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Sample records for rorschach inkblot method

  1. The amnestic syndrome: applying the Rorschach Inkblot method for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth; Kedem, Sagit; Hadar, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative processes were investigated in a man diagnosed with focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) following a traumatic head injury without any anterograde memory deficit. Findings were derived from the Rorschach Inkblot method, which was administered together with other performance-based tests and a self-report inventory for evaluating dissociative proneness in personality functioning. A substantial set of behavioral and test response variables indicated dissociation proneness and the activation of dissociative mechanisms. This conception was supported a few months following the evaluation when the patient reported a total spontaneous recovery of the memory deficit. The interplay between neurological and functional factors in FRA is discussed with a view for creating an integrated model. PMID:23985019

  2. The Rorschach as an Alternate Form of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Ken R.; Duthie, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examined the comparability of Rorschach Inkblots and the Holtzman Inkblots. Subjects (N=27) were administered both instruments and their responses scored using the standard Holtzman Inkblot Technique variables. The number of responses was controlled when using the Rorschach. Results indicate that the Rorschach Inkblots were a satisfactory…

  3. An examination of generalized anxiety disorder and dysthymia utilizing the Rorschach inkblot method.

    PubMed

    Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Clements, Alyssa; Hilsenroth, Mark; Charnas, Jocelyn; Zodan, Jennifer

    2016-06-30

    This study examined transdiagnostic features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and dysthymia in an outpatient clinical sample. Fifteen patients who met DSM-IV criteria for GAD and twenty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for dysthymia but who did not have comorbid anxiety disorder were evaluated utilizing the Rorschach. Salient clinical variables were then compared. Results showed that patients with GAD scored significantly higher on variables related to cognitive agitation and a desire/need for external soothing. In addition, there was a trend for patients with GAD to produce higher scores on a measure of ruminative focus on negative aspects of the self. Thus, not surprisingly, GAD patients' experienced more distress than the dysthymic patients. The implications of these findings are discussed with regards to better understanding the shared and distinct features of GAD and dysthymia. PMID:27107389

  4. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  5. A Review of Literature Regarding Scientific Controversies Surrounding the Psychometric Properties of the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kevin Neil

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the focus of intense controversy, significantly impacting clinicians who currently rely on Exner's Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) in clinical and forensic settings. This paper evaluates recent empirical CS research to determine whether or not it reveals lack of scientific merit as some skeptics have…

  6. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

  7. Methodological Considerations in Rorschach Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Irving B.

    1995-01-01

    Although the same general research principles that guide other investigations should apply to research with the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the nature of the Rorschach as a relatively unstructured measure of personality functioning calls for special attention to selection of research participants, choice of variables, and data collection and…

  8. Dimensions of the Rorschach: A Matter of Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Lawrence D.; Wiggins, Nancy

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying dimensions of the 10 Rorschach inkblots by means of standard multidimensional scaling procedures. The question of whether such emergent dimensions would be related to standard Rorschach scoring categories was raised; and the possibility of individual characteristics was explored.…

  9. Essentials of Rorschach Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Tara; Kaser-Boyd, Nancy; Maloney, Michael P.

    This step-by-step guide provides a clear and concise reference for those who want to understand and use the Rorschach inkblot test with confidence. The book reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the Rorschach, and offers advice on its clinical applications, with emphasis on the evaluation of adult personality. The chapters are: (1) "Overview";…

  10. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  11. Identification With a Violent and Sadistic Aggressor: A Rorschach Study of Criminal Debt Collectors.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Grønnerød, Cato; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined personality functioning in a group of 27 incarcerated criminal debt collectors as assessed by the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ). To explore whether these individuals represent a distinct subgroup within the violent offender population, we compared them to a group of incarcerated homicide offenders (n = 23) without a previous history of significant violence and a group who had committed less serious violent crimes (n = 21). Results revealed significantly more Rorschach indicators of past trauma (Trauma Content Index), aggressive urges (Aggressive Potential) and identification (Aggressive Content) among the debt collectors than the 2 other groups. In addition, debt collectors displayed significantly more interpersonal interest (Sum Human content), and significantly higher scores on the PCL-R. Our findings suggest that the debt collector might be viewed as a hostile variant of psychopathy. PMID:26226052

  12. The Use of the Rorschach to Identify Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, David Nelson

    Rorschach's use of inkblots as a diagnostic tool has been quite useful in aiding in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In developing his Comprehensive System for the Rorschach, John Exner (1974) included an index designed to identify schizophrenic subjects. The Schizophrenia Index has evolved to reflect ongoing research. In its current state, the…

  13. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    PubMed

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:27153465

  14. The Effect of Reading Ability on Rorschach Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alheidt, Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Rorschach inkblot tests were administered to 25 second graders who had been classified either as poor or excellent readers. The poor readers showed perceptual difficulties, less capacity for organizing or integrating separate facts, and less emotional reactions to the environment. Implications for teaching poor readers are suggested. (Author/GDC)

  15. Rorschach Revisited: A New Look at an Old Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    All pairs of Rorschach inkblots were scaled for perceived similarity by one normal and two psychopathological samples. The resulting data were analyzed using Carroll and Chang's INDSCAL model, which resulted in a good fit in two dimensions. These were interpreted as a dimension of color and one of form ("twoness"). (Author)

  16. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment. PMID:26569020

  17. Use of Rorschach tests at the Nuremberg war crimes trial: A forgotten chapter in history of medicine.

    PubMed

    Dimsdale, Joel E

    2015-06-01

    Seventy years ago, psychiatrists and psychologists had unusual access to the Nazi leaders awaiting trial by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Early leaders in the field of psychosomatic medicine were instrumental in facilitating these interviews as well as arranging for the administration of psychological testing with the Rorschach inkblot test. These observations were kept under wraps for decades and there remains controversy even now about what these Rorschachs revealed-demonic psychopaths or just morally corrupt individuals. PMID:25896214

  18. The Effects of Using the International Versus Comprehensive System Rorschach Norms For Children, Adolescents, and Adults.

    PubMed

    Viglione, Donald J; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is some debate about whether to use Comprehensive System norms (CS; Exner, 2003 ) or the Composite International Reference Values (CIRV; Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007 ) when interpreting Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921 ) protocols administered with the CS method. The goal of this study is to assist clinicians in making this decision by providing information about the effects of choosing one option or the other. Accordingly, this research evaluates the effects of using the CS versus CIRV norms with children, adolescents, and adults. First, we identified 43 variables for which the CS and the CIRV for children and adolescents differ from each other by at least a Cohen's d value of .50. Next, we evaluated whether these divergent variables are the same as those previously identified as divergent for the adult population. Results showed that for both children and adolescents, as well as for adults, relying on CS norms versus CIRV would result in interpretations that are more pathological in terms of (a) perception and thinking, (b) psychological resources and cognitive and emotional abilities, and (c) representations of human relationships. A discussion on the clinical effects of using one versus the other set of norms follows. PMID:26829463

  19. B.F. Skinner and the auditory inkblot: The rise and fall of the verbal summator as a projective technique.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-11-01

    Behaviorist B.F. Skinner is not typically associated with the fields of personality assessment or projective testing. However, early in his career Skinner developed an instrument he named the verbal summator, which, at one point, he referred to as a device for "snaring out complexes," much like an auditory analogue of the Rorschach inkblots. Skinner's interest in the projective potential of his technique was relatively short lived, but whereas he used the verbal summator to generate experimental data for his theory of verbal behavior, several other clinicians and researchers exploited this potential and adapted the verbal summator technique for both research and applied purposes. The idea of an auditory inkblot struck many as a useful innovation, and the verbal summator spawned the tautophone test, the auditory apperception test, and the Azzageddi test, among others. This article traces the origin, development, and eventual demise of the verbal summator as an auditory projective technique. PMID:14735913

  20. Age, Personality, and the Holtzman Inkblot Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated age changes and differences in personality as measured by the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT). Concluded that the HIT measures perceptual-cognitive variables that are moderately stable in adulthood. (Author/ABB)

  1. The Nuremberg mind redeemed: a comprehensive analysis of the Rorschachs of Nazi war criminals.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M N; Nunno, V J

    1991-08-01

    We examined a blind, actuarial analysis of the Rorschach data of the Nuremberg war criminals (NWC) using Exner's (1974) Comprehensive System in an attempt to prove the convergence of the NWC construct along dimensions of psychological (personality) functioning and to prove its discriminability from other appropriate psychiatric and nonpsychiatric comparison groups. The weaknesses of previous research methodologies are examined and discussed vis-à-vis the historical and theoretical developments of the concepts of authoritarianism, dogmatism, obedience to authority, and the development of the Rorschach Inkblot Technique. PMID:1920031

  2. Risk, resilience, and the rorschach: a longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Douglas; Heinze, Hillary J; Arble, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment. PMID:23941130

  3. Rorschach interpretation with high-ability adolescent females: psychopathology or creative thinking?

    PubMed

    Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G

    1997-02-01

    Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style. PMID:9018850

  4. An Investigation of Interrater Reliability for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) in a Nonpatient U.S. Sample.

    PubMed

    Kivisalu, Trisha M; Lewey, Jennifer H; Shaffer, Thomas W; Canfield, Merle L

    2016-01-01

    The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) aims to provide an evidence-based approach to administration, coding, and interpretation of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). R-PAS analyzes individualized communications given by respondents to each card to code a wide pool of possible variables. Due to the large number of possible codes that can be assigned to these responses, it is important to consider the concordance rates among different assessors. This study investigated interrater reliability for R-PAS protocols. Data were analyzed from a nonpatient convenience sample of 50 participants who were recruited through networking, local marketing, and advertising efforts from January 2013 through October 2014. Blind recoding was used and discrepancies between the initial and blind coders' ratings were analyzed for each variable with SPSS yielding percent agreement and intraclass correlation values. Data for Location, Space, Contents, Synthesis, Vague, Pairs, Form Quality, Populars, Determinants, and Cognitive and Thematic codes are presented. Rates of agreement for 1,168 responses were higher for more simplistic coding (e.g., Location), whereas agreement was lower for more complex codes (e.g., Cognitive and Thematic codes). Overall, concordance rates achieved good to excellent agreement. Results suggest R-PAS is an effective method with high interrater reliability supporting its empirical basis. PMID:26730817

  5. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  6. An Aesthetic Value Scale of the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insua, Ana Maria

    1981-01-01

    An aesthetic value scale of the Rorschach cards was built by the successive interval method. This scale was compared with the ratings obtained by means of the Semantic Differential Scales and was found to successfully differentiate sexes in their judgment of card attractiveness. (Author)

  7. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants’ trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  8. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  9. Socioeconomic status and the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Frank, G

    1994-02-01

    People from lower socioeconomic status are making increasing use of mental health facilities. Surveys have indicated that the Rorschach is still one of the more frequently used instruments by psychologists in such facilities, but research has also shown that clinicians tend to misinterpret Rorschachs of people from the lower socioeconomic group as reflecting greater psychopathology than the same Rorschachs identified as being given by people from the middle class. Research has also shown that growing up in conditions of poverty significantly affects how people perform on tests of abstract thinking, tests of intelligence, and tests of academic achievement; the question was raised as to whether this extends to the Rorschach. The lack of sufficient research on the effect of socioeconomic status on responsiveness to the Rorschach precluded that question being answered. The kind of research still needed was discussed. PMID:8153241

  10. [Automated treatment of Rorschach data (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mormont, C; von Frenckell, R

    1978-01-01

    Apart from automated systems analysing Rorschach data, one can develop with the computer other systems aimed as a research instrument. Selection, definition and coding of informations permit not only its memorisation, but also the analysis according to various mathematical methods. Tabulation and frequence analyses are facilitated, while other analyses (discrimination analysis, inverse factor analysis, covariance analysis) are made possible. The collaboration psychologist--mathematician--computer specialist open interesting avenues. PMID:716996

  11. Incarcerated Violent Offenders' Ability to Avoid Revealing Their Potential for Violence on the Rorschach and the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Fodstad, Lars; Kuisma, Irene; Lunde, Ketil Berge; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Hartmann and Hartmann (2014) found that psychiatric outpatients, both with and without access to Internet-based information about the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Weiner, 2003 ) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989 ), were unable to imitate healthy test performance on these tests. We replicated the study by administering the RIM and the MMPI-2 to 63 incarcerated violent offenders using similar testing conditions. As in the previous study, comparisons were made not only among the 3 subgroups of incarcerated offenders, but also between these offender groups and the group of nonpatients examined in the previous study. On the RIM, Internet-coached and uncoached "faking good" offenders produced records with significantly higher F% and X-% and significantly lower M, m, SumC, X+%, P, AG, and COP than nonoffenders under standard instructions (effect sizes between d = 0.24 and d = 2.39). For AgC, AgPot, AgPast, and TCI% there were no significant differences between the faking offenders and the nonoffenders under standard instructions. On the MMPI-2 clinical scales, there were no significant differences between the faking good groups and the nonoffenders under standard instructions, except on Hs, Pd, and Sc. Both faking groups were identifiable by their high L scale scores. Although both faking groups managed to avoid giving responses with aggressive and generally psychopathological content on the RIM, they were unable to produce test profiles demonstrating healthy test performance on any of the tests; nevertheless, Internet-based test information might weaken test validity. PMID:26820397

  12. [Validity of hypotheses about the father/mother interpretation of Rorschach cards: tested by using a card selecting method].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Moritsu, Makoto; Tohyama, Bin; Yamashita, Keiko; Okada, Shingo

    2011-08-01

    This study tests the validity of hypotheses about the interpretations of Rorschach father/mother cards by having subjects select the cards. The results showed that regardless of the subject's gender, Card IV is far more often selected as the father card. However Card VII is not more often chosen as the mother card, if anything, the Color Cards are usually selected. The result of a correspondence analysis suggest that a certain combination of father and mother cards is more often selected. When the frequency of card selection is applied to the cluster of cards obtained in the study of Fukui et al (2008), the mother card is predominantly selected from the feminine/maternity-cards cluster. However, the father card was selected equally often from three clusters, indicating variation of the father figure. The results indicate the predominance of Card IV as the father card, and also confirm the lack of individuality with Card VII. Therefore, Card IV fulfills prerequisites for the father card hypothesis, while Card VII does not meet the criteria. The results do not support the validity of the hypothesis about the mother card interpretation. PMID:21919302

  13. A Rorschach journey with Bruno Klopfer: clinical application and teaching.

    PubMed

    Handler, Leonard

    2008-11-01

    This article is a draft of a speech given as the recipient of the 2008 Bruno Klopfer Memorial award. I review some important details of the life of Bruno Klopfer, his contributions to the scoring and interpretation of the Rorschach (Exner, 2003), and his emphasis on the use of phenomenology in the process. I then focused on Klopfer's flexible scoring method and his use of Testing of the Limits techniques on the Rorschach, emphasizing their application to therapeutic and collaborative assessment. I illustrate my own application of Testing of the Limits using case vignettes. Finally, I present selected parts of two 1959 radio interviews of Bruno Klopfer. PMID:18925493

  14. The "Feeling of Movement": Notes on the Rorschach Human Movement Response.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Piero; Kleiger, James H

    2016-01-01

    Human movement responses (M) on the Rorschach have been traditionally viewed as lying neither completely in the inkblot (external reality) nor within the subject's mind (inner world). The authors contend that M is not reducible to the "body that I have" but to the "body that I am," which is a higher level organization of bottom-up and top-down brain networks, integrating body implicit awareness, psychological functioning, and social cognition. Two sources of evidence suggest the close relationship among M, psychological functions, and brain mechanisms. One comes from meta-analytical evidence supporting the close association between M and higher level cognitive functioning or empathy. The second comes from some preliminary studies showing that M activates brain circuits included in the mirror neuron system (MNS). Two conclusions can be drawn: (a) M is related to the effective use of the mentalization function; and (b) future neuroscientific investigations could lead to an understanding of the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying Rorschach responses and variables. PMID:26560010

  15. Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

  16. Perceptual Development on the Rorschach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Patrick; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Rorschach was given to 60 school children in two designs: chronological age (CA) and mental age (MA) orthogonal and CA=MA. Responses were scored for Form Accuracy, Complexity, Movement and Friedman's Developmental Level (DL) Scoring System. The results suggest that the DL system does assess MA independently of CA. (Author/DEP)

  17. Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

  18. A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricklin, Barry

    1975-01-01

    Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

  19. Coding and Interpreting Movement on the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)

  20. Theoretical Foundations of Rorschach by Piotrowski.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, William C.

    2005-01-01

    The writer has tried to lift the veil of mystery from the Rorschach Cards by uncovering in simple form the ten basic principles of Zygmunt Protrowski which can be considered the foundation stones of Rorschach; they are composed of psycho-justifications as well as meaningful administrative procedures allowing the reader broader understanding of…

  1. RORSCHACH SPACE RESPONSES AND ANGER.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Chiorri, Carlo; Denevi, Simona

    2015-08-01

    In this study, three different subtypes of Space responses to the Rorschach test were hypothesized: S-fusion, S-reversal, and S-integration. The relationship between these subtypes and feelings of anger and aggression was investigated. The Rorschach test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to 50 university students. Scores on the STAXI-2 were positively associated with S-fusion and negatively associated with S-integration. No significant associations of S subtypes with aggression were found. The findings support the hypothesis that different figure-ground relationships, shown in the subtypes of S responses, indicate different psychological processes. PMID:26107109

  2. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  3. Model Errors in the Cross Cultural Use of the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Ronald D.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that efforts are being made to validate the Rorschach with minority cultures and that preliminary psychometric review of Rorschach data tends to confirm its usefulness in cross-cultural work, and the legitimacy of the concept of modal personality. Reviews several significant issues in cross-cultural use of Rorschach, including norms,…

  4. Rorschach Validity: An Empirical Approach to the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared two types of empirical study with two types of conceptual research on the validity of the Rorschach. Argues that the Rorschach does have some validity and that poor research is at least partly culpable for the Rorschach's perceived failure. (Author/BL)

  5. Are Rorschach Responses Influenced by Society's Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Louise Bates

    1975-01-01

    Based on the general belief that people "normally" see male figures on Rorschach Card III and females on Card VII; to see the opposite, according to some, would indicate a confusing of sex roles. This study makes two comparisons: age and time changes of individual responses to these cards in different decades. (DEP)

  6. Rorschach Indices of Children Classified as Hyperactive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; Oshman, Harvey

    1981-01-01

    The Rorschach protocols of 20 boys (ages 6-11 years) rated by their teachers as hyperactive and those of 20 nonhyperactive boys were compared along 16 indices. Findings are discussed in terms of the assessment of hyperactivity within a conceptual framework which regards impulsivity as a major underlying dimension. (Author/SJL)

  7. Wechsler Discrepancies and the Rorschach Experience Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested for a link between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and personality style by comparing WAIS scores with Rorschach Experience Balance scores in two studies using 47 children and 188 psychiatric patients. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationships, indicating lack of a common factor underlying the measures. (WAS)

  8. A Rorschach Test for Visual Classification Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Contemporary models of pattern, detection and discrimination often employ template matching, but there have been few direct tests of this proposition. Adopting a method developed by Ahumada, we have analyzed how human observers discriminate between two letters of the alphabet ('c' and 'x'). The stimulus consisted of a one degree tall letter plus a four degree field of static white noise, both displayed for 16 frames at a 67 Hz frame rate. Our font and display dimensions approximated those of Solomon and Pelli. The observer identified the letter presented. A QUEST staircase varied letter contrast to maintain a 75% correct rate. For each trial, we preserved the information required to reconstruct the noise field. Possible trial categories based on (signal, response) pairs are: (c,c), (c,x), (x,c), (x,x). Noise fields were averaged separately for each category, and a final classification image was obtained by averaging the four mean images after inverting the sign of categories in which x was the response. If the observer employs a template, it should be revealed in the classification image. The lowpass-filtered classification image derived from 2048 responses of one observer is shown here, along with the corresponding ideal template. An approximation to the ideal template can be seen appropriately located within the classification image. We have also simulated and will discuss the classification images expected from various discrimination models in this experimental context. The construction of classification images appears to be a powerful tool for studying classification strategies used by human observers. Like a Rorschach test, it surreptitiously discovers the inner desires of the visual system.

  9. Narcissism in the Rorschach Revisited: Some Reflections on Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Whether the Rorschach test was able to identify pathological expressions of narcissism was studied in 91 patients with Axis II mental disorder. Results suggest that the Rorschach can differentiate narcissistic personality disorder patients from a nonclinical sample and a sample from Cluster A ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  10. RORSCHACH'S TEST. VOLUME II, A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY PICTURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BECK, SAMUEL J.; MOLISH, HERMAN B.

    REVISED AND REWRITTEN FROM THE 1945 EDITION, THE TEXT DESCRIBES AND ANALYZES THE RORSCHACH TEST. PART 1 OF THE VOLUME WAS WRITTEN BY SAMUEL J. BECK AND PRESENTS A VARIETY OF PERSONALITY PICTURES DRAWN FROM RORSCHACH PROTOCOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION. EXCERPTS FROM 29 CASE STUDIES ARE INCLUDED ON FIVE DIMENSIONS--THE INTELLIGENCE CURVE, YOUNG…

  11. Methodological Issues in Evaluating Rorschach Validity: A Comment on Burns and Viglione (1996), Weiner (1996), and Ganellen (1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.; Garven, Sena; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three recent studies of the validity of Rorschach test (H. Rorschach, 1921) that have not evaluated methodological issues carefully. Identifies methodological errors in each study and offers specific information for the interpretation of Rorschach results. (SLD)

  12. Revising the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index to Accommodate Recent Recommendations about Improving Rorschach Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viglione, Donald J.; Perry, William; Giromini, Luciano; Meyer, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    We used multiple regression to calculate a new Ego Impairment Index (EII-3). The aim was to incorporate changes in the component variables and distribution of the number of responses as found in the new Rorschach Performance Assessment System, while sustaining the validity and reliability of previous EIIs. The EII-3 formula was derived from a…

  13. Extrasensory Perception Experiences and Childhood Trauma: A Rorschach Investigation.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; La Ciura, Giulia; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated whether people who report recurrent extrasensory perception (ESP) experiences (telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition) have suffered more traumatic experiences and traumatic intrusions. Thirty-one nonclinical participants reporting recurrent ESP experiences were compared with a nonclinical sample of 31 individuals who did not report recurrent ESP phenomena. Past traumatic experiences were assessed via a self-report measure of trauma history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire); traumatic intrusions were assessed via a performance-based personality measure (Rorschach Traumatic Content Index). Participants also completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Dissociative Experience Scale, and the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. The ESP group reported higher levels of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and traumatic intrusions. The association between ESP experiences and trauma was partly mediated by the effects of dissociation and emotional distress. Implications for health professionals are discussed. Results also showed the reliability of the twofold method of assessment of trauma. PMID:26488918

  14. Under Skinner's skin: gauging a behaviorist from his Rorschach protocol.

    PubMed

    Grønnerød, Cato; Overskeid, Geir; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Behaviorism and psychodynamic psychology have been regarded as polar opposites. Contrary to popular belief, B. F. Skinner took an interest in Freud and many of his concepts, and agreed to be tested with the Rorschach method and the Thematic Apperception Test by Roe in her study of scientists (Roe, 1953 ). We looked for signs of creativity defined as complex responses, an intriguing emotional tone, novelty, and liveliness. Skinner displayed an enormous number of responses characterized by simplicity, an intellectualized tone, a driven quality rather than creative complexity, and a sense of strained social relationships and lack of liveliness. The findings are in line with Roe's study of other scientists. Skinner's intellectual productivity and high ambition fits well with the commanding figure history describes. PMID:22731841

  15. Introducing a Bayesian Approach to Determining Degree of Fit With Existing Rorschach Norms.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; McCullaugh, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a new methodological approach to investigate the degree of fit between an independent sample and 2 existing sets of norms. Specifically, with a new adaptation of a Bayesian method, we developed a user-friendly procedure to compare the mean values of a given sample to those of 2 different sets of Rorschach norms. To illustrate our technique, we used a small, U.S. community sample of 80 adults and tested whether it resembled more closely the standard Comprehensive System norms (CS 600; Exner, 2003), or a recently introduced, internationally based set of Rorschach norms (Meyer, Erdberg, & Shaffer, 2007 ). Strengths and limitations of this new statistical technique are discussed. PMID:25257792

  16. Measuring psychological development with the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Michael L; Viglione, Donald J; Resende, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and to provide an initial validation of a Rorschach index measuring developmental progress and growth. The Developmental Index (DI) was created in a 3-step, sequential strategy with adult and child data in which we (a) selected potential DI variables from quantitative research literature and from data available to us, (b) identified an optimal group of DI variables and created the DI equation using an independent nonpatient sample, and (c) provided an initial cross-validation of the DI using an independent clinical sample. Age and age rank categorization groups from normative data associated with the Wechsler intelligence scales (Wechsler, 2003, 2008) and contrasts between adults and children served as criteria for development. These samples include a large amount of data from a diverse international subject pool using the Comprehensive System of the Rorschach. Interim validity checks were undertaken to ensure the analytic strategy was sound. The DI includes 12 variables with individual weights determined by regression analysis. The initial independent cross-validation of the DI with a clinical sample revealed that it discriminated well between children and adults. Thus, initial support for this scale as a measure of psychological development across cultures and geography was established, but future research is needed. Clinical implications and specific research needs are presented. PMID:23171197

  17. A comparison between comprehensive system and an early version of the rorschach performance assessment system administration with outpatient children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Jennifer B; Viglione, Donald J; Giromini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the effects of variability in the length of Rorschach records has been debated, and a new administration procedure aimed at reducing the proportion of short and long records has recently been introduced. Using an outpatient sample of children and adolescents, this study explored the impact of an early version of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) administration, on the central tendencies of Rorschach variables. Specifically, the mean values of 51 variables in 142 Comprehensive System versus 99 R-PAS collected records were compared with each other. Results found comparable mean values across CS and R-PAS administration methods for the variables that guide interpretation with children and adolescents. Both methods produced a comparable number of long (> 27 responses) records. The only relevant difference that emerged is that the early R-PAS administration version yielded significantly fewer short (14-16 responses) records and lower variability in the number of responses. PMID:24624977

  18. An external construct validity study of Rorschach personality variables.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, D F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined (a) hypothesized relationships between Rorschach variables and self-report test measures relating to nominally similar aspects of personality functioning and (b) interrelationships among Rorschach variables. Sixty-two undergraduates were administered the Rorschach, Barron Ego Strength Scale, Kaplan Self-Derogation Scale, Eagly Self-Esteem Scale, Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist (MAACL), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Rotter Locus of Control Scale. Only a few of the predictions received confirmation: inanimate movement (m) correlated, as expected, with MAACL anxiety and hostility, the egocentricity index (3r + 2)/R (R = total responses) correlated significantly with self-esteem, and human movement with minus form level (M-) correlated (inversely) with ego strength. Among the unpredicted findings were some that appear inconsistent with standard Rorschach interpretation. Rorschach variables human movement (M), and experience actual (EA), generally interpreted as reflecting coping resources, related significantly with self-report measures of poor coping and of dysphoric affect. In general, the Rorschach appears better at identifying weaknesses in the ego rather than strengths. PMID:2280339

  19. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Rorschach Developmental Index.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Brusadelli, Emanuela; Lang, Margherita; Reese, Jennifer B; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Index (DI) has recently been introduced as a composite Rorschach measure of psychological development and maturation, which can be used both with the Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003), and with the recently developed Rorschach Performance Assessment System (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). As the DI is new, and its validity has not yet been investigated with independent non-U.S. samples, we tested the correlation between DI and age using 3 relatively large samples, 2 of which were from outside the United States (total N = 902). Other Rorschach variables presumably associated with maturation, such as complexity and productivity, were also investigated. As expected, the DI significantly correlated with age, with small variations across the 3 samples. Importantly, the correlation between DI and age remained statistically significant also after controlling for productivity (i.e., the number of responses) and complexity. PMID:25297675

  20. From persecution to depression: a case of chronic depression--associating the Rorschach, the TAT, and Winnicott.

    PubMed

    Husain, Odile

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I discuss a case study of a patient with depression, paranoid ideation, and other psychiatric difficulties who presented in a state of acute crisis. I review the Swiss Lausanne model of Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) interpretation, focusing on a psychoanalytic understanding of special contents and verbalizations. I then present a review of Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003) Structural Summary variables based on a modified Rorschach administration, while qualifying the meanings of these variables in light of the modified procedure. I conclude with a review of Winnicott's (1969) ideas on the paranoid potential, tie it to the main points of the case, and offer a 5-year follow-up of the patient's treatment. The case offers an approach to personality assessment that is informed by an international theory built on psychology and philosophy, and offers support for the use of an alternative theory-based, psychoanalytic method of data analysis. PMID:25679238

  1. Influence of Examiner Differences on Rorschach Productivity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, June M.; McCraw, Ronald K.

    1975-01-01

    Rorschach test protocols for a matched sample of male and female subjects, in the child and adolescent range, were scored for total responses. The data was analyzed for evidence of interactions between sex of experimenter and sex and age of subject. (Author/BJG)

  2. Rorschach Prediction of Success in Clinical Training: A Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Rae

    1969-01-01

    A Rorschach Index based on ego-psychological conceptualization of an optimal personality picture predicted for 155 trainees was compared with predictions from the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB). The Index predicted success and failure more effectively. (Author)

  3. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  4. Rorschach missing responses--is this more than nothing?

    PubMed

    King, M G

    2014-01-01

    The Rorschach has been demonstrated as a suitable tool for investigating otherwise hidden psychological aspects of sex offenders: sex-related responses are more common. The present paper looks at the established tendency of some clients to minimise their overall Rorschach responding, the linking of this response restraint to particular Rorschach profiles, and the sparse but consistent literature which casts doubt on the proposition that Examiner enthusiasm will cause the minimising client to provide more responses which divulge additional information. In the case of sex offenders, with so much to hide, it is proposed that there may be extensive filtering of responses even among those giving more than "normal" sex-related responses. "What the client did not say", and the corresponding "missing" Rorschach responses in the case of sex offenders is discussed in the light of an individual case: (a sex offender with undue interest in young boys' penii) where "sex-like" images were specifically targeted, but never named as such. The exciting prospect of inferring what the client could have said and thus generating the content of missing responses, whether or not response filtering produced numerical minimisation, must be balanced against the risk of naked men and women (and their genitalia) representing nothing more than an artefact of the clinician's own making--"ce qui n' est pas le cas". PMID:25571675

  5. Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

  6. Temporal Factors of the Rorschach White Space Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Roy W.; Morris, Gary W.

    1980-01-01

    The claim by Bandura that the Rorschach space response is an artifact of longer blot exposure is questioned because of failure to account for the relationship between productivity and space response rates. Results of this study indicate that no significant temporal effect operates on space response rate. (Author/BEF)

  7. Personality Processes Reflected in Client Vocal Style and Rorschach Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Laura North; Gaylin, Ned L.

    1973-01-01

    Vocal style was proposed as a useful variable with which to classify groups of clients in order to study the differential effects of various therapeutic maneuvers. Relationships between voice quality ratings in early psychotherapy interviews and pretherapy Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores were investigated in order…

  8. Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frances G.

    Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

  9. Computerization of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingenohl, Ingo

    1973-01-01

    SORTSCOR performs raw scoring of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT) and REPORT subsequently writes a narrative report in easily readable, nonclinical language. Complete documentation is available, at cost, from the author at Quinnipiac College, Hamden, Conn. 06518. (Author/CB)

  10. Rorschach Form Quality in Two Editions of Exner's Comprehensive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, William D.; And Others

    Form level is a major element in the scoring and interpretation of Rorschach responses. Exner's 1974 text and 1976 comprehensive system workbook provided helpful norms and scoring conventions for determining form quality, but its 1985 revision appeared to lead to generally lower levels of form quality. To examine this clinical impression, the…

  11. Primary Process Integration on the Rorschach and Achievement in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between primary process integration (PPI) and achievement was investigated. Fifty-one second graders received the Rorschach, which was scored by Holt's Primary Process Scoring System. Achievement criteria were academic grade average and reading test scores. The hypothesis that PPI is positively related to achievement was…

  12. FM: Clinically Meaningful Rorschach Index with Minority Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Uses a case vignette to consider the possibility that the Rorschach FM index may be a forerunner of abstract thinking. Data support the major finding that FM may enable educational diagnosticians to more accurately estimate the intellectual capabilities of some preschool minority and other culturally disadvantaged children. (Author/JAC)

  13. A Conceptual Critique of the EA:es Comparison in the Comprehensive Rorschach System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiger, James H.; Exner, John E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The EA:es index (part of the Comprehensive Rorschach System) is discussed, demonstrating how conceptual difficulties and abstract jargon can result in misleading and contradictory inferences. The comments of J. E. Exner, Jr., and the response of J. H. Kleiger concern the importance of theory in Rorschach interpretation. (SLD)

  14. The Reliability of the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach: A Comment on Meyer (1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.

    1997-01-01

    G. Meyer (1997) attempts to refute the present authors' criticisms of the interrater reliability of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) but misrepresents their position and offers a flawed meta-analysis in support of his own. Rorschach proponents need to undertake high-quality replicated studies of CS reliability and validity. (SLD)

  15. Suicide andthe Representation of Transparency and Cross-Sections on the Rorschach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Sidney J.; Ritzler, Barry A.

    1974-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of all inpatients since 1960 known to have committed suicide either during or subsequent to hospitalization (n=12) are compared with the Rorschach protocols of a closely matched control group. The results suggest that the presence of transparency and cross-sectional representations is a reliable indicator of suicidal intent.…

  16. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology. PMID:26924673

  17. The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

  18. The mangled butterfly: Rorschach results from 45 violent psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Franks, Kent W; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Spray, Beverly J; Kirkish, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 45 violent California male prison inmates scoring 30 or more on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). Inmates were evaluated using Rorschach and neuropsychological test data. The participants' intellectual functioning was within the low-average range and displayed a lack of flexibility. Rorschach data were not suggestive of chronic narcissism and anger as in other psychopathic samples. This group resembled Exner's normative sample of high Lambda adults. Consistent with previous studies, psychopaths demonstrated poor emotional modulation, diminished reality testing, little interest in people, and virtually no attachment capacity. Most utilized a simplistic, avoidant, and concrete style. This appeared to be consistent with the concrete thinking and fragmentation attributed to the criminal personality. Concrete thinking is based upon literal interpretations of events. Fragmentation is associated with attitudes that are situation specific and self-serving. PMID:19437542

  19. Rorschach assessment of psychological functioning in sexually abused girls.

    PubMed

    Leifer, M; Shapiro, J P; Martone, M W; Kassem, L

    1991-02-01

    We measured psychological functioning in a group of 79 Black females between the ages of 5 and 16 and a comparison group of nonabused girls using the Rorschach. In addition to Exner's (1985) Comprehensive System, the Elizur (1949) Rorschach Content Test Scale (RCT), the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MOA; Urist, 1977; Urist & Shill, 1982), and the Barrier and Penetration Scales (Fisher & Cleveland, 1968) were used. Sexually abused girls were found to show more disturbed thinking, to experience a higher level of stress relative to their adaptive abilities, to describe human relationships more negatively, and to show more preoccupation with sexuality than the comparison group. The distress experienced by the victimized children was more related to internal mediating variables then to abuse characteristics. Sexually abused girls who are cognitively and emotionally active also experienced high levels of distress compared to abused girls who are psychologically constricted. PMID:2002437

  20. Suppression of aggressive rorschach responses among violent offenders and nonoffenders.

    PubMed

    Benjestorf, Sue TaVoularis; Viglione, Donald J; Lamb, Judy D; Giromini, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    This Rorschach study explored the suppression of aggression content when violent offenders and nonoffenders are asked to present themselves as not posing a threat of dangerousness in a court role-playing context. Aggressive content and complexity in this suppressive role-play context was compared to a neutral control condition. A total of 41 participants, approximately half violent offenders and half nonoffenders took the Rorschach under both conditions. Results indicate that both groups suppressed aggression content on the Rorschach without altering response complexity. This large effect size for testing condition may partly explain the inconsistencies across previous studies. It is possible that violent offenders have typically been tested in highly suppressive conditions whereas nonoffender or normative groups may have been tested in relatively low suppression conditions. If so, aggression score differences may be a reflection of the testing condition, not group differences. Both instructional sets produced similar levels of complexity, so that individuals do not simplify responses when they screen out aggressive attributions. Violent offenders did not differ from nonviolent offenders in terms of aggression content, but did produce more simplistic records. In addition, this study also undertook a semantic, textual analysis and found that individuals in the suppressive condition tended to eliminate many response elaborations, particularly those with negative of threatening connotations. PMID:23711990

  1. Rorschach comprehensive system data for a sample of 478 Iranian children at four ages.

    PubMed

    Hosseininasab, Abufazel; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Weiner, Irving B; Delavar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the international reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System by reporting the responses of 478 nonpatient Iranian children at the 4 age levels of 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, and 14 to 16. Interrater reliability is reported, and descriptive statistics are presented for each age level. In common with previous cross-national samples of young people, the Iranian Rorschach findings mirror several expected developmental changes, which indicates their construct validity, and show a low frequency of elevated PTI and DEPI, which limits the likelihood of Rorschach assessment suggesting serious cognitive or affective disorder when neither is present. PMID:25010000

  2. Assessment of children's object-representations with the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Tuber, S B

    1989-09-01

    The recent emphasis on object relations theory as an explanatory model for personality development has been paralleled in the psychological test literature by measures that assess the quality of object-representations. The author reviews one such measure--the Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) scale--in its research applications with adults and children. He then extends the scale to the psychotherapy of children and suggests that Rorschach object-representation scores can be of heuristic value in understanding the treatment process. PMID:2790351

  3. Noblesse Oblige Effect: The Interpretation of Rorschach Responses as a Function of Ascribed Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscherak, Stephen; Masling, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    The influence of a person's social class on the interpretations made of his Rorschach responses was investigated. Results clearly testify to the influence of social class on the clinician's judgment. (Author)

  4. Thinking Clearly about Reliability: More Critical Corrections Regarding the Rorschach Comprehensive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Replies to Wood et al. and documents limitations of their conclusions about the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS), supporting Meyer's own meta-analysis, which finds adequate interrater reliability for the CS. (SLD)

  5. Seeing red: affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Bello, Iruma; Sinclair, S Justin; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found. PMID:23428172

  6. Rorschach assessment of traumatized refugees: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one multitraumatized mental health patients with refugee backgrounds completed the Rorschach (Meyer & Viglione, 2008), Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (Mollica, McDonald, Massagli, & Silove, 2004), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL Group, 1998) before the start of treatment. The purpose was to gain more in-depth knowledge of an understudied patient group and to provide a prospective basis for later analyses of treatment outcome. Factor analysis of trauma-related Rorschach variables gave 2 components explaining 60% of the variance; the first was interpreted as trauma-related flooding versus constriction and the second as adequate versus impaired reality testing. Component 1 correlated positively with self-reported reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (r = .32, p < .05). Component 2 correlated positively with self-reported quality of life in the physical, psychological, and social relationships domains (r = .34, .32, and .35, p < .05), and negatively with anxiety (r = -.33, p < .05). Each component also correlated significantly with resources like work experience, education, and language skills. PMID:23570250

  7. Reliability and validity of rorschach aggression variables with a sample of adjudicated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Samuel J; Porcerelli, John; Abell, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the reliability and validity of 5 Rorschach aggression variables (AG, A1, A2, AgC, and AgPast) in a sample of adjudicated, mostly conduct-disordered adolescents (N = 150). More specifically, we assessed the interrelationships of Rorschach aggression variables using correlational analyses and factor analysis and assessed the relationships between Rorschach variables and a measure of aggressive potential (the Manifest Aggression scale from the Jesness Inventory; Jesness, 1996) as well as a measure of real-world aggression/violence (the Violence Rating Scale-Revised [VRS-R]; Young, Justice, & Erdberg, 1997). Two of Gacono and Meloy's (1994) Rorschach aggression variables were dropped from the study (AgPot and SM) due to a low frequency of occurrence. All 5 of the remaining Rorschach aggression variables and the VRS-R were rated reliably, and factor analysis of the Rorschach variables revealed 2 distinct factors accounting for 71% of the total variance. Only the AgC variable concurrently predicted aggressive potential and aggressive/violent behavior. Results lend further support for the inclusion of AgC in the Comprehensive System's (Exner, 1993) list of Special Scores. PMID:16083382

  8. Authenticity of recovered sexual abuse memories: a Rorschach study.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, F; Labott, S M

    1996-07-01

    Distinguishing authentic abuse from false memory among adults who recover memories of childhood sexual trauma has far-reaching significance. This study initially examined 13 previously reported Rorschach signs of sexual abuse in women not abused, and women sexually abused (and not amnestic). The abuse signs were more prevalent in the abused group. A sexual abuse index composed of 8 signs correctly classified 93% of the abused, and 98% of the nonabused group. The index was then applied to women who recovered memories of abuse; some had analogues of dissociation in their protocols and others did not. Those exhibiting dissociative signs produced more signs of sexual abuse. The index classified 88% of the dissociative group as abused, but only 24% of the nondissociative group. The relevance of these findings for assessing authenticity of recovered memories is explored. PMID:8827651

  9. Test Review: Exner, J. E. (2003). "The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System" (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is a major work in psychology that continues to evolve. The Basic Foundations text (Exner, 1974, 1986, 1993, 2003) is now in its fourth edition. The Exner system and the Rorschach have been the subjects of extensive research and publications, and the Exner system has its share of proponents and critics.…

  10. Predicting DMS-IV cluster B personality disorder criteria from MMPI-2 and Rorschach data: a test of incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Blais, M A; Hilsenroth, M J; Castlebury, F; Fowler, J C; Baity, M R

    2001-02-01

    Despite their frequent conjoint clinical use, the incremental validity of Rorschach (Rorschach, 1921/1942) and MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) data has not been adequately established, nor has any study to date explored the incremental validity of these tests for predicting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders (PDs). In a reanalysis of existing data, we used select Rorschach variables and the MMPI PD scales to predict DSM-IV antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PD criteria in a sample of treatment-seeking outpatients. The correlational findings revealed alimited relation between Rorschach and MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) variables, with only 5 of 30 correlations reaching significance (p <.05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both the MMPI and Rorschach data add incrementally in the prediction of DSM-IV borderline and narcissistic PD total criteria scores. The findings were less clear for the incremental value of Rorschach and MMPI-2 data in predicting the total number of DSM-IV histrionic PD criteria, which were best predicted by Rorschach data, and antisocial PD criteria, which were best predicted by MMPI-2 data. In addition to providing evidence of the incremental validity of Rorschach data, these findings also shed light on the psychological characteristics of the DSM-IV Cluster B PDs. PMID:11206295

  11. Rorschach changes in long-term and short-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I B; Exner, J E

    1991-06-01

    Over a period of several years, repeat Rorschach testing was done with two groups of patients receiving outpatient psychotherapy, a long-term group (n = 88) engaged in intensive, dynamically oriented psychotherapy and a short-term group (n = 88) involved in behavioral or gestalt therapy. Rorschach protocols were obtained at the beginning of the treatment and on three subsequent occasions, 1 year, 2 1/2 years, and 4 years later, when most of the long-term and all of the short-term patients had completed their therapy. The findings demonstrate generally beneficial effects of psychotherapy, greater change in long-term than in short-term therapy, and the validity of the Rorschach for measuring these effects and changes. PMID:1907657

  12. Factors discriminating creative engagement on an unstructured task: Creativity and the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn; Durham-Fowler, Jennifer; Malone, Johanna C

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to find variables that would discriminate between creativity and psychopathology on the Rorschach, Rorschach data from two groups were compared. The first group was an inpatient sample of creative individuals who also carried a diagnosis of psychosis. The second was a group of creative writers. Both groups were engaged in intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Comparing the most creative versus the least creative of the protocols in each group showed that more creative engagement was characterized by a higher response rate and greater and more idisosyncratic elaboration. Differences also emerged between groups: Whereas the inpatient sample relied more heavily on ideational coping, the writers relied more heavily on affective resources. PMID:27294585

  13. The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R

    2001-04-01

    In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables. PMID:11393464

  14. The Last and Weiss Rorschach Sum E in a normal sample.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, D F

    1990-06-01

    For 62 undergraduate women correlations of Rorschach Sum E with scores on 16 PF, Barron's MMPI Ego Strength Scale, the Eagly Self-esteem Scale, Kaplan's Self-derogation Scale, and MAACL. Anxiety, depression, and hostility showed FC+ was the only Sum E component associated with adaptive functioning and so Sum E is of limited usefulness. PMID:2377423

  15. On preserving a legacy: Paul Lerner and the Menninger Rorschach tradition.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Paul Lerner's contributions to the Rorschach test were rooted in a psychoanalytic approach to diagnostic testing that began with David Rapaport at the Menninger Clinic in the 1940s. This article reviews the work of Rapaport, Roy Schafer, and their heirs and shows how Lerner's career was devoted to advancing that tradition and assuring its continuing relevance. PMID:24112083

  16. Identity Status: Its Relationship to Rorschach Performance and to Daily Life Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, James M.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis of the present study is that identity status, as defined by James Marcia, will relate to other characteristic differences between young adults, specifically, to the pattern of their daily lives and to their responses on the Rorschach. (Author/RK)

  17. A Survey of Rorschach Teaching in APA-Approved Clinical Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Gaudio, Andrew C.; Ritzler, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    This survey of APA-approved doctoral programs in clinical psychology provides a status assessment of the Rorschach technique. Eighty-one percent emphasized the technique; a quarter offered the course for a full year; respondents with more experience rated the technique higher; and its was rated highly as a clinical tool and teaching aid, but low…

  18. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  19. A Rorschach Validation Study of the Ego Regression Theory of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatt, Charles T.; Karon, Bertram P.

    1974-01-01

    Four times during a 20-month period 33 schizophrenics were given a psychiatric interview (to ascertain clinical status) and the Rorschach. Subjects not receiving medication showed more evidence of regression and recovery as their clinical status either declined or improved than did subjects receiving medication. (Author)

  20. The Validity of Individual Rorschach Variables: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of the Comprehensive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihura, Joni L.; Meyer, Gregory J.; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

    2013-01-01

    We systematically evaluated the peer-reviewed Rorschach validity literature for the 65 main variables in the popular Comprehensive System (CS). Across 53 meta-analyses examining variables against externally assessed criteria (e.g., observer ratings, psychiatric diagnosis), the mean validity was r = 0.27 (k = 770) as compared to r = 0.08 (k = 386)…

  1. Assessing Reliability: Critical Corrections for a Critical Examination of the Rorschach Comprehensive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    In reply to criticism of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) by J. Wood, M. Nezworski, and W. Stejskal (1996), this article presents a meta-analysis of published data indicating that the CS has excellent chance-corrected interrater reliability. It is noted that the erroneous assumptions of Wood et al. make their assertions about validity…

  2. A Rorschach investigation of defensiveness, self-perception, interpersonal relations, and affective states in incarcerated pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Bridges, M R; Wilson, J S; Gacono, C B

    1998-04-01

    Rorschach protocols of 60 incarcerated men who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for Pedophilia were compared to those of 60 incarcerated men with no history of sex offenses (matched for age, education, and race). Comprehensive System Rorschach variables (Exner, 1991) were selected based on both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models of pedophilia. Pedophiles' Rorschachs (a) contained significantly more responses and were more likely to reveal signs of (b) anxiety and helplessness, (c) painful introspection, (d) distorted views of others, and (e) primitive dependency needs than the comparison group's Rorschachs. Like other incarcerated men, the pedophiles exhibited disturbances in self-worth (either poor self-esteem or excessive self-focus), tendencies to abuse fantasy and avoid emotionally tinged stimuli, and chronic oppositionality and hostility. Pedophiles possess many core personality features associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorders, but are less well defended against feelings of vulnerability and painful introspection than other incarcerated men. Like Antisocial Personality Disorder patients (Gacono & Meloy, 1994), our pedophiles and nonpedophile offenders showed signs of impaired attachment and, in the context of incarceration, failed narcissism. PMID:9697336

  3. Homosexuality in the Rorschach: A New Look at the Old Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendlin, Stephen J.

    1976-01-01

    In comparing educated, adjusted male homosexuals to educated, adjusted heterosexuals, no differences were found between the groups using the traditional index of homosexuality on the Rorschach. Results suggest the traditional index is not valid and should not be used in clinical settings as a measure to assess homosexuality. (Author)

  4. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  5. Mirroring activity in the brain and movement determinant in the Rorschach test.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Piero; Giromini, Luciano; Parolin, Laura; Pineda, Jaime A; Viglione, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    Human movement (M) responses to the Rorschach are related to cognitive sophistication, creativity, and empathy. Recent studies also link Ms to EEG-mu suppression, an index of mirroring activity in the brain. In this article, we further investigate the link between Ms and mu suppression by testing some clinical interpretative distinctions. Previously collected EEG data recorded during the administration of the Rorschach were reanalyzed. We hypothesized that (a) among several responses investigated, only M would be associated with mu suppression, and (b) Ms with active movement, ordinary form quality, or whole human figures would be most strongly associated with mu suppression. Hypothesis 1 was fully confirmed, thus supporting that the traditional interpretation of M has a neurobiological foundation. Hypothesis 2 was partially confirmed; that is, active Ms were associated with mu suppression more strongly than passive Ms (p < .05), but no other significant differences emerged. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23495976

  6. A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context. PMID:23844937

  7. Rorschach measures of cognition relate to everyday and social functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Viglione, Donald J; Rosenfarb, Irwin S; Patterson, Thomas L; Mausbach, Brent T

    2013-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the Rorschach, in explaining functional and social skills capacity in 72 middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age = 51.2 years). Participants responded to the Rorschach administered with the R-Optimized administration instructions and scored with the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. Relationships with neuropsychological performance and psychopathology were also explored. Psychological complexity, which refers to a person's cognitive capacity for problem solving and organizing his or her surroundings, was correlated with functional capacity (r = .30) and social skills capacity (r = .34). Healthy interpersonal representations were correlated with positive social skills (rs = .24-.28). In multiple regression models, psychological complexity accounted for significant variation in functional (β = .23, p = .02) and social skills capacity (β = .35, p < .01) after controlling for neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology. These data suggest that psychological complexity plays a significant role in the functional limitations seen in schizophrenia, above and beyond the contributions of neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms. Support was also found for the impact of healthy object relations functioning with social functioning. Clinical implications include novel information for future development of cognitive remediation treatment strategies based on a patient's developmental level of psychological capacity and healthy interpersonal schemas. PMID:23148650

  8. Rorschach scores in applied clinical practice: a survey of perceived validity by experienced clinicians.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Hsiao, Wei-Cheng; Viglione, Donald J; Mihura, Joni L; Abraham, Leah M

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed practicing clinicians who regularly used the Rorschach about the perceived clinical validity of specific Rorschach scores from many coding systems. The survey included quantitative feedback on the validity of specific variables as well as qualitative input in several areas, including the validity of specific variables, the potentially unique information that can be obtained from them, coding challenges associated with Comprehensive System (CS) codes, and recommendations for CS developments. Participants were recruited by applying a snowball sampling strategy. Based on responses from 246 experienced clinicians from 26 countries, composite judgments on rated variables were quite reliable (e.g., M α = .95 across 88 CS variables), despite limited agreement among any 2 judges. The aggregated judgments clearly differentiated among scores that were considered more and less clinically valid and the overall results aligned with recently obtained meta-analytic conclusions from the traditional validity literature (Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, & Bombel, 2012). The judges also provided guidance concerning revisions and enhancements that would facilitate Rorschach-based assessment in the future. We discuss the implication of the quantitative and qualitative findings and provide suggestions for future directions based on the results. PMID:23452352

  9. Rorschach indicators of chronic childhood sexual abuse in female borderline inpatients.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E A

    1991-01-01

    Recent research indicates a high incidence of childhood sexual abuse and incest among female patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The author investigated the detection and long-term aftereffects of this abuse using a constellation of Rorschach scores that were predicted to occur more frequently in borderline patients with extended sexual victimization before age 14. Sixty-two subjects were divided into two groups (33 with and 29 without such a history) and compared on the following features: color-dominated percepts, primary-process content, confabulation, activity versus passivity, and two new scores related to dissociative symptoms. Some subjects were also administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the DSM-III Structured Clinical Interview for posttraumatic stress disorder. The sexually abused group had significantly higher scores both on the Rorschach features and on the clinical measures. The author contends that the identified Rorschach constellation reflects symptoms associated with these trauma-related syndromes, which are more central to the profile of BPD, both on psychological tests and clinically, than is generally recognized. PMID:2009409

  10. Standards, accuracy, and questions of bias in Rorschach meta-analyses: reply to Wood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015).

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J; Bombel, George; Dumitrascu, Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Wood, Garb, Nezworski, Lilienfeld, and Duke (2015) found our systematic review and meta-analyses of 65 Rorschach variables to be accurate and unbiased, and hence removed their previous recommendation for a moratorium on the applied use of the Rorschach. However, Wood et al. (2015) hypothesized that publication bias would exist for 4 Rorschach variables. To test this hypothesis, they replicated our meta-analyses for these 4 variables and added unpublished dissertations to the pool of articles. In the process, they used procedures that contradicted their standards and recommendations for sound Rorschach research, which consistently led to significantly lower effect sizes. In reviewing their meta-analyses, we found numerous methodological errors, data errors, and omitted studies. In contrast to their strict requirements for interrater reliability in the Rorschach meta-analyses of other researchers, they did not report interrater reliability for any of their coding and classification decisions. In addition, many of their conclusions were based on a narrative review of individual studies and post hoc analyses rather than their meta-analytic findings. Finally, we challenge their sole use of dissertations to test publication bias because (a) they failed to reconcile their conclusion that publication bias was present with the analyses we conducted showing its absence, and (b) we found numerous problems with dissertation study quality. In short, one cannot rely on the findings or the conclusions reported in Wood et al. PMID:25581288

  11. Response character styles in adolescents: a replication of convergent validity between the MMPI-A and the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Stokes, John M; Pogge, David L; Zaccario, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which similar or discordant response character styles (RCS) affected convergence between MMPI-A and Rorschach findings in a sample of 673 adolescents from a psychiatric inpatient setting. Meyer's (Meyer, 1997; Meyer, Riethmiller, Brooks, Benoit, & Handler, 2000) findings for adult samples were generally replicated in that adolescents showing similar RCS across both measures showed moderate to strong relationships between Rorschach and MMPI-A indicants of affective distress, psychosis, and interpersonal wariness, whereas those showing discordant RCS demonstrated negligible or negative correlations between these indicants. This pattern was evident for conceptually similar, but not conceptually unrelated variable pairs. Similarity and discordance of RCS was also found to have an impact on relationships with external criterion variables, including therapist ratings and discharge diagnoses. Moderated regression analysis supports the hypothesis that RCS moderates the strength of the relationship between Rorschach and MMPI-A. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23067132

  12. On Conducting Construct Validity Meta-Analyses for the Rorschach: A Reply to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman (2016).

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

    2016-01-01

    We respond to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman's (2016) critique of our systematic reviews and meta-analyses of 65 Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables published in Psychological Bulletin (2013). The authors endorsed our supportive findings but critiqued the same methodology when used for the 13 unsupported variables. Unfortunately, their commentary was based on significant misunderstandings of our meta-analytic method and results, such as thinking we used introspectively assessed criteria in classifying levels of support and reporting only a subset of our externally assessed criteria. We systematically address their arguments that our construct label and criterion variable choices were inaccurate and, therefore, meta-analytic validity for these 13 CS variables was artificially low. For example, the authors created new construct labels for these variables that they called "the customary CS interpretation," but did not describe their methodology nor provide evidence that their labels would result in better validity than ours. They cite studies they believe we should have included; we explain how these studies did not fit our inclusion criteria and that including them would have actually reduced the relevant CS variables' meta-analytic validity. Ultimately, criticisms alone cannot change meta-analytic support from negative to positive; Tibon Czopp and Zeligman would need to conduct their own construct validity meta-analyses. PMID:27153466

  13. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  14. Normative Data from Rorschach (Exner) and MMPI Tests for Students Assessed in an Alberta Government Youth Assessment Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurence E.

    This study was intended to provide descriptive data of the students in the Medicine Hat Youth Assessment Center, (YAC) in terms of psychological variables obtained from the Rorschach and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The adolescent subjects were 55 males assessed by the MMPI and 63 males and females assessed by the…

  15. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  16. A second look at the validity of widely used Rorschach indices: comment on Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel (2013).

    PubMed

    Wood, James M; Garb, Howard N; Nezworski, M Teresa; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Duke, Misty C

    2015-01-01

    We comment on the meta-analysis by Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel (2013), which examined the validity of scores in Exner's Comprehensive System (CS) for the Rorschach. First, we agree there is compelling evidence that 4 categories of cognitive scores-the "Rorschach cognitive quartet"-are related to cognitive ability/impairment and thought disorder. We now feel comfortable endorsing the use of these scores in some applied and research settings. Second, we conducted new meta-analyses (k = 44) for the 4 noncognitive Rorschach scores with highest validity in the Mihura et al. findings. Unlike Mihura et al., we included unpublished dissertations (although we did not attempt to exhaustively unearth all unpublished studies), calculated correlations instead of semipartial correlations, and used the Rorschach International Norms for a larger proportion of comparisons. Our validity estimates for the Suicide Constellation and Weighted Sum of Color were similar to or even higher than those of Mihura et al., although we concluded that support for the Suicide Constellation is limited and that Weighted Sum of Color probably does not measure its intended target. Our validity estimates for Sum Shading and the Anatomy and X-ray score were much lower than those of Mihura et al. We conclude that their meta-analysis accurately reflects the published literature, but their exclusion of unpublished studies led to substantial overestimates of validity for some and perhaps many Rorschach scores. Therefore, the evidence is presently insufficient to justify using the CS to measure noncognitive characteristics such as emotionality, negative affect, and bodily preoccupations. PMID:25581287

  17. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines. PMID:25297806

  18. Differentiation of psychotic from nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients: the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index.

    PubMed

    Benedik, Emil; Čoderl, Sana; Bon, Jure; Smith, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the validity of the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) to detect psychotic perceptual and thought disturbance in a sample of Slovene psychiatric inpatients. Using a sample of 275 adult psychiatric inpatients of both sexes, we examined the differences between patients with psychosis (PP) and patients with no psychotic features (NP) from various diagnostic groups on the global PTI and its subcomponent variables. PPs obtained significantly higher PTI scores, indicating more disturbed perception and more thinking disturbance, than NPs. No differences were found for diagnostic differences within the PP and NP groups. Results are in accordance with previous studies of the PTI as a valid cross-cultural index of perceptual and thinking disturbance. PMID:23410237

  19. Application to Rat Lung of the Extended Rorschach-Hazlewood Model of Spin-Lattice Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, Andreas; Ailion, David C.; Ganesan, Krishnamurthy; Goodrich, K. Craig; Chen, Songhua; Laicher, Gernot; Cutillo, Antonio G.

    1996-02-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation timeT1was measured in excised degassed (airless) rat lungs over the frequency range 6.7 to 80.5 MHz. The observed frequency dependence was fitted successfully to the water-biopolymer cross-relaxation theory proposed by H. E. Rorschach and C. F. Hazlewood (RH) [J. Magn. Reson.70,79 (1986)]. The rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation timeT1ρwas also measured in rat lung fragments over the frequency range 0.56 to 5.6 kHz, and the observed frequency dependence was explained with an extension of the RH model. The agreement between the theory and the experimental data in both cases is good.

  20. Dissociative trance disorder: clinical and Rorschach findings in ten persons reporting demon possession and treated by exorcism.

    PubMed

    Ferracuti, S; Sacco, R; Lazzari, R

    1996-06-01

    Although dissociative trance disorders, especially possession disorder, are probably more common than is usually though, precise clinical data are lacking. Ten persons undergoing exorcisms for devil trance possession state were studied with the Dissociative Disorders Diagnostic Schedule and the Rorschach test. These persons had many traits in common with dissociative identity disorder patients. They were overwhelmed by paranormal experiences. Despite claiming possession by a demon, most of them managed to maintain normal social functioning. Rorschach findings showed that these persons had a complex personality organization: Some of them displayed a tendency to oversimplify stimulus perception whereas others seemed more committed to psychological complexity. Most had severe impairment of reality testing, and 6 of the participants had an extratensive coping stile. In this group of persons reporting demon possession, dissociative trance disorder seems to be a distinct clinical manifestation of a dissociative continuum, sharing some features with dissociative identity disorder. PMID:8667145

  1. Potential Projective Material on the Rorschach: Comparing Comprehensive System Protocols to Their Modeled R-Optimized Administration Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Pianowski, Giselle; Meyer, Gregory J; Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2016-01-01

    Exner ( 1989 ) and Weiner ( 2003 ) identified 3 types of Rorschach codes that are most likely to contain personally relevant projective material: Distortions, Movement, and Embellishments. We examine how often these types of codes occur in normative data and whether their frequency changes for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or last response to a card. We also examine the impact on these variables of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System's (R-PAS) statistical modeling procedures that convert the distribution of responses (R) from Comprehensive System (CS) administered protocols to match the distribution of R found in protocols obtained using R-optimized administration guidelines. In 2 normative reference databases, the results indicated that about 40% of responses (M = 39.25) have 1 type of code, 15% have 2 types, and 1.5% have all 3 types, with frequencies not changing by response number. In addition, there were no mean differences in the original CS and R-optimized modeled records (M Cohen's d = -0.04 in both databases). When considered alongside findings showing minimal differences between the protocols of people randomly assigned to CS or R-optimized administration, the data suggest R-optimized administration should not alter the extent to which potential projective material is present in a Rorschach protocol. PMID:26963932

  2. Assessment of Rorschach dependency measures in female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J Christopher; Brunnschweiler, Benjamin; Swales, Stephanie; Brock, Johanna

    2005-10-01

    The psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Dependency Index (DI; Hilsenroth & Bornstein, 2002) and the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale (ROD; Masling, Rabie, & Blondheim, 1967) were examined to determine if these implicit measures of dependency predict observable attachment-seeking behavior in 66 female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Results indicate that both scales produce excellent reliability estimates. The DI and ROD yield adequate base rates, and the distributions of scores approximate normal distributions. The DI was predictive of nursing staff observation of positive attachment/treatment compliance (r = .28, p = .02) but not excessive isolation. By contrast, the ROD predicted positive attachment/treatment compliance (r = .38, p = .002) and excessive isolation (r = -.35, p = .004). Texture responses predicted excessive isolation (r = -.25, p = .05). Discriminant validity was supported when neither dependency measure predicted hostile interactions or self-destructive behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the ROD demonstrated incremental validity over the DI and select Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) variables associated with dependency. PMID:16171415

  3. Exploring the inner world of self-mutilating borderline patients: a Rorschach investigation.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J C; Hilsenroth, M J; Nolan, E

    2000-01-01

    Psychiatric patients who engage in self-destructive behavior by cutting, burning, or abrading their skin are currently one of the most difficult-to-treat groups in both inpatient and outpatient settings. The complexities of treating these patients, the risk factors associated with this symptom, and the rise in the prevalence of self-mutilation in America's adolescents and young adults provided the impetus for the current study. This article explores aspects of aggression, dependency, object relations, defensive structure, and psychic boundary integrity that may contribute to the genesis and maintenance of self-mutilation. Rorschach protocols from 90 borderline personality-disordered inpatients (48 self-mutilators and 42 non-self-mutilators) were scored using five psychoanalytic content scales. Results indicate that self-mutilating patients exhibit greater incidence of primary process aggression, severe boundary disturbance, pathological object representations, defensive idealization, devaluation, and splitting than did a matched group of non-self-mutilating borderline patients. Clinical theory and technical recommendations are considered in light of the current empirical findings. PMID:10998813

  4. Assessment of substance abusers on the MCMI-III and the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Vanem, Per-Christian; Krog, Dag; Hartmann, Ellen

    2008-02-01

    We examined 60 substance abusers (SA) on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) and on eight Rorschach variables from the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003). On the MCMI-III, SA scored above the cutoff for clinical significance (M > or = BR 70) on Drug Dependence (94.77), Antisocial (82.95), Depressive (74.33), Self-Defeating (71.48), and Alcohol Dependence (70.70). On seven of the CS variables (M+,o,u, XA%, X-%, WSum6Lv2%, M-%, SumT%, and Pure H%) the scores of the SAs suggested significant more psychopathology compared to the scores of 60 university students, whereas the SA's scores on six of these variables (M+,o,u, XA%, X-%, WSum6Lv2%, SumT%, and Pure H%) suggested significantly less psychopathology compared to the scores of 36 schizophrenics. The effect sizes for the significant differences were in the small, medium and large range (d= 0.31 to d= 1.87). PMID:18190406

  5. Cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System as a measure of psychotic characteristics and severity of mental disturbance in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-So; Viglione, Donald J; Green, Elizabeth E; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Yi-Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), a new Rorschach administration, scoring, and interpretation system that minimizes psychometric weaknesses of the Comprehensive System (CS). This investigation addressed the validity of R-PAS measures of psychotic characteristics and psychopathology severity in Taiwan, including the incremental validity of the R-PAS relative to the CS variables measuring the same constructs. Ninety Taiwanese individuals (75 psychiatric patients and 15 nonpatients) were tested with standard R-PAS administration and scoring. Two non-Rorschach severity of disturbance measures and 2 psychosis measures served as independent criterion measures. The R-PAS measures were found to be valid in Taiwan in assessing psychotic symptoms and psychopathology severity, thus demonstrating cultural and linguistic adaptability. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated incremental validity for the R-PAS variables over their CS counterparts, providing support that the R-PAS revisions enhance the test psychometrically. These research findings also demonstrate the viability of the R-PAS as a Rorschach system that can be effectively employed outside the U.S. in a different language and culture. PMID:26011480

  6. The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…

  7. Extension of the Rorschach-Hazlewood Theoretical Model for Spin-Lattice Relaxation in Biological Systems to Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, Andreas; Ailion, David C.; Ganesan, Krishnamurthy; Laicher, Gernot; Goodrich, K. Craig; Cutillo, Antonio G.

    1996-02-01

    The water-biopolymer cross-relaxation model, proposed by H. E. Rorschach and C. F. Hazlewood (RH) [J. Magn. Reson.70,79 (1986)], explains the Larmor frequency dependence ofT1in many biological systems. However, the RH theory fails at low Larmor frequencies. In this paper, a more general version of the RH theory has been developed. This theory is valid at all frequencies. Use of the new expression for the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1), earlier published experimental data in H2O/D2O bovine serum albumin, which had been measured over a wide frequency range (10 kHz to 100 MHz), were fitted over the entire frequency range. The agreement between theory and the experimental data is excellent. Theoretical expressions for the rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1ρ) were also obtained.

  8. Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we examined global treatment outcomes during 16 months of intensive, psychodynamic treatment for 77 inpatients suffering from treatment-refractory disorders. Hypotheses based on the phase model of treatment change (Howard, Lueger, Maling, & Martinovich, 1993; Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) were supported in the study results. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis V scales assessing behavioral functioning demonstrated large and medium effect size change, whereas stable, enduring personality functioning assessed by psychoanalytic Rorschach scales and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, 1995) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) demonstrated small and medium effect size change. We also report assessment of reliable change index and clinical significance. The ecological validity of Rorschach measures is supported by significant validity coefficients (in the hypothesized directions) between implicit measures of personality functioning and behavioral ratings. PMID:15548467

  9. The effect of color on the production of responses to Rorschach cards VIII, IX, and X in age groups of 11-12 and 15-16 years.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    The effect of color on the production of responses to the Rorschach task has been considered by investigators from 2 different positions: (a) that color has little effect on the production of responses, and (b) that color increases the number of responses. Some previous results found by the current investigators have supported the first position for the last 3 fully colored Rorschach cards (VIII, IX, and X), in children from 5 to 12 years old. Other studies of ours, however, have confirmed the second position for these same cards with a group of young adults 17 to 23 years old. As there was no increase of responses up to age 12, for this study we hypothesized a developmental effect in adolescence such that there would be an increase in the production of responses to the colored Rorschach cards at the age of 15 to 16 years, and this is what the results indicate. From a pragmatic standpoint, these results imply a revision of interpretive meaning for the Color and Affective Ratio variables in children's protocols. Our results also indicate that color cannot be regarded as a means of expression of affect at age 11 to 12 like it will be from age 15 to 16 and on. PMID:24456089

  10. The Impact of R-Optimized Administration Modeling Procedures on Brazilian Normative Reference Values for Rorschach Scores.

    PubMed

    Pianowski, Giselle; Meyer, Gregory J; Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2016-01-01

    To generate normative reference data for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), modeling procedures were developed to convert the distribution of responses (R) in protocols obtained using Comprehensive System (CS; Exner 2003 ) administration guidelines to match the distribution of R in protocols obtained using R-Optimized Administration (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ). This study replicates the R-PAS study, examining the impact of modeling R-Optimized Administration on Brazilian normative reference values by comparing a sample of 746 CS administered protocols to its counterpart sample of 343 records modeled to match R-Optimized Administration. The results were strongly consistent with the R-PAS findings, showing the modeled records had a slightly higher mean R and, secondarily, slightly higher means for Complexity and V-Comp, as well as smaller standard deviations for R, Complexity, and R8910%. We also observed 5 other small differences not observed in the R-PAS study. However, when comparing effect sizes for the differences in means and standard deviations observed in this study to the differences found in the R-PAS study, the results were virtually identical. These findings suggest that using R-Optimized Administration in Brazil might produce normative results that are similar to traditional CS norms for Brazil and similar to the international norms used in R-PAS. PMID:27003633

  11. Relationship between the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in psychotic patients: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Biagiarelli, Mario; Roma, Paolo; Comparelli, Anna; Andraos, Maria Paola; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Masters, Grace Allison; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) in the assessment of reality testing in patients with psychosis. We evaluated the relationship between the PTI criteria and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in 98 psychotic disorder affected patients. Thirty four were evaluated during the acute episode (AP) and 64 were chronically treated and stable (CP). The PANSS positive score resulted significantly higher in AP than in CP group, but no significant difference was found in the PTI score. The PTI positively correlated with the PANSS total score. The PTI1 and PTI2 criteria significantly correlated with the PANSS negative score, the PTI4 and PTI5 with the positive. The Rorschach variable X-% significantly correlated with the negative symptoms; the WSum6 with thought disorders; and the M- with delusions. PTI score, X-% and WSum6 predicted impaired judgment and insight. These results suggest that PTI is a valid instrument to assess impairment in reality testing, regardless of the patient׳s current psychiatric presentation. The presence of conceptual disorganization, delusions, lack of judgment and insight don׳t have effects on the PTI, supporting its strength as an assessment tool for psychotic disorders. PMID:25560479

  12. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

  13. Verbal expressive personality testing with older adults: 25+ years later.

    PubMed

    Panek, Paul E; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Hayslip, Bert; Moske, Amanda Kay

    2013-01-01

    This review builds on those conducted over 25 years ago by Panek and Hayslip in examining the literature dealing with the use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults. Such findings based on the Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Holtzman Inkblot Technique, Hand Test, Sentence Completion methods, and the Thematic Apperception Test and kindred thematic apperceptive techniques are presented and evaluated regarding the evidence for age differences, differential diagnosis, extraneous individual differences in performance, and adequacy of normative data. Although available evidence appears to warrant the continued use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults, more adequately designed studies are necessary to fully support the potential of these assessment tools for decision making with this population: assisting in diagnosis, recommending the appropriateness of various living arrangements, facilitating supportive care choices, and aiding in treatment planning. PMID:23441570

  14. Manifestations of bodily concern in sexually abused girls.

    PubMed

    Arenella, J; Ornduff, S R

    2000-01-01

    Rorschach Inkblot Test (Rorschach, 1921/1942) records of clinical samples of sexually abused and nonabused but distressed girls were examined with respect to selected contents hypothesized to reflect aspects of bodily concern. Consistent with core psychoanalytic assumptions regarding the salience of bodily based experiences on personality development, it was proposed that sexually abused participants would produce significantly different frequencies of Rorschach contents indicative of bodily concern than their nonabused counterparts. Results revealed significant group differences on the barrier scale of the Barrier and Penetration Scoring System (Fisher & Cleveland, 1968), with sexually abused girls scoring significantly lower than nonabused girls (p < .003). No reliable group differences emerged with respect to penetration scores, or any of the Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) variables under study. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:11070621

  15. Quantitative research on the primary process: method and findings.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert R

    2002-01-01

    Freud always defined the primary process metapsychologically, but he described the ways it shows up in dreams, parapraxes, jokes, and symptoms with enough observational detail to make it possible to create an objective, reliable scoring system to measure its manifestations in Rorschach responses, dreams, TAT stories, free associations, and other verbal texts. That system can identify signs of the thinker's efforts, adaptive or maladaptive, to control or defend against the emergence of primary process. A prerequisite and a consequence of the research that used this system was clarification and elaboration of the psychoanalytic theory of thinking. Results of empirical tests of several propositions derived from psychoanalytic theory are summarized. Predictions concerning the method's most useful index, of adaptive vs. maladaptive regression, have been repeatedly verified: People who score high on this index (who are able to produce well-controlled "primary products" in their Rorschach responses), as compared to those who score at the maladaptive pole (producing primary-process-filled responses with poor reality testing, anxiety, and pathological defensive efforts), are better able to tolerate sensory deprivation, are more able to enter special states of consciousness comfortably (drug-induced, hypnotic, etc.), and have higher achievements in artistic creativity, while schizophrenics tend to score at the extreme of maladaptive regression. Capacity for adaptive regression also predicts success in psychotherapy, and rises with the degree of improvement after both psychotherapy and drug treatment. Some predictive failures have been theoretically interesting: Kris's hypothesis about creativity and the controlled use of primary process holds for males but usually not for females. This body of work is presented as a refutation of charges, brought by such critics as Crews, that psychoanalysis cannot become a science. PMID:12206540

  16. Profile of depression, experienced distress and capacity for coping with stress in multiple sclerosis patients--a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Ožura, Ana; Sega, Saša

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant changes in psychological functioning. Depression and cognitive deficits are commonly present. In addition personality changes have been described. A growing body of research is showing negative impact of psychological stress on disease course. Our study focused on the profile of depression, capacity for coping with stress and experienced distress in patients with MS measured by a performance based method for personality assessment-the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). We included 95 patients with MS and 44 healthy controls. RIM was used with all participants and was scored by the Exner Comprehensive system. Compared to healthy controls MS patients had statistically significantly lower capacity for coping with stress, complexity of information processing, body image, willingness to process emotional stimulation and interpersonal interest. Surprisingly patients had lower experienced distress than controls. We propose that the profile of depression in advanced MS disease might be better described in terms of negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and apathy and less with the profile of positive symptoms such as rumination and worry. RIM variables were not significantly associated with the EDSS. Interventions from which patients could benefit are discussed. PMID:24321148

  17. Statistical inference for exploratory data analysis and model diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Buja, Andreas; Cook, Dianne; Hofmann, Heike; Lawrence, Michael; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Swayne, Deborah F; Wickham, Hadley

    2009-11-13

    We propose to furnish visual statistical methods with an inferential framework and protocol, modelled on confirmatory statistical testing. In this framework, plots take on the role of test statistics, and human cognition the role of statistical tests. Statistical significance of 'discoveries' is measured by having the human viewer compare the plot of the real dataset with collections of plots of simulated datasets. A simple but rigorous protocol that provides inferential validity is modelled after the 'lineup' popular from criminal legal procedures. Another protocol modelled after the 'Rorschach' inkblot test, well known from (pop-)psychology, will help analysts acclimatize to random variability before being exposed to the plot of the real data. The proposed protocols will be useful for exploratory data analysis, with reference datasets simulated by using a null assumption that structure is absent. The framework is also useful for model diagnostics in which case reference datasets are simulated from the model in question. This latter point follows up on previous proposals. Adopting the protocols will mean an adjustment in working procedures for data analysts, adding more rigour, and teachers might find that incorporating these protocols into the curriculum improves their students' statistical thinking. PMID:19805449

  18. The laugh of Satan: a study of a familial murderer.

    PubMed

    McCully, R S

    1978-02-01

    A teenage murderer who killed his mother, his tiny half-brother, and his step-father was studied through the imagery he associated to three different editions of inkblots. These sets included the Rorschach, Behn-Rorschach, and Ka-Ro plates. The data were used to theorize about clues, dynamics, and diagnosis in this extreme case of adolescent violence. Family background and developmental history are included. The author takes the position that a conventional analysis of these data alone is not sufficient to fully understand familial murderers. Several of C.G. Jung's concepts, notably his view about the power of shadow-projections to influence conscious percepts and his philosophy about evil as a collective phenomenon, were used to speculate about ways we might extend our understanding of this subject's extreme form of violence. Defining the archetype as an energy-complex, the discussion theorized about possible ways different forms of paranoid ideation may arise. PMID:627988

  19. Embodied simulation and ambiguous stimuli: The role of the mirror neuron system.

    PubMed

    Ando, Agata; Salatino, Adriana; Giromini, Luciano; Ricci, Raffaella; Pignolo, Claudia; Cristofanelli, Stefania; Ferro, Laura; Viglione, Donald J; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2015-12-10

    According to the "embodied simulation theory," exposure to certain visual stimuli would automatically trigger action simulation in the mind of the observer, thereby originating a "feeling of movement" modulated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). Grounded on this conceptualization, some of us recently suggested that when exposed to the Rorschach inkblots, in order to see a human movement (e.g., "a person running") in those ambiguous stimuli, the observer would need to experience a "feeling of movement" via embodied simulation. The current study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further test this hypothesis. Specifically, we investigated whether temporarily interfering with the activity of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG; a putative MNS area) using rTMS would decrease the propensity to see human movement (M) in the Rorschach inkblots. Thirty-six participants were exposed to the Rorschach stimuli twice, i.e., during a baseline (without rTMS) and soon after inhibitory rTMS. As for the rTMS condition, half of the sample was stimulated over the LIFG (experimental group) and the other half over the Vertex (control group). In line with our hypothesis, the application of rTMS over LIFG, but not over Vertex, yielded a statistically significant reduction in the attribution of M to the ambiguous stimuli, with large effect size. These findings may be interpreted as being consistent with the hypothesis that there is a link between the MNS and the "feeling of movement" people may experience, when observing ambiguous stimuli such as the Rorschach cards. PMID:26499259

  20. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. PMID:18161043

  1. An inkblot for sexual preference: a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F; Bernhardt, Johanna; Dierksmeier, Andreas; Banse, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    A newly developed Semantic Misattribution Procedure (SMP), a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), was used in three studies as an indirect measure of sexual interest. Using a known-group approach, homosexual men (Studies 1 and 2), heterosexual men (Studies 1 to 3) and heterosexual women (Study 3) were asked to guess the meaning of briefly presented Chinese ideographs as "sexual" or "not sexual". The ideographs were preceded by briefly presented primes depicting male and female individuals of varying sexual maturity. As hypothesised, the frequency of "sexual" responses increased after priming with pictures of individuals of the preferred sex and increasing sexual maturation. The SMP showed satisfactory reliability and convergent validity as indicated by correlations with direct and two indirect measures of sexual interest. In two further studies, the hypothesised pattern was replicated whereas a standard AMP with the identical prime stimuli did not produce this result. The potential usefulness of semantic variants of the AMP is discussed. PMID:21547768

  2. Newton's method

    SciTech Connect

    More, J. J.; Sorensen, D. C.

    1982-02-01

    Newton's method plays a central role in the development of numerical techniques for optimization. In fact, most of the current practical methods for optimization can be viewed as variations on Newton's method. It is therefore important to understand Newton's method as an algorithm in its own right and as a key introduction to the most recent ideas in this area. One of the aims of this expository paper is to present and analyze two main approaches to Newton's method for unconstrained minimization: the line search approach and the trust region approach. The other aim is to present some of the recent developments in the optimization field which are related to Newton's method. In particular, we explore several variations on Newton's method which are appropriate for large scale problems, and we also show how quasi-Newton methods can be derived quite naturally from Newton's method.

  3. [Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].

    PubMed

    Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role. PMID:24946440

  4. Thought disorder in offspring of schizophrenic parents: findings from the New York High-Risk Project.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Diane C; Coleman, Michael J; Roberts, Simone A; Shenton, Martha E; Levy, Deborah L; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L

    2012-03-01

    The goal of the present analyses was to examine the hypothesis that mild forms of thought disorder (TD) may serve as an indicator of genetic liability for schizophrenia. A subset of 232 subjects drawn from the New York High-Risk Project was used to compare individuals at high risk for schizophrenia (ie, offspring of parents with schizophrenia; n = 63) with 2 groups of individuals at low risk for schizophrenia (ie, offspring of parents with affective disorder [n = 52] and offspring of psychiatrically normal parents [n = 117]). Subjects were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and their responses were assessed according to the Thought Disorder Index (TDI). The high-risk offspring displayed significantly more TD than the other 2 groups, as shown by significantly higher TDI scores. Moreover, they had more deviant verbalizations, according to their significantly higher scores on a composite Idiosyncratic Verbalizations score. As expected, the offspring who developed psychosis produced more TD in adolescence than those who did not develop psychosis. In the sample as a whole, TD scores during late adolescence/early adulthood were positively associated with schizotypal features during mid-adulthood. These findings support the assertion that the presence of TD serves as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. PMID:20554785

  5. Thought Disorder in Offspring of Schizophrenic Parents: Findings From the New York High-Risk Project

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Diane C.; Coleman, Michael J.; Roberts, Simone A.; Shenton, Martha E.; Levy, Deborah L.; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present analyses was to examine the hypothesis that mild forms of thought disorder (TD) may serve as an indicator of genetic liability for schizophrenia. A subset of 232 subjects drawn from the New York High-Risk Project was used to compare individuals at high risk for schizophrenia (ie, offspring of parents with schizophrenia; n = 63) with 2 groups of individuals at low risk for schizophrenia (ie, offspring of parents with affective disorder [n = 52] and offspring of psychiatrically normal parents [n = 117]). Subjects were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and their responses were assessed according to the Thought Disorder Index (TDI). The high-risk offspring displayed significantly more TD than the other 2 groups, as shown by significantly higher TDI scores. Moreover, they had more deviant verbalizations, according to their significantly higher scores on a composite Idiosyncratic Verbalizations score. As expected, the offspring who developed psychosis produced more TD in adolescence than those who did not develop psychosis. In the sample as a whole, TD scores during late adolescence/early adulthood were positively associated with schizotypal features during mid-adulthood. These findings support the assertion that the presence of TD serves as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. PMID:20554785

  6. Sonofluorescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huamao

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, a new sonofluorescence method is proposed. Based upon the method, the author has obtained the sonofluorescence emission spectrum of an aqueous luminol- NaOH solution, and displayed the cavitation field distribution in a sonochemical glass reactor.

  7. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  8. Self-protective strategies, violence and psychopathy: theory and a case study.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Crittenden, Patricia M; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that attachment is a key factor in psychopathy and violence, conceptualization of its potential role remains limited. This article uses the dynamic-maturational model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008 ) and a case study to illustrate an etiological model of psychopathy and violence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984 -1996), coded according to the DMM system (Crittenden & Landini, 2011 ), was used to identify the participant's self-protective attachment strategies, and to explore indexes indicating opportunities for change. To allow a more elaborated understanding of this participant's personality, AAI findings were compared and contrasted with the Rorschach method (Rorschach, 1921 /1942). The AAI indicated unresolved loss and trauma, alternation between delusionally idealizing dismissive (Type A) and menacing-paranoid entangled (Type C) strategies, possible depression, and the potential for reorganization. The Rorschach showed many similarities with the AAI findings. Implications for the understanding of psychopathy, violence, and treatment are presented. PMID:23980823

  9. Electrodeionization method

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Hestekin, Jamie; Arora, Michelle; St. Martin, Edward J.

    2004-09-28

    An electrodeionization method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit.

  10. On Methods for the Analysis of Indefinite Stimuli Perception Characteristics: an fMRT Study of Gender-Specific Differences.

    PubMed

    Fyodorov, A A; Pervushina, O N; Bliznyuk, M V; Khoroshilov, B M; Melnikov, M E; Mazhirina, K G; Stark, M B; Savelov, A A; Petrovsky, E D; Kozlova, L I

    2016-07-01

    Comparative identification of cerebral regions activated in men and women during perception of indefinite images was carried out by fMRT and psychological testing. Nine men and nine women aged 20-26 years took part in the study. The volunteers examined simple geometric figures, slightly structurized images (tables from Rorschach's test), and images of impossible figures. Activation in the cerebellum and visual cortex (bilateral) was more pronounced in women in response to all types of images and less so in the right G. temporalis medius. The right frontal regions (G. precentralis, G. frontalis superior, G. frontalis medius) were also stronger activated in women in response to indefinite stimuli. PMID:27492400

  11. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  12. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  13. Characterization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  14. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  15. Drilling method

    SciTech Connect

    Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.

  16. SINTERING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.

    1963-11-01

    Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)

  17. Genotyping methods.

    PubMed

    Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping allows for the identification of bacterial isolates to the strain level and provides basic information about the evolutionary biology, population biology, taxonomy, ecology, and genetics of bacteria. Depending on the underlying question and available resources, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains may be typed by anonymous fingerprinting techniques or electronically portable sequence-based typing methods such as multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing, or oligonucleotide microarray. Macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis is a genotyping method that is globally applicable to all bacteria and hence has been and still is the reference method for strain typing in bacteriology. Agarose-embedded chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a rare-cutting restriction endonuclease and the generated 20-70 fragments are then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The chapter provides a detailed step-by-step manual for SpeI genome fingerprinting of Pseudomonas chromosomes that has been optimized for SpeI fragment pattern analysis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24818895

  18. Gelcasting methods

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Claudia A.; Kirby, Glen H.; Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; McMillan, April D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

  19. QSAR Methods.

    PubMed

    Gini, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we introduce the basis of computational chemistry and discuss how computational methods have been extended to some biological properties and toxicology, in particular. Since about 20 years, chemical experimentation is more and more replaced by modeling and virtual experimentation, using a large core of mathematics, chemistry, physics, and algorithms. Then we see how animal experiments, aimed at providing a standardized result about a biological property, can be mimicked by new in silico methods. Our emphasis here is on toxicology and on predicting properties through chemical structures. Two main streams of such models are available: models that consider the whole molecular structure to predict a value, namely QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships), and models that find relevant substructures to predict a class, namely SAR. The term in silico discovery is applied to chemical design, to computational toxicology, and to drug discovery. We discuss how the experimental practice in biological science is moving more and more toward modeling and simulation. Such virtual experiments confirm hypotheses, provide data for regulation, and help in designing new chemicals. PMID:27311459

  20. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  1. Tensiometer methods

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  2. WELDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  3. Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

  4. The Impact of an Ego Depletion Manipulation on Performance-Based and Self-Report Assessment Measures.

    PubMed

    Charek, Daniel B; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants' Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures. PMID:26002059

  5. The Multidimensional WKB Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)

  6. From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masouleh, Nima Shakouri

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…

  7. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  8. The Moore Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. Burton

    1977-01-01

    The Moore methods, in which college mathematics students prove theorems for themselves, is described. Difficulties and drawbacks to this method, appropriate areas of mathematics in which the Moore method can be used, and techniques in using the method are discussed. (DT)

  9. Designing ROW Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1996-01-01

    There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.

  10. Failure combination method

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, F.; Le Coguiec, A.; Le Floch, C.; Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

    1981-01-01

    The method described in this paper is an inductive method for combining failures (called the Failure Combination Method (FCM)). It is based on a preliminary analysis of the systems performed with an FMEA. As a study has been undertaken to test the method, the organization of the study as well as its first results from a methodological point of view are stressed. 8 refs.

  11. Radiochemical method development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  12. Electromagnetic induction methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

  13. Selecting Needs Analysis Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newstrom, John W.; Lilyquist, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a contingency model for decision making with regard to needs analysis methods. Focus is on 12 methods with brief discussion of their defining characteristics and some operational guidelines for their use. (JOW)

  14. Equations and closure methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.

  15. Redefining the "Scientific Method".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

  16. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  17. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  18. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Accelerated molecular dynamics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Danny

    2011-01-04

    The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

  20. An extended Lagrangian method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1992-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. Unlike the Lagrangian method previously imposed which is valid only for supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  1. An extended Lagrangian method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. The present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multidimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in 1D problems.

  2. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890

  3. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  4. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  5. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  6. Spectral methods for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

  7. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  8. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  9. Methods of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources. PMID:3970028

  10. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2014-05-20

    An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.

  11. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  12. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  13. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  14. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  15. The Oxygen Flask Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

  16. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

  17. Methods for data classification

    DOEpatents

    Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  18. Methods of Motivational Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot

    2008-01-01

    As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…

  19. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  20. The Method of Archimedes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  1. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  2. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  3. DISCOURSE ON METHODS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOUCHER, JOHN G.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

  4. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  5. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  6. Geopositional Statistical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton

    2006-01-01

    RMSE based methods distort circular error estimates (up to 50% overestimation). The empirical approach is the only statistically unbiased estimator offered. Ager modification to Shultz approach is nearly unbiased, but cumbersome. All methods hover around 20% uncertainty (@ 95% confidence) for low geopositional bias error estimates. This requires careful consideration in assessment of higher accuracy products.

  7. REVA DATA INTEGRATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The core of the research effort in the Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) is a set of data integration methods ranging from simple overlays to complex multivariate statistics. These methods are described in the EPA publication titled, "Regional Vulnerability Assess...

  8. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  9. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  10. Reading Methods Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…

  11. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  12. Probabilistic boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

  13. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

  14. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  15. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  16. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  17. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  18. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  19. Introduction to multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesseling, P.

    1995-01-01

    These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.

  20. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  1. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  2. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  3. Methods of flash sintering

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  4. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  5. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  6. Methods of Studying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)

  7. PARTICLE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.G.

    1963-01-29

    An improved method of sedimentation is described. A series of spaced surfaces of powdered material positioned normal to the centrifugal field concentrates the larger, slower moving molecules of a liquid and hastens sedimentation. (AEC)

  8. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734

  9. The Myopia of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorik, John A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)

  10. Concrete compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  11. Method for synthesizing boracities

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA

    1982-01-01

    A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.

  12. Project Delivery Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

  13. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  14. METHOD OF BRAZING

    DOEpatents

    Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-11-27

    A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)

  15. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  16. Method for making organooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2003-12-23

    A method for the preparation of organooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided which comprises reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with at least one transition metal organo compound.

  17. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  18. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  19. Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2002-01-01

    A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.

  20. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  1. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Eric A.; Demain, Arnold L.; Madia, Ashwin

    1985-09-10

    A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  2. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  3. Method selection made easy.

    PubMed

    Legrain, G; Delvoye, P; Salami, L

    1992-05-01

    The Togolese National Family Welfare Programme introduced a visit card system for method selection in 1989 developed several years earlier in Burundi. Thereby the health worker is aided in choosing the best contraceptive method for each client on the basis of personal data, medical history, and a general and gynecological examination. the card is also used makes the selection by taking into account contraindications and considering them in conjunction with the client's individual profile. At this stage the innovative aspect of the visit card is that the contraindications are grouped together under 3 headings; those identified by asking questions (e.g., a mother breast feeding for less than 6 weeks),those identified by looking at the client's history (e.g., a recent liver ailment), and those revealed by the general and gynecological examination (e.g., a blood pressure of more than 14/10). The 2nd part of the card concerns the search for the recommended contraceptive method. It includes a list of the methods: rhythm, barrier, IUD, combination pill, low-dose progestogen pill, and injection. A plus sign indicates that the method is recommended, a minus sign indicates that the method is not recommended, and a double minus sign indicates that the method is relatively recommended. A relative contraindication becomes an absolute contraindication if associated with another relative contraindication. After the acceptance of the method, the health worker prescribes it, and advises the client about the follow-up program, any possible side effects, and any warning signs which necessitate another appointment. PMID:12222226

  4. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  5. Improved radioanalytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore {trademark} membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process.

  6. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  7. Multiscale methods for nanoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Kenny

    This project is presented in two sections. Two different multiscale models are developed in order to increase the computational speed of two well known atomistic algorithms, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). In Section I, the MD method is introduced. Following this, a multiscale method of linking an MD simulation of heat conduction to a finite element (FE) simulation is presented. The method is simple to implement into a conventional MD code and is independent of the atomistic model employed. This bridge between the FE and MD simulations works by ensuring that energy is conserved across the FE/MD boundary. The multiscale simulation allows for the investigation of large systems which are beyond the range of MD. The method is tested extensively in the steady state and transient regimes, and is shown to agree with well with large scale MD and FE simulations. Furthermore, the method removes the artificial boundary effects due to the thermostats and hence allows exact temperatures and temperature gradients to be imposed on to an MD simulation. This allows for better study of temperature gradients on crystal defects etc.. In Section II, the KMC method is introduced. A continuum model for the KMC method is presented and compared to the standard KMC model of surface diffusion. This method replaces the many discrete back and forth atom jumps performed by a standard KMC algorithm with a single flux that can evolve in time. Elastic strain is then incorporated into both algorithms and used to simulate atom deposition upon a substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Quantum dot formation due to a mismatch in the lattice spacing between a substrate and a deposited film is readily observed in both models. Furthermore, by depositing alternating layers of substrate and deposit, self-organised quantum dot super-lattices are observed in both models..

  8. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  9. Methods in Molecular Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyuk, Igor N.; Zaccai, Nathan R.; Zaccai, Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Our knowledge of biological macromolecules and their interactions is based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. These methods, which include mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy, diffraction and crystallography, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance, are complementary; each has its specific advantages and limitations. Organised by method, this textbook provides descriptions and examples of applications for the key physical methods in modern biology. It is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of molecular biophysics in science and medical schools, as well as research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques beyond their specialty. As appropriate for this interdisciplinary field, the book includes short asides to explain physics aspects to biologists and biology aspects to physicists. Comprehensive coverage and up-to-date treatment of the latest physical methods in modern biology Each method includes a brief historical introduction, theoretical principles, applications, advantages and limitations, and concludes with a checklist of key ideas Interdisciplinary and accessible to biologists, physicists, and those with medical backgrounds

  10. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671