Sample records for rorschach inkblot method

  1. A simple method for evaluation of Rorschach Imagery Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, A; Fogel, M L; Albertson, M G

    1992-10-01

    A general scoring system, previously developed for the analysis of pictorial associations within the paradigm of Visual Imagery Sequences, was applied in the evaluation of visual associations to memory images of Rorschach inkblots (Imagery condition) in a comparison with standard Rorschach responses (Conventional condition). The participants, 80 consecutively selected psychiatric outpatients, were divided into Clinical Reactor and Nonreactor groups, according to how productive they were of psychodynamically revealing material during insight-oriented therapy using imagery. For this simple scoring method (which does not include the customary Rorschach scores), conclusions concerning Imagery Reactivity in the Rorschach agreed with those of previous studies using a scoring system more unique to the Rorschach. The inferences drawn from statistical analysis by groups and conditions also contribute additional refinements to the understanding of the subtle interplay between defensiveness and sensitivity to imagery in determining the patterns of scorable components within the response complex. This general scoring method correctly identified 95.6% of Imagery Reactors and 100% of Imagery Nonreactors, an improvement over the 87% efficiency of the previously described, Rorschach-based method for assessing Imagery Reactivity in the Rorschach. PMID:1408609

  2. The Rorschach in the Context of Performance-Based Personality Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. McGrath

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I draw on literature concerning the current status of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Exner, 2002), performance-based personality measurement, direct versus indirect personality assessment, and dual-process models to suggest a reconceptualization of the Rorschach. The goal is to offer an updated conceptual framework for thinking about the Rorschach that can potentially be used both to enhance the image

  3. Rorschach Score Validation as a Model for 21st-Century Personality Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Bornstein

    2012-01-01

    Recent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the

  4. Dimensions of the Rorschach: A Matter of Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Lawrence D.; Wiggins, Nancy

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying dimensions of the 10 Rorschach inkblots by means of standard multidimensional scaling procedures. The question of whether such emergent dimensions would be related to standard Rorschach scoring categories was raised; and the possibility of individual characteristics was explored.…

  5. Genetic Correlates and Sex Differences in Holtzman Inkblot Technique Responses of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, David G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) responses of 36 same sex and 29 opposite sex college student twin pairs are analyzed. The results are discussed in terms of comparable genetic determination studies with Rorschach responses and the necessity for separate male and female norms on several HIT score response scales. (Author/DEP)

  6. The Use of the Rorschach to Identify Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, David Nelson

    Rorschach's use of inkblots as a diagnostic tool has been quite useful in aiding in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In developing his Comprehensive System for the Rorschach, John Exner (1974) included an index designed to identify schizophrenic subjects. The Schizophrenia Index has evolved to reflect ongoing research. In its current state, the…

  7. A Rorschach Study of Personality Development In Identical and Fraternal Twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Basit

    1972-01-01

    To determine whether identical twins show greater resemblances in their general personality make-up than fraternals, seven pairs of identical and eight pairs of fraternal twins were studied using the Rorschach Inkblot test. The results of the inter-twin correlations, on the various Rorschach categories indicated clearly striking similarity or resemblance in identical twins, but no similarity in the case of fraternal

  8. Stimulus Properties of the Rorschach to a Sample of Pedophiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Stricker

    1964-01-01

    A group of 61 male pedophiles rated the Rorschach inkblots on 21 scales of the semantic differential. The direction of their responses was essentially similar to previous groups performing the same task. However, their response tendency was decidedly different, showing an overuse of the neutral category. This was interpreted as indicating an extreme guardedness of approach, and the implication of

  9. Challenges since Wikipedia: the availability of Rorschach information online and internet users' reactions to online media coverage of the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Douglas S; Loving, James L

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to assess the availability of Rorschach information online and Internet users' attitudes since the inkblots were published on Wikipedia. In the first study, the authors conducted 2 Google searches for Web sites containing Rorschach-related information. The top 88 results were classified by level of threat to test security; 19% posed a direct threat. The authors also found Web sites authored by psychologists that divulged sensitive Rorschach information. In the second study, 588 comments to online news stories covering the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate were coded as expressing favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding the field of psychology, psychologists, and the Rorschach. Eight percent of comments described unfavorable opinions toward psychology, 15% contained unfavorable opinions toward psychologists, and 35% portrayed unfavorable opinions of the Rorschach. Common themes and popular misconceptions of the Rorschach contained in these comments are described. Implications and recommendations for practice are discussed. Limitations, including the second study's narrow sample and self-selection bias, are also detailed. PMID:22176268

  10. Exploring MMPI-Rorschach relationships.

    PubMed

    Ganellen, R J

    1996-12-01

    Limitations exist in the current literature examining Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-Rorschach interrelationships. In this article I attempt to identify several issues to be addressed by researchers in this area. These include restricting conclusions about MMPI-Rorschach relationships to research using the Comprehensive System; considering the relative reliability and validity of these tests; comparing the predictive power of the Rorschach and MMPI; examining the effects extreme outliers have on statistical analyses; and determining the appropriate level of analysis for research, the level of individual test scores, or psychological constructs. The implications of these issues for research design, statistical analysis, and applied clinical work are discussed. PMID:16367673

  11. Theoretical Foundations of Rorschach by Piotrowski.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, William C.

    2005-01-01

    The writer has tried to lift the veil of mystery from the Rorschach Cards by uncovering in simple form the ten basic principles of Zygmunt Protrowski which can be considered the foundation stones of Rorschach; they are composed of psycho-justifications as well as meaningful administrative procedures allowing the reader broader understanding of…

  12. Rorschach Indices of Love, Aggression and Happiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Mukerji

    1969-01-01

    This study enumerates the Rorschach variables used for rating the eight dimensions of love, aggression and happiness, as proposed by the Indian psychologist and psychoanalyst Das Gupta. The purpose of this presentation was to examine, refine and expand the existing principles of interpretation of the Rorschach as they relate to the love and aggressive affect of an individual. The interpretations

  13. The effects of violent media on adolescent inkblot responses: implications for clinical and forensic assessments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T H; Hess, K D; Hess, A K

    1999-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the degree to which violent media stimulate violent fantasy as depicted on inkblot responses. In Experiment I, 41 gifted high school students were exposed to a bucolic or violent film clip and then were asked to produce inkblot responses. In Experiment II, a second sample of 43 additional students were exposed to a verbal description of the bucolic or violent scene to assess whether the "hot" or "cooler" media (McLuhan, 1964) had different effects on the inkblot responses. In both experiments, the media exposure led to increased levels of violent responses, and in both cases males produced more violent responses. There was no sex by media interaction effect. Implications for clinical and forensic assessments are presented. PMID:10348406

  14. Perceptual-organizational characteristics of the Rorschach task.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Bistis, Kimberly; Zahka, Nicole E; Blais, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to begin to explore the perceptual and visuospatial organization required to respond to the Rorschach task. Previous research has shown a relative independence of Rorschach scores from other measures of neurocognitive functioning (e.g., Zillmer & Perry, 1996). However, many of the neuropsychological measures used in previous studies did not require the patient to organize a complex visuospatial stimulus in the same way that the Rorschach does. In this study, data from 27 children and adolescents administered the Rorschach and the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (ROCF) were examined. Results of analyses indicated that, accounting for age and Full Scale IQ, there were a number of significant relationships between accuracy of ROCF renditions and Rorschach measures of developmental quality and perceptual accuracy. Implications for the understanding the nature of the Rorschach response process and its utility in clinical neuropsychology are discussed. PMID:17676544

  15. A Rorschach Test for Visual Classification Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Contemporary models of pattern, detection and discrimination often employ template matching, but there have been few direct tests of this proposition. Adopting a method developed by Ahumada, we have analyzed how human observers discriminate between two letters of the alphabet ('c' and 'x'). The stimulus consisted of a one degree tall letter plus a four degree field of static white noise, both displayed for 16 frames at a 67 Hz frame rate. Our font and display dimensions approximated those of Solomon and Pelli. The observer identified the letter presented. A QUEST staircase varied letter contrast to maintain a 75% correct rate. For each trial, we preserved the information required to reconstruct the noise field. Possible trial categories based on (signal, response) pairs are: (c,c), (c,x), (x,c), (x,x). Noise fields were averaged separately for each category, and a final classification image was obtained by averaging the four mean images after inverting the sign of categories in which x was the response. If the observer employs a template, it should be revealed in the classification image. The lowpass-filtered classification image derived from 2048 responses of one observer is shown here, along with the corresponding ideal template. An approximation to the ideal template can be seen appropriately located within the classification image. We have also simulated and will discuss the classification images expected from various discrimination models in this experimental context. The construction of classification images appears to be a powerful tool for studying classification strategies used by human observers. Like a Rorschach test, it surreptitiously discovers the inner desires of the visual system.

  16. Under Skinner's skin: gauging a behaviorist from his Rorschach protocol.

    PubMed

    Grønnerød, Cato; Overskeid, Geir; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Behaviorism and psychodynamic psychology have been regarded as polar opposites. Contrary to popular belief, B. F. Skinner took an interest in Freud and many of his concepts, and agreed to be tested with the Rorschach method and the Thematic Apperception Test by Roe in her study of scientists (Roe, 1953 ). We looked for signs of creativity defined as complex responses, an intriguing emotional tone, novelty, and liveliness. Skinner displayed an enormous number of responses characterized by simplicity, an intellectualized tone, a driven quality rather than creative complexity, and a sense of strained social relationships and lack of liveliness. The findings are in line with Roe's study of other scientists. Skinner's intellectual productivity and high ambition fits well with the commanding figure history describes. PMID:22731841

  17. Obesity, Level of Aspiration, and Rorschach and TAT Measures of Oral Dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Masling; Lillie Rabie; S. H. Blondheim

    1967-01-01

    Obese Israelis and controls were administered the Rorschach, TAT, and a level-of-aspiration task. The obese Ss scored higher on oral dependence than the control Ss on both the Rorschach (p = .01) and TAT (p = .02). There were no differences on either test for oral sadism, although the Rorschach subcategories of overwhelming figures and burdens and TAT themes of

  18. From Persecution to Depression: A Case of Chronic Depression-Associating the Rorschach, the TAT, and Winnicott.

    PubMed

    Husain, Odile

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I discuss a case study of a patient with depression, paranoid ideation, and other psychiatric difficulties who presented in a state of acute crisis. I review the Swiss Lausanne model of Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) interpretation, focusing on a psychoanalytic understanding of special contents and verbalizations. I then present a review of Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003) Structural Summary variables based on a modified Rorschach administration, while qualifying the meanings of these variables in light of the modified procedure. I conclude with a review of Winnicott's (1969) ideas on the paranoid potential, tie it to the main points of the case, and offer a 5-year follow-up of the patient's treatment. The case offers an approach to personality assessment that is informed by an international theory built on psychology and philosophy, and offers support for the use of an alternative theory-based, psychoanalytic method of data analysis. PMID:25679238

  19. Rorschach missing responses--is this more than nothing?

    PubMed

    King, M G

    2014-01-01

    The Rorschach has been demonstrated as a suitable tool for investigating otherwise hidden psychological aspects of sex offenders: sex-related responses are more common. The present paper looks at the established tendency of some clients to minimise their overall Rorschach responding, the linking of this response restraint to particular Rorschach profiles, and the sparse but consistent literature which casts doubt on the proposition that Examiner enthusiasm will cause the minimising client to provide more responses which divulge additional information. In the case of sex offenders, with so much to hide, it is proposed that there may be extensive filtering of responses even among those giving more than "normal" sex-related responses. "What the client did not say", and the corresponding "missing" Rorschach responses in the case of sex offenders is discussed in the light of an individual case: (a sex offender with undue interest in young boys' penii) where "sex-like" images were specifically targeted, but never named as such. The exciting prospect of inferring what the client could have said and thus generating the content of missing responses, whether or not response filtering produced numerical minimisation, must be balanced against the risk of naked men and women (and their genitalia) representing nothing more than an artefact of the clinician's own making--"ce qui n' est pas le cas". PMID:25571675

  20. Exploring the Validity of Graphology with the Rorschach Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Thiry

    2009-01-01

    Considered by some as a personality assessment technique, graphology is defended by its partisans but finds little solid scientific base. Our research (N = 45) compares the judgment of graphologists (k = 2) and 13 graphological variables with 13 variables of the Rorschach test according to the comprehensive system. The average reliability of graphologists’ judgments was .43. Their average validity

  1. Rorschach Responses Related to Vocational Interests and Job Satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solis L. Kates

    1950-01-01

    This study investigated the vocational interests, Rorschach responses, and job satisfaction of a group of workers employed by the Federal government and engaged in routine clerical work. It attempted to discover whether those who professed greater satisfaction with their work could be distinguished on the clerical scale of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank from those who indicated less satisfaction. The

  2. Use of the Rorschach in forensic settings for treatment planning and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jumes, Michael T; Oropeza, Peter P; Gray, B Thomas; Gacono, Carl B

    2002-06-01

    Forensic psychiatric patients exhibit complex clinical issues that are neither readily understood by staff nor necessarily responsive to traditional psychotherapy or treatment milieu approaches. Individualized treatment planning identifies treatment needs and matches them to treatment services, thereby increasing the opportunity for a positive therapeutic outcome. The nature of the Rorschach, particularly that it bypasses volitional resources, enables observation and quantification of personality processes, making the Rorschach uniquely suited for treatment planning in forensic settings. In this article, the authors review relevant Rorschach literature, address the importance of incorporating Rorschach data into the assessment process, and discuss how Rorschach data fit into a thorough assessment that includes historical, clinical, dispositional, and contextual information. The authors offer two case examples to illustrate how Rorschach data are integrated in forensic treatment planning. PMID:12113208

  3. Rorschach Correlates of Self-Reported Attachment Dimensions: Dynamic Manifestations of Hyperactivating and Deactivating Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ety Berant; Mario Mikulincer; Phillip R. Shaver; Yaacov Segal

    2005-01-01

    We examined associations between self-reported attachment anxiety and avoidance and re- sponses to the Rorschach test. Seventy-two, nonpatient Israeli adults participated in a 2-session study. In the first session, they completed a self-report scale tapping the dimensions of attach- ment anxiety and attachment avoidance. In the second session, they completed the Rorschach test. The Rorschach was administered and coded according

  4. The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

  5. Rorschach and TAT indices of homosexuality in overt homosexuals, neurotics, and normal males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Davids; Mark Joelson; Charles McArthur

    1956-01-01

    Rorschach and TAT protocols of 20 male overt homosexuals, 20 male neurotics, and 20 normal male students were compared in order to determine whether proposed homosexual signs were discriminative. The homosexual group gave a significantly greater mean number of the Rorschach and TAT signs than did either nonhomosexual group. \\

  6. Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still the dominant method of pain treatment in Japan. The current study aimed to evaluate comprehensive psychological functions and processes in Japanese chronic pain patients. Methods The Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to 49 in-patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Major variables and frequencies from the test were then compared to normative data from non-patient Japanese adults by way of the t-test and chi-square test. Results Patients exhibited high levels of emotional distress with a sense of helplessness with regard to situational stress, confusion, and ambivalent feelings. These emotions were managed by the patients in an inappropriate manner. Cognitive functions resulted in moderate dysfunction in all stages. Information processing tended to focus upon minute features in an inflexible manner. Mediational dysfunction was likely to occur with unstable affective conditions. Ideation was marked by pessimistic and less effective thinking. Since patients exhibited negative self-perception, their interpersonal relationship skills tended to be ineffective. Originally, our patients displayed average psychological resources for control, stress tolerance, and social skills for interpersonal relationships. However, patient coping styles were either situation- or emotion-dependent, and patients were more likely to exhibit emotional instability influenced by external stimuli, resulting in increased vulnerability to pain. Conclusions Data gathered from the Rorschach test suggested psychological approaches to support chronic pain patients that are likely to be highly beneficial, and we thus recommend their incorporation into the course of current pain treatments. PMID:21110860

  7. A Rorschach Investigation of Incarcerated Female Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Cunliffe; Carl B. Gacono

    2005-01-01

    Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R ? 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures

  8. Rorschach movement and dreams: A validation study using drug-induced dream-deprivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Lerner

    1966-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that dream deprivation would produce an increase in quantity of projected movement and a change in its quality in the direction of body-dissolution imagery, 20 Ss were tested with Holtzman inkblots before and after 2 nights of drug-induced dream deprivation. Their performance was compared with that of 30 non-dream-deprived controls. Results were significant in the predicted

  9. Concepts of Development and the Rorschach: The Contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner in Historical Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Leichtman

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Test has been approached from 3 fundamentally different developmental perspectives: those growing out of the empiricist tradition, psychoanalysis, and the developmental psychologies of Piaget and Werner. In this article, I highlight the distinctive characteristics of each perspective, explore how they have shaped approaches to Rorschach theory and practice, and examine the contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner

  10. Test Review: Exner, J. E. (2003). "The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System" (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is a major work in psychology that continues to evolve. The Basic Foundations text (Exner, 1974, 1986, 1993, 2003) is now in its fourth edition. The Exner system and the Rorschach have been the subjects of extensive research and publications, and the Exner system has its share of proponents and critics.…

  11. Assessing Depression in Russian Psychiatric Patients: Validity of MMPI and Rorschach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Boyd Ritsher; Elena B. Slivko-Kolchik; Igor V. Oleichik

    2001-01-01

    We tested the criterion, concurrent, and content validity of depression indicators in 180 Russian psychiatric patients. Indicators from the Exner Rorschach (DEPI, CDI) and the Russian MMPI (Berezin Scale 2, Wiggins depression content) were compared to Hamilton (HRSD) scores and 3 types of diagnosis: traditional Russian, contemporary Western (ICD10), and a mixed version. The MMPI scales had significant associations with

  12. Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory, MMPI, and Rorschach in Assessing Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Cynthia L.; Dacey, Christine M.

    1996-01-01

    Assesses validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale (MMPI-D), and the Rorschach Depression Index in measuring adolescent depression. Retroactive charts of 118 hospitalized adolescents were divided into depressed (n=66) and nondepressed (n=52) groups. Results indicated…

  13. Rorschach Comprehensive System data from a sample of 211 nonpatient children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rosangela Kátia Sanches Mazzorana; Semer, Norma Lottenberg; Yazigi, Latife

    2012-01-01

    This study provides Rorschach Comprehensive System normative data for Brazilian boys and girls drawn from public and private schools. Initially, the Child Behavior Checklist was administered to parents to assess the child's social competence and to screen out behavioral disturbances. Afterward, the Raven's Color Progressive Matrices was administered to exclude children with low intellectual development. Finally, the Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to the selected 211 children who were distributed in 4 subgroups: 7-year-olds (n = 50), 8-year-olds (n = 53), 9-year-olds (n = 52), and 10-year-olds (n = 56). Interrater reliability statistics were calculated, including percentage of agreement and iota. Descriptive statistics of all variables of the Comprehensive System for each subgroup are presented and contrasted with results from other relevant comparison samples. PMID:22309762

  14. Rorschach and TAT Responses of Negro, Mexican-American, and Anglo Psychiatric Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale L. Johnson; Melvin P. Sikes

    1965-01-01

    The Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Projective Test responses of 75 Anglos, Negroes, and Mexican-American patients on the psychiatric unit of a Veterans Administration General Medical and Surgical Hospital were compared. The subjects were a random sample of non-psychotic male veterans whose ages, educational backgrounds and occupational levels were quite similar.A number of statistically significant differences were found between the groups,

  15. Use of the Rorschach as a personality assessment tool with African American students

    E-print Network

    Velox, Andrea Jean

    2005-08-29

    . According to child development theory, children develop cognitively in various stages. Piaget (1972) described two stages of intellectual development in children that would be cognitively appropriate for understanding the Rorschach. For ages 7...-11, the period is that of concrete operations; for 11-15 years the period is that of formal operations. In the concrete operations stage (or latency stage as Erikson, 1996 would call it), children have evidence for organized, logical thought...

  16. Standards, accuracy, and questions of bias in Rorschach meta-analyses: reply to Wood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015).

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J; Bombel, George; Dumitrascu, Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Wood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015) found our systematic review and meta-analyses of 65 Rorschach variables to be accurate and unbiased, and hence removed their previous recommendation for a moratorium on the applied use of the Rorschach. However, Wood et al. (2015) hypothesized that publication bias would exist for 4 Rorschach variables. To test this hypothesis, they replicated our meta-analyses for these 4 variables and added unpublished dissertations to the pool of articles. In the process, they used procedures that contradicted their standards and recommendations for sound Rorschach research, which consistently led to significantly lower effect sizes. In reviewing their meta-analyses, we found numerous methodological errors, data errors, and omitted studies. In contrast to their strict requirements for interrater reliability in the Rorschach meta-analyses of other researchers, they did not report interrater reliability for any of their coding and classification decisions. In addition, many of their conclusions were based on a narrative review of individual studies and post hoc analyses rather than their meta-analytic findings. Finally, we challenge their sole use of dissertations to test publication bias because (a) they failed to reconcile their conclusion that publication bias was present with the analyses we conducted showing its absence, and (b) we found numerous problems with dissertation study quality. In short, one cannot rely on the findings or the conclusions reported in Wood et al. PMID:25581288

  17. Developing continuous variable composites for Rorschach measures of thought problems, vigilance, and suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Viglione, Donald; Giromini, Luciano; Gustafson, Margaret L; Meyer, Gregory J

    2014-02-01

    Using a multiple regression approach with a large developmental sample (N = 460) of Rorschach protocols from psychiatric, forensic, and nonclinical control groups, the authors created continuous multivariable Composite scores corresponding to the Comprehensive System (CS) Perceptual-Thinking Index, Hypervigilance Index, and Suicide Constellation. Within a validation sample (N = 230), these three new scores, called the Thought and Perception Composite, Vigilance Composite, and Suicide Concern Composite were strongly associated with the three original CS Indices. Additional analyses suggest that the new Composite scores were more reliable than and at least as valid as the original Indices. Interpretive guidelines are offered. PMID:22619393

  18. Primary generalized epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy: a psychological study using Rorschach tests.

    PubMed

    Kawai, I; Aoki, K

    1983-01-01

    Rorschach tests were performed on patients with primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) and on patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) combined with generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Each group consisted of 20 cases and the two groups were matched as closely as possible. Patients with PGE were found to be characterized by variable responses, sensitivity, extroversion and undifferentiated tendencies. Patients with TLE are practical but inefficient and constricted in character. Cases not on medication displayed the same character types. On the basis of the above findings, speculation is made concerning the features of neurotic or psychotic PGE patients. PMID:6676131

  19. A Rorschach investigation of incarcerated female offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B

    2005-10-01

    Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style. PMID:16260481

  20. Relations Between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–A Scales and Rorschach Variables With the Scope and Severity of Maltreatment Among Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle M. Perfect; Deborah J. Tharinger; Timothy Z. Keith; Teresa Lyle-Lahroud

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preexisting Rorschach (Exner, 2001) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–A (MMPI–A; Butcher et al., 1992) profiles to determine if selected MMPI–A scales and Rorschach variables would jointly associate with the number and severity of maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment) of 157 adolescents (ages 14–17) with documented maltreatment histories. The Maltreatment Classification System was

  1. Rorschach Variables and Dysfunctional Attitudes as Measures of Depressive Vulnerability: A 9Year Follow-Up Study of Individuals With Different Histories of Major Depressive Episodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Hartmann; Marianne Halvorsen; Catharina E. A. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up.

  2. Self-Reported Attachment Patterns and Rorschach-Related Scores of Ego Boundary, Defensive Processes, and Thinking Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ety Berant; Yaarit Wald

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we addressed associations between self-reported attachment scales (anxiety and avoidance) and Rorschach (1921\\/1942) indexes indicating ego-boundary perception (barrier and penetration), use of projective identification, devaluation and splitting defenses, and Comprehensive System (Exner, 2005) scores that represent boundary blurring (incongruous and fabulized combinations). In this study, we extended the sample and findings described by Berant, Mikulincer, Shaver, and

  3. More challenges since Wikipedia: the effects of exposure to internet information about the Rorschach on selected comprehensive system variables.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Douglas S; Brabender, Virginia M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of reading the Wikipedia article on the Rorschach on Comprehensive System variables, participants in this study (recruited from parent-teacher associations, online message boards, and graduate schools; N = 50) were provided with either a copy of the Wikipedia article on the Rorschach (from April 2010) or an irrelevant article, then administered the Rorschach and instructed to "fake good." Monetary incentives were used to increase motivation to dissimulate. Initial results indicated that participants given the Wikipedia article produced a lower number of responses (R) and had higher scores on Populars, X+%, XA%, and WDA% as compared to controls. However, post-hoc analyses revealed that when the influence of Populars was controlled, significant differences for X+%, XA%, and WDA% disappeared. No significant differences were found for Form%, Zf, Blends, or PER, although post-hoc analyses controlling for differences in R revealed a significant difference between groups on Zf%. Limitations of the study and implications for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:23030722

  4. Coming to grips with negative evidence for the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach: a comment on Gacono, Loving, and Bodholdt; Ganellen; and Bornstein.

    PubMed

    Wood, J M; Lilienfeld, S O; Nezworski, M T; Garb, H N

    2001-08-01

    The Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1991, 1993) for the Rorschach is currently engulfed in controversy. This comment article responds to 3 articles by Rorschach proponents in this issue of the Journal of Personality Assessment. Contrary to the claims of Gacono, Loving, and Bodholdt (this issue), CS scores do not bear a well-demonstrated relationship to psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, or conduct disorder. Contrary to the claims of Ganellen (this issue), both the original and the revised CS Depression Index (Exner, 1993) bear little or no relationship to depression diagnoses. Furthermore, the scoring reliability of some CS scores is problematic. Although we agree with Bornstein (this issue) that Rorschach scores generally bear little or no relation to psychiatric diagnoses or self-report questionnaires, we believe this lack of relationship tends to disconfirm hypotheses concerning the validity of the Rorschach. In the spirit of the philosopher Sir Karl Popper, the Rorschach community should not minimize negative evidence or engage in post hoc arguments to immunize the CS against falsification. PMID:11562104

  5. A comparison of selected Rorschach variables of violent female offenders and female non-offenders.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Ilonen, Tuula; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2006-01-01

    A national sample of incarcerated violent female offenders (N = 45) and a sample of female non-offenders (N = 30) were compared on nine selected Rorschach CS (Exner, 2003) variables and three of the aggression variables of Gacono and Meloy (1994). The results indicate that an avoidant and inconsistent coping style was more characteristic of the offenders than the non-offenders. The offenders were characterized by social immaturity and limited capacities to cope with stress as compared with the non-offenders. No significant differences were found between the two groups in handling intense emotions. Although the aggressive scores revealed no discrimination between the groups, significant correlations were found between the aggressive content score and childhood victimization. An inverse relation was found between the aggressive past score and the emotional intensity of the violent offense. The study indicates that the selected RCS variables related to adaptive resources for coping discriminate between violent offenders and non-offenders, but that the variables related to affective features need further examination. PMID:16557639

  6. Extending the Rorschach Trauma Content Index and Aggression Indexes to Dream Narratives of Children Exposed to Enduring Violence: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan H. Kamphuis; Nynke Tuin; Marieke Timmermans; Raija-Leena Punamäki

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compared dream narratives of children and adolescents living under conditions of enduring interpersonal violence (n = 220) versus those living in peaceful surroundings (n = 99) on content variables that have been associated with traumatic experiences in Rorschach (Exner, 1995) imagery. As predicted, children and adolescents living in circumstances of enduring violence reported a higher proportion

  7. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Mikulincer; Phillip R. Shaver; Neta Avihou-Kanza

    2011-01-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found

  8. On Teletrofono and Inkblots ? SCIImpact FactorH-Index

    E-print Network

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    Shockley) (Walter Brattain) (John Bardeen)(: ) [] Bellcore [] (1)(Time Travel)2 (Teleportation)3) [] 1946 (Claude Elwood Shannon; 1916 2001) (John Wilder Tukey; 1915 ­2000)(Hendrik Wade Bode Estimation) (()) : I simply slunk out of the office! () : () (John Wilder Tukey; 1915 ­2000) () (Hendrik

  9. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta

    2011-03-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days. PMID:21390905

  10. MMPI-2 based classification of forensic psychiatric outpatients: an exploratory cluster analytic study.

    PubMed

    Nieberding, Ron J; Gacono, Carl B; Pirie, Mark; Bannatyne, Lynne A; Viglione, Donald J; Cooper, Bruce; Bodholdt, Robert H; Frackowiak, Marita

    2003-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and now the MMPI-2, are the most widely researched personality assessment tools in correctional and related forensic settings (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1940; MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). Using the original MMPI, Megargee (1977a) and colleagues (Megargee & Bohn, 1977; Megargee & Dorhout, 1977) developed an extensive and meaningful classification system for correctional inmates. However, few studies, with the exception of Toch and Adams (1994) cluster analytic study of emotionally disturbed violent offenders, have explored possibilities of a statistically derived categorical classification paradigm within the growing population of forensic psychiatric patients awaiting discharge into the community (Bannatyne, 1996). The present exploratory study investigates the utility of a commonly employed and replicable cluster analytic method in establishing an MMPI-2-based categorical classification system within a substantial forensic psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 300). Here, we present results of a seven-cluster solution, augmented by contemporaneous Rorschach inkblot data utilizing Exner's Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991; Exner et al., 1995). Descriptive cluster characteristics are provided along with potential clinical correlates in an attempt to move closer to the goal of pairing informed assessment with effective treatment in this growing, but unique, population. PMID:12945058

  11. The Rorshach Personality Test In Relation To Perceptual Closure

    E-print Network

    Varvel, Walter A.

    1938-01-01

    *e*ln, 33). The ink-blot test of personality first standardised by Herman Rorschach (50) combines In an Interesting way qualitative and quantitative features. A series of ten ink blots are presented In succession and the subject la asked to tell his... stimulating to children. B* Griffiths (23) used other ink blots in a study of 50 children (5 years old). Here only 30. three blots were given on one day in order to discourage the marked perseveration which Is sometimes found in the case of young children...

  12. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. PMID:18161043

  13. B. F. SKINNER AND THE AUDITORY INKBLOT: The Rise and Fall of the Verbal Summator as a Projective Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Rutherford

    2003-01-01

    Behaviorist B. F. Skinner is not typically associated with the fields of personality assessment or projective testing. However, early in his career Skinner developed an instrument he named the verbal summator, which, at one point, he referred to as a device for \\

  14. STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-print Network

    Delorme, Arnaud

    STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

  15. [Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].

    PubMed

    Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role. PMID:24946440

  16. STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS

    E-print Network

    Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

  17. An Examination of the Construct Validity of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Bombel; Joni L. Mihura; Gregory J. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Using 100 clinical cases, we examined the construct validity of the Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale (Urist, 1977) using Westen and Rosenthal's (2003)rcontrast ? construct validity (CV) procedure for quantifying a pattern of convergent-discriminant relationships between a target measure and a set of criterion variables. Our 15 criterion variables included the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) variables, a CS-based measure

  18. Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

  19. Nutritional Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

  20. Newton's method

    SciTech Connect

    More, J. J.; Sorensen, D. C.

    1982-02-01

    Newton's method plays a central role in the development of numerical techniques for optimization. In fact, most of the current practical methods for optimization can be viewed as variations on Newton's method. It is therefore important to understand Newton's method as an algorithm in its own right and as a key introduction to the most recent ideas in this area. One of the aims of this expository paper is to present and analyze two main approaches to Newton's method for unconstrained minimization: the line search approach and the trust region approach. The other aim is to present some of the recent developments in the optimization field which are related to Newton's method. In particular, we explore several variations on Newton's method which are appropriate for large scale problems, and we also show how quasi-Newton methods can be derived quite naturally from Newton's method.

  1. Vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  2. Scientific method

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-07-09

    The scientific method starts with asking a question you would like to answer. Next, background research helps form the basis of your hypothesis, or what you think the outcome of your experiment will be given your background research. You would then design an experiment and test your hypothesis in your experiment. Lastly, you would analyze the outcome of your experiment and revise your hypothesis and/or experiment to test again later. The discoveries of DNA and the human genome are in part due to good use of the scientific method and a sharing of information between scientists.

  3. Characterization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  4. Eigenvalue Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Charles A.

    1982-03-01

    The eigenvalues, Enl, of the radial Schrödinger equation are approximated by ck(E=Enl)=0 (k=2, 3, ...?), where E is the energy and the ck are the power-series coefficients of f(r)=?(r)[rl+1w(r)] with ?(r) the wave function and w(r) a weight function. This is an extension of the method used to solve certain potentials exactly where ck(E=Enl)=0 terminates a power series.

  5. Geoelectrical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Kirsch; Ugur Yaramanci

    Geoelectrical methods are applied to map the resistivity structure of the underground. Rock resistivity is of special interest for hydrogeological purposes: it allows, e.g., to discriminate between fresh water and salt water, between soft-rock sandy aquifers and clayey material, between hardrock porous\\/fractured aquifers and low-permeable claystones and marlstones, and between water-bearing fractured rock and its solid host rock. These applications

  6. Gelcasting methods

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kirby, Glen H. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Knoxville, TN); Nunn, Stephen D. (Knoxville, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

  7. Spinoza's Method

    E-print Network

    Mangum, Donald

    is certainty. Further, it is also evident that, for the certitude of truth, no further sign is necessary beyond the posses­ sion of a true idea: for, as I have shown, it is not necessary to know that we know that we know.8 True knowledge is therefore... the question of how we know that we know. Briefly, the theory portrays knowledge as an independent power of the mind--independent, that is, from both its objective correlate and any higher method of verification. But before going further into this theory...

  8. Tensiometer methods

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  9. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  10. Cutting Plane Methods and Subgradient Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Mitchell

    Interior point methods have proven very successful at solving linear programming problems. When an explicit linear programming formulation is either not available or is too large to employ directly, a column generation approach can be used. Examples of column generation approaches include cutting plane methods for integer programming and decomposition methods for many classes of optimization problems. We discuss the

  11. DNA Based Encryption Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Z. Hsu; R. C. T. Lee

    In this paper, we shall point out that the DNA sequences possess some interesting properties which we can utilize to encrypt data. We presented three methods, the insertion method, the complementary pair method and the substitution method. For each method, we secretly select a reference DNA sequence S and incorporate the secret message M into it such that we obtain

  12. The Multidimensional WKB Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)

  13. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  14. An image inpainting method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BianRu Li; Yue Qi; XuKun Shen

    2005-01-01

    Image inpainting technique has been widely used for reconstructing damaged old photographs and removing unwanted objects from images. In this paper, we present an image inpainting method based on the existing exemplar-based image inpainting idea. Our method improves the robustness and effectiveness by rational confidence computing method, matching strategy and filling scheme. Therefore, our method effectively prevents \\

  15. INTRODUCTION CURRENT METHODS

    E-print Network

    Auerbach, Scott M.

    drinking water. Current methods include reverse osmosis and distillation. Future methods such as forward osmosis and biomimetics are being researched. In this report we propose the current most efficient method for desalination is reverse osmosis. In this method, pressure forces water to diffuse across a semi- permeable

  16. Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    of using a method or tool, a qualitative experiment to assess the features provided by a method or toolUniversiteit Antwerpen Research Methods in Computer Science (Serge Demeyer -- University of Antwerp) Lab on Reengineering http://lore.ua.ac.be/ Zurich Kunsthaus Antwerp Middelheim Research Methods

  17. Method as Ruse: Foucault and Research Method

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Marvin L.

    1994-04-01

    be discovered In this essay. the realist and idealist models of method are criticized from Foucault's perspective. Both models rely on some transcendental reality which -- from Foucault's perspective -- are constructed by the practices of research itself. Even...

  18. Econometric Methods for

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    Econometric Methods for Development Microeconomics of Development Compulsory modules & restrictions for Social Analysis (Spring) ·Climate Change Policy for Development ·Econometric Methods for Development Optional DEV modules: (subject to availability**) Study skills support (essay writing, etc) Development

  19. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... still feel full. FACT SHEET Proven Weight loss Methods the diabetes prevention program (dpp) In this large ... 2 diabetes. www.hormone.org proven Weight loss methods fact sheet What other strategies can help you ...

  20. Gallbladder Removal: Laparoscopic Method

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Method Gallbladder Removal: Laparoscopic Method How is the gallbladder removed? The surgery to remove the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy ( ... it hard for your doctor to see your gallbladder, an open surgery may be better for you. Your doctor will ...

  1. Towards Method Component Contextualization

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the construction, improvement and modification of the methods used to develop Information Systems (IS). Situational for characterizing situations of IS development projects and for guiding the method components selection from, it is now apparent that a universal method that could be applied to deal with any IS development project

  2. Principles and Methods Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

  3. Mind-Body Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    Mind-Body Methods Aromatherapy, yoga, and other methods used in cancer care to improve the mind’s capacity to affect bodily functions ... about practicing yoga. Clinical Trials for Mind-Body Methods The list below shows the type of mind- ...

  4. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Redefining the "Scientific Method".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

  6. California rapid assessment method

    E-print Network

    standardized, cost- effective tools for land use planning and project evaluation. A rapid assessment method are used to evaluate the general condition of wetlands using field indicators. These methods provideCalifornia rapid assessment method Cram www.cramwetlands.org For further questions, email cram

  7. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  8. Accelerated molecular dynamics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-04

    The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

  9. Topics in spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    After detailing the construction of spectral approximations to time-dependent mixed initial boundary value problems, a study is conducted of differential equations of the form 'partial derivative of u/partial derivative of t = Lu + f', where for each t, u(t) belongs to a Hilbert space such that u satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that L is an unbounded, time-independent linear operator. Attention is given to Fourier methods of both Galerkin and pseudospectral method types, the Galerkin method, the pseudospectral Chebyshev and Legendre methods, the error equation, hyperbolic partial differentiation equations, and time discretization and iterative methods.

  10. The Use of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Rorschach in Treatment Planning with Antisocial Personality Disordered Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl B. Gacono

    1998-01-01

    As mental health resources dwindle, efficient use of available services becomes an economic and ethical necessity. Integral to this process are screening, assessment, and treatment planning. Treatment planning is especially critical in correctional settings where change-resistant Antisocial Personality Disordered (ASPD) individuals compose a disproportionate percentage of the population. Not a homogeneous group, some ASPDs are treatable, some are not. The

  11. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  12. Spectral methods for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

  13. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  14. WASHER METHOD DEMO GALLERY

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2002-04-23

    This is a gallery of demos that can be used to illustrate the washer method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the washer method. Two formats, animated gif and mov, are provided for the method of washers examples.

  15. Rossi Alpha Method

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-..alpha.. is no longer an ..alpha..-eigenvalue.

  16. Adolescent Contraceptive Method Choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan R. Kahn; Ronald R. Rindfuss; David K. Guilkey

    1990-01-01

    This article analyzes determinants of contraceptive method choices among adolescent women in the United States. By using data\\u000a from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, we examine factors that differentiate users of various methods early in the\\u000a sexual careers of teenaged women. We find that patterns of method choice not only vary by race and region within the United

  17. The Boundary Element Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Aliabadi; D. P. Rooke

    \\u000a The boundary element method (BEM) also known as the boundary integral equation (BIE) method is now firmly established in many\\u000a engineering disciplines as an alternative numerical technique to the finite element method (FEM). The attraction of BEM can\\u000a be largely attributed to the reduction in the dimensionality of the problem; for two-dimensional problems, only the line-boundary\\u000a of the domain needs

  18. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  19. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  20. Spectral collocation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1987-01-01

    This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.

  1. Unit Commitment Solution Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayeed Salam

    An effort to develop a unit commitment approach capable of handling large power systems consisting of both thermal and hydro generating units offers a large profitable return. In order to be feasible, the method to be developed must be flexible, efficient and reliable. In this paper, various proposed methods have been described along with their strengths and weaknesses. As all

  2. Parallel Spectral Numerical Methods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gong Chen

    This module teaches the principals of Fourier spectral methods, their utility in solving partial differential equation and how to implement them in code. Performance considerations for several Fourier spectral implementations are discussed and methods for effective scaling on parallel computers are explained.

  3. THE ?SF METHOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Okamoto, A.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    The ?-ray strength function (?SF) interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission as a common ingredient in the statistical model. Outlined here is an indirect method of determining radiative neutron-capture cross sections for unstable nuclei based on the ?-ray strength function. Application examples of the ?SF method are demonstrated.

  4. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  5. [Modern angiological diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Grossmann, K

    1979-04-15

    The tasks of apparative examination methods in the angiologic diagnostics are explained. Apart from the mechanical oscillography the possibilities of registration and evaluation of the peripheral pulse wave are discussed. As quantitative examination method the plethysmography is broadly used. The most important applications of the ultrasound-Doppler-technique are described. PMID:473831

  6. Computer methods mechanics and

    E-print Network

    Yosibash, Zohar

    m.__33 l!id Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering EL!!EMER Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 129 (1996) 349-370 Superconvergent extraction of flux intensity factors and first investigations. Most of the work has been concerned with estimation and control of error in energy norm (see [l

  7. Vehicle electronic control method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hattori; M. Ishihara

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of electronically controlling a vehicle having a clutch controlled by a clutch actuator, a transmission for changing gear ratios by a transmission actuator and having a synchromesh mechanism provided at gear positions other than a reverse gear position, and an electronic control unit for controlling both actuators in accordance with the vehicle running conditions. The method

  8. DISK METHOD DEMO GALLERY

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2002-02-24

    This is a gallery of demos for illustrating the disk method for volumes of solids of revolution. The animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background relating to the steps of disk method. Three file formats, gif, mov, and avi are available.

  9. Evaluating Geophysical Equipment & Methods

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologists monitor data collection during a geophysical survey using the horizontal-to-vertical ambient-noise seismic method. This method can be used to estimate unconsolidated sediment thickness and map the bedrock surface as part of groundwater investigations. The survey was conducted as pa...

  10. Haplotyping Methods for Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guimin; Allison, David B.; Hoeschele, Ina

    2009-01-01

    Haplotypes provide valuable information in the study of diseases, complex traits, population histories, and evolutionary genetics. With the dramatic increase in the number of available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, haplotype inference (haplotyping) using observed genotype data has become an important component of genetic studies in general and of statistical gene mapping in particular. Existing haplotyping methods include (1) population-based methods, (2) methods for pooled DNA samples, and (3) methods for family and pedigree data. The methods and computer programs for population data and pooled DNA samples were reviewed recently in the literature. As several authors noted, family and pedigree datasets are abundant and have unique advantages. In the past twenty years, many haplotyping methods for family and pedigree data have been developed. Therefore, in this contribution we review haplotyping methods and the corresponding computer programs suitable for family and pedigree data and discuss their applications and limitations. We explore the connections among these methods, and describe the challenges that remain to be addressed. PMID:19172084

  11. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2014-05-20

    An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.

  12. LANDFILL GAS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane from landfills contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The development of cost-effective methods for measuring diffuse emissions from landfills remains a difficult issue for regulators and landfill operators. Currently, two major options are available: (1) above-ground methods which quantif...

  13. SHELL METHOD DEMO GALLERY

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2002-02-02

    This is a gallery of animations that can be used to illustrate the shell method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the shell method.

  14. DISCUSS: Sampling Methods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hunt, Neville

    This tutorial, created by Sidney Tyrrell and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces different types of sampling methods. Links to Excel spreadsheet files with exercises for exploring sampling methods are given at the end of the module. Topics include random, systematic, cluster, stratified, and quota sampling. This software require Microsoft Excel. Without this software, these programs will not work.

  15. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  16. ZEIN DECOLORIZATION METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow color corn and corn processing coproducts is due to xanthophylls and carotenes which possess nutraceutical value. Colorless zein commands a premium price. Our objective was to devise methods for decolorizing zein. Methods investigated include: supercritical CO2 extraction of zein with ...

  17. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

  18. The Monte Carlo Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ulam

    1949-01-01

    We shall present here the motivation and a general description of a method dealing with a class of problems in mathematical physics. The method is, essentially, a statistical approach to the study of differential equations, or more generally, of integro-differential equations that occur in various branches of the natural sciences.

  19. Methods for data classification

    DOEpatents

    Garrity, George (Okemos, MI); Lilburn, Timothy G. (Front Royal, VA)

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  20. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  1. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  2. Audience Methods Collaboration (Evaluation)

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Audience Methods Collaboration (Evaluation) Impact on Audience (Evaluation) Impact on Research 1 to be interested in your research? Consider the best ways to engage them: What methods, activities, formats involved gain from participating and how will you evaluate this? Consider integration with your research

  3. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  4. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  5. Dynamic Bundle Methods

    E-print Network

    2007-03-15

    First, the dual function should be much simpler to evaluate (at any given x) than ... ter cutting planes method in [BdMV05] and bundle methods in [FG99,FGRS06, ..... an important tool for our analysis will be the following primal problem: ?. ??.

  6. The Oxygen Flask Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

  7. Boundary Element Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Hall

    \\u000a The Boundary Element Method presented in this chapter brings together the work on ordinary integral equations and their extension\\u000a to boundary integral equations — set out in Chapters 1 and 2 — to produce a complete, but brief, exposition of the method\\u000a in its simplest form.

  8. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  9. The Method of Archimedes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  10. Coal seam fracing method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perlman

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well. The method consists of: injecting a fracing fluid into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has fine proppants suspended with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid

  11. DISCOURSE ON METHODS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOUCHER, JOHN G.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS METHODS

    E-print Network

    Horváth, Ákos

    ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS METHODS LABORATORY PRACTICES #12;Foundations of Environmental Science Lecture Enviromental Physics Methods Laboratory Practices #12;Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Science ENVIRONMENTAL tankönyvsorozat" (KMR Foundations of Environmental Science Lecture Series). KEYWORDS: Environmental physics

  13. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

  14. Scientific method lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2002-01-01

    Why is the scientific method important to the study of science? This instructional tutorial, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 7-12, introduces students to the scientific method. Here the five steps of the scientific method are presented and used to solve crimes. Students choose whether information is fact or inference, practice identifying hypotheses, and identify errors in experiments. Many student answers to written questions are saved and available for later viewing. The second part of the activity applies the scientific method to a historical study of astronomy. Students explore the Ptolemaic and Copernican views of planetary motion while applying the scientific method through the work of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Aristarchus, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  15. Probabilistic boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

  16. Numerical methods in metalforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, N.

    1984-09-01

    At the very heart of metal forming analysis is the theory of plasticity. A brief description of this theory is given. The infinitesimal theory of plasticity, simplified by discarding the elastic part of deformation (also known as the flow theory) has produced several approximate methods of analysis that have proved very useful in metal forming. The basic assumptions are presented that lead to the uniform deformation method, the slab method, the upper-bound method and the slip-line field method. The availability of computers with relatively inexpensive, large amounts of number-crunching capabilities fostered the development of the finite element method. Originally used in structural analysis, it rapidly expanded into other fields, and has been applied to metal forming analysis since the early seventies. This is the area in which most of the recent work in this field has been done. The first one is based on the rigid plastic approach (the flow theory) for which the infinitesimal theory of plasticity has been sufficient. It leads to relatively simple formulations which have allowed its users to attack the difficult problems specific to metal forming applications. The second one is based on the more complete elasto-plastic approach which almost always requires a large deformation theory of plasticity. The formulations are more complicated and have followed, if not actually led to, development in the theory itself. This reports ends with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the finite element method.

  17. Future contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    Contraceptive development in the US over the past two decades has been seriously hampered by regulatory issues, political pressures, and legal concerns. Researchers primarily outside of the US, however, are continuing to work on improving existing methods and developing new ones. In particular, AIDS has renewed interest in barrier methods to prevent the transmission of HIV, the underlying agent of AIDS. Female-controlled barrier methods and agents with virucidal and microbicidal properties are sorely needed. This article provides an overview of some contraceptive methods on the market in other countries, but not available in the US, modifications to existing methods which are under investigation, and new methods of contraception on the horizon. After the opening section on the climate for contraceptive development, the paper examines contraception for female use under the following headings: hormonal implants; biodegradable implants; biodegradable norethindrone pellets; biodegradable injectable norethindrone microspheres; transdermal contraceptives; vaginal rings; injectables; IUDs; female barrier methods such as spermicides, the PROTECTAID sponge, disposable diaphragms, and Lea's Shield and FemCap; and permanent chemical and reversible forms of sterilization. For men, testosterone injections, progestin-androgen combinations, peptide hormones, polyurethane and Kraton condoms of comparatively more headroom, permanent and reversible sterilization, drugs and plant compounds, nifedipine, and contraceptive vaccines are considered. PMID:12345631

  18. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  19. Generalized Schwarzschild's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new finite element method (FEM) to construct continuous equilibrium distribution functions (DFs) of stellar systems. The method is a generalization of Schwarzschild’s orbit superposition method from the space of discrete functions to continuous ones. In contrast to Schwarzschild’s method, FEM produces a continuous DF and satisfies the intra-element continuity and Jeans equations. The method employs two finite element meshes, one in configuration space and one in action space. The DF is represented by its values at the nodes of the action-space mesh and by interpolating functions inside the elements. The Galerkin projection of all equations that involve the DF leads to a linear system of equations, which can be solved for the nodal values of the DF using linear or quadratic programming, or other optimization methods. We illustrate the superior performance of FEM by constructing ergodic and anisotropic equilibrium DFs for spherical stellar systems (Hernquist models). We also show that explicitly constraining the DF by the Jeans equations leads to smoother and/or more accurate solutions with both Schwarzschild’s method and FEM.

  20. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  1. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  2. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  3. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  4. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  5. Introduction to multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesseling, P.

    1995-01-01

    These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.

  6. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Gerhard D. (Velarde, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  7. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  8. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  9. Bone Surface Mapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bone shape is an important factor to determine the bone's structural function. For the asymmetrically shaped and anisotropically distributed bone in vivo, a surface mapping method is proposed on the bases of its geometric transformation invariance and its uniqueness of the principal axes of inertia. Using spiral CT scanning, we can make precise measurements to bone in vivo. The coordinate transformations lead to the principal axes of inertia, with which the prime meridian and the contour can be set. Methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping method can reflect the shape features and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. This method can be applied to research into the surface characteristics and changes of organ, tissue or cell whenever its digitalized surface is obtained. PMID:22412952

  10. The Myopia of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorik, John A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)

  11. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  12. Method for synthesizing boracities

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA

    1982-01-01

    A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.

  13. Semiparametric Methods and Applications

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhongjian

    2014-05-02

    theoretical semiparametric methods, we study the dynamic effectiveness of marketing mix variables and the competition among the pioneer and early followers in pharmaceutical industry. With two pharmaceutical categories data, we find dynamic effectiveness...

  14. The Directed Case Method

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leslie Nesbitt Curtin

    2000-09-01

    Many instructors think that by incorporating case study analysis into the science classroom they will sacrifice course content. The directed case method, however, is a proven strategy for deepening and solidifying understanding of facts and concepts when

  15. Smoothed Finite Element Method

    E-print Network

    Dai, K.Y.

    In this paper, the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) is proposed for 2D elastic problems by incorporation of the cell-wise strain smoothing operation into the conventional finite elements. When a constant smoothing ...

  16. Bibliometric Methods relationships among

    E-print Network

    Belew, Richard K.

    : The Magnesium-Migraine Link fatty linoleic MAGNESIUM prostaglandin cholesterol A platelets allergic platelet chenodeoxycholic infarction B MIGRAINE C #12;6 The ARROWSMITH Method migraine Restricting the Search in ARROWSMITH

  17. The adaptive Verlet method

    E-print Network

    Huang, Weizhang; Leikuhler, Benedict

    1997-01-01

    one force evaluation is needed. The new method also conserves the angular momentum for an N-body problem. The use of reversible schemes, together with a step control based on normalization of the vector field (arclength reparameterization...

  18. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  19. Ethnographic Observation Methods

    E-print Network

    expertise Usability, HCI, methods Interface design Clinician characteristics Medical expertise Clinical role for error? Identify opportunities What can be done better? #12;Goals Describe clinicians Hospitalists, specialists, surgeons, nurses, EMS personnel, support. Describe clinical environments Ambulatory, hospital

  20. Method for making organooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2003-12-23

    A method for the preparation of organooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided which comprises reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with at least one transition metal organo compound.

  1. Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.

  2. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  3. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  4. Methods of Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Carlone

    2006-11-12

    To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

  5. Bayesian methods in bioinformatics

    E-print Network

    Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2007-04-25

    BAYESIAN METHODS IN BIOINFORMATICS A Dissertation by VEERABHADRAN BALADANDAYUTHAPANI Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful?llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2005... Major Subject: Statistics BAYESIAN METHODS IN BIOINFORMATICS A Dissertation by VEERABHADRAN BALADANDAYUTHAPANI Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful?llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  6. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

    1985-09-10

    A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  7. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  8. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz (East Patchogue, NY)

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  9. Boundary Element Method Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dwyer, Jerry

    2004-09-21

    The Boundary Element Method is a numerical scheme for solving partial differential equations. In this tutorial, we illustrate this method using the example of temperature distribution in a two dimensional plate. The tutorial was developed by Professor Jerry Dwyer and Kathy Hichcock of the Mathematics Departments of the University of Tennessee and Leonard Gray of the Mathematical Sciences Section of Oak Ridge National Laboratory . The zip file contains a word file.

  10. Spline Classification Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Schumaker, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of spline functions in the development of classification algorithms is discussed. A method is formulated for producing spline approximations to univariate density functions when each density function is described by a histogram of measurements. The resulting approximations are then incorporated into a Bayesian classification procedure for which the probability of misclassification can be readily computed. Some preliminary numerical results are presented to illustrate the method.

  11. Methods in Molecular Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyuk, Igor N.; Zaccai, Nathan R.; Zaccai, Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Our knowledge of biological macromolecules and their interactions is based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. These methods, which include mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy, diffraction and crystallography, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance, are complementary; each has its specific advantages and limitations. Organised by method, this textbook provides descriptions and examples of applications for the key physical methods in modern biology. It is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of molecular biophysics in science and medical schools, as well as research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques beyond their specialty. As appropriate for this interdisciplinary field, the book includes short asides to explain physics aspects to biologists and biology aspects to physicists. Comprehensive coverage and up-to-date treatment of the latest physical methods in modern biology Each method includes a brief historical introduction, theoretical principles, applications, advantages and limitations, and concludes with a checklist of key ideas Interdisciplinary and accessible to biologists, physicists, and those with medical backgrounds

  12. The ICARE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance. The ICARE method can be used to improve all elements of a system and, consequently, the system-level functional, physical and operational performance. Even though ICARE was specifically designed for a systems engineer, any person whose job is to examine another person, product, or process can use the ICARE method to improve effectiveness, implementation, usefulness, value, capability, efficiency, integration, design, and/or marketability. This paper provides the details of the ICARE method, emphasizing the method s application to systems engineering. In addition, a sample of other, non-systems engineering applications are briefly discussed to demonstrate how ICARE can be tailored to a variety of diverse jobs (from project management to parenting).

  13. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  14. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8?±?4.7?years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  15. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  16. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  17. Shape Bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  18. Bayesian Methods in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

    2014-02-01

    Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

  19. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  20. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nedd, Sean

    2012-06-20

    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  1. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip (Schenectady, NY); Thornton, Roy Fred (Schenectady, NY); Salvo, Joseph James (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  2. Methods of visualizing graphs

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak C. (Richland, WA); Mackey, Patrick S. (Kennewick, WA); Perrine, Kenneth A. (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  3. Around Ovsyannikov's method

    E-print Network

    Dmitri Finkelshtein

    2014-12-30

    We study existence, uniqueness, and a limiting behaviour of solutions to an abstract linear evolution equation in a scale of Banach spaces. The generator of the equation is a perturbation of the operator which satisfies the classical assumptions of Ovsyannikov's method by a generator of a C_0-semigroup acting in each of the spaces of the scale. The results are (slightly modified) abstract version of those considered in [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 25, 2, 2015, pp.343-370] for a particular equation. An application to a birth-and-death stochastic dynamics in the continuum is considered.

  4. Probabilistic methods for physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirier, G.

    2013-02-01

    We present an asymptotic method giving a probability of presence of the iterated spots of Rd by a polynomial function f. We use the well-known Perron Frobenius operator (PF) that lets certain sets and measure invariant by f. Probabilistic solutions can exist for the deterministic iteration. If the theoretical result is already known, here we quantify these probabilities. This approach seems interesting to use for computing situations when the deterministic methods don't run. Among the examined applications, are asymptotic solutions of Lorenz, Navier-Stokes or Hamilton's equations. In this approach, linearity induces many difficult problems, all of whom we have not yet resolved.

  5. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  6. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Gay; Donald E. McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi\\/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and

  7. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Gay; D. E. McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at

  8. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Gay; D. E. McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity

  9. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  10. Seismic Inversion Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, Jason [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2009-09-16

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  11. Biomass treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  12. Method of purifying isosaccharinate

    DOEpatents

    Rai, Dhanpat (Yachats, OR); Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-09-07

    A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

  13. Method for forming boreholes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goodhart

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of boring a well hole into a target zone in a formation comprising the steps of boring an essentially vertical hole to at least a predetermined depth below the target zone in the formation, the vertical hole being laterally displaced from the target zone, lowering via the vertical hole drilling apparatus including a mud pressure driven

  14. NATURE METHODS ADVERTISING FEATURE

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    NATURE METHODS ADVERTISING FEATURE APPLICATION NOTES siRNA design including secondary structure target site prediction Gerrit Schramm & Rebecca Ramey When performing RNA interference (RNAi) experiments created an online design tool allowing researchers to analyze mRNA target sites. RNAi mechanism

  15. Kim & Whalen SUPPLEMENTARY METHODS

    E-print Network

    Whalen, Paul J.

    effects model, which accounts for inter-subject variability and allows population based inferences JH (2003) An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of f the magnitude of the correlation between FA and trait anxiety changes along the amygdala-vmPFC pathway

  16. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  17. Method of separating isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niemann

    1979-01-01

    A method is proposed for separating isotopes from a mixture of their respective gaseous compounds by means of laser radiation. The differences of the absorption coefficients at a given wavelength for the different isotopes which are to be separated should be as great as possible, so that only one isotope excited and may thus be isolated by conventional physical or

  18. Methods of Reactivity Umpolung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter SeebachL

    The past decade of organic chemistry may be characterized as a period of violent development of new synthetic methods. This was accompanied by a systematization of the analysis of synthetic problems (synthetic strategy). The planning of the synthesis of an organic target molecule is greatly facilitated by distinguishing between reagents X(C),, . . . with normal reactiv- ity (acceptor properties

  19. Soccer Coaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Bill

    The basic principles and techniques of soccer are explained and illustrated with photographs and diagrams to aid teachers who are introducing soccer into the physical education curriculum. In addition, it is designed to guide youth soccer coaches who wish to improve their presentations. The book discusses: (1) coaching methods; (2) passing and…

  20. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  1. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  2. Test Method Urobilinogen

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    Test Method Visual Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p # Ictotest®(Bilirubin): Lot # Protein (Sulfosalicylic Acid): Lot # Specific Gravity - Saline 0.85 Specific # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity HCG

  3. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  4. Truth and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)

  5. Methods of Improving Visibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Lowndes

    1921-01-01

    THE observations of Prof. C. V. Raman (NATURE, October 20, p. 242) on a method of improving the visibility of distant objects by the elimination of reflected light by means of a Nicol's prism placed in the eye-piece of a telescope are certainly interesting, but at the same time they are thoroughly well known, and the idea of increasing the

  6. Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David N. Blauch

    This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

  7. Germany's Aims and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Irving

    1916-01-01

    THOSE of us whose educational experience has taught us to see behind the scenes of English official life in scientific matters for the last two or three decades will be prepared to endorse the scathing indictment brought against English officialdom by Sir William Ramsay in his article in NATURE of January 27, on ``Germany's Aims and Methods''. My own experience,

  8. Multirate linear multistep methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Gear; D. R. Wells

    1984-01-01

    The design of a code which uses different stepsizes for different components of a system of ordinary differential equations is discussed. Methods are suggested which achieve moderate efficiency for problems having some components with a much slower rate of variation than others. Techniques for estimating errors in the different components are analyzed and applied to automatic stepsize and order control.

  9. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  10. Chemical Methods of Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fran Slowiczek, Ed.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this lab, learners evaluate the relative effectiveness of various chemical substances (i.e. garlic powder, bathroom cleaner, mouthwash, etc.) as antimicrobial agents. Learners use the agar diffusion method to determine "zones of inhibition." This lesson guide includes background information, questions for learners, and additional activity ideas.

  11. Mathematical Methods in Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Dadayan; Yu. Chernyak

    1961-01-01

    During April, 1960, a meeting was held at the USSR Academy of Science, to discuss the use of mathematical methods in economic research and planning. Fifty six reports were circulated beforehand, in the following categories: -- Mathematical Analysis of Expansion of Productivity. -- Interdepartmental Balances. -- Linear Programming and Dynamic Programming. -- Transportation Models. -- Other Models. -- Mathematical Statistics.

  12. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Supplementary Methods

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Supplementary Methods Bacterial cultures. B. subtilis solutions1 were swimming strain to induce the expression of fliYdel6-15, which in B. subtilis almost completely suppresses medium and incubated at 37°C, while shaking at 250 rpm for 4 hr, until the optical density reached OD600

  13. Epidemiologic Methods Manuscript 1005

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Epidemiologic Methods Manuscript 1005 Use of Individual-level Covariates to Improve Latent Class and Development, and Epidemiology Graduate Program, University of Arizona Ricardo Castillo Neyra, Universidad and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine ©2011 Berkeley Electronic Press. All

  14. NATURE METHODS ADVERTISING FEATURE

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    between light microscopy and atomic structure determinations Margaretha Gadnell & Kerstin Gunnarsson Sidec applications (Table 1). Proteins can be analyzed in a variety of contexts: in buffer solutions, in cells or in tissue samples. Electron tomography is an established method that uses trans- mission electron microscopy

  15. Methods of emittance measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. McDonald; D. P. Russell

    We discuss experimental techniques for measurement of the density of beam particles in both the transverse and longitudinal phase space. The second moments of a two-dimensional density in conjugate coordinates are combined to form the emittance, which remains invariant under idealized beam transport. Four different methods of emittance measurement are presented, as will be implemented at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test

  16. Methods of emittance measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. McDonald; D. P. Russell

    1989-01-01

    We discuss experimental techniques for measurement of the density of beam particles in both the transverse and longitudinal phase space. The second moments of a two-dimensional density in conjugate coordinates are combined to form the emittance, which remains invariant under idealized beam transport. Four different methods of emittance measurement are presented, as will be implemented at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test

  17. Secondary oil recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santee

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed of oil recovery from subterranean formations, and especially water wet sand formation, comprising the steps of sequentially establishing a rate of oil production for the formation as a function of formation characteristics, such as perosity, permeability, depth of formation and past production from the formation. Second, injecting into the formation a bank of chilled water solution

  18. A Stochastic Approximation Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Robbins; Sutton Monro

    1951-01-01

    Let $M(x)$ denote the expected value at level $x$ of the response to a certain experiment. $M(x)$ is assumed to be a monotone function of $x$ but is unknown to the experimenter, and it is desired to find the solution $x = \\\\theta$ of the equation $M(x) = \\\\alpha$, where $\\\\alpha$ is a given constant. We give a method for

  19. BEHAVIORAL TEST METHODS WORKSHOP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is the report from a workshop on behavioral testing methods that was held in Philadelphia PA on June 20-21, 2003. The workshop evaluated various aspects of behavioral testing methodology with the overall objective of identifying factors to improve the conduct of ...

  20. Laser ultrasonic TOFD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Cho, H.; Yamanaka, K.

    2001-04-01

    We applied laser ultrasound for the time of flight diffraction (TOFD) measurement. To find an effective testing condition of TOFD method, laser ultrasonic transmission around the slit in glass specimens was observed using the photoelastic ultrasonic visualization system. After the observation we constructed the laser TOFD system and applied to the slit depth measurement of aluminum plate, and then, obtained highly accurate results.

  1. Laser ultrasonic TOFD method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mihara; Y. Ohtsuka; H. Cho; K. Yamanaka

    2001-01-01

    We applied laser ultrasound for the time of flight diffraction (TOFD) measurement. To find an effective testing condition of TOFD method, laser ultrasonic transmission around the slit in glass specimens was observed using the photoelastic ultrasonic visualization system. After the observation we constructed the laser TOFD system and applied to the slit depth measurement of aluminum plate, and then, obtained

  2. Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

    2003-12-30

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  3. Marsh Geomorphology: Multiple methods

    E-print Network

    Savidge, Dana

    Marsh Geomorphology: Multiple methods: · RTK GPS pedestrian surveys · Single beam echo soundingIO Measurement Clark Alexander, SkIO Geomorphology Julie Amft, SkIO Measurement Trent Moore, SkIO Measurement Mike Robinson, SkIO, Geomorphology Al Garrett, SRNL Model Dave Hayes, SRNL Dye Dana Savidge, SkIO Radar

  4. Scientific Method, Statistical Method, and the Speed of Light.

    E-print Network

    Oldford, R.W.

    Scientific Method, Statistical Method, and the Speed of Light. R.J. Mackay and R.W. Oldford Working is "statistical method"? Is it the same as "scientific method"? This paper answers the first question history and the details of a single study allow us to place the method of statistics within the larger

  5. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  6. Cold isopressing method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  7. Inspection system calibration methods

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2004-12-28

    An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

  8. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  9. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  10. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  11. Glycoconjugates and methods

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn C. (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal; Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-04-01

    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  12. Glycoconjugates And Methods

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2005-08-30

    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  13. Glycoconjugates and methods

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  14. Glycoconjugates and methods

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-10-01

    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  15. Preventive methods badly needed.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, A

    1993-01-01

    Concern about the low birth rate is allegedly leading Romanian officials to consider restrictions on abortion on demand, possibly a policy limiting abortion to cases of contraceptive failure. Preferable would be an approach that promotes the use of reliable methods, such as the pill and IUD. At present, the calendar and temperature methods of natural family planning are widely used. This, in turn, would require the recruitment and training of more family planning doctors and nurses and a national educational campaign to overcome negative messages about contraceptive side-effects that were implanted by the pro-natalist Ceausescu regime. There are encouraging signs, however. A political climate that encourages the open discussion of sexuality exists, and all women undergoing abortion are not referred to a family planning clinic for contraceptive counseling. PMID:12345320

  16. Scrap treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Palmer, G.

    1990-10-24

    The method of the invention is useful in treating a wide variety of rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap wherein the scrap comprises (a) one or more transition metals such as Fe, Co and Ni, (b) one or more rare earth such as Nd, Dy, Tb, Pr, Sm, Ho, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, and Sc and (c) other optional alloyants such as boron, Zr, Nb, Ga, Al and others. In treating rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap including two or more rare earth metals (e.g., Tb-Dy-Fe), the method of the invention is effective to recover mixed rare earth salts which can be treated further for use in the thermite or other metallothermic reduction processes.

  17. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  18. Method for welding beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  19. Coal seam fracing method

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a gas-containing subsurface coal formation penetrated by a well. The method consists of: injecting a fracing fluid into the formation adjacent the well in a multiplicity of stages. The fracing fluid has fine proppants suspended with a particle size distribution substantially between 60 and 140 mesh. The fine proppants added to the fluid at a rate ranging from about 2 to about 12 pounds per gallon of the fluid; and injecting an acidizing solution into the formation adjacent the well immediately following each of the fracing fluid injection stages, the injections of fracing fluid and acidizing solution being at a rate of from about 15 to about 35 barrels per minute and continuing until at least 3,000 pounds of the fine proppants have been deposited in the formation fracture per linear vertical foot of the formation.

  20. Implementation of Rosenbrock methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shampine, L. F.

    1980-11-01

    Rosenbrock formulas have shown promise in research codes for the solution of initial-value problems for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). To help assess their practical value, the author wrote an item of mathematical software based on such a formula. This required a variety of algorithmic and software developments. Those of general interest are reported in this paper. Among them is a way to select automatically, at every step, an explicit Runge-Kutta formula or a Rosenbrock formula according to the stiffness of the problem. Solving linear systems is important to methods for stiff ODEs, and is rather special for Rosenbrock methods. A cheap, effective estimate of the condition of the linear systems is derived. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the developments.

  1. Ion sensing method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  2. Chromosome doubling method

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  3. 17. Choose a Method

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    In this 15 minute video, Mary Holden and her 4th/5th grade class reason about the appropriateness of different computational methods (base-ten blocks, calculators, mental math, or paper and pencil) to specific problems. The video includes a description of how the teacher manages her multi-level class and encourages hands on exploration and discussion in small group learning sessions. At the conclusion of the video are reflection questions for professional development.

  4. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar (Storrs, CT); Son, Young-Chan (Storrs, CT); Suib, Steven L. (Storrs, CT)

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  5. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  6. Method for scavenging mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  7. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  8. Method for scavenging mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Bejing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Burkeley, CA)

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  9. Method of electromagnetic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Nekut, A.G. Jr.

    1987-05-05

    A method is described of electromagnetic exploration comprising the following steps: obtaining measures of two horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field at each reference sites; obtaining a measure of the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field for at least one exploratory site; and determining a measure of a multidimensional earth resistivity structure by correlating the measures of horizontal and vertical components of the earth's magnetic field.

  10. Seismogram display and method

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.

    1980-10-21

    A novel seismogram display and method for making same are provided wherein a portion of the areas under certain ones of the positive and negative wavelet lobes of each seismic trace is shaded. Each shaded area originates at or near a null point. The novel seismogram allows an interpreter to correlate both partially shaded lobes per wavelet, instead of one completely shaded, single lobe per wavelet. The invention therefore greatly simplifies and enhances the correlation and interpretation process.

  11. Comments on PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  12. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  13. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  14. Robust Methods in Qsar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beata Walczak; Michal Daszykowski; Ivana Stanimirova

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a A large progress in the development of robust methods as an efficient tool for processing of data contaminated with outlying\\u000a objects has been made over the last years. Outliers in the QSAR studies are usually the result of an improper calculation\\u000a of some molecular descriptors and\\/or experimental error in determining the property to be modelled. They influence greatly\\u000a any least

  15. Kinesimetric method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

  16. Ion implantation method

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, T.; Sasaki, I.

    1984-11-06

    An ion implantation method is provided which uses an ion implantation apparatus which is capable of focusing an ion beam into a spot having a diameter smaller than the size of a region into which ions are to be implanted. The ion dose is varied in accordance with the gate region, source and drain regions, and the field region of a semiconductor device including a transistor having short gate length and width.

  17. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  18. Method for making nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

    2013-06-04

    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  19. Leap-Frogging Newton's Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasturiarachi, A. Bathi

    2002-01-01

    Using Newton's method as an intermediate step, we introduce an iterative method that approximates numerically the solution of f(x) = 0. The method is essentially a leap-frog Newton's method. The order of convergence of the proposed method at a simple root is cubic and the computational efficiency in general is less, but close to that of Newton's…

  20. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teri Barth; Thomas Manteuffel

    1994-01-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and

  1. Efficiency comparison method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Bhavyang

    This study describes the system integration and operation of Southern Methodist University (SMU) - University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) anechoic chamber; far-field measurements of antenna parameters such as radiation efficiency, radiation patterns, directivity, and gain; and methodologies to improve measurement results. Also, it provides a brief explanation of the different methods used to make near-field measurements. This study primarily focuses on the ways to improve chamber's performance for far-field measurements. First, a methodology to improve the measurement results for broad-beam antennas such as Dipole is proposed. A few experiments were performed to identify the source of scattering, and accordingly, the mounting structure for the antenna under test (AUT) was changed to improve the results for the AUT's radiation pattern. Second, a method to compute the radiation efficiency of the antenna with broad beam is introduced. In this method, the total radiated power of Standard Gain Horn (SGH) antenna is compared with that of the AUT to evaluate the radiation efficiency of the AUT with the least possible uncertainties.

  2. MANOVA versus alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-12-01

    Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

  3. Methods for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Phillip G; Carr-Ellis, Sacheen; Borgatta, Lynn

    2004-07-01

    We describe present methods for induced abortion used in the United States. The most common procedure is first-trimester vacuum curettage. Analgesia is usually provided with a paracervical block and is not completely effective. Pretreatment with nonsteroidal analgesics and conscious sedation augment analgesia but only to a modest extent. Cervical dilation is accomplished with conventional tapered dilators, hygroscopic dilators, or misoprostol. Manual vacuum curettage is as safe and effective as the electric uterine aspirator for procedures through 10 weeks of gestation. Common complications and their management are presented. Early abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol combinations is replacing some surgical abortions. Two mifepristone/misoprostol regimens are used. The rare serious complications of medical abortion are described. Twelve percent of abortions are performed in the second trimester, the majority of these by dilation and evacuation (D&E) after laminaria dilation of the cervix. Uterine evacuation is accomplished with heavy ovum forceps augmented by 14-16 mm vacuum cannula systems. Cervical injection of dilute vasopressin reduces blood loss. Operative ultrasonography is reported to reduce perforation risk of D&E. Dilation and evacuation procedures have evolved to include intact D&E and combination methods for more advanced gestations. Vaginal misoprostol is as effective as dinoprostone for second-trimester labor-induction abortion and appears to be replacing older methods. Mifepristone/misoprostol combinations appear more effective than misoprostol alone. Uterine rupture has been reported in women with uterine scars with misoprostol abortion in the second trimester. Fetal intracardiac injection to reduce multiple pregnancies or selectively abort an anomalous twin is accepted therapy. Outcomes for the remaining pregnancy have improved with experience. PMID:15229018

  4. The data embedding method

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  5. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePLUS

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  6. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  7. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  8. Method for forming boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Goodhart, M.E.

    1986-08-12

    A method is described of boring a well hole into a target zone in a formation comprising the steps of boring an essentially vertical hole to at least a predetermined depth below the target zone in the formation, the vertical hole being laterally displaced from the target zone, lowering via the vertical hole drilling apparatus including a mud pressure driven motor and drilling bit to the predetermined depth, applying pressurized drilling mud from the vertical hole to the mud motor, and mechanically boring with the mud motor and the drilling bit initially in an upward direction from the vertical hole a deviated hole into the target zone.

  9. Computational Methods for Crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (compiler); Carden, Huey D. (compiler)

    1993-01-01

    Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.

  10. Crystalline variational methods

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jean E.

    2002-01-01

    A surface free energy function is defined to be crystalline if its Wulff shape (the equilibrium crystal shape) is a polyhedron. All the questions that one considers for the area functional, where the surface free energy per unit area is 1 for all normal directions, can be considered for crystalline surface free energies. Such questions are interesting for both mathematical and physical reasons. Methods from the geometric calculus of variations are useful for studying a number of such questions; a survey of some of the results is given. PMID:12427965

  11. Magnetic imager and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Kew Garden Hills, NY); Danby, Gordon (Wading River, NY)

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

  12. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  13. Method of joining ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Kennewick, WA); Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  14. Other Sync Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Trautschold; Gary Mazo

    \\u000a In Chapter 3: “Sync Your iPad with iTunes,” you learned how to connect your iPad to your computer and use iTunes to sync your\\u000a personal information, music, videos, and more. In this chapter, we explore some alternative ways to wirelessly synchronize\\u000a information to your iPad. The benefit of the wireless methods is that you don’t need to connect your iPad

  15. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W. (5201 Rio Grande Blvd., N.W., Albuquerque, NM 87107); Migliori, Albert (Rte. 4, Box 258 Tano Rd., Sante Fe, NM 87501); Dixon, Raymond D. (396 Connie Ave., White Rock, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  16. Equine influenza culture methods.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza viruses are cultured in embryonated hen eggs, or in mammalian cells, generally Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, using methods much the same as for other influenza A viruses. Mutations associated with host adaptation occur in both eggs and MDCK cells, but the latter show greater heterogeneity and eggs are the generally preferred host. Both equine-1 H7N7 and equine-2 H3N8 viruses replicate efficiently in 11-day-old eggs, but we find that equine-1 viruses kill the embryos whereas equine-2 viruses do not. PMID:24899449

  17. Geophysics I. Seismic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, E.A.; Foster, N.H. (comps.)

    1989-01-01

    During the past two decades, the technology of geophysics has exploded. At the same time, the petroleum industry has been forced to look for more and more subtle traps in more and more difficult terrain. The choice of papers in this geophysics reprint volume reflects this evolution. The papers were chosen to help geologists, not geophysicists, enhance their knowledge of geophysics. Math-intensive papers were excluded because those papers are relatively esoteric and have limited applicability for most geologists. This volume concentrates on different seismic survey methods. Each of the 38 papers were abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

  18. Introduction to Scientific Methods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The unit exposes students to the tools, methods, and processes used by scientists to study our Universe. This includes: safe laboratory practices, quantitative data gathering (measurement, qualitative data gathering (observation), scientific experimentation, and scientific modeling. The second purpose of this unit is to introduce students to the two explanatory themes that underpin much of the Earth Sciences: density and convection. These two broad purposes are presented primarily through a combination of experiments, demonstrations, and readings, combined, to a lesser extent, with lectures and discussions.

  19. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  20. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  1. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  2. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  3. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  4. Handbook of Methods: BLS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The US Bureau of Labor Statistics has made available the April 1997 edition of its Handbook of Methods, in both HTML and Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. This 202 page book details the methodology by which BLS "obtains and prepares the economic data it publishes," providing the structural underpinning for such data topics as employment and unemployment, compensation and working conditions, occupational safety and health, productivity and technology, economic growth, and prices and living conditions. As such, it is a crucial information source for economists, statisticians, instructors, librarians, and business analysts.

  5. Method of capturing sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.D.; Gamble, R.L.

    1984-03-27

    A fluidized bed boiler, and a method of operating same in which air is passed through a grate to fluidize a bed of particulate material containing fossil fuel disposed on the grate. A raw acceptor for the sulfur produced as a result of the combustion of the fuel is introduced into the housing and confined within an area of the housing isolated from the bed of particulate material. The area containing the acceptor is maintained at conditions optimal for calcining the acceptor, after which the latter is introduced into the fluidized bed.

  6. Methods of making monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2009-09-15

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  7. Methods of making monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2009-12-08

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  8. Visualizing Numerical Methods (2)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These movies are designed to help students visualize various numerical approaches to evaluating functions or solving equations. The methods themselves may be familiar to students from their mathematics courses, but they may have forgotten the material or never made the connection between a statement such as "the derivative of a curve at a given point is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point" and the way that one might evaluate such a derivative. All of the movies have VCR-style controls that enable the student to step through them one frame at a time and to move backwards as well as forwards.

  9. Method for thinning specimen

    DOEpatents

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  10. Lysimeter methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-12-07

    A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.

  11. Two Composition Scoring Methods: The Analytic vs. Holistic Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfert, Susan; Harada, Kunihiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the testing of writing of foreign languages and compares two evaluation methods: the analytical method and the holistic method. The analytical method focuses on the mechanics of writing where the writer is measured against a set of empirical standards and a composition is dissected for the critical points.…

  12. AIMED LEAD METHOD (ALM) VS DIRECT BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD (BEM)

    E-print Network

    Arthur, R. Martin

    AIMED LEAD METHOD (ALM) VS DIRECT BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD (BEM) 1. The direct inference of epicardial potentials using the boundary element method (BEM) has been carefully studied; yet, even, which directly link epicardial and body surface potentials, via the boundary-element method (BEM

  13. Comparison of homotopy analysis method and homotopy perturbation method

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey, David

    Comparison of homotopy analysis method and homotopy perturbation method through an evolution by Liao in 1992 and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) proposed by He in 1998 are compared through solutions (either analytical ones or numerical ones) can be expected. Perturbation method is one of the well

  14. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm.

  15. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The method comprises: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron, the reaction zone being maintained at a temperature within the range of from about 60{degrees} to 90{degrees} C. and the weight of ratio of slag to acid being within the range of from about 1:2 to 1:6 to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; and repeating steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm.

  16. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  17. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  18. Vehicle electronic control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, T.; Ishihara, M.

    1986-07-22

    A method is described of electronically controlling a vehicle having a clutch controlled by a clutch actuator, a transmission for changing gear ratios by a transmission actuator and having a synchromesh mechanism provided at gear positions other than a reverse gear position, and an electronic control unit for controlling both actuators in accordance with the vehicle running conditions. The method consists of: (a) disengaging the clutch in response to a command delivered to the clutch actuator by the electronic control unit at the same time that the transmission starts to be switched to the reverse gear position; (b) switching the transmission to a neutral gear position in response to a command delivered to the transmission actuator by the electronic control unit after the clutch is disengaged; (c) switching the transmission to a gear position provided with the synchromesh mechanism in response to a command delivered to the transmission actuator by the electronic control unit with the clutch remaining in the disengaged state; and (d) switching the transmission to the reverse gear position in response to a command delivered to the transmission actuator by the electronic control unit with the clutch remaining in the disengaged state.

  19. Electrical load restoration method

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, W.; Sullivan, C.

    1980-07-08

    An energy management method is described that employs apparatus for automatically limiting the total instantaneous consumption of electrical energy in a residence having a plurality of energy consuming variable demand loads having different nominal current demands, said method including measuring the total current to the loads which are then in operation, and automatically interrupting the current, if any, to each of said loads in a predetermined sequence when the total current to the loads then in operation exceed the predetermined peak total current demand, until the total current is less than the predetermined peak total, the improvement whereby current consumption is maintained as high as possible without exceeding said predetermined peak demand, said improvement comprising: (A) establising a predetermined load shedding sequence which is independent of the nominal current demands of said loads; (B) measuring the actual consumption values of each load which is interrupted; (C) selecting from among those loads which have been interrupted, the loads which, according to said actual values and independent of said nominal values, can be restored without causing said total current to exceed predetermined peak demand; and (D) automatically restoring said selected loads to operation; the measurement of said actual consumption values enabling load restoration selections based thereon without modification of said energy management apparatus to account for variations in said nominal demands of said loads.

  20. The meshless finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio R. Idelsohn; Eugenio Oñate; Nestor Calvo; Facundo Del Pin

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY A meshless method is presented which has the advantages of the good meshless methods concerning the ease of introduction of node connectivity in a bounded time of order n, and the condition that the shape functions depend only on the node positions. Furthermore, the method proposed also shares several of the advantages of the Finite Element Method such as:

  1. COMPARISON OF STOCHASTIC RESERVING METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jackie Li

    This paper compares several stochastic reserving methods on both qualitative and quantitative aspects in dealing with the outstanding claims liabilities. These methods include Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, the chain ladder method with bootstrapping, generalised linear models (GLMs) with bootstrapping, the Kalman filter on state-space models, the Mack model, and the stochastic chain ladder method. To

  2. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  3. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  4. Ordination Methods for Ecologists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Palmer, Michael W.

    Dr. Mike Palmer, an Associate Professor of Botany at Oklahoma State University, put together this site as an instructional resource for a graduate-level course. Ordination, which means, literally, "the ordering of a set of data points with respect to one or more axes," is often used to generate hypotheses about the relationship between species composition and the underlying environmental gradients at a given location. While ordination is an advanced technique used mainly by experts, this site does an outstanding job of informing the reader without alienating those with less expertise. Viewers are well-supplied with a newly-updated, hyperlinked glossary; numerous links to software suppliers and other ordination pages; several colorful illustrations; and thorough explanations of ordination methods and related topics.

  5. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  6. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  7. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  8. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  9. Error detection method

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  10. Acoustophoresis separation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.

  11. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  12. Method for maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (13027 Arrovo de Vista, Albuquerque, NM 87111); Stulen, Richard H. (5258 Roxanne Ct., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  13. Microencapsulation system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  14. Microencapsulation system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  15. Hydroforming device and method

    DOEpatents

    Guza, David E. (Powell, OH)

    2007-09-11

    An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.

  16. Rail shear test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, R.; Mcwithey, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of both an experimental test program and a finite element analysis of selected graphite/polyimide rail shear test specimens are discussed. The two dimensional finite element analysis includes both mechanical and thermal loading (differential expansion) of the specimens and their elastic rails. Parameters in this analysis of unidirectional and symmetric, balanced angle-ply laminates include ply layup angles, the effect of flexible rails, the method of load introduction to the specimen and the effect of uniform heating of the specimen and rails. Two types of tensile rail shear fixtures were investigated experimentally: a uniform thickness, bolted-rail shear fixture loaded diagonally across the specimen test section; and a tapered thickness, bonded-rail shear fixture loaded axially along the center-line of the specimen test section. Test results include room-temperature and 589K strain data taken from the center of the specimen test section during loading.

  17. Tensiometer methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2004-08-10

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  18. Methods in Biostatistics I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    The field of biostatistics, which combines a number of different disciplines, is one that more people seek to enter. The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health's Brian Caffo created these course materials for his Methods in Biostatistics I class. As the site notes, these materials present "fundamental concepts in applied probability, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference, focusing on probability and analysis of one and two samples." Visitors can look over the syllabus here, check out the original course schedule, peruse the lecture materials, and look over the readings. The lecture notes cover set theory basics and probability, expected values, random vectors, distribution, and confidence intervals. The site is rounded out by the Other Resources area, which includes links to free statistical software programs and other supplemental items.

  19. Well packer and method

    SciTech Connect

    Grantom, C.A.

    1991-07-23

    A method for providing a seal in a well pipe. It comprises releasably connecting a running tool, the running tool having an upper end and having right hand thread and a lower end having a left hand thread, at its upper end to a pipe string; releasably connecting a packer body to the lower end of the running tool, the packer body having an upper end having left hand threads adapted to mate with the left hand threads on the lower end of the running tool, and a lower end, the lower end of the packer body having an elastomeric seal skirt disposed about the packer body lower end, the lower end, end of the running tool collapsing the elastomeric seal skirt; lowering the packer body, the running tool and the seal skirt into a well pipe to a predetermined depth; and releasing the running tool from the packer body, the seal skirt expanding into sealing contact with the well pipe.

  20. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  1. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  2. nanotubes via hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Liu, Dan; Cui, Cai E.; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Guowei

    2014-08-01

    Red long-lasting phosphor Y2O2S:Eu3+, Zn2+, Ti4+ nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra (TL) were used to characterize the long-lasting phosphor. XRD investigation revealed that the product synthesised under 750 °C for 6 h was a pure phase of Y2O2S. SEM observation showed that the sulfuretted phosphor inherited the tube-like shape from the precursor. Under 325 nm UV excitation, the result indicated the strongest red-emission lines at 627 nm, corresponded to the transition from 5D0 to 7F2 level of Eu3+ ion. Both the afterglow decay curves and TL curves revealed that the phosphor had efficient luminescent and excellent long-lasting properties.

  3. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  4. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A. (Albany, CA); Nihei, Kurt T. (Oakland, CA); Myer, Larry R. (Benicia, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  5. Research Methods Knowledge Base

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Trochim

    2002-01-01

    This is a comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. It covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and nonprobability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics. The Knowledge Base uses an informal, conversational style to engage both the newcomer and the more experienced student of research. It is a fully hyperlinked text that can be integrated easily into an existing course structure or used as a sourcebook for the experienced researcher who simply wants to browse This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.

  6. Catalysts and method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  7. Compressor surge control method

    SciTech Connect

    Dziubakowski, D.J.; Keys, M.A.I.V.; Shaffer, J.J.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a method of controlling surge in a centrifugal compressor having a predetermined surge condition line and providing a combined output with a base load means. It comprises: establishing a main surge control line offset from the centrifugal compressor surge condition line according to a function of pressure differentials across the centrifugal compressor and across an orifice in the inlet line of the centrifugal compressor; establishing a feed forward control signal which is a function of a variable associated with the base load means which may cause the surge condition in the centrifugal compressor; and establishing an anticipatory surge control line offset from the main surge control line as a function of the established main surge control line and the established feed forward control signal.

  8. Laser device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J. D.

    1985-06-25

    A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.

  9. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  10. Method of bonding

    DOEpatents

    Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

    1987-12-01

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  11. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    Food active ingredients can be encapsulated by different processes, including spray drying, spray cooling, spray chilling, spinning disc and centrifugal co-extrusion, extrusion, fluidized bed coating and coacervation (see Chap. 2 of this book). The purpose of encapsulation is often to stabilize an active ingredient, control its release rate and/or convert a liquid formulation into a solid which is easier to handle. A range of edible materials can be used as shell materials of encapsulates, including polysaccharides, fats, waxes and proteins (see Chap. 3 of this book). Encapsulates for typical industrial applications can vary from several microns to several millimetres in diameter although there is an increasing interest in preparing nano-encapsulates. Encapsulates are basically particles with a core-shell structure, but some of them can have a more complex structure, e.g. in a form of multiple cores embedded in a matrix. Particles have physical, mechanical and structural properties, including particle size, size distribution, morphology, surface charge, wall thickness, mechanical strength, glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, flowability and permeability. Information about the properties of encapsulates is very important to understanding their behaviours in different environments, including their manufacturing processes and end-user applications. E.g. encapsulates for most industrial applications should have desirable mechanical strength, which should be strong enough to withstand various mechanical forces generated in manufacturing processes, such as mixing, pumping, extrusion, etc., and may be required to be weak enough in order to release the encapsulated active ingredients by mechanical forces at their end-user applications, such as release rate of flavour by chewing. The mechanical strength of encapsulates and release rate of their food actives are related to their size, morphology, wall thickness, chemical composition, structure etc. Hence, reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

  12. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  13. Reduced Collocation Methods: Reduced Basis Methods in the Collocation Framework

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yanlai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present {\\em the first} reduced basis method well-suited for the collocation framework. Two fundamentally different algorithms are presented: the so-called Least Squares Reduced Collocation Method (LSRCM) and Empirical Reduced Collocation Method (ERCM). This work provides a reduced basis strategy to practitioners who require a collocation, rather than Galerkin, approach. Furthermore, the empirical reduced collocation method {\\em eliminates} a potentially costly online procedure that is needed for non-affine problems with Galerkin approach. Numerical results demonstrate the high efficiency and accuracy of the reduced collocation methods, which match or exceed that of the traditional reduced basis method in the Galerkin framework.

  14. Meehl's Contribution to Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction William M. Grove and Martin Lloyd

    E-print Network

    Grove, William M.

    University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus Paul E. Meehl's work on the clinical versus statistical the data to be combined come from interviews, Rorschach protocols, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

  15. Bismuth generator method

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane Allan (Richland, WA); DesChane, Jaquetta R. (Pasco, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

  16. Bismuth generator method

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

    1998-05-05

    A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

  17. Method for biological purification

    DOEpatents

    Lucido, John A. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Keenan, Daniel (Rockville Centre, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Shelenkova, Ludmila (Yaphank, NY)

    2001-03-27

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  18. Solid feeder and method

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J. (Belle Meade, NJ)

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a housing containing a rotatable coal bucket that is sealed at its ends in the housing with a reciprocal plunger that is sealed in the bucket at one end and has an opposite cone-shaped end that wedges up against a closed end of the bucket, and a method for feeding dry, variable size coal from an ambient atmosphere at low pressure into a high temperature, high pressure reactor between the seals for producing fuel gas substantially without losing any high pressure gas from the reactor or excessively wearing the seals. To this end, the piston biases the plunger back and forth for loading and unloading the bucket with coal along an axis that is separated from the seals, the bucket is rotated to unload the coal into the reactor so as to fill the bucket with trapped high pressure gas from the reactor while preventing the gas from escaping therefrom, and then the cone-shaped plunger end is wedged into mating engagement with the closed end of the bucket to displace this high pressure bucket gas by expelling it back into the reactor whereby the bucket can be re-rotated for filling it with coal again substantially without losing any of the high pressure gas or excessively wearing the seals.

  19. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  20. Method for etherifications

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

  1. Method for etherifications

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-03-12

    A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

  2. Methods of channeling simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J.H.

    1989-06-01

    Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Method of Separating Tangents

    E-print Network

    Adilsultan Lepes

    2014-12-12

    The well known Jensen inequality, holds true for every convex functions. However, we found that it is possible to apply it to some problems related to nonconvex functions for which Jensen's inequality holds true locally. Having considered a set of such functions, we noted some general patterns. We show that the key point, which provides Jensen's inequality holds true locally, is that the plot of function should be situated at only one side from the local base curve defined compatible with conditional variables. Moreover, we have achieved even more general result. It turned out that the graph of the function can be located on either sides of the local base curve, with the conditions. This result allows one to prove easily difficult types of inequalities, and on the other hand to broaden applications in physics, economy, and information theory. On the basis of the conducted analysis of different sources it is possible to claim, that our method is applicable to about three fourths of studied inequalities related to Jensen's inequality.

  4. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  5. Science Methods, Fall 09

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brooke Robertshaw

    2009-09-24

    Resources for Science Methods Pre-service Teachers IA Help: Basic Instruction: How to use the IA, step by step Connecting People with Online Reources: USU OpenCourseWare Site on how to use the IA Advanced IA Features: Adding an Image to your IA project using Google Picasa Adding a YouTube video to an IA project Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Adding a TeacherTube video to an IA project Digital Libraries arXiv: Open access to 560,904 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Science Education Communities Directory of open access journals Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library National Science Digital Library NSDL: Expert Voices Blog Gateway NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL: Science Refreshers OER (Open Educational Resources) Commons OpenCourseWare Consortium Websites Physics at NIST Virtual Library The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online The Franklin Institute Online Weather Science Hotlist The Goddard Library K-6 IA Science Projects A Desert Adventure Advertising the Animals of Utah Mister Twister Simple Machines There's Nothing Better Than a Clean, Shiny Penny The Wonders of Water!!! 7-12 IA Science Projects Electrical Engineering Global Warming and Our Future Group 1 - DDT Newton's First Law of Motion World of Enzymes ...

  6. This Is The Scientific Method

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Norman Edmund (ScientificMethod.com)

    2012-01-06

    The research process is not just a collection of miscellaneous "scientific methods." Scientists and other researchers do not proceed in a haphazard fashion. Centuries of trial and error, research, discussions and debates have led to a realization of the general pattern of the scientific method. The pattern represents the major stages of how we obtain, refine and apply knowledge in all fields. The method of science has been called by many names, most commonly the scientific method. It is also a complete method of creative problem solving and decision making for all fields. This article describes the stages and components of the scientific method.

  7. Method Families Concept: Application to Decision-Making Methods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that a universal method that could be applied to handle completely any IS development project does not existMethod Families Concept: Application to Decision- Making Methods Elena Kornyshova, Rébecca of variability in Software engineering grows increasingly as it allows developing solutions that can be easily

  8. Correlation of Two Anthocyanin Quantification Methods: HPLC and Spectrophotometric Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH differential method and HPLC are methods that are commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins in a sample. This study was conducted to establish a relationship between the two analytical methods. Seven juice samples containing an array of different individu...

  9. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  10. Computational methods for fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyret, R.; Taylor, T. D.

    Numerical approaches are discussed, taking into account general equations, finite-difference methods, integral and spectral methods, the relationship between numerical approaches, and specialized methods. A description of incompressible flows is provided, giving attention to finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, finite-element methods applied to incompressible flows, spectral method solutions for incompressible flows, and turbulent-flow models and calculations. In a discussion of compressible flows, inviscid compressible flows are considered along with viscous compressible flows. Attention is given to the potential flow solution technique, Green's functions and stream-function vorticity formulation, the discrete vortex method, the cloud-in-cell method, the method of characteristics, turbulence closure equations, a large-eddy simulation model, turbulent-flow calculations with a closure model, and direct simulations of turbulence.

  11. Computational Methods and Stochastic Models

    E-print Network

    Bechler, Pawel

    , proteomics, Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, Expectation-Maximization, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry arising from mass spectrometry (MS) data processing. It describes computational methods for solving themComputational Methods and Stochastic Models in Proteomics Boguslaw Kluge Faculty of Mathematics

  12. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The vision of the Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB) is to advance population science through innovative cancer epidemiology utilizing state-of-the-art, emerging and advanced methods and technologies.

  13. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  14. Method for Determining Artillery Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Johannes; Meuser, Wilfried

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for determinig artillery positions. Two groups of four closely spaced microphones are placed at known positions, and radio bearings are determined by projectile flight time differences of muzzle blasts. The advantages of the method are discussed.

  15. Incremental Evolutionary Methods for Automatic

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    Theory studies the fundamental control principles of robotic systems. However, the technological progressIncremental Evolutionary Methods for Automatic Programming of Robot Controllers Thesis Evolution methods for designing a suitable behavior arbitration mechanism for behavior-based (BB) robot

  16. Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

  17. Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.

    1990-01-01

    A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.

  18. Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems. PMID:22441612

  19. Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems. PMID:22392041

  20. Optical measurement methods in thermogasdynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stursberg, K.; Erhardt, K.; Krahr, W.; Becker, M.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of a number of optical methods of flow measurements. Consideration is given to such spectroscopic methods as emission and absorption techniques, electron beam-stimulated fluorescence, and light scattering - Rayleigh, Raman and Mie - methods. The following visualization methods are also discussed: shadow photography, schlieren photography, interferometry, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, particle holography, and electron-excitation imaging. A large bibliography is presented and the work is copiously illustrated with figures and photographs.

  1. REARING METHODS FOR SPIDER S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Jackson

    A rearing method is reported which provides spiders with a continual supply of food and water . Using this method, spiders have been reared from egg to adult with low mortality . Other rearin g methods for spiders are reviewed . Rearing and maintaining spiders in captivity is often a rather laborious task, especiall y when large numbers are involved

  2. Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Peter

    Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics Serdar Uckun, Member, IEEE, Kai Goebel, and Peter J statistical rigor. In this paper, we provide a critical review of current research methods in PHM and contrast business impact. Index Terms--Prognostics, Prognostics and Health Management, Research Methods, Performance

  3. Computational methods of neutron transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Lewis; W. F. Miller

    1984-01-01

    This books presents a balanced overview of the major methods currently available for obtaining numerical solutions in neutron and gamma ray transport. It focuses on methods particularly suited to the complex problems encountered in the analysis of reactors, fusion devices, radiation shielding, and other nuclear systems. Derivations are given for each of the methods showing how the transport equation is

  4. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  5. Methods of Estimating Additive Utilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Fishburn

    1967-01-01

    Additive utility formulations for risky and nonrisky multiple-factor decision situations are reviewed. Twenty-four methods of estimating additive utilities are listed and classified. References to the theory and technique of each method are given along with a short discussion of each. A number of examples are used to illustrate the methods.

  6. Methods in School Textbook Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Nicholls

    This paper represents an attempt to provide an overview of methods used in textbook research. Focusing first on generic methods as outlined in key literature across the field, I argue that methods for textbook research are fundamentally underdeveloped and in need of further research. Following this, I outline examples of good practice evident in a series of specific textbook studies.

  7. Personal Journey Motivation and Methods

    E-print Network

    Needell, Deanna

    and Methods Imaging New Results So I went to college at the University of Nevada and majored in Veterinary and Methods Imaging New Results After finally graduating, I entered the PhD program at UC Davis to studyPersonal Journey Motivation and Methods Imaging New Results Less is More: Robust image recovery via

  8. AUTOMATED 4AAP PHENOLIC METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated colorimetric method for the determination of phenol in water and wastes is presented. This method is an automated version of the 4AAP method, capable of analyzing from ten to twenty samples per hour. The minimum detectable levelis 1 microgram phenol/l....

  9. Interior Methods for Nonlinear Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Forsgren; Philip E. Gill

    2002-01-01

    Interior methods are an omnipresent, conspicuous feature of the constrained optimiza- tion landscape today, but it was not always so. Primarily in the form of barrier methods, interior-point techniques were popular during the 1960s for solving nonlinearly constrained problems. However, their use for linear programming was not even contemplated because of the total dominance of the simplex method. Vague but

  10. ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-print Network

    ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 ­ 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

  11. Quantitative methods and Economic History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Daudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes the point that quantitative methods should be part of the toolkit of all economic historians. In the first part I will show that quantitative methods have been obviously important in the rise of economic history as a field up the 1980s. In a second part, I will illustrate through examples that quantitative methods coming from various social

  12. Multistep method for controlling chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starobinets, Igor M.; Pikovsky, Arkady S.

    1993-10-01

    We present a multistep control method where the trajectory on a chaotic attractor is directed by small perturbations towards a chosen fixed point. The method gives a significant reduction of the chaotic transient preceding the controlled motion as compared with the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke method. Transition from local to global control, when chaotic transients disappear, is discussed.

  13. Distributed Cooperative Formal Methods Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Goguen; Kai Lin; Akira Mori; Grigore Rosu; A. Sato

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes some tools to support for- mal methods, and conversely some formal methods for de- veloping such tools. We focus on distributed coopera- tive proving over the web. Our tools include a proof ed- itor\\/assistant, servers for remote proof execution, a dis- tributed truth protocol, an editor generator, and a new method for interface design called algebraic semiotics,

  14. EVALUATION OF 10 PESTICIDE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten pesticide analysis methods were evaluated. The compounds listed in each method were analyzed in triplicate at two concentration levels in reagent water and POTW effluent. Each method was performed as written with only minor modifications as approved by the USEPA Project Offic...

  15. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  16. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  17. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  18. A multiscale discontinuous Galerkin method.

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Scovazzi, Guglielmo; Hughes, Thomas J. R. (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2005-04-01

    We propose a new class of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods based on variational multiscale ideas. Our approach begins with an additive decomposition of the discontinuous finite element space into continuous (coarse) and discontinuous (fine) components. Variational multiscale analysis is used to define an interscale transfer operator that associates coarse and fine scale functions. Composition of this operator with a donor DG method yields a new formulation that combines the advantages of DG methods with the attractive and more efficient computational structure of a continuous Galerkin method. The new class of DG methods is illustrated for a scalar advection-diffusion problem.

  19. Computational Methods in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Meiler, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery/design methods have played a major role in the development of therapeutically important small molecules for over three decades. These methods are broadly classified as either structure-based or ligand-based methods. Structure-based methods are in principle analogous to high-throughput screening in that both target and ligand structure information is imperative. Structure-based approaches include ligand docking, pharmacophore, and ligand design methods. The article discusses theory behind the most important methods and recent successful applications. Ligand-based methods use only ligand information for predicting activity depending on its similarity/dissimilarity to previously known active ligands. We review widely used ligand-based methods such as ligand-based pharmacophores, molecular descriptors, and quantitative structure-activity relationships. In addition, important tools such as target/ligand data bases, homology modeling, ligand fingerprint methods, etc., necessary for successful implementation of various computer-aided drug discovery/design methods in a drug discovery campaign are discussed. Finally, computational methods for toxicity prediction and optimization for favorable physiologic properties are discussed with successful examples from literature. PMID:24381236

  20. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  1. Fourier methods for biosequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, D C

    1990-01-01

    Novel methods are discussed for using fast Fourier transforms for DNA or protein sequence comparison. These methods are also intended as a contribution to the more general computer science problem of text search. These methods extend the capabilities of previous FFT methods and show that these methods are capable of considerable refinement. In particular, novel methods are given which (1) enable the detection of clusters of matching letters, (2) facilitate the insertion of gaps to enhance sequence similarity, and (3) accommodate to varying densities of letters in the input sequences. These methods use Fourier analysis in two distinct ways. (1) Fast Fourier transforms are used to facilitate rapid computation. (2) Fourier expansions are used to form an 'image' of the sequence comparison. PMID:2243777

  2. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  3. Dynamical Methods in Algebra Dynamical Methods in Algebra [1] Dynamical Methods in Algebra

    E-print Network

    Coquand, Thierry

    Dynamical Methods in Algebra Dynamical Methods in Algebra [1] Dynamical Methods in Algebra We present a possible realisation of Hilbert's program for (some part of) abstract algebra G in number theory) that cannot be eliminated Surprisingly this is not the case for abstract algebra 1 #12

  4. A new automatic baseline correction method based on iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qingjia; Feng, Jiwen; Chen, Fang; Mao, Wenping; Liu, Zao; Liu, Kewen; Liu, Chaoyang

    2012-05-01

    A new automatic baseline correction method for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra is presented. It is based on an improved baseline recognition method and a new iterative baseline modeling method. The presented baseline recognition method takes advantages of three baseline recognition algorithms in order to recognize all signals in spectra. While in the iterative baseline modeling method, besides the well-recognized baseline points in signal-free regions, the 'quasi-baseline points' in the signal-crowded regions are also identified and then utilized to improve robustness by preventing the negative regions. The experimental results on both simulated data and real metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks show the efficiency of this automatic method.

  5. On the method of moving planes and the sliding method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Berestycki; L. Nirenberg

    1991-01-01

    The method of moving planes and the sliding method are used in proving monotonicity or symmetry in, say, thex1 direction for solutions of nonlinear elliptic equationsF(x, u, Du, D2u)=0 in a bounded domain O in Rn which is convex in thex1 direction. Here we present a much simplified approach to these methods; at the same time it yields improved results.

  6. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  7. Evaluation of Two New Smoothing Methods in Equating: The Cubic B-Spline Presmoothing Method and the Direct Presmoothing Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Zhongmin; Kolen, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers two new smoothing methods in equipercentile equating, the cubic B-spline presmoothing method and the direct presmoothing method. Using a simulation study, these two methods are compared with established methods, the beta-4 method, the polynomial loglinear method, and the cubic spline postsmoothing method, under three sample…

  8. Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131?000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, ?-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum mechanical calculations on fragment-fragment (dimer) interactions. The EFMO method is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than the most commonly used FMO implementation (FMO2), in which all dimers are explicitly included in the calculation. While the FMO2 method itself does not incorporate three-body interactions, such interactions are included in the EFMO method via the EFP self-consistent induction term. Several applications (ranging from clusters to proteins) of the three methods are discussed to demonstrate their efficacy. The EFMO method will be especially exciting once the analytic gradients have been completed, because this will allow geometry optimizations, the prediction of vibrational spectra, reaction path following, and molecular dynamics simulations using the method. PMID:24810424

  9. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  10. Structural Embeddings: Mechanization with Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Rushby, John

    1999-01-01

    The most powerful tools for analysis of formal specifications are general-purpose theorem provers and model checkers, but these tools provide scant methodological support. Conversely, those approaches that do provide a well-developed method generally have less powerful automation. It is natural, therefore, to try to combine the better-developed methods with the more powerful general-purpose tools. An obstacle is that the methods and the tools often employ very different logics. We argue that methods are separable from their logics and are largely concerned with the structure and organization of specifications. We, propose a technique called structural embedding that allows the structural elements of a method to be supported by a general-purpose tool, while substituting the logic of the tool for that of the method. We have found this technique quite effective and we provide some examples of its application. We also suggest how general-purpose systems could be restructured to support this activity better.

  11. hp-Meshless cloud method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Liszka; C. A. M. Duarte; W. W. Tworzydlo

    1996-01-01

    A methodology to build discrete models of boundary-value problems (BVP) is presented. The method is applicable to arbitrary domains and employs only a scattered set of nodes to build approximate solutions to BVPs. A version of moving least-square interpolation and the collocation method are used to discretize BVP equations, which results in a truly meshless method (i.e. without a background

  12. Methods of manipulating stressed epistructures

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W

    2014-04-08

    A method of processing an epistructure or processing a semiconductor device including associating a conformal and flexible handle with the epistructure and removing the epistructure and handle as a unit from the parent substrate. The method further includes causing the epistructure and handle unit to conform to a shape that differs from the shape the epistructure otherwise inherently assumes upon removal from the parent substrate. A device prepared according to the disclosed methods.

  13. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  14. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  15. Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods

    E-print Network

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    - 1 - Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods Frank Pedersen, Researcher, Danish Building Research Institute, Dr. Neergaards Vej 15, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark; frp@sbi.dk Klaus Hansen, Senior Researcher, Danish Building Research Institute, Dr. Neergaards Vej 15, DK-2970 Hørsholm

  16. Free mesh method: A new meshless finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Yagawa; T. Yamada

    1996-01-01

    A new meshless finite element method, named as the Free Mesh Method, is proposed in this paper. Once nodes are arranged in the domain to be analyzed, some temporary triangular elements are set around a node, i.e. a current central node. The contributions from the element matrices of the above temporary elements are assemebled to the total stiffness matrix. The

  17. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 29, METHOD 624--PURGEABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work which is described in the report was performed for the purpose of validating, through an interlaboratory study, Method 624 for the analysis of the volatile organic priority pollutants. This method is based on purging and concentration of the various analytes on an adsorb...

  18. Numerical Methods for Differential 2 NUMERICAL METHODS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    E-print Network

    Storey, Brian D.

    1 Numerical Methods for Differential Equations 1 #12;2 NUMERICAL METHODS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Introduction Differential equations can describe nearly all systems undergoing change. They are ubiquitous-developed solution techniques. Often, systems described by differential equations are so complex, or the systems

  19. The analytical method of characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluwick, A.

    The paper examines applications of the analytical method of characteristics to wave propagation phenomena in fluid dynamics, with emphasis on unsteady flows. The applications include unsteady one-dimensional flows, weak shocks, one-dimensional simple waves, the propagation of plane sound waves through an elastically embedded rigid wall, one-dimensional interacting waves in gases, plane finite-amplitude waves in homogeneous elastic solids, spherical and cylindrical sound waves, transonic flows, and short waves in dissipative systems. Consideration is also given to comparison with other perturbation techniques, generalization of the method to three-dimensional flows, and combination of the analytical method of characteristics and the method of multiple scales.

  20. Spectral methods in fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of spectral methods are introduced. Recent developments in spectral methods are reviewed with an emphasis on collocation techniques. Their applications to both compressible and incompressible flows, to viscous as well as inviscid flows, and also to chemically reacting flows are surveyed. The key role that these methods play in the simulation of stability, transition, and turbulence is brought out. A perspective is provided on some of the obstacles that prohibit a wider use of these methods, and how these obstacles are being overcome.

  1. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOEpatents

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  2. Projector Method: theory and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  3. Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews. PMID:24050381

  4. An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods

    E-print Network

    G. Puddu

    2012-01-03

    The energy variance extrapolation method consists in relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wave functions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the number of single-particle states. We propose a new method which depends on the number of single-particle orbits and the number of particles rather than the number of single-particle states. We discuss as an example the case of ${}^4He$ using the chiral N3LO interaction in a basis consisting up to 184 single-particle states.

  5. Evaluation of traffic signal controller transition methods

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Curtis Lloyd

    2000-01-01

    methods in an Eagle EPAC300 series Controller unit were evaluated. The three transition methods tested were a Shortway Transition method, Shortway Add Only Transition method, and Infinite Dwell Transition method. The goal was to develop a methodology...

  6. Volumetric methods and production data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    Methods are discussed for estimating cumulative oil produced. The volumetric equation is used to estimate initial oil in place, and then, with the rock and fluid properties known, the residual oil saturation (ROS) can be calculated. The 3 methods discussed are (1) production decline curves; (2) material balance relationships; and (3) mathematical models, all having the capacity to investigate the

  7. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Zisook; Sheldon Benjamin; Richard Balon; Ira Glick; Alan Louie; Christine Moutier; Trenton Moyer; Cynthia Santos; Mark Servis

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psycho- pharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and pro- vide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five \\

  8. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Adams

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process

  9. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    DOEpatents

    Bostick, William D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Denton, Mark S. (Clinton, TN); Dinsmore, Stanley R. (Norris, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  10. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  11. Seven Myths of Formal Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Hall

    1990-01-01

    Seven widely held conceptions about formal methods are challenged. These beliefs are variants of the following: formal methods can guarantee that software is perfect; they work by proving that the programs are correct; only highly critical systems benefit from their use; they involve complex mathematics; they increase the cost of development; they are incomprehensible to clients; and nobody uses them

  12. Analytical Methods for Breath Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Ligor

    2009-01-01

    Breath analysis is a non-invasive, painless and attractive diagnostic method without risk to the patients. It has been recommended as a convenient and complementary method for blood and urine analysis. Despite the advantages, breath analysis has not been introduced to medical diagnosis. Only few specific breath tests are available: ethanol in breath after alcohol ingestion, detection of CO2 for diagnosis

  13. Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Train

    2003-01-01

    This book describes the new generation of discrete choice methods, focusing on the many advances that are made possible by simulation. Researchers use these statistical methods to examine the choices that consumers, households, firms, and other agents make. Each of the major models is covered: logit, generalized extreme value, or GEV (including nested and cross-nested logits), probit, and mixed logit,

  14. Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.

  15. Method for phasing segmented mirrors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry N. Eskov; V. P. Zakharenkov; Vladimir I. Podoba; Alexander G. Seregin

    1994-01-01

    The method for phasing segmented mirrors by forming a reference (spherical or aspherical) surface by means of a system of small mirrors and an common-path interferometer has been developed. The method is being applied for the accurate comparison of curvature radii during shaping large mirrors surfaces (error approximately 10-4 per cent).

  16. Immersed interface methods. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1997-06-09

    Short summaries are given for the following related projects: Multigrid methods for Poisson problems; Domain embedding; Groundwater flow; Solidification; The explicit jump IIM and conductivity inverse problems; Numerical methods for acoustic and visco-acoustic inverse problems; Finite element version of the IIM; Computation of seismic traveltimes in discontinuous media; and CLAWPACK (Conservation LAWs PACKage) and AMRCLAW (Adaptive Mesh Refinement CLAW).

  17. Current preoperative bowel cleansing methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Beck; Victor W. Fazio

    1990-01-01

    A mail survey of 300 members of The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) was conducted to document the current methods of bowel preparation in use. Two hundred six questionnaires (69 percent) were returned. The majority of respondents (104 or 51 percent) used cathartics and enemas as the primary method of mechanical bowel cleansing. Eighty-nine (43 percent) used

  18. Method of making tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Clausing, Robert E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Vierow, William F. (Saco, ME)

    1998-01-01

    A method for manufacturing tantalum capacitors includes preparing a tantalum compact by cold pressing tantalum powder, placing the compact, along with loose refractory metal powder, in a microwave-transparent casket to form an assembly, and heating the assembly for a time sufficient to effect at least partial sintering of the compact and the product made by the method.

  19. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device (IUD) LNG - ... Laparoscopic, Hysteroscopic) 0.5 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

  20. Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi Studer; V. Richard Benjamins; Dieter Fensel

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview about the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering over the last 15 years. We discuss the paradigm shift from a transfer view to a modeling view and describe two approaches which considerably shaped research in Knowledge Engineering: Role-limiting Methods and Generic Tasks. To illustrate various concepts and methods which evolved in the last years

  1. Tribological test methods and apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Buyanovskii

    1994-01-01

    Tribology is the term that has been applied since 1966 to the science of friction, wear, lubrication, and the interaction of contacting surfaces when they are displaced relative to each other. Tribology characteristically employs a broad circle of experimental methods. This circle is expanding continuously, and the methods are being improved. Even the prescientific period of development of engineering thought

  2. Statistical Methods for Evolutionary Trees

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2009-01-01

    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution. PMID:19797062

  3. Rapid actinide-separation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    New high-speed actinide-separation methods have been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory that can be applied to nuclear materials process samples, waste solutions and environmental samples. As part of a reengineering effort to improve efficiencies and reduce operating costs, solvent extraction methods (TTA, Hexone, TBP and TIOA) used for over thirty years in the SRS Central Laboratory were

  4. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  5. 3 Methods for Measuring Volume

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine Tarver

    2011-02-22

    This hands-on lesson plan allows students to investigate three methods for measuring volume. Students will learn to measure volume for liquids, regular-sized solids, and irregular sized objects. During the lesson students are exposed to demonstrations from the teacher and will participate in hands-on investigations utilizing three methods for measuring volume that they conduct and report to the class.

  6. 5) Management ii) Mechanical methods

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    ) low cost for equipment #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods (1) Weeding · Effective) specificity; (2) minimize impact; (3) low cost for equipment Root talon Weed wrench #12;5) Management c for equipment · Disadvantages: (1) labor intensive #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods (1

  7. Droplet transport system and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. Paul (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments of droplet transport systems and methods are disclosed for levitating and transporting single or encapsulated droplets using thermocapillary convection. One method embodiment, among others comprises providing a droplet of a first liquid; and applying thermocapillary convection to the droplet to levitate and move the droplet.

  8. The Descriptive Experience Sampling method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell T. Hurlburt; Sarah A. Akhter

    2006-01-01

    Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) is a method for exploring inner experience. DES subjects carry a random beeper in natural environments; when the beep sounds, they capture their inner experience, jot down notes about it, and report it to an investigator in a subsequent expositional interview. DES is a fundamentally idiographic method, describing faithfully the pristine inner experiences of persons. Subsequently,

  9. Neurolinguistics programming: Method or myth?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Gumm; M. K. Walker; H. D. Day

    1982-01-01

    The preferred modality by which 50 right-handed female college students encoded experience was assessed by recordings of conjugate eye movements, content analysis of S's verbal report, and S's self-report. Contrary to the prediction of the theory of neurolinquistics programming (NLP), kappa analyses failed to reveal any agreement of the 3 assessment methods. Each assessment method was also shown to be

  10. Filter desulfation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Michael D. (Metamora, IL); Robel, Wade J. (Normale, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

    2010-08-10

    A method of removing sulfur from a filter system of an engine includes continuously passing an exhaust flow through a desulfation leg of the filter system during desulfation. The method also includes sensing at least one characteristic of the exhaust flow and modifying a flow rate of the exhaust flow during desulfation in response to the sensing.

  11. The generalized finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Strouboulis; K. Copps; I. Babuška

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot design and implementation of the generalized finite element method (GFEM), as a direct extension of the standard finite element method (SFEM, or FEM), which makes possible the accurate solution of engineering problems in complex domains which may be practically impossible to solve using the FEM. The development of the GFEM is illustrated for the Laplacian

  12. Choosing a track association method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara F. La Scala; Alfonso Farina

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of selecting a track association method. This is the first stage of the track fusion process and the performance of such a method is essential to the overall success of this process. It is shown that more issues must be considered than just examining the probability of correct association when judging the performance of an

  13. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  14. New methods of pitch extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAX MOHAN SONDHI

    1968-01-01

    Three new methods will be described for the extraction of the fundamental pitch from a speech signal. These are: 1) spectrum flattening followed by a minimum phase correction to synchronize harmonics 2) spectrum flattening followed by auto-correlation, and 3) nonlinear distortion followed by autocorrelation. The last two methods will be shown to be exceptionally rugged, in that they can tolerate

  15. Audience Awareness: Methods and Madness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, R. J.

    Using Barry Kroll's distinction of the three perspectives of audience dominant in the field of composition, this paper presents methods for teaching audience awareness in freshman composition. The theories underlying the rhetorical, informational, and social perspectives of audience are discussed; and the methods typical of each perspective are…

  16. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  17. ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE METHODS OF KARIZ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdolkarim Behnia

    Kariz is one of the Iranian traditional water harvesting systems. Unfortunately some experts believe that water loss during winter and out of the crop season is the main disadvantage of this method. One of the methods to increase the discharge of kariz, is to recharge the aquifer artificially, where the karez tunnels are dug in them. This can be done

  18. Laboratory method used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert T. (Roseville, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  19. Spectral method for unbounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, T.; Marcus, P.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper uses a spectral method based on rational functions expansion in polar-coordinates for unbound domains. The applications of this method discussed in this paper are: computation of vortex dynamics in two and three dimensions and quantum harmonic oscillators in two dimensions.

  20. Extensions of the operational method

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1986-08-25

    The operational method of data analysis is used to develop new formulas for first and second derivatives on equidistant, curvilinear data consisting of three or more measurements. Echo functions are used to suggest the paths followed by moving data points, and a method of interpolating into rectangles by non-Euclidean geometry is proposed. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. A numerical method of regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2004-02-01

    A numerical method for regenerators is introduced in this paper. It is not only suitable for the regenerators in cryocoolers and Stirling engines, but also suitable for the stacks in acoustic engines and the pulse tubes in pulse tube refrigerators. The numerical model is one dimensional periodic unsteady flow model. The numerical method is based on the control volume concept with the implicitly solve method. The iteration acceleration method, which considers the one-dimensional periodic unsteady problem as the steady two-dimensional problem, is used for decreasing the calculation time. By this method, the regenerator in an inertance tube pulse tube refrigerator was simulated. The result is useful for understanding how the inefficiency of the regenerator changes with the inertance effect.

  2. Vortex methods and vortex statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, A.J.

    1993-05-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.

  3. Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik Saad, Al-hussien

    2011-10-01

    Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

  4. An enhanced splined saddle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2916716. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C60 fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time.

  5. An enhanced splined saddle method.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)]. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C(60) fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time. PMID:21744889

  6. Computational Methods Development at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

  7. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  8. Population Set based Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manekar, Y.; Verma, H. K.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper an population set based optimization method is proposed for solving some benchmark functions and also to solve optimal power flow problem like `combined economic and emission dispatch problem (CEED)' with multiple objective functions. This algorithm has taken into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints. The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss. The proposed algorithms have been compared with the other methods like GA, PSO etc reported in the literature. The results are impressive and encouraging. The study results show that the proposed method holds better solutions in CEED problems.

  9. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  10. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  11. Decision Support Methods and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Gumbert, Clyde r.; Sorokach, Michael R.; Burg, Cecile M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is one of a set of papers, developed simultaneously and presented within a single conference session, that are intended to highlight systems analysis and design capabilities within the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). This paper focuses on the specific capabilities of uncertainty/risk analysis, quantification, propagation, decomposition, and management, robust/reliability design methods, and extensions of these capabilities into decision analysis methods within SACD. These disciplines are discussed together herein under the name of Decision Support Methods and Tools. Several examples are discussed which highlight the application of these methods within current or recent aerospace research at the NASA LaRC. Where applicable, commercially available, or government developed software tools are also discussed

  12. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  13. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Roslyn Harbor, NY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Lafayette, LA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Anderson, Richard R. (Brownsville, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  14. Methods in microbiology. Volume 19

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, R.R.; Grigorova, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a review of currently employed methods for the classification and identification of microorganisms. It begins by describing classical methods and moves on to discuss the most sophisticated of molecular and phylogenetic approaches, including ribosomal RNA sequencing. CONTENTS: B. Lanyi, classical and rapid identification methods for medically important bacteria; tests appropriate for numerical taxonomy studies; S. Bascomb, enzyme tests in bacterial identification. K. Komagata and K. Suzuki, lipid and cell wall analysis in bacterial systematics, protein profiles; prolysis applied to microbial systematics; labelled antibody methods for detection and identification of microorganisms; identification of microorganisms by rapid DNA/DNA hydbridization; isolation and purification of RNAs suitable for sequence analysis; the application of 16S rRNA cataloguing and 5S rRNA sequencing in bacterial systematics; computer programs for classification and identification and index.

  15. Life Science Protocols and Methods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biowww.net (Biowww.net)

    2012-01-06

    Biowww.net is an online portal site with resources focusing on lab bench work related troubleshooting, methods and reagents, discussions in molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, immunology, neuroscience, bioinformatics and proteomics research.

  16. Outstanding Examples of Innovative Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, David R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The author describes a conference on exploring some educational methods that have proved effective in other fields and at other levels of medical education to see if they have application to continuing medical education. (SSH)

  17. Editorial: The Scientific Method Teaching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ann Cutler

    2010-05-01

    Nope, that title is not a typographical error. The following paragraphs are not about teaching the scientific method. That assumption may be easily forgiven, though. JCST' s mission of publishing exemplary works about teaching and learni

  18. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

  19. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    E-print Network

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that system...

  20. Spectral methods for discontinuous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral methods yield high-order accuracy even when applied to problems with discontinuities, though not in the sense of pointwise accuracy. Two different procedures are presented which recover pointwise accurate approximations from the spectral calculations.

  1. Semiclassical Methods in Chemical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the role of semiclassical theory in chemical physics both as a computational method and conceptual framework for interpreting quantum mechanical experiments and calculations. Topics covered include energy wells and eigenvalues, scattering, statistical mechanics and electronically nonadiabiatic processes. (JM)

  2. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    DOEpatents

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  3. Applications of the operational method

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1990-11-14

    New equations for continuous, operational interpolation on four plates in rectangular array are derived. The equations can be applied to the interpretation of experimental data. Other topics include convergence of operational formulas and extrapolation by operational methods. 11 refs.

  4. Method of modifying a surface

    DOEpatents

    Renk, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM); Senft, Donna Cowell (Albuquerque, NM); Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G. (Columbus, OH); Thompson, Michael O. (Ithaca, NY); Grabowski, Kenneth S. (Alexandria, VA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  5. [Operative method of cervix conisation].

    PubMed

    Lazarov, N; Lazarov, L; Lazarov, S

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe an operative method of cervix conisation, which they used by 41 patients in a 11-years period (1998-2009). Shearing their experience of the results they achieved, they are making some conclusions. PMID:20734683

  6. Variational method with staggered fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeTar, Carleton; Lee, Song-Haeng

    2015-02-01

    The variational method is used widely for determining the hadronic spectrum for Wilson and improved Wilson fermions. The method has not been applied to staggered fermions because the hadronic correlation functions in that formalism include terms that oscillate with Euclidean time, and they often include states of both parities. We show that with a simple modification, the variational method can also be applied to staggered fermions. In some cases the method also provides a mechanism for separating the commonly paired parity-partner states. We discuss the extension to staggered fermions and illustrate it by applying it to the calculation of the spectrum of charmed-antistrange mesons consisting of a clover charm quark and a staggered strange antiquark.

  7. NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

  8. Improvements of image fusion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-03-01

    Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

  9. Data transmission system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.

  10. Reduced shedding regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-05-22

    A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

  11. ChemTeacher: Laboratory Methods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Laboratory Methods page includes resources for teaching students about basic laboratory equipment.

  12. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  13. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  14. Laminate armor and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  15. Method for grinding precision components

    DOEpatents

    Ramanath, Srinivasan (Holden, MA); Kuo, Shih Yee (Westboro, MA); Williston, William H. (Holden, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19-380 cm.sup.3 /min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  16. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  17. A method for battery activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Tasevoli, M.

    1982-01-01

    A technique to activate nickel cadmium batteries is described. The method shortened the time required for activation, eliminated the temperature rise in the batteries, and produced a voltage on the discharge that was better than when the C/20 was run for 48 hours during tests. Various methods of activation are described and evaluated. Results of alternate conditioning charge schemes are presented along with voltage/temperature characteristics for multiple level nickel cadmium battery chargers.

  18. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowe

    1981-01-01

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged

  19. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  20. Unstructured mesh methods for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Peiro, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mesh generation methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are outlined. Geometric modeling is discussed. An advancing front method is described. Flow past a two engine Falcon aeroplane is studied. An algorithm and associated data structure called the alternating digital tree, which efficiently solves the geometric searching problem is described. The computation of an initial approximation to the steady state solution of a given poblem is described. Mesh generation for transient flows is described.

  1. Residential Materials and Methods Syllabus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Garrison, Kirk

    This document is a course syllabus for Kirk Garrison's residential materials and methods class, taught at Portland Community College. The class focuses on "basic building materials, components, methods, and sequences in residential construction." This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. The two larger assignments done in the class are also outlined. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  2. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  3. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  4. Microfluidic device, and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Eric W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making a microfluidic device is provided. The method features patterning a permeable wall on a substrate, and surrounding the permeable wall with a solid, non-permeable boundary structure to establish a microfluidic channel having a cross-sectional dimension less than 5,000 microns and a cross-sectional area at least partially filled with the permeable wall so that fluid flowing through the microfluidic channel at least partially passes through the permeable wall.

  5. [Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].

    PubMed

    Wawrzycki, Jaros?aw

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate. PMID:25033525

  6. PDV Uncertainty Estimation & Methods Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Machorro, E.

    2011-11-01

    Several methods are presented for estimating the rapidly changing instantaneous frequency of a time varying signal that is contaminated by measurement noise. Useful a posteriori error estimates for several methods are verified numerically through Monte Carlo simulation. However, given the sampling rates of modern digitizers, sub-nanosecond variations in velocity are shown to be reliably measurable in most (but not all) cases. Results support the hypothesis that in many PDV regimes of interest, sub-nanosecond resolution can be achieved.

  7. The Affine-Scaling Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Vanderbei

    \\u000a In the previous chapter, we showed that the step direction for the path-following method can be decomposed into a linear combination\\u000a of three directions: a direction toward optimality, a direction toward feasibility, and a direction toward centrality. It\\u000a turns out that these directions, or minor variants of them, arise in all interior-point methods.

  8. Immersed Boundary Fractional Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Kunihiko

    2005-11-01

    We present a new formulation of the immersed boundary method for incompressible flow over moving rigid bodies. Like many existing techniques we introduce a set of interpolation points on the surface at which the no-slip boundary condition is satisfied by including a (regularized) force in the momentum equations. By introducing interpolation and regularization operators and grouping pressure and force unknowns together, the discretized Navier-Stokes equations with the immersed boundary method can be formulated with an identical structure to the traditional fractional step method, but with a modified Poisson equation whose unknowns are both the pressure and the boundary force. The method highlights the analogous roles of pressure and boundary forcing as Lagrange multipliers in order to satisfy the divergence free and no-slip constraints, respectively. The overall method is found to be a simple addition to an existing fractional step code and the extended Poisson equation is solved efficiently with the conjugate gradient method. We demonstrate convergence and present results for two-dimensional flows with a variety of moving rigid bodies.

  9. Substituted 6-nitroquipazines, methods of preparation, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Mathis, Jr., Chester A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Biegon, Anat (Rohovot, IL); Taylor, Scott E. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Enas, Joel D. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is a substituted 6-nitroquipazine of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are each selected from the group consisting of H, Fl, CL, Br, I, CF.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 F, CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, and --CH(CH.sub.3).sub.2, and wherein one of R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 is other than H. Also disclosed is a method for measurement of serotonin uptake sites in a sample, in which a radioligand is incubated with a sample and then the radioactivity of the radioligand bound to the sample is determined, utilizing a radio labeled substituted 6-nitroquipazine as the radioligand. Also disclosed is a method of manufacture and method of use.

  10. Seventh International Workshop Meshfree Methods for

    E-print Network

    Rauhut, Holger

    developed and considerable advances of the various methods have been made, many challenges methods, and generalized finite element methods have under- gone substantial development since the midSeventh International Workshop Meshfree Methods for Partial Differential Equations First

  11. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis. PMID:22823104

  12. Semi-supervised clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis methods seek to partition a data set into homogeneous subgroups. It is useful in a wide variety of applications, including document processing and modern genetics. Conventional clustering methods are unsupervised, meaning that there is no outcome variable nor is anything known about the relationship between the observations in the data set. In many situations, however, information about the clusters is available in addition to the values of the features. For example, the cluster labels of some observations may be known, or certain observations may be known to belong to the same cluster. In other cases, one may wish to identify clusters that are associated with a particular outcome variable. This review describes several clustering algorithms (known as “semi-supervised clustering” methods) that can be applied in these situations. The majority of these methods are modifications of the popular k-means clustering method, and several of them will be described in detail. A brief description of some other semi-supervised clustering algorithms is also provided. PMID:24729830

  13. Advanced probabilistic method of development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirsching, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced structural reliability methods are utilized on the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project to provide a tool for analysis and design of space propulsion system hardware. The role of the effort at the University of Arizona is to provide reliability technology support to this project. PSAM computer programs will provide a design tool for analyzing uncertainty associated with thermal and mechanical loading, material behavior, geometry, and the analysis methods used. Specifically, reliability methods are employed to perform sensitivity analyses, to establish the distribution of a critical response variable (e.g., stress, deflection), to perform reliability assessment, and ultimately to produce a design which will minimize cost and/or weight. Uncertainties in the design factors of space propulsion hardware are described by probability models constructed using statistical analysis of data. Statistical methods are employed to produce a probability model, i.e., a statistical synthesis or summary of each design variable in a format suitable for reliability analysis and ultimately, design decisions.

  14. The generalized finite point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroomand, B.; Najjar, M.; Oñate, E.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new mesh-less method based on a sub-domain collocation approach. By reducing the size of the sub-domains the method becomes similar to the well-known finite point method (FPM) and thus it can be regarded as the generalized form of finite point method (GFPM). However, unlike the FPM, the equilibrium equations are weakly satisfied on the sub-domains. It is shown that the accuracy of the results is dependent on the sizes of the sub-domains. To find an optimal size for a sub-domain we propose a patch test procedure in which a set of polynomials of higher order than those chosen for the approximations/interpolations are used as the exact solution and a suitable error norm is minimized through a size tuning procedure. In this paper we have employed the GFPM in elasto-static problems. We give the results of the size optimization in a series of tables for further use. Also the results of the integrations on a generic sub-domain are given as a series of library functions for those who want to use GFPM as a cheap and fast integral-based mesh-less method. The performance of GFPM has been demonstrated by solving several sample problems.

  15. Vortex methods for separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented in an elementary fashion and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, the convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two- and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. The overlap with the excellent review articles available is kept to a minimum and more emphasis is placed on the area of expertise, namely two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies. When solid walls are present, complete mathematical models are not available and a more heuristic attitude must be adopted. The imposition of inviscid and viscous boundary conditions without conformal mappings or image vortices and the creation of vorticity along solid walls are examined in detail. Methods for boundary-layer treatment and the question of the Kutta condition are discussed. Practical aspects and tips helpful in creating a method that really works are explained. The topics include the robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, timemarching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming. Calculations of flows past streamlined or bluff bodies are used as examples when appropriate.

  16. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  17. COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    DECONTAMINATION METHODS Pages in Study: 81 Candidate for Degree of Master of Science Ethanol fermentation of highly concentrated aflatoxin-contaminated corn (Zea mays) was conducted on a lab scale to determine of fermented mash, distilled ethanol, stillage, and dry distillers grain (DDG) were analyzed via LC

  18. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  19. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  20. Robotic follow system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.