statistical analysis of data. Statistical methods are employed to produce a probability model, i.e., a statistical synthesis or summary of each design variable in a format suitable for reliability analysis and ultimately, design decisions.

Wirsching, P. H.

1987-01-01

389

Comparison of homotopy analysis method and homotopy perturbation method  

E-print Network

by Liao in 1992 and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) proposed by He in 1998 are compared through that the HPM is a special case of the HAM when = -1. However, the HPM solution is divergent for all x; Hollow symbols: 15th-order approximation given by the HPM; Filled symbols: 15th-order approximation given

Jeffrey, David

390

Methods of Phylogenetic Analysis: New Improvements on Old Methods.  

E-print Network

morphological characteristics to molecular sequences (reviewed in Mount, 2001). The result is a tree composed classifications: (1) those methods that use an algorithm to directly build a tree through a series of defined an algorithm to evaluate potential trees based on this criterion (Swofford et al., 1996). The first class

391

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 14, METHOD 604-PHENOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

An interlaboratory study in which 20 laboratories participated was conducted to provide precision and accuracy statements for the proposed EPA Method 604-Phenols for measuring concentrations of the Category 8 chemicals phenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methyl...

392

Relaxation methods in fluid mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work considers the iterative solution of a coupled set of difference equations and examines methods that carry successive approximates to a state that is invariant with further iteration and independent of the initial guess. Methods are studied with regard to their efficiency and economy of computer resources. The basic principles of classical relaxation are set forth, with attention confined to linear elliptic equations. This discussion involves the evaluation of the spectral radius that is the magnitude of the eigenvalue with largest modulus. The subject of relaxation is then related to the study of ordinary differential equations and hyperbolic partial differential equations. Problems that occur when linearly dependent eigenvectors appear in the relaxation matrix are discussed, leading to multiply connected eigenvalues in the Jordan canonical form. Finally, a brief survey of relaxation methods used in aerodynamics is given.

Lomax, H.; Steger, J. L.

1975-01-01

393

Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics  

PubMed Central

Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

Mitchell, John B O

2014-01-01

394

Neutron Scattering Methods in Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting with basic properties of the neutron, this chapter reviews the most important neutron scattering methods that provide valuable information for a chemist. The range of such methods is amazingly wide, from standard methods of crystallography to neutron spin echo spectroscopy. Experimental techniques like neutron reflectometry and small angle neutron scattering are able to probe large-scale structures on the surface and in the bulk, thus providing access to the “nano-world.” Apart from traditional areas of solid-state physics, like studying phonons, a particular emphasis is placed on the microscopic and mesoscopic structure and dynamics in the liquid state. Practical aspects, such as main components of the instrumentation, are also touched upon.

Pusztai, L.

395

Robotic follow system and method  

SciTech Connect

Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

2007-05-01

396

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27

397

New Methods of Psychiatric Treatment  

PubMed Central

There have recently been many innovations in the field of psychiatric therapy. Many of the new techniques challenge some of the underlying assumptions of conventional psychiatry. Some methods, such as reality therapy and behavior therapy, attack the symptom directly, rather than assuming there is an underlying disorder which must be treated. Another, crisis therapy, stresses brief intervention aimed at rapidly reestablishing previous levels of function, with relatively little concern for insight into developmental causes. Or, as in family therapy, the pattern of family interaction rather than the individual may be the primary object of study and treatment. Each of the new methods of treatment has certain advantages as well as disadvantages. They have stimulated psychiatry to explore innovative methods and should make it possible eventually to incorporate in the treatment of each individual those techniques which will most effectively meet his needs. PMID:5566347

Flinn, Don E.

1971-01-01

398

Methods of DNA methylation detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

2010-01-01

399

Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization  

PubMed Central

We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V-, W- and F-cycles, and the linear dependence of V-cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels ?, whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order p=4, and for C0 and Cp-1 smoothness. PMID:24511168

Gahalaut, K.P.S.; Kraus, J.K.; Tomar, S.K.

2013-01-01

400

A Particle Method For Continua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new numerical method for application to problems involving strong shocks in solids. The technique (Dual Particle Dynamics) uses particles and no background spatial grid enabling computation of large material deformation in a Lagrange frame. A new tensor viscosity has been formulated which is effective in resolving shocks within a meshfree framework with large anisotropy in the particle spacing. An important attribute of the method is that each DPD particle carries, in addition to the physical fields, a ruler and a clock. The ruler defines the local special metric (length scale) and the clock provides for asynchronous time integration. These space-time measures are advantageous for computational efficiency, but more importantly for stability, as a time step based on the Courant number is not adequate to ensure stability for Lagrange particle codes. Simulations involving explosively driven shocks in metals are presented to show how the method performs.

Libersky, Larry; Randles, Phillip

2005-07-01

401

Test methods for textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

1994-01-01

402

Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

403

New methods in iris recognition.  

PubMed

This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves. PMID:17926700

Daugman, John

2007-10-01

404

Variational method with staggered fermions  

E-print Network

The variational method is used widely for determining eigenstates of the QCD hamiltonian for actions with a conventional transfer matrix, e.g., actions with improved Wilson fermions. An alternative lattice fermion formalism, staggered fermions, does not have a conventional single-time-step transfer matrix. Nonetheless, with a simple modification, the variational method can also be applied to that formalism. In some cases the method also provides a mechanism for separating the commonly paired parity-partner states. We discuss the extension to staggered fermions and illustrate it by applying it to the calculation of the spectrum of charmed-antistrange mesons consisting of a clover charm quark and a staggered strange antiquark.

Carleton DeTar; Song-Haeng Lee

2014-11-17

405

Sodium purification apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal are disclosed. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter. 1 fig.

Gould, M.I.

1980-03-04

406

Sodium purification apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter.

Gould, Marc I. [Van Nuys, CA

1980-03-04

407

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30

408

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

1993-01-01

409

New disinfection and sterilization methods.  

PubMed Central

New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

2001-01-01

410

Twin-Foucault imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180° magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180° domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

Harada, Ken

2012-02-01

411

Speeding up local correlation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.

Kats, Daniel

2014-12-01

412

Method for analyzing microbial communities  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for quantitatively analyzing microbial genes, species, or strains in a sample that contains at least two species or strains of microorganisms. The method involves using an isothermal DNA polymerase to randomly and representatively amplify genomic DNA of the microorganisms in the sample, hybridizing the resultant polynucleotide amplification product to a polynucleotide microarray that can differentiate different genes, species, or strains of microorganisms of interest, and measuring hybridization signals on the microarray to quantify the genes, species, or strains of interest.

Zhou, Jizhong (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Wu, Liyou (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2010-07-20

413

Advanced method for oligonucleotide deprotection.  

SciTech Connect

A new procedure for rapid deprotection of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed. While all known deprotection methods require purification to remove the residual protective groups (e.g. benzamide) and insoluble silicates, the new procedure based on the use of an ammonia-free reagent mixture allows one to avoid the additional purification steps. The method can be applied to deprotect the oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized by using the standard protected nucleoside phosphoramidites dG{sup iBu}, dC{sup Bz} and dA{sup Bz}.

Surzhikov, S. A.; Timofeev, E. N.; Chernov, B. K.; Golova, J. B.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

2000-04-15

414

Methods of producing cesium-131  

DOEpatents

Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

2012-09-18

415

A unique simulation teaching method.  

PubMed

Simulation is an excellent venue for students to learn experientially and provides opportunities for students to practice problem solving and psychomotor skills in a safe, controlled environment. Through the use of a specifically designed format, faculty at Creighton University School of Nursing have developed a unique method of implementing high-fidelity simulation that allows a more comprehensive learning experience. This innovative teaching strategy incorporates not just skill acquisition, but also care management concepts into the scenario, while requiring only one faculty member. Students simultaneously take one of two paths through the components of this method to achieve the same learning outcomes. PMID:19010053

Hawkins, Kim; Todd, Martha; Manz, Julie

2008-11-01

416

Method for joining ceramic shapes  

DOEpatents

A method for joining shapes of ceramic materials together to form a unitary ceramic structure. In the method of the invention, a mixture of two or more chemical components which will react exothermically is placed between the surfaces to be joined, and the joined shapes heated to a temperature sufficient to initiate the exothermic reaction forming a joining material which acts to bond the shapes together. Reaction materials are chosen which will react exothermically at temperatures below the degradation temperature of the materials to be joined. The process is particularly suited for joining composite materials of the silicon carbide-silicon carbide fiber type.

Rabin, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

417

Grid convergence for adaptive methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of adaptive methods to obtain accurate results is examined using two different Euler solvers for a near-sonic flow containing several important flow features. It is shown that the accuracy obtained can be greatly affected by the lack of resolution of smooth portions of the flow caused by adapting only to the more prevalent flow features such as discontinuities. In particular, common methods of adaptation can lead to results in which shocks are well resolved but whose locations are highly inaccurate due to the lack of resolution of the smoother regions. An explanation for this behavior is given and a correction is proposed.

Warren, Gary P.; Anderson, W. K.; Thomas, James L.; Krist, Sherrie

1991-01-01

418

Advances in embryo selection methods  

PubMed Central

Despite many recent advances in the field of reproductive biology and medicine, the efficiency of in vitro fertilization procedures remains relatively low. There is a need for a reliable and non-invasive method of embryo selection to ensure that only embryos with the highest developmental potential are chosen for transfer to mothers-to-be. Here, we compare various methods currently used for assessing embryonic viability, such as examination of embryonic morphology, quality of the genetic material, or metabolism. Additionally, we discuss novel procedures for embryonic assessment based on advanced time-lapse imaging techniques, which show great promise and may lead to increased in vitro fertilization efficiencies. PMID:22685489

Ajduk, Anna

2012-01-01

419

Method of generating chemiluminescent light  

DOEpatents

A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

1986-03-11

420

Method for in vitro recombination  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an in vitro method, using isolated protein reagents, for joining two double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules of interest, wherein the distal region of the first DNA molecule and the proximal region of the second DNA molecule share a region of sequence identity. The method allows the joining of a number of DNA fragments, in a predetermined order and orientation, without the use of restriction enzymes. It can be used, e.g., to join synthetically produced sub-fragments of a gene or genome of interest.

Gibson, Daniel Glenn; Smith, Hamilton O

2013-05-07

421

Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

1980-06-24

422

Novel fusion energy conversion methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential importance of direct energy conversion to the long-term development of fusion power is discussed with emphasis on the possibility of alleviating waste heat problems. This is envisioned to be important for any central power station in the 21st century and crucial for future space applications. Various novel conversion methods are briefly considered, including direct collection, magnetic expansion, synchroton

L. J. Perkins; G. H. Miley; B. G. Logan

1988-01-01

423

Professional Ethics, System Design Methods  

E-print Network

Professional Ethics, System Design Methods and Geospatial Data Quality #12;Objectives #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

424

Monte Carlo methods Rmi Bardenet  

E-print Network

Monte Carlo methods RĂ©mi Bardenet 1 Department of Statistics, Oxford University Abstract. Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among

Boyer, Edmond

425

Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment (MARA) project consists of three main activities in support of assessing the conditions of the nation?s aquatic resources: 1) scientific support for EPA Office of Water?s national aquatic resource surveys; 2) spatial predications of riv...

426

Local Tomographic Methods in SONAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Tomographic methods are described that will reconstructobject boundaries in shallow water using SONAR data. The basic ideasinvolve microlocal analysis, and they are valid under weak assumptionseven if the data do not correspond exactly to our model.1 IntroductionIntegrals over spheres are important in pure mathematics [12], [20], [22] andin applications in partial dierential equations [15] and for physical problemsincluding SONAR

Alfred K. Louis; Eric Todd Quinto Fachbereich

427

Deconstructing Calculation Methods: Part 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this series of four articles is to look critically, and in some detail, at the primary strategy approach to written calculation, as set out on pages 5 to 16 of the "Guidance paper" "Calculation." The underlying principle of that approach is that children should use mental methods whenever they are appropriate, whereas for calculations…

Thompson, Ian

2007-01-01

428

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special

I. D. Hutcheon; P. M. Grant; K. J. Moody

2011-01-01

429

Methods of degrading napalm B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of degrading napalm and\\/or trinitrotoluene involve contacting the waste with specific intra-amoebic isolates of ATCC 40908 and\\/or dispersants derived therefrom. Useful isolates include is deposited as ATCC 77529, NAP-1 deposited as ATCC 77526 and 13 deposited as ATCC 77527.

Richard L. Tyndall; Arpad Vass

1995-01-01

430

Methods of degrading napalm B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of degrading napalm and\\/or trinitrotoluene involve contacting the waste with specific intra-amoebic isolates of ATCC 40908 and\\/or dispersants derived therefrom. Useful isolates are deposited as ATCC 77529, NAP-1 deposited as ATCC 77526 and 13 deposited as ATCC 77527.

R. L. Tyndall; A. Vass

1995-01-01

431

A Nitsche embedded mesh method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for treating the mechanical interactions of overlapping finite element meshes is proposed. Numerous names have been applied to related approaches, here we refer to such techniques as embedded mesh methods. Such methods are useful for numerous applications e.g., fluid-solid interaction with a superposed meshed solid on an Eulerian background fluid grid or solid-solid interaction with a superposed meshed particle on a matrix background mesh etc. In this work we consider the interaction of two elastic domains: one mesh is the foreground and defines the surface of interaction, the other is a background mesh and is often a grid. We first employ a classical mortar type approach [see Baaijens (Int J Numer Methods Eng 35:743-761, 2001)] to impose constraints on the interface. It turns out that this approach will work well except in special cases. In fact, many related approaches can exhibit mesh locking under certain conditions. This motivates the proposed version of Nitsche's method which is shown to eliminate the locking phenomenon in example problems.

Sanders, Jessica D.; Laursen, Tod A.; Puso, Michael A.

2012-02-01

432

Probabilistic Methods for Triangulated Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes existing applications of probabilistic methods, namely simulated annealing and genetic algorithms, in solving problems concerning triangulated models. Most of applications are related to global optimization triangulation criteria, improvement of shapes of triangles or tetrahedra and positions of vertices, sometimes in the context of digital images. The paper also sums up typical features, main advantages and disadvantages of

Ivana Kolingerová

433

ARITHMETIC NULLSTELLENSATZ AND NONSTANDARD METHODS  

E-print Network

ARITHMETIC NULLSTELLENSATZ AND NONSTANDARD METHODS HAYDAR GšORAL Abstract. In this study we find for valuation rings and arithmetical functions. 1. Introduction The arithmetic version of the Nullstellensatz mean the total degree of the polynomial f in several variables. T. Krick, L. M. Pardo and M. Sombra [9

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

ARITHMETIC NULLSTELLENSATZ AND NONSTANDARD METHODS  

E-print Network

ARITHMETIC NULLSTELLENSATZ AND NONSTANDARD METHODS HAYDAR GšORAL Abstract. In this study we find for valuation rings and arithmetical functions. 1. Introduction The arithmetic version of the Nullstellensatz mean the total degree of the polynomial f in several variables. T. Krick, L. M. Pardo and M. Sombra [12

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

PHOTOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR VISIBILITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

A visibility monitoring method is described in which photographs are taken at two distances from a scene and the data are reduced to determine the atmosphereic transmittance and path radiance for the sight path between the two cameras. ata from the magenta-forming layer of color ...

436

Wronskian Method for Bound States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

Fernandez, Francisco M.

2011-01-01

437

Method of separating boron isotopes  

DOEpatents

A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

1981-01-23

438

Method of separating boron isotopes  

DOEpatents

A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT); Cluff, Coran L. (Provo, UT); Hayes, John K. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1984-01-01

439

Video Methods for Speechreading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressed are the history, methodology, and instructional benefits of self-instruction video as a component of speechreading instruction with adolescent and adult hearing-impaired individuals, focusing on: factors in video lesson design, advantages of various hardware alternatives and computer-assisted learning, instructional evaluation methods

Sims, Donald G.

1988-01-01

440

Low level TOC measurement method  

DOEpatents

A method for the determination of total organic carbon in an aqueous sample by trapping the organic matter on a sorbent which is carbon free and analyzing the sorbent by combustion and determination of total CO.sub.2 by IR.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

2001-01-01

441

Penalty Factors From Newton's Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penalty factors calculated by the classical B-coefficients method are shown to be proportional (but not equal) to the penalty factors calculated directly from the transposed acobian. It is also shown that the economic operating point is independent of the load and generation distribution factors Z. Expected computational times in examples with up to 5873 buses and 943 generators are

F. L. Alvarado

1978-01-01

442

Nonstandard Methods in Lie Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this thesis, we apply model theory to Lie theory and geometric group theory. These applications of model theory come via nonstandard analysis. In Lie theory, we use nonstandard methods to prove two results. First, we give a positive solution to the local form of Hilbert's Fifth Problem, which asks whether every locally euclidean local…

Goldbring, Isaac Martin

2009-01-01

443

Method of making monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOEpatents

A method of making particles of either spherical or cylindrical geometry with a characteristic diameter less than 50 nanometers by mixing at least one structure directing agent dissolved in a solvent with at least one amphiphilic block copolymer dissolved in a solvent to make a solution containing particles, where the particles can be subsequently separated and dispersed in a solvent of choice.

Fan, Hongyon; Sun, Zaicheng

2012-10-16

444

Method for classifying ceramic powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the invented method, powder A of particles of less than 10 microns, and carrier powder B, whose average particle diameter is more than five times that of powder A, are premixed so that the powder is less than 40 wt.% of the total mixture, before classifying.

Takabe, K.

1983-01-01

445

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOEpatents

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22

446

Assessment methods in medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1950s, there has been rapid and extensive change in the way assessment is conducted in medical education. Several new methods of assessment have been developed and implemented over this time and they have focused on clinical skills (taking a history from a patient and performing a physical examination), communication skills, procedural skills, and professionalism. In this paper, we

John J. Norcini; Danette W. McKinley

2007-01-01

447

Methods of in vitro toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro methods are common and widely used for screening and ranking chemicals, and have also been taken into account sporadically for risk assessment purposes in the case of food additives. However, the range of food-associated compounds amenable to in vitro toxicology is considered much broader, comprising not only natural ingredients, including those from food preparation, but also compounds formed

G Eisenbrand; B Pool-Zobel; V Baker; M Balls; B. J Blaauboer; A Boobis; A Carere; S Kevekordes; J.-C Lhuguenot; R Pieters; J Kleiner

2002-01-01

448

Image registration methods: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present a review of recent as well as classic image registration methods. Image registration is the process of overlaying images (two or more) of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints, and\\/or by different sensors. The registration geometrically align two images (the reference and sensed images). The reviewed approaches are classified according to

Barbara Zitova Ž; Jan Flusser

2003-01-01

449

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

450

Space Radiation Transport Methods Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary design concepts to the final design. In particular, we will discuss the progress towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic code for which the current HZETRN evaluates the lowest order asymptotic term. HZETRN is the first deterministic solution to the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design practice enabling development of integrated multidisciplinary design optimization methods. A single ray trace in ISS FEM geometry requires 14 milliseconds and severely limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given in terms of reconfigurable computing and could be utilized in the final design as verification of the deterministic method optimized design.

Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Prael, R. E.; Norbury, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

2002-01-01

451

Nanochanneled Device and Related Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nanochannel delivery device and method of manufacturing and use. The nanochannel delivery device comprises an inlet, an outlet, and a nanochannel. The nanochannel may be oriented parallel to the primary plane of the nanochannel delivery device. The inlet and outlet may be in direct fluid communication with the nanochannel.

Ferrari, Mauro (Inventor); Liu, Xuewu (Inventor); Grattoni, Alessandro (Inventor); Fine, Daniel (Inventor); Goodall, Randy (Inventor); Hosali, Sharath (Inventor); Medema, Ryan (Inventor); Hudson, Lee (Inventor)

2013-01-01

452

Grunditz et al. SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS  

E-print Network

Grunditz et al. 1 SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Comparing FRAP of different fluorophores To compare YFP and Alexa-Fluor 594 FRAP measurements, YFP-expressing pyramidal cells were filled with Alexa-Fluor 594 through a patch pipette. Two-photon FRAP experiments were performed at 920 nm, and the recovery of both

Oertner, Thomas

453

Numerical methods in fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transonic flow calculations are examined, taking into account the formulation of transonic flow problems, the solution of the transonic small-disturbance equation, the solution of the exact potential flow equation, accelerated iterative methods, and various applications, including airfoil calculations using a mapping to a circle, boundary-layer correction, nacelle calculations, and the calculation of the flow past a swept wing. The application

H. J. Wirz; J. J. Smolderen

1978-01-01

454

Explorations in Statistics: Permutation Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eighth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores permutation methods, empiric procedures we can use to assess an experimental result--to test a null hypothesis--when we are reluctant to trust statistical…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2012-01-01

455

Method of controlling gene expression  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

Peters, Norman K. (Berkeley, CA); Frost, John W. (Menlo Park, CA); Long, Sharon R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1991-12-03

456

The Intelligent Method of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early psychologist William James [1842-1910] and philosopher John Dewey [1859-1952] described intelligence as a method which can be learned. That view of education is integrated with knowledge about the brain's executive functions to empower pupils to intelligently organize their learning. This article links the pragmatist philosophy of…

Moula, Alireza; Mohseni, Simin; Starrin, Bengt; Scherp, Hans Ake; Puddephatt, Antony J.

2010-01-01

457

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

458

Cask handling method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of transferring radioactive material into and out of the cask comprises positioning a tank with an open end in a well. Then a cask having a passage for moving radioactive material into and out of the cask is placed in the tank through the opening in the tank. The tank opening is then sealed to the cask relative

A. H. Yoli; I. Husain

1977-01-01

459

Method for improving RLS algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recursive least-square (RLS) algorithm has been extensively used in adaptive identification, prediction, filtering, and many other fields. This paper proposes adding a second-difference term to the standard recurrent formula to create a novel method for improving tracing capabilities. Test results show that this can greatly improve the convergence capability of RLS algorithms.

Li, Tian-Shu; Tian, Kai; Li, Wen-Xiu

2007-09-01

460

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

461

APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

462

The Multidimensional Filter Diagonalization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the multidimensional filter diagonalization method (FDM) described in the previous paper (V. A. Mandelshtam, 2000, J. Magn. Reson. 144, 343–356 (2000)) is applied to NMR time signals with up to four independent time variables. Direct projections of the multidimensional time signals produce new kinds of 2D spectra. The resolution obtained by FDM can be far superior to

Haitao Hu; Anna A. De Angelis; Vladimir A. Mandelshtam; A. J. Shaka

2000-01-01

463

Method to prepare oxide films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention pertains to a method for producing metal oxide films characterized by the fact that the metal elements constituting the main metal alloys contain at least one kind of transition element, and that the metal elements which constitute said metal alloy are thin films of barium and titanium in almost the same mol ratio.

Hirota, T.

1986-01-01

464

A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert

1987-01-01

465

Methods and Materials Sample Collection  

E-print Network

Methods and Materials Sample Collection FIGURE I.-Sampling station pattern and location of sample of the stations where one or more of the target species was abundant, samples of yellowfin sole, rock sole from 1933 to 1941 .were the sa~e locations as post-World War II flounder fisherIes, so there IS reason

466

Methods of degrading napalm B  

DOEpatents

Methods of degrading napalm and/or trinitrotoluene involve contacting the waste with specific intra-amoebic isolates of ATCC 40908 and/or dispersants derived therefrom. Useful isolates are deposited as ATCC 77529, NAP-1 deposited as ATCC 77526 and 13 deposited as ATCC 77527.

Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.

1995-09-12

467

Methods of degrading napalm B  

DOEpatents

Methods of degrading napalm and/or trinitrotoluene involve contacting the waste with specific intra-amoebic isolates of ATCC 40908 and/or dispersants derived therefrom. Useful isolates include is deposited as ATCC 77529, NAP-1 deposited as ATCC 77526 and 13 deposited as ATCC 77527.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN); Vass, Arpad (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

468

Tunnel Detection Using Seismic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface seismic methods have shown great promise for use in detecting clandestine tunnels in areas where unauthorized movement beneath secure boundaries have been or are a matter of concern for authorities. Unauthorized infiltration beneath national borders and into or out of secure facilities is possible at many sites by tunneling. Developments in acquisition, processing, and analysis techniques using multi-channel seismic

R. Miller; C. B. Park; J. Xia; J. Ivanov; D. W. Steeples; N. Ryden; R. F. Ballard; J. L. Llopis; T. S. Anderson; M. L. Moran; S. A. Ketcham

2006-01-01

469

Interplanetary Trajectories, Encke Method (ITEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified program has been developed using improved variation of Encke method which avoids accumulation of round-off errors and avoids numerical ambiguities arising from near-circular orbits of low inclination. Variety of interplanetary trajectory problems can be computed with maximum accuracy and efficiency.

Whitlock, F. H.; Wolfe, H.; Lefton, L.; Levine, N.

1972-01-01

470

Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

1990-01-01

471

Methods Classes Go to School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The music department of Brigham Young University has placed two sections of a music methods course for elementary education majors in Vineyard School, a public school in Orem, Utah. This article describes the program's rationale, operations, and benefits. (Author/SJL)

Pratt, Rosalie

1981-01-01

472

Method of forming ceramic bricks  

DOEpatents

A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

1987-04-22

473

Methods of Analysing Educational Outlay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study brings together and develops further methods of analyzing financial outlay on educational institutions. The main theme is the methodology of calculating unit outlay, i.e., examining and relating costs to a unit in nonmonetary terms. Unit outlay calculations have a dual aim: (1) to assess unit outlays and demonstrate outlay differentials…

Edding, Friedrich

474

Kansas' Forests, 2010: Statistics, Methods,  

E-print Network

Kansas' Forests, 2010: Statistics, Methods, and Quality Assurance United States Department's forests on a periodic basis. In Kansas, periodic inventories were completed in 1936, 1965, 1981, and 1994 (Kansas State College 1939, Chase and Strickler 1968, Raile and Spencer 1984, Spencer et al. 1984

475

Nanoscale wicking methods and devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluid transport method and fluid transport device are disclosed. Nanoscale fibers disposed in a patterned configuration allow transport of a fluid in absence of an external power source. The device may include two or more fluid transport components having different fluid transport efficiencies. The components may be separated by additional fluid transport components, to control fluid flow.

Zhou, Jijie (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Noca, Flavio (Inventor); Sansom, Elijah B. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

476

Nucleotide cleaving agents and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

Que, Jr., Lawrence (Roseville, MN); Hanson, Richard S. (Falcon Heights, MN); Schnaith, Leah M. T. (Redwing, MN)

2000-01-01

477

Methods of Measuring Glacier Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 19th century measuring glacier change was limited to measuring the position of the glacier front, or terminus. By the mid 20th century, change measurements expanded to include aerial photogrammetry and field-based mass balance methods. The latter were typically based on stakes drilled into a glacier, against which snow accumulation and ice loss were measured. Knowing the density of

A. G. Fountain

2001-01-01

478

SEA WATER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersal in time and sea of radioactive contamination produced by a ; deep underwater atomic blast was studied instrumentation methods obtained ; radiation intensity vs. depth information for several surface locations, and ; continuously monitored a sea-water intake line aboard ship. Surface ; contamination measuremerts were also made. (auth)

J. W. Duckworth; F. W. Chambers; W. H. Jr. Chapman; R. E. Severance

1958-01-01

479

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01

480

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus is disclosed to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, D.M.

1984-04-10

481

Additive manufacturing method of producing  

E-print Network

Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

Painter, Kevin

482

Well drilling apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and a method for drilling through igneous rock and other hard materials are described. Projectiles or shaped charges are impelled into the rock immediately below a conventional drill bit at various locations on the rock. Projectiles may be impelled one at a time or sequenced in any desired manner. They may be fired in several ways and may

R. L. Alvis; M. M. Newsom

1977-01-01

483

Method of reducing hydraulic instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for improving the flow range in centrifugal pumps and compressors. Bleed holes are introduced into a volute tongue of a centrifugal pump or compressor thereby providing a double acting means of boundary layer control at the volute tongue.

Veres, Joseph P. (inventor)

1994-01-01

484

ASSEMBLY METHODS OTTER -TRAWL NETS  

E-print Network

ASSEMBLY METHODS for OTTER - TRAWL NETS - ..- - --- --- - #12;United States Department- of the Int ··......... .·...... ... ........·· 4 4 Top and Bottom Views of Iceland-Otter Tr awl .......... ..... 5 5 Diagram of l~epr es entative Otter Trawls ·.·.............. .·. 7 6 \\Jeb Sections of Iceland-TravTl Net .·..·..·................ · 8

485

Method of doping organic semiconductors  

DOEpatents

A method includes the steps of forming a contiguous semiconducting region and heating the region. The semiconducting region includes polyaromatic molecules. The heating raises the semiconducting region to a temperature above room temperature. The heating is performed in the presence of a dopant gas and the absence of light to form a doped organic semiconducting region.

Kloc, Christian Leo (Constance, DE); Ramirez, Arthur Penn (Summit, NJ); So, Woo-Young (New Providence, NJ)

2012-02-28

486

Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

2013-04-23

487

The Context Oriented Training Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Context Oriented Training (COT) method is introduced and explored in this paper. COT is a means of improving the training process, beginning with the observation and analysis of current corporate experiences in the field. The learning context lies between the development of professional competencies in training and the operational side in the…

Cavrini, Andrea

488

Pyramid Methods in Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The data structure used torepresent image information can be criticalto the successful completion of an imageprocessing task. One structure that hasattracted considerable attention is the imagepyramid This consists of a set of lowpass orbandpass copies of an image, eachrepresenting pattern information of adifferent scale. Here we describe a variety ofpyramid methods that we have developedfor image data compression, enhancement,analysis

E. H. Adelson; C. H. Anderson; J. R. Bergen; P. J. Burt; J. M. Ogden

1984-01-01

489

A New Method of Trisection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most interesting episodes in the saga of angle trisection was Archimedes' discovery that he could trisect an angle if he could make two marks on his straightedge. This note gives a method of trisection without marks; of course, one does have to "cheat" a little.

Brooks, David Alan

2007-01-01

490

Validation of trajectory statistical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of works have been trying to validate various trajectory statistical methods (TSMs), mostly through subjective comparison with known sources. Here in a more comprehensive and quantitative approach three trajectory statistical methods (potential source contribution function (PSCF), concentration field method (CF), and redistributed concentration field method (RCF)) were subjected to two validation approaches: validation with virtual and real sources under idealised conditions, where the effects of dispersion and removal of the trace substance are excluded, and comparisons with the EMEP SO 2 emission inventory under realistic conditions. The best performance was achieved in an idealised situation with about 78% common spatial variance between the EMEP emission inventory and the trajectory statistical reconstruction of the EMEP emission inventory with the RCF method, whereas the real world experiments for SO 2 on an European scale resulted in a much lower performance with 33% common spatial variance between the EMEP SO 2 emission inventory and the trajectory statistical reconstruction with the PSCF method. The experiments suggest that the limitation of the accuracy and spatial range of TSMs are rooted in the simplified transport process described just by trajectory paths. If one links these limitations with the concept of the mean residence time of the considered trace substance, a temporal and spatial scope can be deduced, within which the effect of the simplification of the transport process is restricted and useful information can be expected from TSMs. The lower values of the mean residence time for SO 2 range from 9 to 17 h, which were deduced from the decay approach, where an exponential decay, respectively, removal of SO 2 was built into the trajectory statistical procedure. The values derived from the optimum real world validation experiment place the upper range of the mean residence time to about 60 h or 2.5 days. Both figures are within the range of mean residence times for SO 2 cited in literature. Through the validation experiments of this work the rule of thumb, not to trust TSMs beyond the mean residence time of the substance, has become palpable. Nevertheless TSMs and related methods are computationally fast procedures, which deliver first hints on potential source areas, if applied within the frame of the mean residence time of the considered substance.

Scheifinger, Helfried; Kaiser, August

491

Natural methods of family planning.  

PubMed

Natural methods of family planning make use of the naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Recognizable signs and symptoms occur cyclically, and women can be taught to recognize them. Changes take place in basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and the cervix uteri. Basal body temperature rises about .2 degrees C (.4 degrees F) immediately after ovulation when the blood levels of progesterone increase. Following menstruation, cervical mucus is composed of cense cellular matter that forms an impenetrable barrier (typeG). As the cycle progresses under the influence of increasing estrogen, there is a predominance of characteristically lumpy opaque mucus (type L). A few days before ovulation, the characteristically thin slippery crystal clear stretchy mucus is produced (type S). Fertile mucus is composed of a combination of L-type and S-type mucus. Estrogen casuses changes to take place in the muscle and connective tissue of the cervix. As estrogen levels rise during the pre-ovulatory phase, the cervix softens and the cervical os opens. A woman can be aware of these changes by gently palpating the cervix with her finger tip. These signs and symptoms which reflect accurately the rise and fall of the hormones estrogen and progesterone are the basis of fertility awareness on which natural methods of family planning are based. In addition to knowing when ovulation takes place, it is also necessary to know the length of time the ovum can be fertilized after ovulation and the life span of the sperm in the female genital tract before ovulation. In fertile mucus, sperm will live an average of 3 days, but it must be understood that it is possible for sperm to survive for 5 days if conditions are right. To make allowances for sperm survuval, the fertile phase starts when follicular development begins and estrogen levels start to rise. The life span of the ovum is less than 24 hours. Natural family planning methods--including the temperature method, the ovulation method (Billings), the calandar method (rhythm), and the sympto-thermal method are explained. PMID:3091823

Clubb, E

1986-08-01

492

Methods of producing cermet materials and methods of utilizing same  

DOEpatents

Methods of fabricating cermet materials and methods of utilizing the same such as in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The cermet material may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. The mixture may be pressed to form a green compact body and then heated in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere so as to melt aluminum particles and form the cermet. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The cermet material may also be formed so as to pass an electrical current therethrough to heat the material during use.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-12-30

493

Fourier methods for turbomachinery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid increase in computing power has made a huge difference in scales and complexities of the problems in turbomachinery that we can tackle by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is recognised, however, that there is always a need for developing efficient methods for applications to blade designs. In a design cycle, a large number of flow solutions are sought to interact iteratively or concurrently with various options, opportunities and constraints from other disciplines. This basic requirement for fast prediction methods in a multi-disciplinary design environment remains unchanged, regardless of computer speed. And it must be recognised that the multi-disciplinary nature of blading design increasingly influences outcomes of advanced gas turbine and aeroengine developments. Recently there has been considerable progress in the Fourier harmonic modelling method development for turbomachinery applications. The main driver is to develop efficient and accurate computational methodologies and working methods for prediction and analysis of unsteady effects on aerothermal performance (loading and efficiency) and aeroelasticity (blade vibration due to flutter and forced response) in turbomachinery. In this article, the developments and applications of this type of methods in the past 20 years or so are reviewed. The basic modelling assumptions and various forms of implementations for the temporal Fourier modelling approach are presented and discussed. Computational examples for realistic turbomachinery configurations/flow conditions are given to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the approach. Although the major development has been in the temporal Fourier harmonic modelling, some recent progress in use of the spatial Fourier modelling is also described with demonstration examples.

He, L.

2010-11-01

494

Adaptive order nodal transport method  

SciTech Connect

High order nodal transport methods have demonstrated high accuracy and computational efficiency in solving transport problems for systems composed of large homogeneous regions. In addition to these properties, the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Method of the Nodal type (AHOT-N), possesses simple final equations and allows modifying the order of the spatial approximation without modifying the programming of the method. However, AHOT-N requires solving the system with the same order in all nodes and discrete directions. This feature could force the use of more equations and unknowns than needed to obtain a given accuracy with a consequent loss of computational efficiency. In a previous work a slight modification to AHOT-N was presented that allows solving a problem with a different order per node per direction. This was applied in an automatic adaptive order scheme aimed at improving the computational efficiency of AHOT-N and simplifying the error estimation of the obtained solutions. If the problem to be solved does not require a uniform order distribution (UOD), the variable order scheme could reduce significantly the number of equations and unknowns evaluated. In addition, the automatic increasing of the order depending on error estimates avoids the pre-selection of the order distribution per node per direction necessary to obtain accurate solutions, practically an impossible task that requires extensive knowledge about the shape of the solution. Since the automatic increasing of the method order depending on the estimated errors concerns data quality rather than quantity, and the optimization of user time rather than CPU time, in this work the authors focus on the behavior of the solutions obtained with the adaptive method.

Zamonsky, O.M. [Bariloche Atomic Center (Argentina); Azmy, Y.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-05-01

495

Design Techniques of Stated Preference Method in Travel Behavior Research: A Research on Data Collection Method and Survey Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated preference (SP) method is a crucial tool widely used in travel behavior research. The main theme addressed was two design techniques of SP surveys: data collection method and survey method. The definition and characteristics of three data collection methods were discussed. Then an evaluation and applicability analysis were achieved. The five major survey methods were elaborated and evaluated.The research

Zhang Yi; Yun Meiping; Yang Xiaoguang

2009-01-01

496

Symmetric key cryptosystem using combined cryptographic algorithms - Generalized modified Vernam Cipher method, MSA method and NJJSAA method: TTJSA algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper the authors have introduced a new combined cryptographic method called TTJSA. Nath et al. have already developed some symmetric key methods. In the present work the authors have used two methods MSA and NJJSAA which were developed by Nath et al. and have developed a new algorithm, generalized modified Vernam Cipher Method. The above three methods

Trisha Chatterjee; Tamodeep Das; Shayan Dey; Asoke Nath; Joyshree Nath

2011-01-01

497

Method of fabricating composite structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating structures formed from composite materials by positioning the structure about a high coefficient of thermal expansion material, wrapping a graphite fiber overwrap about the structure, and thereafter heating the assembly to expand the high coefficient of thermal expansion material to forcibly compress the composite structure against the restraint provided by the graphite overwrap. The high coefficient of thermal expansion material is disposed about a mandrel with a release system therebetween, and with a release system between the material having the high coefficient of thermal expansion and the composite material, and between the graphite fibers and the composite structure. The heating may occur by inducing heat into the assembly by a magnetic field created by coils disposed about the assembly through which alternating current flows. The method permits structures to be formed without the use of an autoclave.

Sigur, W. A. (inventor)

1990-01-01

498

Hydrogen separation using electrochemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen is separated from a hydrogen/nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture by an electrochemical separation method. By applying a direct current to a proton-conducting membrane, hydrogen can be electrochemically dissociated on the platinum catalyst of the anode, transported across the hydrated cation exchange membrane, and then recovered on the catalytic cathode. The operating principles and advantages of the electrochemical hydrogen separation method are described. The effects of temperature and pressure are examined and the optimum operating conditions are determined. Increase in cell temperature enhances the purity of hydrogen and the power efficiency. The pressure of the feeding gas increases both the performance and the amount of hydrogen product, but decreases the purity of the hydrogen because of the increasing permeation flux of impurities, i.e., nitrogen and carbon dioxide. High purity, (99.72%) hydrogen can be achieved from a low purity (30%) feed via a two-stage separation process at 700 mA cm -2.

Lee, H. K.; Choi, H. Y.; Choi, K. H.; Park, J. H.; Lee, T. H.

499

Mrt Rectangular Lattice Boltzmann Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is introduced into the author's rectangular lattice Boltzmann method for simulating fluid flows. The model retains both the advantages and the standard procedure of using a constant transformation matrix in the conventional MRT scheme on a square lattice, leading to easy implementation in the algorithm. This allows flow problems characterized by dominant feature in one direction to be solved more efficiently. Two numerical tests have been carried out and shown that the proposed model is able to capture complex flow characteristics and generate an accurate solution if an appropriate lattice ratio is used. The model is found to be more stable compared to the original rectangular lattice Boltzmann method using the single relaxation time.

Zhou, Jian Guo

2012-05-01

500

Aircraft digital control design methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were conducted in two main areas: the first area is control system design, and the goals were to define the limits of 'digitized S-Plane design techniques' vs. sample rate, to show the results of a 'direct digital design technique', and to compare the two methods; the second area was to evaluate the roughness of autopilot designs parametrically versus sample rate. Goals of the first area were addressed by (1) an analysis of a 2nd order example using both design methods, (2) a linear analysis of the complete 737 aircraft with an autoland obtained using the digitized S-plane technique, (3) linear analysis of a high frequency 737 approximation with the autoland from a direct digital design technique, and (4) development of a simulation for evaluation of the autopilots with disturbances and nonlinearities included. Roughness evaluation was studied by defining an experiment to be carried out on the Langley motion simulator and coordinated with analysis at Stanford.

Tashker, M. G.; Powell, J. D.

1975-01-01