These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Review of Literature Regarding Scientific Controversies Surrounding the Psychometric Properties of the Rorschach Inkblot Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the focus of intense controversy, significantly impacting clinicians who currently rely on Exner's Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) in clinical and forensic settings. This paper evaluates recent empirical CS research to determine whether or not it reveals lack of scientific merit as some skeptics have…

Park, Kevin Neil

2009-01-01

2

Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

3

Rorschach Score Validation as a Model for 21st-Century Personality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the

Robert F. Bornstein

2012-01-01

4

Inkblot Authentication Adam Stubblefield  

E-print Network

to characterize the personality of the subject and diagnose any personality disorders. The Rorschach test suggests then be used to authenticate the user. This approach is based on evidence from the psychological literature test [15], a personality test used by psychologists for more than half a century. In a Rorschach

Hunt, Galen

5

Rorschach Revisited: A New Look at an Old Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All pairs of Rorschach inkblots were scaled for perceived similarity by one normal and two psychopathological samples. The resulting data were analyzed using Carroll and Chang's INDSCAL model, which resulted in a good fit in two dimensions. These were interpreted as a dimension of color and one of form ("twoness"). (Author)

Wainer, Howard; And Others

1976-01-01

6

Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. Methods In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. Results The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. Conclusion The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children. PMID:23682251

Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

2013-01-01

7

Challenges since Wikipedia: the availability of Rorschach information online and internet users' reactions to online media coverage of the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate.  

PubMed

We conducted 2 studies to assess the availability of Rorschach information online and Internet users' attitudes since the inkblots were published on Wikipedia. In the first study, the authors conducted 2 Google searches for Web sites containing Rorschach-related information. The top 88 results were classified by level of threat to test security; 19% posed a direct threat. The authors also found Web sites authored by psychologists that divulged sensitive Rorschach information. In the second study, 588 comments to online news stories covering the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate were coded as expressing favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding the field of psychology, psychologists, and the Rorschach. Eight percent of comments described unfavorable opinions toward psychology, 15% contained unfavorable opinions toward psychologists, and 35% portrayed unfavorable opinions of the Rorschach. Common themes and popular misconceptions of the Rorschach contained in these comments are described. Implications and recommendations for practice are discussed. Limitations, including the second study's narrow sample and self-selection bias, are also detailed. PMID:22176268

Schultz, Douglas S; Loving, James L

2012-01-01

8

Changes in the Rorschach and MMPI–2 After Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): A Collaborative Assessment Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used before-and-after testing with the Rorschach Inkblot Test (Exner, 1997\\/2003) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (Butcher et al., 2001) to assist a psychotherapy client—a survivor of child abuse suffering from depression accompanied by hallucinations—in evaluating a course of electroconvulsive therapy that she underwent. The results of both tests indicated positive changes. During the collaborative discussion of the test

Philip Keddy; Philip Erdberg

2010-01-01

9

Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

1985-01-01

10

Theoretical Foundations of Rorschach by Piotrowski.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writer has tried to lift the veil of mystery from the Rorschach Cards by uncovering in simple form the ten basic principles of Zygmunt Protrowski which can be considered the foundation stones of Rorschach; they are composed of psycho-justifications as well as meaningful administrative procedures allowing the reader broader understanding of…

Daly, William C.

2005-01-01

11

The Rorschach InkBlot Test as an Instrument for Evaluating Quality of Life in Breast-Cancer Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The psychological discomfort associated to breast-cancer diagnosis and related treatments is universally recognized. However homogeneous modalities of intervention are lacking. The questionnaires are the most employed tools to analyze pre-morbidity personality traits and the quality of life of cancer patients, but they lack valid indicators of the patients' overall quality of life. On the other hand, counseling along with

G. Marchioro; F. Barbato; G. Azzarello; O. Vinante

2005-01-01

12

Aging and terminal changes in Rorschach responses among the Japanese elderly.  

PubMed

The Rorschach Inkblot Test was used to examine how personality changes among the elderly and whether significant changes precede death. Six measurements were conducted over 10 years. The original subjects were 236 healthy Japanese elderly with an average age of 76.4 years; 52 subjects survived throughout the 10-year study. Age-related changes were reflected in the number of responses; responses regarding rejection, shading, and popular; poor form level (F-%); and content range. The changes in these variables suggest that productive and creative thinking, cooperativeness, and concerns for and interests in society lessen with advancing age. Over the 4 to 6 years preceding death, the popular responses and content range declined, and the decline accelerated before death. Tests within 2 years of death showed less animal movement response (FM), and higher form (F%), F-%, and human content (H%) compared to the survivors. These results suggest that productivity, vital energy, and ego strength become reduced prior to death, whereas interest in and sensitivity to others is maintained to the end. PMID:1920024

Shimonaka, Y; Nakazato, K

1991-08-01

13

Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing  

PubMed Central

Background The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls. Methods Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls. Results The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C) > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups. Conclusion The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder. PMID:23682214

Kimura, Hiromi; Osaki, Akemi; Kawashima, Rui; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Suzuki, Katsuji; Asakura, Satoshi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kitaichi, Yuji; Masui, Takuya; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Kako, Yuki; Abekawa, Tomohiro; Kusumi, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Hiroyoshi; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa

2013-01-01

14

Constructivism and the projective assessment of meaning in Rorschach administration.  

PubMed

Constructivist perspectives on the Rorschach are outlined. I discuss ways in which constructivism complements and adds to existing Rorschach methodologies. It is suggested hat the constructivist emphasis on personally and socially constructed meanings is very consistent with many of the ways the Rorschach has been used and resonates with recent emphases on the Rorschach as a representational task. Furthermore, constructivist perspectives on Rorschach also provide an opportunity to supplement Exner's (1993, 1995) efforts to standardize and norm the Rorschach in a way that maintains the instrument's historic and admirable attention to relational elements of assessment and psychotherapy. I present a variety of meaning-based techniques for conducting Rorschach assessment, incorporating both the constructivist and social constructionist perspective. PMID:11562099

Raskin, J D

2001-08-01

15

[The lambda in the rorschach comprehensive system].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between Lambda (L) and other variables in the Rorschach comprehensive system. Individual Rorschach tests based on the comprehensive system was administrated to 102 female normal adults (over 20 years old). High L group and Low L group were defined on the basis of median value. The two groups were compared on major variables. The high L group had significantly higher values on variables such as DQo, D, Dd, S, Hd than the low L group. In contrast, the low L group had significantly higher values on variables such as DQ+, Blends, M, FM + m, Sum C', "active", H, COP than the high L group. Clinician who use the Rorschach test should consider these variables in relation to L, when interpreting the structural summary of the comprehensive system. PMID:12728702

Konishi, Hiroyuki

2003-02-01

16

Rorschachs of women who commit homicide.  

PubMed

For a majority of the women who kill, the victim is a family member; the most frequent is a spouse, and the woman is very frequently a battered woman. Clinical reports on battered women suggest a set of psychological symptoms that develops out of spousal abuse (i.e., pervasive anxiety, hyperalertness, impaired memory and concentration, a narrowed focus on signs of danger, constricted affect, development of chronic psychophysiological illnesses, and pervasive feelings of hopelessness and helplessness). Psychological tests have not been systematically used to assess or document these psychological symptoms. The present study employed the Rorschach to assess the psychological functioning of 28 battered women who killed their battering spouses. The Rorschach records displayed cognitive constriction, a lack of internal resources for problem solving, an ambitensive and passive problem-solving style, intense and poorly modulated affect, poor scanning of the stimulus field, and unconventional reality testing. The Rorschach protocols of this group showed strong similarities to those of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Common psychological effects of the experience of inescapable violence are suggested. PMID:8336261

Kaser-Boyd, N

1993-06-01

17

An effort at studying Rorschach content symbolism: The frog response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conception was advanced that a frog response on the Rorschach Test constituted a symbolic representation of unconscious cloacal birth and oral impregnation fantasies. It was hypothesized that a group of frog responders would display more eating disturbances than would a comparison group. A group of 31 psychiatric patients, giving frog responses in their Rorschach protocols, was compared with a

Allan Sapolsky

1964-01-01

18

Under Skinner's skin: gauging a behaviorist from his Rorschach protocol.  

PubMed

Behaviorism and psychodynamic psychology have been regarded as polar opposites. Contrary to popular belief, B. F. Skinner took an interest in Freud and many of his concepts, and agreed to be tested with the Rorschach method and the Thematic Apperception Test by Roe in her study of scientists (Roe, 1953 ). We looked for signs of creativity defined as complex responses, an intriguing emotional tone, novelty, and liveliness. Skinner displayed an enormous number of responses characterized by simplicity, an intellectualized tone, a driven quality rather than creative complexity, and a sense of strained social relationships and lack of liveliness. The findings are in line with Roe's study of other scientists. Skinner's intellectual productivity and high ambition fits well with the commanding figure history describes. PMID:22731841

Grønnerød, Cato; Overskeid, Geir; Hartmann, Ellen

2013-01-01

19

Rorschach Responses in Borderline Personality Disorder with Alcohol Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze differences in Rorschach responses between two groups of alcoholics, one of which was diagnosed Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and the other Mixed Personality Disorder (MXPD). Forty-three male alcohol dependent inpatients participated in the study. The subjects were diagnosed by two independent clinical psychologists and divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted

Anne Helene Skinstad; Kari Troland; Jenny K. Mortensen

1999-01-01

20

Test interference in a Rorschach-WAIS administration sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized and confirmed that scores on certain WAIS subtests would be lowered when presented immediately after the Rorschach. College students, who had taken a short form of the WAIS, were divided into 3 groups matched on the variables IQ, sex, and scores on 3 WAIS verbal subtests. Each of the 3 groups was given 1 of 3 treatments immediately preceding

Thomas Grisso; Arnold Meadow

1967-01-01

21

Rorschach Measures of Aggression: A Laboratory-Based Validity Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's (2003) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's (1992) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35

Aaron J. Kivisto; Scott A. Swan

2012-01-01

22

Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Reference Data for Israeli Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974, 2003) data for a sample of 100 Israeli nonpatient adolescents divided into 2 age-based groups: 11–14 (n = 42) and 15–18 (n = 58). The data are compared to those derived from the international project of Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). The results suggest that contemporary Israeli adolescents demonstrate age-appropriate inclination

Shira Tibon Czopp; Lily Rothschild-Yakar; Liat Appel

2012-01-01

23

The Effects of Sensory Deprivation and Motor Inhibition on Rorschach Movement Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rorschach movement responses were evaluated before and after conditions of sensory depreviation of motor inhibition. 72 college students were provided with the same standard stimuli consisting of Rorschach cards under two experimental and one normal condition. It was hypothesized that movement responses would be increased by the experimental situations and this is generally the case. Analyses of variance indicated significant

Maurene R. Bendick; Walter G. Klopfer

1964-01-01

24

The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

2007-01-01

25

Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still the dominant method of pain treatment in Japan. The current study aimed to evaluate comprehensive psychological functions and processes in Japanese chronic pain patients. Methods The Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to 49 in-patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Major variables and frequencies from the test were then compared to normative data from non-patient Japanese adults by way of the t-test and chi-square test. Results Patients exhibited high levels of emotional distress with a sense of helplessness with regard to situational stress, confusion, and ambivalent feelings. These emotions were managed by the patients in an inappropriate manner. Cognitive functions resulted in moderate dysfunction in all stages. Information processing tended to focus upon minute features in an inflexible manner. Mediational dysfunction was likely to occur with unstable affective conditions. Ideation was marked by pessimistic and less effective thinking. Since patients exhibited negative self-perception, their interpersonal relationship skills tended to be ineffective. Originally, our patients displayed average psychological resources for control, stress tolerance, and social skills for interpersonal relationships. However, patient coping styles were either situation- or emotion-dependent, and patients were more likely to exhibit emotional instability influenced by external stimuli, resulting in increased vulnerability to pain. Conclusions Data gathered from the Rorschach test suggested psychological approaches to support chronic pain patients that are likely to be highly beneficial, and we thus recommend their incorporation into the course of current pain treatments. PMID:21110860

2010-01-01

26

Conceptualization of children's interpersonal relatedness with the Rorschach: a qualitative multiple case study.  

PubMed

In this in-depth, qualitative, multiple case study, we examined Rorschach data as they relate to the interpersonal behavior, experience, and perceptions of an individual. In this study, we addressed the following question: How are the correspondences between Rorschach variables and children's interpersonal behavior revealed? We conducted an examination of the Rorschach variables and criterion data regarding the children's interpersonal functioning through a qualitative analysis of 6 nonpatient girls between the ages of 8 and 11 years old. The results reveal individualized correspondences between Rorschach variables and interpersonal functioning in which some variables proved more fruitful in describing expressed interpersonal behavior than others. Specifically, the variables utilizing human images, such as the HRV and the thematic descriptions, corresponded most highly to real life interpersonal behavior. PMID:20706924

Rivera, Bridget A; Viglione, Donald J

2010-09-01

27

Seeing red: affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach.  

PubMed

Psychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found. PMID:23428172

Malone, Johanna C; Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Bello, Iruma; Sinclair, S Justin; Blais, Mark A

2013-01-01

28

Rorschach Comprehensive System Data for a Sample of 52 Older Adult Nonpatients From the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is composed of 52 older adults, ages 60 to 80, all from the United States. In addition to being administered the Rorschach (Rorschach, 1942), all participants also were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised (WAIS–R; Weschler, 1981), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI–2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), the Neuro Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE; Kiernan, Mueller,

Kevin Pertchik; Thomas W. Shaffer; Philip Erdberg; David Ira Margolin

2007-01-01

29

Test Review: Exner, J. E. (2003). "The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System" (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is a major work in psychology that continues to evolve. The Basic Foundations text (Exner, 1974, 1986, 1993, 2003) is now in its fourth edition. The Exner system and the Rorschach have been the subjects of extensive research and publications, and the Exner system has its share of proponents and critics.…

Flanagan, Rosemary

2006-01-01

30

Predicting DMS-IV cluster B personality disorder criteria from MMPI-2 and Rorschach data: a test of incremental validity.  

PubMed

Despite their frequent conjoint clinical use, the incremental validity of Rorschach (Rorschach, 1921/1942) and MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) data has not been adequately established, nor has any study to date explored the incremental validity of these tests for predicting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders (PDs). In a reanalysis of existing data, we used select Rorschach variables and the MMPI PD scales to predict DSM-IV antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PD criteria in a sample of treatment-seeking outpatients. The correlational findings revealed alimited relation between Rorschach and MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) variables, with only 5 of 30 correlations reaching significance (p <.05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both the MMPI and Rorschach data add incrementally in the prediction of DSM-IV borderline and narcissistic PD total criteria scores. The findings were less clear for the incremental value of Rorschach and MMPI-2 data in predicting the total number of DSM-IV histrionic PD criteria, which were best predicted by Rorschach data, and antisocial PD criteria, which were best predicted by MMPI-2 data. In addition to providing evidence of the incremental validity of Rorschach data, these findings also shed light on the psychological characteristics of the DSM-IV Cluster B PDs. PMID:11206295

Blais, M A; Hilsenroth, M J; Castlebury, F; Fowler, J C; Baity, M R

2001-02-01

31

The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality.  

PubMed

In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables. PMID:11393464

Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R

2001-04-01

32

Appraisal of Suicidal Risk Among Adolescents and Young Adults Through the Rorschach Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group

Sybilla Blasczyk-Schiep; Miguel Kazén; Julius Kuhl; Micha? Grygielski

2011-01-01

33

What the Rorschach Can Contribute to Child Custody and Parenting Time Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality assessment can indirectly help custody evalu-ators answer important questions about parental competence and the fit between parents' psychological resources and children's needs. It is preferable to use testing to check hypotheses derived from the case information rather than the reverse. The Rorschach makes it possible to assess implicit motives, coping capacities, and need states, thus complementing and supplementing self-attributed

Robert E. Erard

2005-01-01

34

The Relationship of Culture Value Orientation Change and Rorschach Indices of Psychological Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of culture value orientation change and Rorschach indices of psychological development was investigated using a sample of second-generation Greek-Americans undergoing the acculturation process by comparing the families with psychotic member with a matched group of families in which there was no history of psychopathology. (JM)

Papajohn, John C.; Spiegel, John P.

1971-01-01

35

The Rorschach mutuality of autonomy scale in the assessment of black father-absent male children.  

PubMed

This study examined the utility of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MOA, Urist, 1977) in the assessment of two groups of 40 father-absent Black male children (aged 6 to 12 years): those whose fathers had left voluntarily versus those whose fathers had left involuntarily. Children who had experienced involuntary father-absence reflected less adaptive object-relations attainment status as measured by the MOA, t(38) = 2.37, p = > .02, when compared to children whose fathers had negotiated their departure. Although the Rorschach MOA can be a useful measure of assessing psychological functioning in Black father-absent male children, a multimethod assessment of object-relations status for ethnic minority children is proposed. PMID:16370805

Brown-Cheatham, M

1993-12-01

36

Does subthalamic stimulation induce personality modifications in Parkinson's disease? A Rorschach Test explorative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate personality, by means of the Rorschach Psychodiagnostic test, in a consecutive series of fourteen patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) submitted to bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS STN). Patients were evaluated pre-operatively and 1 year after surgery. Patients were also assessed for motor disability and cognitive status. All the patients obtained a significant amelioration of motor symptoms and could reduce the dopaminergic treatment after surgery. No cognitive decline was observed comparing the pre- to the post-operative neuropsychological assessment. The comparison between pre- and post-operative Rorschach indexes showed no major modifications of personality structure. The results of the present explorative study suggest that DBS of STN does not result in relevant personality modifications in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:18575180

Castelli, Lorys; Perozzo, Paola; Caglio, Marcella; Rizzi, Laura; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lanotte, Michele; Lopiano, Leonardo

2008-03-01

37

An investigation of the relationship between personality traits and differential salience of Rorschach dimensions  

E-print Network

Approved as to style and content by: Arnold D. LeUnes ( airman of Committee) / John H. Riskind (Member) Lar J. n e (Me ) Rand B. Evans (Head of Department) December 1982 180'7905 ABSTRACT An Investigation of the Relationship Between... Personality Traits and Differential Salience of Rorschach Dimensions. (December 1982) Karen Patricia Cochran Osterholm B. A. , Sam Houston State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Arnold D. LeUnes The purposes of the present investigation were...

Osterholm, Karen Patricia Cochran

2012-06-07

38

Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the Rorschach, in explaining functional and social skills capacity in 72 middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age = 51.2). Participants responded to the Rorschach administered using the R-Optimized administration instructions and scored using the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. Relationships with neuropsychological performance and psychopathology were also explored. Psychological complexity, which refers to a person’s cognitive capacity for problem-solving and organizing their surroundings, was correlated with functional capacity (r = .30) and social skills capacity (r = .34). Healthy interpersonal representations were correlated with positive social skills (r’s = .24 to .28). In multiple regression models, psychological complexity accounted for significant variation in functional (? = 0.23, p = 0.02) and social skills capacity (? = 0.35, p < 0.01) after controlling for neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology. These data suggest that psychological complexity plays a significant role in the functional limitations seen in schizophrenia, above and beyond the contributions of neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms. Support was also found for the impact of healthy object relations functioning with social functioning. Clinical implications include novel information for future development of cognitive remediation treatment strategies based on a patient’s developmental level of psychological capacity and healthy interpersonal schemas. PMID:23148650

Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

2012-01-01

39

The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree of relationship between Elizur's (1949) Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test (Wagner, 1961). The subjects were 29 volunteers with a mean age of 34 years from the general population. The Rorschach and the Hand Test were administered individually to each subject in

John D. Martin; Garland E. Blair; Diana Brent

1978-01-01

40

Response character styles in adolescents: a replication of convergent validity between the MMPI-A and the Rorschach.  

PubMed

This study explored the extent to which similar or discordant response character styles (RCS) affected convergence between MMPI-A and Rorschach findings in a sample of 673 adolescents from a psychiatric inpatient setting. Meyer's (Meyer, 1997; Meyer, Riethmiller, Brooks, Benoit, & Handler, 2000) findings for adult samples were generally replicated in that adolescents showing similar RCS across both measures showed moderate to strong relationships between Rorschach and MMPI-A indicants of affective distress, psychosis, and interpersonal wariness, whereas those showing discordant RCS demonstrated negligible or negative correlations between these indicants. This pattern was evident for conceptually similar, but not conceptually unrelated variable pairs. Similarity and discordance of RCS was also found to have an impact on relationships with external criterion variables, including therapist ratings and discharge diagnoses. Moderated regression analysis supports the hypothesis that RCS moderates the strength of the relationship between Rorschach and MMPI-A. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23067132

Stokes, John M; Pogge, David L; Zaccario, Michele

2013-01-01

41

Food Intake With an Antiobesity Drug (Sibutramine) Versus Placebo and Rorschach Data: A Crossover Within-Subjects Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We related the effect of the satiety enhancing drug sibutramine (Meridia®, Reductil®) on food intake to Rorschach Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991, 1993) personality factors. A pla- cebo-controlled crossover, within-subjects design (n = 36) was used. Food intake after 2 weeks in the sibutramine and placebo conditions was assessed with a test meal using the VIKTOR (Cabmek, Stockholm, Sweden) setup, a

Kristina Elfhag; Britta Barkeling; Anna Maria Carlsson; Thomas Lindgren; Stephan Rossner

2004-01-01

42

Exploring the inner world of self-mutilating borderline patients: a Rorschach investigation.  

PubMed

Psychiatric patients who engage in self-destructive behavior by cutting, burning, or abrading their skin are currently one of the most difficult-to-treat groups in both inpatient and outpatient settings. The complexities of treating these patients, the risk factors associated with this symptom, and the rise in the prevalence of self-mutilation in America's adolescents and young adults provided the impetus for the current study. This article explores aspects of aggression, dependency, object relations, defensive structure, and psychic boundary integrity that may contribute to the genesis and maintenance of self-mutilation. Rorschach protocols from 90 borderline personality-disordered inpatients (48 self-mutilators and 42 non-self-mutilators) were scored using five psychoanalytic content scales. Results indicate that self-mutilating patients exhibit greater incidence of primary process aggression, severe boundary disturbance, pathological object representations, defensive idealization, devaluation, and splitting than did a matched group of non-self-mutilating borderline patients. Clinical theory and technical recommendations are considered in light of the current empirical findings. PMID:10998813

Fowler, J C; Hilsenroth, M J; Nolan, E

2000-01-01

43

Assessment of Rorschach dependency measures in female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Dependency Index (DI; Hilsenroth & Bornstein, 2002) and the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale (ROD; Masling, Rabie, & Blondheim, 1967) were examined to determine if these implicit measures of dependency predict observable attachment-seeking behavior in 66 female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Results indicate that both scales produce excellent reliability estimates. The DI and ROD yield adequate base rates, and the distributions of scores approximate normal distributions. The DI was predictive of nursing staff observation of positive attachment/treatment compliance (r = .28, p = .02) but not excessive isolation. By contrast, the ROD predicted positive attachment/treatment compliance (r = .38, p = .002) and excessive isolation (r = -.35, p = .004). Texture responses predicted excessive isolation (r = -.25, p = .05). Discriminant validity was supported when neither dependency measure predicted hostile interactions or self-destructive behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the ROD demonstrated incremental validity over the DI and select Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) variables associated with dependency. PMID:16171415

Fowler, J Christopher; Brunnschweiler, Benjamin; Swales, Stephanie; Brock, Johanna

2005-10-01

44

The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…

Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.

2005-01-01

45

Differentiating adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis from psychotic and non-psychotic patients with the Rorschach.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess cognitive functioning in a clinical sample of adolescents with heterogeneous psychiatric diagnoses, with a specific focus on patients at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. The sample comprised 22 patients identified at CHR for psychosis, 67 psychotic and 187 non-psychotic, non-CHR patients. Neuropsychological assessment was conducted as part of the clinical examination and treatment, including Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III and/or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-III measures of verbal comprehension, perceptual organisation, working memory and processing speed, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) measures of executive function, and the Rorschach Comprehensive System measures of perceptual and thinking accuracy. Patients at CHR for psychosis did not significantly differ from other patient groups in terms of intellectual or executive functions. The Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) distinguished patients at CHR for psychosis from those diagnosed as having non-psychotic disorders, but not from those diagnosed as psychotic. Our results suggest perceptual and thought disturbance as an important indicator of vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:20483480

Ilonen, Tuula; Heinimaa, Markus; Korkeila, Jyrki; Svirskis, Tanja; Salokangas, Raimo K R

2010-09-30

46

Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined global treatment outcomes during 16 months of intensive, psychodynamic treatment for 77 inpatients suffering from treatment-refractory disorders. Hypotheses based on the phase model of treatment change (Howard, Lueger, Maling, & Martinovich, 1993; Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) were supported in the study results. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis V scales assessing behavioral functioning demonstrated large and medium effect size change, whereas stable, enduring personality functioning assessed by psychoanalytic Rorschach scales and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, 1995) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) demonstrated small and medium effect size change. We also report assessment of reliable change index and clinical significance. The ecological validity of Rorschach measures is supported by significant validity coefficients (in the hypothesized directions) between implicit measures of personality functioning and behavioral ratings. PMID:15548467

Fowler, J Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C

2004-12-01

47

Changes in Defensiveness and in Affective Distress Following Inpatient Treatment of Eating Disorders: Rorschach Comprehensive System and Self-Report Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualizing eating disorders (EDs) as forming a coping mechanism against facing psychic pain, in this study, we examined the contribution of weight stabilization and ED behaviors to psychological outcomes of affective distress, defensiveness, and contact with inner\\/external reality among 2 subgroups of adolescent inpatients with (a) “restricting type” anorexia (AN–R) and (b) bingeing\\/purging type EDs (B\\/P). We administered Rorschach Comprehensive

Lily Rothschild; Liza Lacoua; Yohanan Eshel; Daniel Stein

2008-01-01

48

Thought disorder in high-functioning autistic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined thought disorder in a sample (n = 11) of high- functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents (mean IQ = 83) utilizing objective ratings from the Thought, Language and Communication Disorder Scale (TLC Scale) and projective data from the Rorschach inkblots. Results from the TLC Scale pointed to negative features of thought disorder in this sample (e.g., Poverty of

Elisabeth Dykens; Fred Volkmar; Marion Glick

1991-01-01

49

The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.  

PubMed

To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

2014-01-01

50

Use of the Rorschach as a personality assessment tool with African American students  

E-print Network

(Anastasi, 1998). Projection is based on Freud?s theory of projection (1938) wherein he proposed that there are parts of ourselves we can?t accept, thus, we ?project? those thoughts and feelings onto other people and things. One projective personality... reflected influences of Freud?s psychoanalytic approach to an understanding of personality. Frank (1939) introduced the term projective and described it as method of studying the personality involving confrontation with the subject in a situation whereby...

Velox, Andrea Jean

2005-08-29

51

An Inkblot for Attitudes: Affect Misattribution as Implicit Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misattributions people make about their own affective reactions can be used to measure attitudes implicitly. Combining the logic of projective tests with advances in priming research, the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) was sensitive to normatively favorable and unfavorable evaluations (Experiments 1–4), and the misattribution effect was strong at both fast and slow presentation rates (Experiments 3 and 4). Providing further

B. Keith Payne; Clara Michelle Cheng; Olesya Govorun; Brandon D. Stewart

2005-01-01

52

Beyond the Rorschach: Media and Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media can be used to expand the methodological options open to counselors and psychotherapists in assessment, record-keeping, testing, evaluation, creative therapy, and preparation for treatment. The job of the media specialist is becoming one of developing treatment options for clients to consider. (CMV)

Holman, Neil

1979-01-01

53

Methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting declines in population size is one of the highest priorities of the shorebird initiatives in Canada and the United States. The quantitative goal is 80% power to detect a 50% decline, occurring during no more than 20 years, with a significance level of 0.15, using a two-tailed test, and incorporating effects of potential bias into the estimator. The Arctic PRISM program was designed to achieve this goal for arctic-nesting shorebird populations. The survey methods are an application of double sampling. Rapid surveys were made on a large number of plots selected from throughout arctic Alaska and Canada using stratified random sampling. Intensive surveys were made on a subsample of the plots to obtain detection rates, which were used to calibrate results from rapidly surveyed plots. Surveys will be made of the entire arctic region, each lasting several years and producing an estimate of average population size during the survey period. Results from two or more survey periods will be used to estimate change, or trend, in population size.

Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria; Smith, Paul A.; Manning, Ann; Rausch, Jennie; Brown, Stephen

2012-01-01

54

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

55

STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS  

E-print Network

Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

56

[Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].  

PubMed

Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role. PMID:24946440

Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

2014-01-01

57

Rorschachbound: a 50-year memoir.  

PubMed

Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Personality Assessment evokes memories of years past when I participated in its birth. Therefore, in recording what I consider significant events in Rorschach's stormy history, I am placing them within an autobiographical framework. Originally introduced into America by David Levy in the early 1920s, the Rorschach attracted students from many disciplines who revolted against the "trait" psychology that pervaded the psychological scene at the time. For 30 years, we accepted Rorschach enthusiastically as a global method that could study the human personality as a whole and in depth. In the late 1960s, we were challenged because of repeated failures in validating research. Interest declined in its development and application. Since 1970, however, it has emerged with more strength and vigor on firmer theoretical foundations and sounder methodology. Although the method is one of the most frequently required, requested, needed, recommended, and used in many clinical settings, it is still challenged today, chiefly because of overemphasis on the nomothetic approaches in research and failure to consider interactions between personality dynamics, behavior, and situational and sociocultural variables. Those of us whose lives have long been entwined with the history of the Rorschach should step back from the contemporary canvas and contemplate the future of our method, t suggest that we develop alternative conceptual models and greater diversity of research methods and modes of thought. The Journal of Personality Assessment can enhance the future of the Rorschach by giving greater prominence to clinically oriented research, notably to the idiographic and interactional aspects of the method. In so doing, the journal can help the Rorschach reach its real goal of complete scientific validity. PMID:16367435

Hertz, M R

1986-01-01

58

A Rorschach study of object representations and attachment in male adolescents with disruptive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term disruptive behaviors refers to those behaviors specified as Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in the DSM-IV. A robust literature indicates that these behaviors can be differentiated into two groups, aggressive and non-aggressive\\/delinquent, each with its own developmental trajectory. One dimension, characterized as aggressive or overt, begins in early childhood with oppositional behaviors and progresses into the more

Angelynn Fhay Pinto

1998-01-01

59

Some Rorschach Variables from a Normative Study with 10YearOld Portuguese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partir da análise dos dados normativos de uma amostra de 60 crianças portuguesas, 30 de cada sexo, de 10 anos de idade, vivendo na cidade de Lisboa, os autores procedem ao exame de um certo número de variáveis cujos valores médios ou frequência de ocorrência se afastam, de modo acentuado, de idênticos dados obtidos por Exner e Weiner, nos

Danilo R. Silva; Rui Campos

2000-01-01

60

Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

2013-01-01

61

Vortex methods  

SciTech Connect

Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-01

62

Developmental methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief accounts are included of three nondestructive evaluation methods that have been introduced within the past few years: (1) acoustic emission, (2) the use of coherent (laser) light, and (3) ultrasonic holography.

Gardner, C. G.

1973-01-01

63

[Contraceptive methods].  

PubMed

Discussions with groups of women in several Latin American countries revealed that most agreed on the need for family planning. Most reported they were somewhat informed and had used a method, but the Bolivian women stated they lacked knowledge of how to prevent pregnancy. Most of the women had little confidence in the natural methods recommended by the Catholic Church. Several of the groups stated they did not believe the contraceptive methods to be abortifacient. Some of the women had no problems using contraception, while others regarded method use as aggression against the female body and wished that men would assume responsibility. All the groups desired more information on contraception, even those with experience in use of several methods. Misinformation about the effects of contraceptives was a source of concern. The desire of the partners for many children or for control of the woman's sexuality was a serious impediment to contraceptive use. The opposition of the Catholic Church did not appear to influence women greatly in their use of contraception, but it caused feelings of guilt in some women. PMID:12348502

1997-01-01

64

Eigenvalue Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eigenvalues, Enl, of the radial Schrödinger equation are approximated by ck(E=Enl)=0 (k=2, 3, ...?), where E is the energy and the ck are the power-series coefficients of f(r)=?(r)[rl+1w(r)] with ?(r) the wave function and w(r) a weight function. This is an extension of the method used to solve certain potentials exactly where ck(E=Enl)=0 terminates a power series.

Ginsburg, Charles A.

1982-03-01

65

Deracemisation methods.  

PubMed

New methods continue to be developed for the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) and deracemisation of racemic chiral compounds, in particular alcohols, amines and amino acids. Many of the DKR processes involve the combination of an enantioselective enzyme, often a lipase or protease, with a metal racemisation catalyst. A greater range of ruthenium-based racemisation catalysts is now available with some showing good activity for the racemisation of amines that are more difficult to epimerise than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of deracemisation processes, further improvements have been achieved with the deracemisation of alcohols, using combinations of stereocomplementary ketoreductases, and additionally transaminases have been applied to the deracemisation of racemic amines. PMID:20044298

Turner, Nicholas J

2010-04-01

66

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

67

Ink Blots or Profile Plots: The Rorschach versus the MMPI as the Right Tool for a Science-Based Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of personality-assessment tools. Describes the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and illustrates the process of co-production, how the right tool can become very wrong as networks dissipate and professional time goes by. (Author/CCM)

Buchanan, Roderick

1997-01-01

68

Rorschach Tempest or The Tempest of William S. Performed by Flies on the Erection of a Dreaming Hyena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A director hired to stage The Tempest in Kamioka, Japan, summons his researcher to argue about why and how the play should be performed today, as they travel from a Noh theater to the neutrino observatory where the production is to take place. q People who would steal milk from blind children wouldn’t say an unkind word about The Tempest.

Teddy Jefferson

2010-01-01

69

An Improved Newton's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Newton's method to locate roots of an equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration formula. Develops an adaptive method overcoming limitations of the iteration method. Provides the algorithm and computer program of the adaptive Newton-Raphson method. (YP)

Mathews, John H.

1989-01-01

70

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods  

E-print Network

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods § to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary

Leistikow, Bruce N.

71

Method as Ruse: Foucault and Research Method  

E-print Network

be used as a measure, one is always in the position of beginning again. While each new study with realism and JMid-America" Review ofSociology Method as Ruse 56 Method as Ruse idealism represents a new approximation, each new litudy with method seen as r~Jsc...

Cooke, Marvin L.

1994-04-01

72

Pervasive software development method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development methods aim at solving the software crisis. Many presented methods gain reputations under special application environments. There are so many kinds of methods that developers are troubled when choosing the most suitable one. This article presents a pervasive software development method aiming at helping developers deal with the trouble. The pervasive method advocates logicality, comprehensiveness, flexibility and self-improvement

Yu Wang; Xianguo Tuo

2010-01-01

73

The Multidimensional WKB Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)

Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.

1989-01-01

74

Sustained Pressure Perfusion Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reliable and effective method of perfusing animal tissue in vivo under a constantly monitored pressure was described. The method was successfully used for perfusion of brain tissues of Cebus apella monkeys. Using the proper fixative, this method can be ...

L. J. Ackerman, R. S. Demaree, D. L. Anderson

1971-01-01

75

Uranium price forecasting methods  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

Fuller, D.M.

1994-03-01

76

New iterative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new three-step predictor corrector type iterative method for finding simple and real roots of a non-linear equation in one variable, i.e., f(x)=0. Experiments show that our new method is more efficient than the other known methods. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods reveals that the new method performs better as shown

Arif Rafiq; Sifat Hussain; Farooq Ahmad; Muhammad Awais

2007-01-01

77

An image inpainting method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image inpainting technique has been widely used for reconstructing damaged old photographs and removing unwanted objects from images. In this paper, we present an image inpainting method based on the existing exemplar-based image inpainting idea. Our method improves the robustness and effectiveness by rational confidence computing method, matching strategy and filling scheme. Therefore, our method effectively prevents \\

BianRu Li; Yue Qi; XuKun Shen

2005-01-01

78

Behavioral Methods of Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total sexual abstinence is the most effective method of birth control, but incomplete commitment can result in high rates\\u000a of unintended pregnancies. Periodic abstinence and fertility awareness methods rely on menstrual calendars, CycleBeads, BBT,\\u000a the Billings method, or the symptothermal method to detect at-risk fertile days. Coitus interruptus has failure rates similar to the female barrier methods. LAM is very

Jennefer A. Russo; Anita L. Nelson

79

Radiochemical method development  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1994-09-01

80

Parallel text search methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of recently proposed parallel text search methods to alternative available search strategies that use serial processing machines suggests parallel methods do not provide large-scale gains in either retrieval effectiveness or efficiency.

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1988-01-01

81

Methods of gas analysis  

SciTech Connect

Methods for sampling, calibrating, and analyzing for helium, impurities in helium, and natural gases are described. These methods were developed by the US Bureau of Mines to assist in the processing of natural gas for helium recovery. 35 refs.

Emerson, D.E. (Bureau of Mines, Amarillo, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

82

MSW PREREQUISITES: RESEARCH METHODS  

E-print Network

MSW PREREQUISITES: STATISTICS RESEARCH METHODS ALL PREREQUISITE COURSES: Are at an undergraduate-square Graph data What counts as a RESEARCH METHODS course? Derived from one of the social science disciplines

Barthelat, Francois

83

Improved Euler's Method Algorithm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The improved Euler method (also called the midpoint Euler method or second order Runge Kutta method) attempts to use the average of the rate of change at the beginning and end of a timestep to reduce numerical error in a numerical integration of a differential equation.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

84

Methods for electrosurgical electrolysis  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods for electrosurgical electrolysis for treating tissue within a body, including methods that operate in an electrolyzable medium, including an aqueous electrolyzable medium, by means of electrolysis, and optionally by means of oxy-hydrogen combustion for use in treatment, including therapeutic methods of electrolysis to effect advantageous tissue changes.

2010-10-26

85

Space methods in oceanology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

Bolshakov, A. A.

1985-01-01

86

Principles and Methods Chromatography  

E-print Network

Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

Lebendiker, Mario

87

Using Case Methods Effectively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes the case study method of management education, which provides experiential learning in the classroom. He covers unique features of the case study method, as well as types of cases. Advantages and limitations of this method are presented. (CH)

Paget, Neil

1988-01-01

88

Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods  

E-print Network

Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods in Computer Science (Serge Demeyer -- University of Antwerp) Lab on Reengineering http://lore.ua.ac.be/ Zurich Kunsthaus Antwerp Middelheim Research Methods Introduction · Origins of Computer Science · Research Philosophy Research Methods · Feasibility study · Pilot

Nierstrasz, Oscar

89

Redefining the "Scientific Method".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

2000-01-01

90

Knowledge Sharing: Agile Methods vs. Tayloristic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative analysis of knowledge sharing approaches of agile and Tayloristic (traditional) software development teams. Issues of knowledge creation, knowledge conversion and transfer, continuous learning, competence management and team composition are discussed. Experience repositories and other tools for knowledge dissemination are examined. agile and traditional methods, we prefer to use the term \\

Thomas Chau; Frank Maurer; Grigori Melnik

2003-01-01

91

The Optimal Prediction method  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work is to test and show how well the numerical method called Optima Prediction works. This method is relatively new and only a few experiment have been made. The authors first did a series of simple tests to see how the method behaves. In order to have a better understanding of the method, they then reproduced one of the main experiment which was done about Optimal Prediction by Kupferman. Once they obtained the same results that Kupferman had, they changed a few parameters to see how dependant the method was on this parameters. In this paper, they will present all the tests they made, the results they obtained and what they concluded about the method. Before talking about the experiments, they have to explain what is the Optimal Prediction method and how does it work. This will be done in the first section of this paper.

Burin des Roziers, Thibaut

1999-08-01

92

Inexact Newton dogleg methods.  

SciTech Connect

The dogleg method is a classical trust-region technique for globalizing Newton's method. While it is widely used in optimization, including large-scale optimization via truncated-Newton approaches, its implementation in general inexact Newton methods for systems of nonlinear equations can be problematic. In this paper, we first outline a very general dogleg method suitable for the general inexact Newton context and provide a global convergence analysis for it. We then discuss certain issues that may arise with the standard dogleg implementational strategy and propose modified strategies that address them. Newton-Krylov methods have provided important motivation for this work, and we conclude with a report on numerical experiments involving a Newton-GMRES dogleg method applied to benchmark CFD problems.

Shadid, John Nicolas; Simonis, Joseph P. (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA); Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Walker, Homer Franklin (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA)

2005-05-01

93

Dimensions of Internalized Object Relations in Borderline and Schizophrenic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores two dimensions of internalized object relations in borderline and schizophrenic patients using Rorschach scales. A thematic and a structural Rorschach measure of object relations is applied to the Rorschachs of two borderline groups (an infantile personality group and an obsessive-paranoid group) and a schizophrenic group. The findings suggest the value of both a multidimensional definition of internalized

Walter E. Spear; Alan Sugarman

1984-01-01

94

Spectral methods for CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1989-01-01

95

Methods of Voice Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

2010-01-01

96

The Schwinger Variational Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

Huo, Winifred M.

1995-01-01

97

Methods of hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of hair removal vary between simple inexpensive means of home treatment (shaving, plucking, depilatories) to expensive and potentially time-consuming means used by paraprofessionals, nurses, and\\/or physicians (electrolysis, lasers, x-ray). The ways in which these different methods induce hair removal, the duration of such removal, and the nuances between devices within the same category of methods are discussed. (J

Elise A. Olsen

1999-01-01

98

Microalgal immobilization methods.  

PubMed

In this review, methods for the most common microalgal immobilization procedures are gathered and described. Passive (due to natural adherence of cells to surfaces) and active immobilization methods should be distinguished. Among active immobilization methods, calcium alginate entrapment is the most widely used method if living cells are intended to be immobilized, due to the chemical, optical, and mechanical characteristics of this substance. Immobilization in synthetic foams, immobilization in agar and carrageenan as well as immobilization in silica-based matrix or filters are also discussed and described. Finally, some considerations on the use of flocculation for microalgae are mentioned. PMID:23934815

Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio

2013-01-01

99

Spectral collocation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.

Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.

1987-01-01

100

Faster, cheaper radioanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods, with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for the separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. Among the novel techniques for separation that are being used are element and class-specific resins and membranes. The authors have also developed methods for the simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Because of its mass-selective mode of detection, ICP-MS requires less rigorous chemical separations than does radiochemical analysis. In addition, improvements in the limits of detection, the volume of the sample and the time of analysis were obtained by using other techniques of sample introduction, such as ultrasonic nebulization, automated batch separation and electrothermal vaporization. Investigation of integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS method using flow injection analysis is underway. A solid scintillation device has been developed and tested for measurement and identification of low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides; application of this technique will eliminate the generation of mixed-waste counting cocktails. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available and are acceptable for use in regulatory situations. Concerted efforts are being made to facilitate implementation of the methods at DOE sites to realize the improvements offered.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1995-04-01

101

Methods for data classification  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

Garrity, George (Okemos, MI); Lilburn, Timothy G. (Front Royal, VA)

2011-10-11

102

DISCUSS: Sampling Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Sidney Tyrrell and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces different types of sampling methods. Links to Excel spreadsheet files with exercises for exploring sampling methods are given at the end of the module. Topics include random, systematic, cluster, stratified, and quota sampling. This software require Microsoft Excel. Without this software, these programs will not work.

Hunt, Neville; Tyrrell, Sidney

2009-08-25

103

THE ?SF METHOD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-ray strength function (?SF) interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission as a common ingredient in the statistical model. Outlined here is an indirect method of determining radiative neutron-capture cross sections for unstable nuclei based on the ?-ray strength function. Application examples of the ?SF method are demonstrated.

Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Okamoto, A.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2011-10-01

104

'GIARDIA' METHODS WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the workshop were to familiarize participants with the use-and limitations of Giardia cyst detection methodology; to critically review the tentative Giardia method appearing in the 16th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; to ...

105

Bibliometric Methods relationships among  

E-print Network

+ =recall Relation Extraction related-to regulates regulates-expression-of inhibits-expression-of promotes-expression-of #12;20 Relation Extraction PTH estrogens vitamin D3 IL-6 regulates- expression-of inhibits- expression1 Outline Bibliometric Methods relationships among documents bibliometric methods #12

Belew, Richard K.

106

A regularized simplex method  

E-print Network

In case of a special problem class, the simplex method can be implemented as a cutting-plane method ..... Remark 7 We can take advantage of the efficacy of the steepest-edge pricing rule in the minimization of any ...... Quantitative Finance 11, 1525-1534. ... European Journal of Operational Research 101, 328-342.

2013-02-25

107

Stabilization of Cowell's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a modification of the Cowell method for the integration of orbits. The modification is characterized by the property that it will integrate unperturbed Kepler motion exactly (excluding truncation errors), thus the slight instability of the Cowell Method is avoided. Furthermore, the modification takes into account the most important secular effects of orbit motion. As an example of

E. Stiefel; D. G. Bettis

1969-01-01

108

An asymmetric watermarking method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an asymmetric watermarking method as an alternative to classical direct sequence spread spectrum and watermarking Costa (1983) schemes techniques. This new method provides a higher security level against malicious attacks threatening watermarking techniques used for a copy protection purpose. This application, which is quite different from the classical copyright enforcement issue, is extremely challenging as no public

T. Furon; P. Duhamel

2003-01-01

109

Improved nonlinear prediction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2014-06-01

110

Medical informatics: reasoning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of medical informatics has been characterized by the development of a wide range of reasoning methods. These reasoning methods are based on organizing principles that make use of the various relations existing in medical domains: associations, probabilities, causality, functional relationships, temporal relations, locality, similarity, and clinical practice. Some, such as those based on associations and probabilities have been

William J. Long

2001-01-01

111

Sand consolidation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for consolidating unconsolidated mineral particles including sand in a subterranean petroleum formation penetrated by a well in fluid communication with at least a portion of the formation. The method consists of: (a) providing a fluid comprising a polymerizable resin, a polar organic diluent for the resin, and an oil soluble acid catalyst capable of causing polymerization

R. H. Friedman; B. W. Surles

1989-01-01

112

Socratic Method in Journalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Socratic method uses skillfully arranged and worded questions that, in sequence, lead the answerer toward some revelation. So that students may be exposed to their own and each other's views on legally and ethically acceptable journalistic responses to complex coverage situations, this document describes how the Socratic method may be used in…

Schwarzlose, Richard A.

113

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30

114

Prony's Method revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prony's Method belongs to a class of techniques in systems theory called ''parameter estimators,'' which estimate constants appearing in mathematical models of physical phenomena. This method is of interest because, with only modest computation, one can derive the exponents, or poles, of data described by an exponential series. This report continues an evaluation of the moving-window approach for reducing the

1978-01-01

115

Numerical methods for quasicrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasicrystals are one kind of space-filling structures. The traditional crystalline approximant method utilizes periodic structures to approximate quasicrystals. The errors of this approach come from two parts: the numerical discretization, and the approximate error of Simultaneous Diophantine Approximation which also determines the size of the domain necessary for accurate solution. As the approximate error decreases, the computational complexity grows rapidly, and moreover, the approximate error always exits unless the computational region is the full space. In this work we focus on the development of numerical method to compute quasicrystals with high accuracy. With the help of higher-dimensional reciprocal space, a new projection method is developed to compute quasicrystals. The approach enables us to calculate quasicrystals rather than crystalline approximants. Compared with the crystalline approximant method, the projection method overcomes the restrictions of the Simultaneous Diophantine Approximation, and can also use periodic boundary conditions conveniently. Meanwhile, the proposed method efficiently reduces the computational complexity through implementing in a unit cell and using pseudospectral method. For illustrative purpose we work with the Lifshitz-Petrich model, though our present algorithm will apply to more general systems including quasicrystals. We find that the projection method can maintain the rotational symmetry accurately. More significantly, the algorithm can calculate the free energy density to high precision.

Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Pingwen

2014-01-01

116

Research Methods in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

2011-01-01

117

The Method of Archimedes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

Del Grande, John

1993-01-01

118

WWW: The Scientific Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

2006-01-01

119

Maps and navigation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

Duval, A

1922-01-01

120

New Adsorption Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

Wankat, Phillip C.

1984-01-01

121

The Schwinger Variational Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

Huo, Winifred M.

1995-01-01

122

Generating an image from an ambiguous visual input: an electroencephalographic (EEG) investigation.  

PubMed

Fourteen right-handed males were shown slides of common objects (e.g., wristwatch), familiar situations (e.g., two people shaking hands), and inkblots from a popular projective test (Holtzman, 1986) and then asked to name the object, assess the situation, or describe the most salient image emerging from the inkblot. Alpha power suppression was monitored over the left and right frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes to determine the brain circuitry responsible for the processing of each type of stimulus. When processing common objects and familiar situations there was bilateral activation of the parietal and occipital lobes; when processing inkblots, bilateral activation of the parietal and occipital lobes was again obtained, but complemented by selective activation of the right frontal lobe. The later suggests that anterior regions of the right cerebral hemisphere contribute to the generation of dynamic images like those evoked by visually ambiguous inkblots. PMID:12727183

Gill, Harwant S; O'Boyle, Michael W

2003-04-01

123

John Herschel's Graphical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

Hankins, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

124

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Gerhard D. (Velarde, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

125

Surface mining method  

SciTech Connect

The invention concerns a method of surface mining along an elongated pit using a cross-pit conveyor for transferring selected excavated material, such as topsoil, directly across the pit while using a separate overburden excavator to transfer the remaining overburden. The method uses a cross-pit transporter which is supported solely on the working bank, includes a cantilevered conveyor which extends completely across the pit, and is slewable so it can periodically swing to a non-interfering position when passing the other excavator. The method allows the selective replacement of the different overburden materials in accordance with modern reclamation practice.

Beutner, D.H.; Files, T.I.

1981-09-22

126

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

127

psych-methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new electronic mailing list will serve as a forum for the scholarly discussion of psychological research methodology. The forum will encompass both quantitative and qualitative methods and provide an opportunity for researchers and others to discuss issues surrounding research methods and results. An archive of past messages and a FAQ are available at the Website. To subscribe, send a message to:     mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk In the body of the message, type:     join psych-methods firstname lastname

128

Clubfoot Treatment -- Ponseti Method  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the success of the Ponseti treatments for their children. Stretching and Casting Using the Ponseti method, the ... care after the stretching and casting process. Your child will need to wear a brace in order ...

129

Ensemble Data Mining Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

Oza, Nikunj C.

2004-01-01

130

Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes  

DOEpatents

A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.

Schattenmann, Florian Johannes (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

131

Smoothed Finite Element Method  

E-print Network

In this paper, the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) is proposed for 2D elastic problems by incorporation of the cell-wise strain smoothing operation into the conventional finite elements. When a constant smoothing ...

Dai, K.Y.

132

Methods of Inhibiting Inflammation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method of inhibiting inflammation in a mammal, by administering to the mammal composition containing a compound which inhibits the expression or activity of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

R. S. Blumberg

2004-01-01

133

Methods of Inhibiting Inflammation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method of inhibiting inflammation in a mammal, by administering to the mammal composition containing a compound which inhibits the expression or activity of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

R. S. Blumberg

2005-01-01

134

Ignitability test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1989-01-01

135

Method for Treating Glaucoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for increasing outflow facility and reducing intraocular pressure from an eye of a subject having glaucoma includes the step of administering to the eye an amount of an ADP ribosyltransferase protein effective to reduce intraocular pressure and i...

P. L. Kaufman, X. Liu

2005-01-01

136

Bayesian methods in bioinformatics  

E-print Network

- niques for drawing random samples from the posterior for inference. We show that the approach achieves very competitive performance as compared to other methods. The second part focuses on modeling DNA microarray data. Microarray technology enables us...

Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

2007-04-25

137

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

1983-05-13

138

Methods of Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

Carlone, Mrs.

2006-11-12

139

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

1985-09-10

140

Ignitability test method. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1990-01-01

141

Method of treating depression  

DOEpatents

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz

2013-04-09

142

Method of treating depression  

DOEpatents

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz (East Patchogue, NY)

2012-01-24

143

Improved radioanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore {trademark} membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1995-12-31

144

Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) Biophysical Methods in Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) Biophysical Methods in Neuroscience #12;Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) The Fluorescence Process Stage 1 : Excitation A photon photons. Fluorescein #12;Biophysical Methods of Neurobiology (Dieter Braun) Fluorescence Microscope http

Kersting, Roland

145

Optimization Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

2009-09-01

146

Methods of forming steel  

SciTech Connect

In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

2001-01-01

147

Bayesian Methods in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

2014-02-01

148

Experimental Physics - Modern Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

Dunlap, R. A.

1988-10-01

149

Method of grid generation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

2002-01-01

150

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

1996-03-12

151

Methods of visualizing graphs  

DOEpatents

Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

Wong, Pak C. (Richland, WA); Mackey, Patrick S. (Kennewick, WA); Perrine, Kenneth A. (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2008-12-23

152

A Stochastic Approximation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $M(x)$ denote the expected value at level $x$ of the response to a certain experiment. $M(x)$ is assumed to be a monotone function of $x$ but is unknown to the experimenter, and it is desired to find the solution $x = \\\\theta$ of the equation $M(x) = \\\\alpha$, where $\\\\alpha$ is a given constant. We give a method for

Herbert Robbins; Sutton Monro

1951-01-01

153

"Mixed Methods" Research Examined  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of "mixed methods" research in education--studies that blend different research strategies. Although various methodologies have always been part of a researcher's toolkit, much of the renewed attention to that strategy is a reaction to the U.S. Department of Education's current emphasis on using randomized field…

Viadero, Debra

2005-01-01

154

Method of purifying isosaccharinate  

DOEpatents

A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

Rai, Dhanpat (Yachats, OR); Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-09-07

155

Heart imaging method  

DOEpatents

A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

1991-01-01

156

Study 1: Method Demographics  

E-print Network

Study 1: Method Demographics ·346 men and 299 women · 41.1% Dating, 18.2% Cohabiting, 4.2% Engaged domains, they reported more authenticity doubts and insecurity (Study 1). When they received criticism insecurities perpetuates them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 420-441. Lemay, E. P., Jr

New Hampshire, University of

157

Shooting Method Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shooting Method model displays the solution to the time-independent Schrödinger equation determined via the shooting method. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ShootingMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default potential energy function is a harmonic oscillator with V(x) = x*x/2. The model assumes that the eigenfunction is bound within a spatial region. The energy of the energy eigenfunction can be changed with the slider. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Shooting Method was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Open Source Physics programs for quantum mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-04

158

Monte Carlo Sampling Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we discuss Monte Carlo sampling methods for solving large scale stochastic programming problems. We concentrate on the “exterior” approach where a random sample is generated outside of an optimization procedure, and then the constructed, so-called sample average approximation (SAA), problem is solved by an appropriate deterministic algorithm. We study statistical properties of the obtained SAA estimators. The

Alexander Shapiro

2003-01-01

159

Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2003-12-30

160

Extrusion die and method  

DOEpatents

A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

1994-05-03

161

Mindfulness: Method and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes and principles that underlie mindfulness is a needed step, because this method enters into the armamentarium of empirical clinical psychology. Mindfulness is closely related to several procedures, in- cluding acceptance, cognitive defusion, and exposure. Although each of these procedures seems to target dif- ferent behavioral processes, they are all interrelated, be- cause ultimately all of them target

Steven C. Hayes; Kelly G. Wilson

2003-01-01

162

Supplementary Methods Sequence Analysis  

E-print Network

calculated divergence estimates for all three datasets using the maximum likelihood method of Goldman, dosage lethality, dosage suppression, chemical lethality, and chemical rescue (Breitkreutz et al. 2003 statistics were calculated using the Pajek software package (Batagelj and Mrvar 1998). Three measures

Hahn, Matthew

163

Biomass treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26

164

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

165

Scientific methods in archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foregoing account of the scientific work carried out in museum laboratories has of necessity been selective, since only a limited range of problems could be discussed. No reference has been made, for example, to the use of scientific methods in problems of authenticity. However the topics dealt with do show that the work involved is very varied, both as

A. E. Werner

1969-01-01

166

LAB #8 Numerical Methods  

E-print Network

happens when the step size h is decreased for a particular problem using these methods. Assignment. (1) Use dfield for 0 ? t ? 3, 0 ? y ? 8 to plot the direction field for the .... given t is the absolute value of the difference in the y-coordinates.

2005-10-20

167

Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

1989-01-01

168

Apparent-Dip Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews methods of determining apparent dip and highlights the use of a device which consists of a nomogram printed on a protractor. Explains how the apparent-dip calculator-protractor can be constructed and outlines the steps for its operation. (ML)

Travis, R. B.; Lamar, D. L.

1987-01-01

169

Projecting the Scientific Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

Uthe, R. E.

2000-01-01

170

Water treatment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for treating water removed from the ground to reduce the content of noxious sulfur-containing impurities therein before the water is supplied to an associated water system. It comprises: the steps of spraying the water to be treated in the upper portion of a closed standpipe which has an inlet for the water to be treated

Siebert

1991-01-01

171

The Wonder of Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postmodern and deconstructionist approaches are necessarily concerned with "making visible" and working with marginalized "others". This article explores how theory as method might enable us to revisit methodological approaches that have conventionally relied upon semantic readings of the text. Deconstruction clears the way for such approaches…

Pearce, Cathie; MacLure, Maggie

2009-01-01

172

Ergonomics research methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

1973-01-01

173

Central axis flap methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensively burned patients often lack ample healthy skin for autotransplantation. Scar contractures are then frequent. Here, we reconstructed contractures using flaps of remaining healthy skin around the recipient sites. In this report, we present four original scar contracture repair methods using subcutaneous pedicled flaps: (1) Propeller flap, (2) multilobed propeller flap, (3) scar-band rotation flap and (4) pin–wheel flap. The

Hiko Hyakusoku; Itaru Iwakiri; Masahiro Murakami; Rei Ogawa

2006-01-01

174

Test Method Urobilinogen  

E-print Network

Test Method Visual Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p # Ictotest®(Bilirubin): Lot # Protein (Sulfosalicylic Acid): Lot # Specific Gravity - Saline 0.85 Specific # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity HCG

Rodriguez, Carlos

175

Coding by Feedback Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic feedback coder; that is, a device which converts an analog quantity such as a voltage into a digital quantity such as a binary number by the feedback method. The basic feedback coder consists of a decoding device or network together with an error amplifier and control circuits. The decoding network and its operation as a

B. D. Smith

1953-01-01

176

Teaching Materials and Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

Physiologist, 1987

1987-01-01

177

Method for Treating Glaucoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for reducing intraocular pressure and increasing outflow facility from an eye of a subject having glaucoma includes the step of providing in the trabecular meshwork of the eye an amount of caldesmon effective to reduce intraocular pressure and in...

A. Bershadsky, B. Geiger, P. L. Laufman, T. Borras

2005-01-01

178

Die singulation method  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

2013-06-11

179

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

180

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

181

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-10-01

182

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

183

Glycoconjugates And Methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2005-08-30

184

Cold isopressing method  

DOEpatents

A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

2003-01-01

185

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn C. (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal; Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2008-04-01

186

Visionlearning: Research Methods: Experimentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructional module on the process of experimentation as a scientific research method. The authors use a contextual approach, which includes a brief history of experimental research and a case study of Louis Pasteur's experiment on spontaneous generation of microorganisms. A question set is also included, along with background information for teachers. Editor's Note: Experimentation is a research method in which one or more variables are consciously manipulated and the outcome or effect of that manipulation on other variables is observed. This resource is designed to guide beginning students in designing experiments that meet the standards of a "fair test". It is appropriate for use in both secondary and lower-level undergraduate courses.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

2010-10-19

187

The Scientific Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is designed to introduce the students to the format of the lab portion of the course. They have an opportunity to meet and work with the other students in the lab, especially important in a freshman-level course. The content of the lab is based on the Scientific Method and acts as an introduction to the entire course, as it is the first lab exercise of the semester. All of the information we discuss in the course is ultimately linked back to the scientific method, and I make a concerted effort to reiterate this linkage throughout the semester. Students are initiated into the world of scientific thinking and it is demonstrated that they use this critical skill all the time in their everyday lives.

Fredrick, Kyle

188

Method of infusion extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

189

Extrusion die and method  

DOEpatents

A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

1994-04-26

190

Kinesimetric method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1980-01-01

191

Method for scavenging mercury  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

2011-08-30

192

Method for scavenging mercury  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

2009-01-20

193

Method for scavenging mercury  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Bejing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Burkeley, CA)

2010-07-13

194

Comments on PDF methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

Chen, J.-Y.

1992-01-01

195

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOEpatents

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

196

Seismogram display and method  

SciTech Connect

A novel seismogram display and method for making same are provided wherein a portion of the areas under certain ones of the positive and negative wavelet lobes of each seismic trace is shaded. Each shaded area originates at or near a null point. The novel seismogram allows an interpreter to correlate both partially shaded lobes per wavelet, instead of one completely shaded, single lobe per wavelet. The invention therefore greatly simplifies and enhances the correlation and interpretation process.

Thompson, J.F.

1980-10-21

197

Method of electromagnetic exploration  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of electromagnetic exploration comprising the following steps: obtaining measures of two horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field at each reference sites; obtaining a measure of the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field for at least one exploratory site; and determining a measure of a multidimensional earth resistivity structure by correlating the measures of horizontal and vertical components of the earth's magnetic field.

Nekut, A.G. Jr.

1987-05-05

198

Review of Godunov Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.

Holt, Maurice

1996-01-01

199

Microinjection methods for neutrophils.  

PubMed

The ability to microinject substances into the cytosol of living neutrophils opens the possibility of manipulating the chemistry within the cell and also of monitoring changes using indicators which otherwise cannot be introduced into the cell. However, neutrophils cannot be microinjected by the conventional glass pipette insertion method. Here, we outline two techniques which work well with neutrophils, namely, SLAM (simple lipid-assisted microinjection) and electroinjection. PMID:24504952

Laffafian, Iraj; Lewis, Kimberly J; Masterman, K Benjamin; Hallett, Maurice B

2014-01-01

200

Vector wave propagation method.  

PubMed

In this paper, we extend the scalar wave propagation method (WPM) to vector fields. The WPM [Appl. Opt.32, 4984 (1993)] was introduced in order to overcome the major limitations of the beam propagation method (BPM). With the WPM, the range of application can be extended from the simulation of waveguides to simulation of other optical elements like lenses, prisms and gratings. In that reference it was demonstrated that the wave propagation scheme provides valid results for propagation angles up to 85 degrees and that it is not limited to small index variations in the axis of propagation. Here, we extend the WPM to three-dimensional vectorial fields (VWPMs) by considering the polarization dependent Fresnel coefficients for transmission in each propagation step. The continuity of the electric field is maintained in all three dimensions by an enhanced propagation vector and the transfer matrix. We verify the validity of the method by transmission through a prism and by comparison with the focal distribution from vectorial Debye theory. Furthermore, a two-dimensional grating is simulated and compared with the results from three-dimensional RCWA. Especially for 3D problems, the runtime of the VWPM exhibits special advantage over the RCWA. PMID:20360813

Fertig, M; Brenner, K-H

2010-04-01

201

Exoplanet Detection: Transit Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exoplanet Detection: Transit Method model simulates the detection of exoplanets by using the transit method of detecting exoplanets. In this method, the light curve from a star, and how it changes over time due to exoplanet transits, is observed and then analyzed. In this simulation the exoplanet orbits the star (sun-sized) in circular motion via Kepler's third law.  When the exoplanet passes in front of the star (transits), it blocks part of the starlight. This decrease in starlight is shown on the graph.  If the exoplanet is close enough to the central star, and has sufficient reflectivity, or albedo, it can reflect enough of the starlight to be seen on the light curve. In the simulation the star-exoplanet system is shown as seen from Earth (edge on view) but magnified greatly, and with the star and planet sizes not shown to the scale of the orbit. The radius of the central star (relative to the radius of Sun),semi-major axis of the exoplanet (in AU), radius of the exoplanet (relative to the radius of Jupiter), the exoplanet's albedo (reflectivity), and the inclination of the system relative to Earth can be changed. The simulation uses Java 3D, if installed, to render the view the star and exoplanet. If Java 3D is not installed, the simulation will default to simple 3D using Java.

Belloni, Mario

2010-06-29

202

Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.  

PubMed

A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse. PMID:2660093

Kulig, J W

1989-06-01

203

Scientific Method, Statistical Method, and the Speed of Light.  

E-print Network

Scientific Method, Statistical Method, and the Speed of Light. R.J. Mackay and R.W. Oldford Working is "statistical method"? Is it the same as "scientific method"? This paper answers the first question history and the details of a single study allow us to place the method of statistics within the larger

Oldford, R.W.

204

The data embedding method  

SciTech Connect

Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

1996-06-01

205

Leap-Frogging Newton's Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Newton's method as an intermediate step, we introduce an iterative method that approximates numerically the solution of f(x) = 0. The method is essentially a leap-frog Newton's method. The order of convergence of the proposed method at a simple root is cubic and the computational efficiency in general is less, but close to that of Newton's…

Kasturiarachi, A. Bathi

2002-01-01

206

Mixing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

1982-06-15

207

Acoustic bubble removal method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (inventors)

1983-01-01

208

Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

Hajjari, Tayebeh

2012-11-01

209

Construction Material And Method  

SciTech Connect

A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2006-02-21

210

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

211

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

212

Geophysics I. Seismic Methods  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades, the technology of geophysics has exploded. At the same time, the petroleum industry has been forced to look for more and more subtle traps in more and more difficult terrain. The choice of papers in this geophysics reprint volume reflects this evolution. The papers were chosen to help geologists, not geophysicists, enhance their knowledge of geophysics. Math-intensive papers were excluded because those papers are relatively esoteric and have limited applicability for most geologists. This volume concentrates on different seismic survey methods. Each of the 38 papers were abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

Beaumont, E.A.; Foster, N.H. (comps.)

1989-01-01

213

Introduction to Scientific Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit exposes students to the tools, methods, and processes used by scientists to study our Universe. This includes: safe laboratory practices, quantitative data gathering (measurement, qualitative data gathering (observation), scientific experimentation, and scientific modeling. The second purpose of this unit is to introduce students to the two explanatory themes that underpin much of the Earth Sciences: density and convection. These two broad purposes are presented primarily through a combination of experiments, demonstrations, and readings, combined, to a lesser extent, with lectures and discussions.

2002-01-01

214

Nucleic Acid Detection Methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

1998-05-19

215

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

216

Accelerated adaptive integration method.  

PubMed

Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to ?, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain ? values. AIM adaptively changes the value of ? in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of ? seed the conformational space sampled at another ? value. Adapting the value of ? throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the ? value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of ?, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083

Kaus, Joseph W; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; McCammon, J Andrew

2014-05-15

217

Microencapsulation system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

218

Microencapsulation system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

219

Thermal Recovery Methods  

SciTech Connect

Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

1983-01-01

220

Methods for studying oogenesis.  

PubMed

Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis. PMID:24440745

Hudson, Andrew M; Cooley, Lynn

2014-06-15

221

Ophthalmic method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.

Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

222

Sand consolidation methods  

SciTech Connect

Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl/sub 2/ is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed druing the polymerization reaction.

Friedman, R.H.

1984-01-24

223

Method for maskless lithography  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

Sweatt, William C. (13027 Arrovo de Vista, Albuquerque, NM 87111); Stulen, Richard H. (5258 Roxanne Ct., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01

224

Catalysts and method  

DOEpatents

An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01

225

Method for detecting objects  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for detecting objects, wherein two images of a surrounding (1) are taken and a disparity image is determined by means of stereo image processing, wherein a depth map of the surrounding (1) is determined from the determined disparities, wherein a free space delimiting line (2) is identified, delimiting an unobstructed region of the surrounding (1), wherein outside and along the free space delimiting line (1) the depth card is segmented by segments (3) of a suitable width formed by pixels of the same or similar distance to an image plane, wherein a height of each segment (3) is estimated as part of an object (4.1 to 4.6) located outside of the unobstructed region in a way, such that each segment (3) is characterized by the two-dimensional position of the base (for example the distance and angle to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle) and the height thereof.

2013-10-01

226

Structural life assessment methods  

SciTech Connect

This unique, practical reference covers the full spectrum of fracture mechanics methodologies currently used in industry, with illustrations showing how to apply them. Includes practical assessment of fracture strength ad safe-life of metallic structures. Places strong emphasis on problem-solving aspects of stress analysis, with a balanced approach between theory and industrial practice. Covers all aspects of fatigue-crack growth, including fundamental and metallurgical aspects, their analysis and state-of-the-art methods of representation. Also covers solutions for linear-elastic and elastic/plastic crack-tip stresses and new parameters for characterizing creep/fatigue-crack growth. Written for engineers involved in the design or analysis of structural parts and students in aeronautical, civil, mechanical or metallurgical and materials engineering.

Liu, A.F.

1998-12-31

227

Bayesian Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian Framework for modeling the high energy astrophysics data has been implemented in Sherpa, a modeling and fitting application in CIAO. Sherpa is written in Python and the latest version can be installed and used with Python 2.7. We describe the concept of models with priors, the MCMC options for exploring the posterior probability distributions, and available algorithms for hypothesis testing and model selection. The methods correctly account for the Poisson nature of high energy astrophysics data from space-based X-ray and gamma-ray missions such as Chandra or Fermi. In most situations the modeling has to account for instrumental effects characterized by a probability of detecting photons of a given energy at a particular detector channel, or a particular location on the detector. We provide variety of examples based on the high energy data with ready to use recipes. Some future directions and potential linking with other Python packages will also be presented.

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Aldcroft, T. L.; Kashyap, V.; Chandra X-ray Center CIAO Team

2013-04-01

228

Method for controlling brazing  

DOEpatents

A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Hall, Aaron C. (Albuquerque, NM); Givler, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-01

229

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01

230

Freeze drying method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

231

Error detection method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

Olson, Eric J.

2013-06-11

232

Methods in Biostatistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of biostatistics, which combines a number of different disciplines, is one that more people seek to enter. The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health's Brian Caffo created these course materials for his Methods in Biostatistics I class. As the site notes, these materials present "fundamental concepts in applied probability, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference, focusing on probability and analysis of one and two samples." Visitors can look over the syllabus here, check out the original course schedule, peruse the lecture materials, and look over the readings. The lecture notes cover set theory basics and probability, expected values, random vectors, distribution, and confidence intervals. The site is rounded out by the Other Resources area, which includes links to free statistical software programs and other supplemental items.

2006-01-01

233

Rail shear test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of both an experimental test program and a finite element analysis of selected graphite/polyimide rail shear test specimens are discussed. The two dimensional finite element analysis includes both mechanical and thermal loading (differential expansion) of the specimens and their elastic rails. Parameters in this analysis of unidirectional and symmetric, balanced angle-ply laminates include ply layup angles, the effect of flexible rails, the method of load introduction to the specimen and the effect of uniform heating of the specimen and rails. Two types of tensile rail shear fixtures were investigated experimentally: a uniform thickness, bolted-rail shear fixture loaded diagonally across the specimen test section; and a tapered thickness, bonded-rail shear fixture loaded axially along the center-line of the specimen test section. Test results include room-temperature and 589K strain data taken from the center of the specimen test section during loading.

Garcia, R.; Mcwithey, R. R.

1979-01-01

234

Connector pin and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

2011-01-01

235

Method of bonding  

DOEpatents

1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

1987-12-01

236

Characterization Methods of Encapsulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food active ingredients can be encapsulated by different processes, including spray drying, spray cooling, spray chilling, spinning disc and centrifugal co-extrusion, extrusion, fluidized bed coating and coacervation (see Chap. 2 of this book). The purpose of encapsulation is often to stabilize an active ingredient, control its release rate and/or convert a liquid formulation into a solid which is easier to handle. A range of edible materials can be used as shell materials of encapsulates, including polysaccharides, fats, waxes and proteins (see Chap. 3 of this book). Encapsulates for typical industrial applications can vary from several microns to several millimetres in diameter although there is an increasing interest in preparing nano-encapsulates. Encapsulates are basically particles with a core-shell structure, but some of them can have a more complex structure, e.g. in a form of multiple cores embedded in a matrix. Particles have physical, mechanical and structural properties, including particle size, size distribution, morphology, surface charge, wall thickness, mechanical strength, glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, flowability and permeability. Information about the properties of encapsulates is very important to understanding their behaviours in different environments, including their manufacturing processes and end-user applications. E.g. encapsulates for most industrial applications should have desirable mechanical strength, which should be strong enough to withstand various mechanical forces generated in manufacturing processes, such as mixing, pumping, extrusion, etc., and may be required to be weak enough in order to release the encapsulated active ingredients by mechanical forces at their end-user applications, such as release rate of flavour by chewing. The mechanical strength of encapsulates and release rate of their food actives are related to their size, morphology, wall thickness, chemical composition, structure etc. Hence, reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

237

A Meta-Method for Defining Software Engineering Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Today’s software systems demand for sophisticated software engineering processes and methods. Especially the globally distributed\\u000a development of large software systems requires precise and documented methods, but also lightweight and agile methods need\\u000a to have a precise foundation. Effort that is invested once in the methods can be systematically reused in projects. We describe\\u000a MetaME, a meta-method for modeling and tailoring

Gregor Engels; Stefan Sauer

2010-01-01

238

Methods of smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine gum or transdermal patches. These products are particularly useful for smokers who show evidence of strong physiologic addiction to nicotine. Attitudes toward smoking have shifted dramatically. In the 1950s, fewer than 50% of American adults believed that cigarette smoking caused lung cancer. In 1986, this proportion had increased to 92%. A majority of the public favors policies restricting smoking in public places and worksites. Half of all Americans who ever smoked had stopped smoking by 1988. Of those who continue to smoke, more than 70% report that they would like to quit. By increasing their knowledge about smoking-cessation methods, health professionals can support and encourage the large majority of smokers who want to quit. PMID:1548971

Schwartz, J L

1992-03-01

239

FIR prefiltering improves Prony's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prony's method, a technique for determining the parameters of sinusoidal signals, is known to be very sensitive to measurement errors in the observed signal samples. The authors present two prefiltering methods that improve the performance of Prony's method. The simple prefiltering operation reduces the effects of noise in the data without violating the fundamental property of Prony's method. In the

R. Kumaresan; Y. Feng

1991-01-01

240

Detector Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

2003-01-01

241

Mimetic finite difference method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

2014-01-01

242

Science Methods, Fall 09  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources for Science Methods Pre-service Teachers IA Help: Basic Instruction: How to use the IA, step by step Connecting People with Online Reources: USU OpenCourseWare Site on how to use the IA Advanced IA Features: Adding an Image to your IA project using Google Picasa Adding a YouTube video to an IA project Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Adding a TeacherTube video to an IA project Digital Libraries arXiv: Open access to 560,904 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Science Education Communities Directory of open access journals Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library National Science Digital Library NSDL: Expert Voices Blog Gateway NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL: Science Refreshers OER (Open Educational Resources) Commons OpenCourseWare Consortium Websites Physics at NIST Virtual Library The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online The Franklin Institute Online Weather Science Hotlist The Goddard Library K-6 IA Science Projects A Desert Adventure Advertising the Animals of Utah Mister Twister Simple Machines There's Nothing Better Than a Clean, Shiny Penny The Wonders of Water!!! 7-12 IA Science Projects Electrical Engineering Global Warming and Our Future Group 1 - DDT Newton's First Law of Motion World of Enzymes ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2009-09-24

243

Hyperspectral data discrimination methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral data provides spectral response information that provides detailed chemical, moisture, and other description of constituent parts of an item. These new sensor data are useful in USDA product inspection. However, such data introduce problems such as the curse of dimensionality, the need to reduce the number of features used to accommodate realistic small training set sizes, and the need to employ discriminatory features and still achieve good generalization (comparable training and test set performance). Several two-step methods are compared to a new and preferable single-step spectral decomposition algorithm. Initial results on hyperspectral data for good/bad almonds and for good/bad (aflatoxin infested) corn kernels are presented. The hyperspectral application addressed differs greatly from prior USDA work (PLS) in which the level of a specific channel constituent in food was estimated. A validation set (separate from the test set) is used in selecting algorithm parameters. Threshold parameters are varied to select the best Pc operating point. Initial results show that nonlinear features yield improved performance.

Casasent, David P.; Chen, Xuewen

2000-12-01

244

Laser amplifier and method  

DOEpatents

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

Backus, Sterling (Ann Arbor, MI); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Ann Arbor, MI); Murnane, Margaret M. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1997-01-01

245

Method for biological purification  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

Lucido, John A. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Keenan, Daniel (Rockville Centre, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Shelenkova, Ludmila (Yaphank, NY)

2001-03-27

246

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

247

Measurement System and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

248

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-03-12

249

Desulfurization apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

2013-06-18

250

Bismuth generator method  

DOEpatents

A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

Bray, Lane Allan (Richland, WA); DesChane, Jaquetta R. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01

251

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

252

Standing footprint diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

2013-10-01

253

Hydrogen storage methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a system mass ratio close to one. The highest volumetric densities of hydrogen are found in metal hydrides. Many metals and alloys are capable of reversibly absorbing large amounts of hydrogen. Charging can be done using molecular hydrogen gas or hydrogen atoms from an electrolyte. The group one, two and three light metals (e.g. Li, Mg, B, Al) can combine with hydrogen to form a large variety of metal-hydrogen complexes. These are especially interesting because of their light weight and because of the number of hydrogen atoms per metal atom, which is two in many cases. Hydrogen can also be stored indirectly in reactive metals such as Li, Na, Al or Zn. These metals easily react with water to the corresponding hydroxide and liberate the hydrogen from the water. Since water is the product of the combustion of hydrogen with either oxygen or air, it can be recycled in a closed loop and react with the metal. Finally, the metal hydroxides can be thermally reduced to metals in a solar furnace. This paper reviews the various storage methods for hydrogen and highlights their potential for improvement and their physical limitations.

Züttel, Andreas

254

Water treatment method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for treating water removed from the ground to reduce the content of noxious sulfur-containing impurities therein before the water is supplied to an associated water system. It comprises: the steps of spraying the water to be treated in the upper portion of a closed standpipe which has an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet through which water can flow to the associated water system, the inlet and the outlet of the standpipe being so positioned that air which becomes disassociated from water can collect in the upper portion of the standpipe, controlling the spraying of water in the upper portion of the closed standpipe to maintain a superatmospheric therein to pressurize the associated water system, entraining air with the water before it is sprayed in the standpipe. The last named step being carried out in a vessel in which the ground water is sprayed upwardly, maintaining the water level in the standpipe that is required to enable the flow of water therefrom to the associated water system, containing the ground water, before it is delivered to the associated water system, with a catalyst for the oxidation of sulfur and sulfur-containing moieties to sulfate anions, and controlling the time of contact between the ground water and the catalyst, the amount of air entrained with the water sprayed in the vessel and the amount of air entrained with the water sprayed in the standpipe so that entrained air separates from the water and forms an air pocket inside the standpipe and there is a substantially complete oxidation of sulfur and sulfur-containing moieties to sulfate anions.

Siebert, G.H.

1991-02-12

255

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

2008-01-18

256

Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

Suter, Larry E.

2005-01-01

257

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 21, METHOD 611--HALOETHERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Described herein are the experimental design and the results of an interlaboratory study of an analytical method to detect haloethers in water. The method, EPA Method 611 - Haloethers, consisted of a liquid/liquid extraction using methylene chloride, an evaporation step using Kud...

258

This Is The Scientific Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The research process is not just a collection of miscellaneous "scientific methods." Scientists and other researchers do not proceed in a haphazard fashion. Centuries of trial and error, research, discussions and debates have led to a realization of the general pattern of the scientific method. The pattern represents the major stages of how we obtain, refine and apply knowledge in all fields. The method of science has been called by many names, most commonly the scientific method. It is also a complete method of creative problem solving and decision making for all fields. This article describes the stages and components of the scientific method.

Norman Edmund (ScientificMethod.com)

2012-01-06

259

Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8?±?4.7?years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.

Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

2014-01-01

260

Wild Rivers. Methods for Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods were developed to include intangible, nonmonetary benefit valuations within traditional cost-benefit analyses. Each method was demonstrated for the Upper Skagit River Basin (a currently developed basin) and for the Sauk-Suiattle River Basin (a...

M. B. Sonnen, L. C. Davis, W. R. Norton, G. T. Orlob

1970-01-01

261

Communication Methods What is Communication?  

E-print Network

1 Communication Methods What is Communication? Communication involves sharing ideas, information, sounds or images. Communicating over a distance requires three stages: encoding, transmission language, used quipus to communicate numeric information. A quipu was a method of encoding numbers

Simonson, Shai

262

Method for Determining Artillery Position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for determinig artillery positions. Two groups of four closely spaced microphones are placed at known positions, and radio bearings are determined by projectile flight time differences of muzzle blasts. The advantages of the method are discussed.

Fischer, Johannes; Meuser, Wilfried

1988-01-01

263

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2004-01-01

264

Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

1981-01-01

265

Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)  

Cancer.gov

The vision of the Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB) is to advance population science through innovative cancer epidemiology utilizing state-of-the-art, emerging and advanced methods and technologies.

266

Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

1991-01-01

267

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2003-01-01

268

Optical measurement methods in thermogasdynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of a number of optical methods of flow measurements. Consideration is given to such spectroscopic methods as emission and absorption techniques, electron beam-stimulated fluorescence, and light scattering - Rayleigh, Raman and Mie - methods. The following visualization methods are also discussed: shadow photography, schlieren photography, interferometry, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, particle holography, and electron-excitation imaging. A large bibliography is presented and the work is copiously illustrated with figures and photographs.

Stursberg, K.; Erhardt, K.; Krahr, W.; Becker, M.

1978-01-01

269

5) Management ii) Mechanical methods  

E-print Network

5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods = manually or mechanically damaging plants #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods Advantages · Generally much less public opposition #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods Advantages · Generally much less public opposition · Works well

Nowak, Robert S.

270

Method of insertion of keratoprostheses  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a method of insertion of keratoprostheses, and in particular, a method of surgical insertion and placement of a soft hydrogel prosthetic corneal device into the host cornea. The method of the invention provides a greatly improved rate of success for the implantation and retention of the device.

2002-07-23

271

Personal Journey Motivation and Methods  

E-print Network

Personal Journey Motivation and Methods Imaging New Results Less is More: Robust image recovery via-variation minimizat #12;Personal Journey Motivation and Methods Imaging New Results Outline My personal journey recovery via total-variation minimizat #12;Personal Journey Motivation and Methods Imaging New Results I

Needell, Deanna

272

A Method for Clarifying Slimes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is concerned with a method for clarifying slimes. The essential steps of this method are the treatment of a slime with a unique flocculant and the separation of the clarified slime from the aggregated floccules. Our method is primarily based...

S. Khalafalla, G. Reimers

1980-01-01

273

COARSE PARTICLE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing a new Federal Reference Method for PM in the range of 2.5 to 10 microns aerodynamic diameter, for possible use in a possible new Ambient Air Quality Standard for particles in this size range. Federal Reference Methods are the first-approved methods used to meas...

274

Cowell's method with modified differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of Cowell's difference method is outlined in which the difference equation is solved by the method of horizontal successive approximations. The behavior of the absolute error in the modified method is examined using examples of solutions to the two-body problem in a Newtonian gravitational field for the case of elliptical motion; the specific cases of the Jupiter-sun and

T. S. Efremova

1978-01-01

275

Methods of making textured catalysts  

DOEpatents

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17

276

ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY  

E-print Network

ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 ­ 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

277

A Synthesis of Teaching Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt is made in this guide to synthesize the best attributes of the traditional methods of teaching (where subject orientation is primary) and the more progressive methods (where the child as a personality is the central focus). The traditional approach is used in explicating the conventional qualities of a good teacher, methods of lesson…

Shipley, C. Morton; And Others

278

Objective comparison of interpolation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional interpolation techniques consist of direct interpolation of the grey values. When user interaction is called for in image segmentation, as a consequence of these interpolation methods, the user needs to segment a much greater amount of data. To mitigate this problem, a method called shape-based interpolation of dimension that generalized the shape-based method from binary to grey data. We

George J. Grevera; Jayaram K. Udupa

1997-01-01

279

Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics  

E-print Network

Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics Serdar Uckun, Member, IEEE, Kai Goebel, and Peter J statistical rigor. In this paper, we provide a critical review of current research methods in PHM and contrast business impact. Index Terms--Prognostics, Prognostics and Health Management, Research Methods, Performance

Lucas, Peter

280

Physics 116C Mathematical Methods  

E-print Network

in the science library) are · Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers by D. A. McQuarrie. · Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering by K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, and S. J. Bence, · EssentialPhysics 116C Mathematical Methods Instructor: Peter Young (office ISB 212, phone 459-4151, e

Young, A. Peter

281

Physics 116A Mathematical Methods  

E-print Network

in the science library) are · Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers by D. A. McQuarrie. · Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering by K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, and S. J. Bence, · EssentialPhysics 116A Mathematical Methods Instructor: Peter Young (office ISB 212, phone 459-4151, e

Young, A. Peter

282

CH 600 History of Methodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will survey American Methodism from its beginnings to the present. The course materials focus on the theological, cultural, and institutional themes that shaped Methodism in America. The course especially highlights the spiritual, theological, and social aspects of Methodism's grand legacy. The evangelistic thrust, social concern, institutional development, and theological shifts noted in America between 1766 and the present will

Robert G. Tuttle

2008-01-01

283

Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

1999-02-08

284

An Extended Keyword Extraction Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

285

Dynamical Methods in Algebra Dynamical Methods in Algebra [1] Dynamical Methods in Algebra  

E-print Network

Dynamical Methods in Algebra Dynamical Methods in Algebra [1] Dynamical Methods in Algebra We present a possible realisation of Hilbert's program for (some part of) abstract algebra G in number theory) that cannot be eliminated Surprisingly this is not the case for abstract algebra 1 #12

Coquand, Thierry

286

Introduction Nonparametric Methods for Paired Samples  

E-print Network

Introduction Nonparametric Methods for Paired Samples Nonparametric Method for Independent Samples Methods for Paired Samples Nonparametric Method for Independent Samples Measurement Scales Data for which;Introduction Nonparametric Methods for Paired Samples Nonparametric Method for Independent Samples Measurement

Bardsley, John

287

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

288

Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.  

PubMed

Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131?000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, ?-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum mechanical calculations on fragment-fragment (dimer) interactions. The EFMO method is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than the most commonly used FMO implementation (FMO2), in which all dimers are explicitly included in the calculation. While the FMO2 method itself does not incorporate three-body interactions, such interactions are included in the EFMO method via the EFP self-consistent induction term. Several applications (ranging from clusters to proteins) of the three methods are discussed to demonstrate their efficacy. The EFMO method will be especially exciting once the analytic gradients have been completed, because this will allow geometry optimizations, the prediction of vibrational spectra, reaction path following, and molecular dynamics simulations using the method. PMID:24810424

Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

2014-09-16

289

Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

2000-01-01

290

RBANS Supplementary Methods 1 Running Head: RBANS supplementary methods  

E-print Network

Department of Neurology University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Address for correspondence: Professor John R when testing for reliable differences. With the exception of the MDI, all the methods can be obtained. More importantly the program allows the methods to be applied when only a subset of the Indexes

Crawford, John R.

291

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 29, METHOD 624--PURGEABLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The work which is described in the report was performed for the purpose of validating, through an interlaboratory study, Method 624 for the analysis of the volatile organic priority pollutants. This method is based on purging and concentration of the various analytes on an adsorb...

292

Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

Wheeldon, J.

2010-01-01

293

Pluralisms in Qualitative Research: From Multiple Methods to Integrated Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pluralism offers promising ways forward for qualitative research, invoking the use of multiple methods to investigate complex social questions. Drawing on two different research projects, we reflexively demonstrate, discuss, and illustrate our processes of working pluralistically. In various ways, we argue that multiple methods function smoothly if they are closely aligned with the broad assumptions underpinning the research, resulting in

Kerry Chamberlain; Trudie Cain; Joanna Sheridan; Ann Dupuis

2011-01-01

294

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 17, METHOD 607 (NITROSAMINES)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the results obtained and data analyses from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 607 (Nitrosamines). The method is designed to analyze for three nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, and N-nitroso-diphenylamine, in water and...

295

TECHNIQUES AND METHODS Methods for Developmental Studies of Fear  

E-print Network

childhood (Pine et al 1998), there is a great need for research linking adult anxiety disorders to risk- der. These data suggest that aspects of amygdala function may index childhood risk for anxiety. Recent) and air-puff UCS methods from Grillon et al (1998, 1999). Methods and Materials Subjects Seven right

Burgess, Neil

296

A new wavelet multigrid method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard multigrid procedure performs poorly or may break down when used to solve certain problems, such as elliptic problems with discontinuous or highly oscillatory coefficients. The method discussed in this paper solves this problem by using a wavelet transform and Schur complements to obtain the necessary coarse grid, interpolation, and restriction operators. A factorized sparse approximate inverse is used to improve the efficiency of the resulting method. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility of the method.

de Leon, Doreen

2008-10-01

297

Local method for detecting communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.

2005-10-01

298

An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy variance extrapolation method consists of relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wavefunctions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the number of single-particle states. We propose a new method which depends on the number of single-particle orbits and the number of particles rather than the number of single-particle states. We discuss as an example the case of 4He using the chiral N3LO interaction in a basis consisting up to 184 single-particle states.

Puddu, G.

2012-08-01

299

An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods  

E-print Network

The energy variance extrapolation method consists in relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wave functions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the number of single-particle states. We propose a new method which depends on the number of single-particle orbits and the number of particles rather than the number of single-particle states. We discuss as an example the case of ${}^4He$ using the chiral N3LO interaction in a basis consisting up to 184 single-particle states.

G. Puddu

2012-01-03

300

Preconditioning Methods for Multidimensional Aerodynamics  

E-print Network

Preconditioning Methods for Multidimensional Aerodynamics E. Turkel School of Mathematical Sciences of Design Aerodynamics Braunschweig, Germany 1 #12; Contents 1 Introduction 5 1.1 General requirements

Turkel, Eli

301

The Gardner method for symmetries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gardner method, traditionally used to generate conservation laws of integrable equations, is generalized to generate symmetries. The method is demonstrated for the KdV, Camassa-Holm and sine-Gordon equations. The method involves identifying a generating symmetry which depends upon a parameter; expansion of this symmetry in a (formal) power series in the parameter then gives the usual infinite hierarchy of symmetries. We show that the obtained symmetries commute, discuss the relation of the Gardner method with Lenard recursion (both for symmetries and conservation laws), and also the connection between the symmetries of continuous integrable equations and their discrete analogues.

Rasin, Alexander G.; Schiff, Jeremy

2013-04-01

302

Method  

E-print Network

needs to express a  purpose or a motivation to  students if of human purposes, rather than  as motivation that might be Motivation Just as punch lines are not funny without jokes attached, a short paraphrase could not sum  up this text's  purpose 

Sorrell, Brian

2010-01-01

303

Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-09-21

304

Tribological test methods and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribology is the term that has been applied since 1966 to the science of friction, wear, lubrication, and the interaction of contacting surfaces when they are displaced relative to each other. Tribology characteristically employs a broad circle of experimental methods. This circle is expanding continuously, and the methods are being improved. Even the prescientific period of development of engineering thought

I. A. Buyanovskii

1994-01-01

305

CH 600 History of Methodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

+Kinghorn, Kenneth, The Heritage of American Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1999. +Norwood, Frederick A., The Story of American Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974. +Rowe, Kenneth E., United Methodist Studies: Basic Bibliographies, Third edition, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992. (Note: This book is for reference, future consolation on specific subjects, and use in your used bookstore browsing.)

Kenneth C. Kinghorn

2005-01-01

306

CH 600 History of Methodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinghorn, Kenneth, The Heritage of American Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1999. -Norwood, Frederick A., The Story of American Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974. -Rowe, Kenneth E., United Methodist Studies: Basic Bibliographies, Third edition, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992. (Note: This book is for reference, future consolation on specific subjects, and use in your used book store browsings.)

Kenneth C. Kinghorn

2003-01-01

307

Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

2012-01-01

308

Rapid actinide-separation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New high-speed actinide-separation methods have been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory that can be applied to nuclear materials process samples, waste solutions and environmental samples. As part of a reengineering effort to improve efficiencies and reduce operating costs, solvent extraction methods (TTA, Hexone, TBP and TIOA) used for over thirty years in the SRS Central Laboratory were

1997-01-01

309

Choosing a track association method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of selecting a track association method. This is the first stage of the track fusion process and the performance of such a method is essential to the overall success of this process. It is shown that more issues must be considered than just examining the probability of correct association when judging the performance of an

Barbara F. La Scala; Alfonso Farina

2002-01-01

310

CREEP CRACK GROWTH ASSESSMENT METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes engineering methods for assessing defects in components operating at elevated temperatures where creep crack growth needs to be considered. Practical aspects such as the treatment of secondary and residual stresses and the inclusion of realistic creep laws are included. Recent finite element results for complex loading are described, as validation of the assessment methods. The British Energy

R A Ainsworth; Y Lei

311

TIMEINTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS  

E-print Network

' $ TIME­INTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS Antony Jameson Department of Aeronautics methods for unsteady problems 4. Conclusions & % #12;' $ Some Examples of Aerodynamic Calculations flow & % #12;' $ Aerodynamic Flow computations AIRPLANE DENSITY from 0.6250 to 1.1000 AIRPLANE CP from

Stanford University

312

Policy Gradient Methods for Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquisition and improvement of motor skills and control policies for robotics from trial and error is of essential importance if robots should ever leave precisely pre-structured environments. However, to date only few existing reinforcement learning methods have been scaled into the domains of high- dimensional robots such as manipulator, legged or humanoid robots. Policy gradient methods remain one of

Jan Peters; Stefan Schaal

2006-01-01

313

Filter desulfation system and method  

SciTech Connect

A method of removing sulfur from a filter system of an engine includes continuously passing an exhaust flow through a desulfation leg of the filter system during desulfation. The method also includes sensing at least one characteristic of the exhaust flow and modifying a flow rate of the exhaust flow during desulfation in response to the sensing.

Lowe, Michael D. (Metamora, IL); Robel, Wade J. (Normale, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

2010-08-10

314

Topological methods in quantum gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main technical problem with background independent approaches to quantum gravity is inapplicability of standard quantum field theory methods. New methods are needed which would be adapted to the basic principles of General Relativity. Topological field theory is a model which provides natural tools for background independent quantum gravity. It is exactly soluble and, at the same time, diffeomorphism invariant.

Artem Starodubtsev

2005-01-01

315

Method for Determining Artillery Position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for determining the position of artillery in which a circle of four closely spaced microphones is located at two measurement sites for acoustic radio direction finding of muzzle blasts. A method for determining the position of artillery using this procedure is discussed.

Meuser, Wilfried

1988-01-01

316

Rigor in Traditional Quantitative Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers reasons for using traditional quantitative research methods and illustrates some of the considerations demanding rigor in a study on gender discrimination in school-administrator salaries. Traditional quantitative methods provide a meaningful language based on numbers and objectivity, and they are less time-consuming and complex…

Pounder, Diana G.

317

A quadratically convergent VBSCF method.  

PubMed

A quadratically convergent valence bond self-consistent field method is described where the simultaneous optimisation of orbitals and the coefficients of the configurations (VB structures) is based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in actual calculations. The convergence and efficiency are compared with the Super-CI method. A necessary condition to achieve convergence in the Newton-Raphson method is that the Hessian is positive definite. When this is not the case, a combination of the Super-CI and Newton-Raphson methods is shown to be an optimal choice instead of shifting the eigenvalues of the Hessian to make it positive definite. In the combined method, the first few iterations are performed with the Super-CI method and then the Newton-Raphson scheme is switched on based on an internal indicator. This approach is found computationally a more economical choice than using either the Newton-Raphson or Super-CI method alone to perform a full optimisation of the nonorthogonal orbitals. PMID:23406096

Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H

2013-02-01

318

A quadratically convergent VBSCF method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quadratically convergent valence bond self-consistent field method is described where the simultaneous optimisation of orbitals and the coefficients of the configurations (VB structures) is based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in actual calculations. The convergence and efficiency are compared with the Super-CI method. A necessary condition to achieve convergence in the Newton-Raphson method is that the Hessian is positive definite. When this is not the case, a combination of the Super-CI and Newton-Raphson methods is shown to be an optimal choice instead of shifting the eigenvalues of the Hessian to make it positive definite. In the combined method, the first few iterations are performed with the Super-CI method and then the Newton-Raphson scheme is switched on based on an internal indicator. This approach is found computationally a more economical choice than using either the Newton-Raphson or Super-CI method alone to perform a full optimisation of the nonorthogonal orbitals.

Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H.

2013-02-01

319

Method of making tantalum capacitors  

DOEpatents

A method for manufacturing tantalum capacitors includes preparing a tantalum compact by cold pressing tantalum powder, placing the compact, along with loose refractory metal powder, in a microwave-transparent casket to form an assembly, and heating the assembly for a time sufficient to effect at least partial sintering of the compact and the product made by the method.

McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Clausing, Robert E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Vierow, William F. (Saco, ME)

1998-01-01

320

Pneumatic train brake simulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of new pneumatic brakes for rail vehicles or improvements of existing ones can be made better or more efficient by the use of a simulation method. This paper gives a general presentation of the author’s modelling methods used for solving problems relating to railway pneumatic brakes. The brake models in this paper (slightly different from those of other

Tadeusz Piechowiak

2009-01-01

321

Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the new generation of discrete choice methods, focusing on the many advances that are made possible by simulation. Researchers use these statistical methods to examine the choices that consumers, households, firms, and other agents make. Each of the major models is covered: logit, generalized extreme value, or GEV (including nested and cross-nested logits), probit, and mixed logit,

Kenneth E. Train

2003-01-01

322

Methods for information server selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of using a broker to select a subset of available information servers in order to achieve a good trade-off between document retrieval effectiveness and cost is addressed. Server selection methods which are capable of operating in the absence of global information, and where servers have no knowledge of brokers, are investigated. A novel method using Lightweight Probe queries

David Hawking; Paul B. Thistlewaite

1999-01-01

323

Current preoperative bowel cleansing methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mail survey of 300 members of The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) was conducted to document the current methods of bowel preparation in use. Two hundred six questionnaires (69 percent) were returned. The majority of respondents (104 or 51 percent) used cathartics and enemas as the primary method of mechanical bowel cleansing. Eighty-nine (43 percent) used

David E. Beck; Victor W. Fazio

1990-01-01

324

APPROXIMATION CLASSES FOR ADAPTIVE METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive Finite Element Methods (AFEM) are numerical proce- dures that approximate the solution to a partial differential equation (PDE) by piecewise polynomials on adaptively generated triangulations. Only re- cently has any analysis of the convergence of these methods (10, 13) or their rates of convergence (2) become available. In the latter paper it is shown that a certain AFEM for

Peter Binev; Wolfgang Dahmen; Ronald DeVore; Pencho Petrushev

2002-01-01

325

Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview about the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering over the last 15 years. We discuss the paradigm shift from a transfer view to a modeling view and describe two approaches which considerably shaped research in Knowledge Engineering: Role-limiting Methods and Generic Tasks. To illustrate various concepts and methods which evolved in the last years

Rudi Studer; V. Richard Benjamins; Dieter Fensel

1998-01-01

326

Seven Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven widely held conceptions about formal methods are challenged. These beliefs are variants of the following: formal methods can guarantee that software is perfect; they work by proving that the programs are correct; only highly critical systems benefit from their use; they involve complex mathematics; they increase the cost of development; they are incomprehensible to clients; and nobody uses them

Anthony Hall

1990-01-01

327

Transformation method and wave control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.

Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai

2010-12-01

328

Barrier methods require consistent use.  

PubMed

Barrier methods are the only contraceptive methods that protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. Such protection depends, however, on correct and consistent method use. Since consistent use of a barrier method requires a change in sexual behavior, counseling should seek to bring the specific behaviors necessary to begin and sustain contraceptive use into cognitive awareness. Counseling is most effective at improving condom use patterns when it involves both partners in a monogamous situation and focuses on skill building. Availability and affordability are also significant determinants of barrier method use patterns. Social marketing projects that use mass media, entertainment, and other outreach approaches have been shown to produce large-scale changes in condom use in Africa. Where possible, social marketing projects should promote condoms for both disease and pregnancy prevention. PMID:12293922

Finger, W R

1996-01-01

329

Methods for computing color anaglyphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

2010-02-01

330

Vortex methods and vortex statistics  

SciTech Connect

Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.

Chorin, A.J.

1993-05-01

331

Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

Seddik Saad, Al-hussien

2011-10-01

332

Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects of low- and medium turbulence conditions. Both methods are capable of processing static and dynamic scenes. The first method consists of local registration, frame selection, blur estimation and deconvolution. The second method consists of local motion compensation, fore- /background segmentation and weighted iterative blind deconvolution. A comparative evaluation using quantitative measures is done on some representative sequences captured during a NATO SET 165 trial in Dayton. The amount of blurring and tilt in the imagery seem to be relevant measures for such an evaluation. It is shown that both methods improve the imagery by reducing the blurring and tilt and therefore enlarge the recognition range. Furthermore, results of a recognition experiment using simulated data are presented that show that turbulence mitigation using the first method improves the recognition range up to 25% for an operational optical system.

van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Huebner, Claudia S.; Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Schwering, Piet B. W.

2014-05-01

333

An enhanced splined saddle method.  

PubMed

We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)]. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C(60) fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time. PMID:21744889

Ghasemi, S Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan

2011-07-01

334

The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

van de Water, Manon

1994-01-01

335

Method of monolithic module assembly  

DOEpatents

Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

336

Boundary value methods for PDEs  

SciTech Connect

Many existing numerical schemes for the solution of partial differential equations c .an be derived by the method of lines. The PDEs are converted into a system of ordinary differential equations with initial conditions (longitudinal scheme) or boundary conditions (transverse scheme). This system may be stiff or singularly perturbed; then, a numerical method with a large stability region must be used for solving the resulting ODEs. This paper studies the behavior of a class of Boundary Value Methods when applied to partial differential equations discretized with both the longitudinal and the transversal scheme. Some numerical experiments illustrate that the performance of BVMs is the same for both schemes.

Mazzia, A. [IRMA, Bari (Italy); Mazzia, F. [Universita degli Studi di Bari (Italy); Trigiante, D. [Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

1994-12-31

337

Manufacturing method of photonic crystal  

SciTech Connect

A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

2013-01-29

338

Computational Methods Development at Ames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

339

Computational Methods For Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected methods of computation for simulation of mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix composite materials described in report. For each method, report describes significance of behavior to be simulated, procedure for simulation, and representative results. Following applications discussed: effects of progressive degradation of interply layers on responses of composite structures, dynamic responses of notched and unnotched specimens, interlaminar fracture toughness, progressive fracture, thermal distortions of sandwich composite structure, and metal-matrix composite structures for use at high temperatures. Methods demonstrate effectiveness of computational simulation as applied to complex composite structures in general and aerospace-propulsion structural components in particular.

Chamis, Christos C.

1988-01-01

340

Decision Support Methods and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is one of a set of papers, developed simultaneously and presented within a single conference session, that are intended to highlight systems analysis and design capabilities within the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). This paper focuses on the specific capabilities of uncertainty/risk analysis, quantification, propagation, decomposition, and management, robust/reliability design methods, and extensions of these capabilities into decision analysis methods within SACD. These disciplines are discussed together herein under the name of Decision Support Methods and Tools. Several examples are discussed which highlight the application of these methods within current or recent aerospace research at the NASA LaRC. Where applicable, commercially available, or government developed software tools are also discussed

Green, Lawrence L.; Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Gumbert, Clyde r.; Sorokach, Michael R.; Burg, Cecile M.

2006-01-01

341

Data transmission system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.

Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)

2010-01-01

342

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods 1.1 Description of the Ecosystem Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure 1. Chlorophyll concentrations and chlorophyll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification

Boss, Emmanuel S.

343

Method of modifying a surface  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

Renk, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM); Senft, Donna Cowell (Albuquerque, NM); Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G. (Columbus, OH); Thompson, Michael O. (Ithaca, NY); Grabowski, Kenneth S. (Alexandria, VA)

2000-01-01

344

Colorimetric method for phase evaluation.  

PubMed

Measurements of very small phase changes in optical measurement techniques are usually performed with interferometric methods that are based on evaluation of interference patterns, which correspond to a phase change of the investigated wave field. If values of the phase change are small, it is difficult to determine accurately the phase values, and one needs very expensive measurement systems. We present a simple method for evaluation of small phase variations that uses the interference of polychromatic light. The phase change affects the color of the interference pattern, and the color of the interference pattern corresponds to a specific phase change that can be evaluated using colorimetric analysis. We describe and analyze our colorimetric phase evaluation method. The proposed method offers accurate results, and it may be suitable for practical utilization in the optical industry. PMID:16604772

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri; Novak, Pavel

2006-04-01

345

Dynamic Bundle Methods - Optimization Online  

E-print Network

dynamic bundle method giving a positive answer for its primal-dual convergence properties, and, under ..... Bundle information gives at each iteration a model of the dual function f, namely the ...... Validation of subgradient optimization. Math.

2007-03-15

346

Method of Treating Psychotic Illnesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application is directed towards methods for treating patients having a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia and/or inhibiting the occurrence of movement disorders in patients receiving or having received a neuroleptic medication by administe...

G. Straw

1987-01-01

347

Concept puzzles about geophysical methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concept puzzles are ways to give students practice thinking about geophysical methods and problems. These are used as individual or group in-class activities that can take between 10-45 minutes. Has minimal/no quantitative component

Titus, Sarah

348

Semiclassical Methods in Chemical Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of semiclassical theory in chemical physics both as a computational method and conceptual framework for interpreting quantum mechanical experiments and calculations. Topics covered include energy wells and eigenvalues, scattering, statistical mechanics and electronically nonadiabiatic processes. (JM)

Miller, William H.

1986-01-01

349

Method for Detection of Mycoplasma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for detecting mycoplasma infection in a sample by contacting the sample with labeled oligonucleotides, then measuring incorporation (if any) of the label into mycoplasma RNA. One preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a met...

D. Geselowitz, L. Neckers, L. Olsen

1992-01-01

350

ChemTeacher: Laboratory Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Laboratory Methods page includes resources for teaching students about basic laboratory equipment.

2011-01-01

351

Method of Preparing Iodinated Perfluorocarbons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Russian patent describes a method of obtaining iodinated perfluorocarbons from crystalline iodine and liquid unsaturated perfluorocarbons. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the effectiveness of the process, the reaction mixture...

A. P. Buchneva, A. V. Zimin, B. I. Vaynshtein

1971-01-01

352

Graphical Methods in Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

backgrounds can be difficult. It’s often helpful to provide them with a method of easily determining for themselves the potential for conservation and improvement in their old facilities. Graphical techniques can help accomplish this. This paper...

McAlister, J.

353

IDEME: A DBMS of Methods  

E-print Network

In this paper, an intelligent database management system (DBMS) called IDEME is presented. IDEME is a program that takes as input a task specification and finds a set of methods potentially relevant to solving that task. ...

Lee, Jintae

354

STP Widom Insertion Method Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Widom Insertion Method program estimates the chemical potential of a Lennard-Jones fluid using the Widom insertion method. The default system is a box with linear dimension L = 20 with N =100 particles at a temperature T = 1.0. STP WidomInsertionMethod is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_WidomInsertionMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-06

355

Reduced shedding regenerator and method  

DOEpatents

A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

2007-05-22

356

Applications of the operational method  

SciTech Connect

New equations for continuous, operational interpolation on four plates in rectangular array are derived. The equations can be applied to the interpretation of experimental data. Other topics include convergence of operational formulas and extrapolation by operational methods. 11 refs.

Silver, G.L.

1990-11-14

357

NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)

1990-01-01

358

Prime coats materials and methods  

E-print Network

strength of the different alternatives and evaluate the importance of the prime coat on strengthening the interface between the asphalt layer and the granular base layer, (3) evaluate the benefits of specific construction methods in providing additional...

Mantilla, Christian Augusto

2012-06-07

359

Method to blend separator powders  

DOEpatents

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04

360

PDV Uncertainty Estimation & Methods Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Several methods are presented for estimating the rapidly changing instantaneous frequency of a time varying signal that is contaminated by measurement noise. Useful a posteriori error estimates for several methods are verified numerically through Monte Carlo simulation. However, given the sampling rates of modern digitizers, sub-nanosecond variations in velocity are shown to be reliably measurable in most (but not all) cases. Results support the hypothesis that in many PDV regimes of interest, sub-nanosecond resolution can be achieved.

Machorro, E.

2011-11-01

361

[Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].  

PubMed

In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate. PMID:25033525

Wawrzycki, Jaros?aw

2014-01-01

362

Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

2000-01-01

363

Testing methods for large aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some unique testing methods in connection with static-load application and associated data acquisition are described. The free-flight method of airplane static testing is covered as it applies to the current test program for the C-133 Cargomaster (300,000 lb gross weight). The loading and safety advantages of the single-pressure concept are discussed. Instrumentation provides for visual readout as well as IBM

D. L. Moseley

1961-01-01

364

An adaptive level set method  

SciTech Connect

This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

Milne, R.B.

1995-12-01

365

New Methods in Iris Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonome- try and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and “rotating” the

John Daugman

2007-01-01

366

Test methods for optical fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a simplified method for measuring the transmission and attenuation of optical fiber used for illumination. Use of an integrating sphere, in combination with the traditional fiber optic cut-back measurement approach, is described. Use of color filters to measure specific sets of wavelengths is also proposed. A `blue filter' method of measuring yellow color shift is described. Tests run using a lumen meter and a blue filter are summarized.

Poppendieck, Mary

1998-10-01

367

Laminate armor and related methods  

DOEpatents

Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

2013-02-26

368

Information storage media and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for storing and retrieving information. More specifically, the present invention is a method for forming predetermined patterns, or data structures, using materials which exhibit enhanced absorption of light at certain wavelengths or, when interrogated with a light having a first wavelength, provide a luminescent response at a second wavelength. These materials may exhibit this response to light inherently, or may be made to exhibit this response by treating the materials with ionizing radiation.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA); Endres, George W. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

369

Unstructured mesh methods for CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mesh generation methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are outlined. Geometric modeling is discussed. An advancing front method is described. Flow past a two engine Falcon aeroplane is studied. An algorithm and associated data structure called the alternating digital tree, which efficiently solves the geometric searching problem is described. The computation of an initial approximation to the steady state solution of a given poblem is described. Mesh generation for transient flows is described.

Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Peiro, J.

1990-01-01

370

Method of sterilization using ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

2002-01-01

371

Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

Beij, K Hilding

1925-01-01

372

Decomposition methods in turbulence research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS) or of experiment (time-resolved PIV). Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs) will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

Uruba, Václav

2012-04-01

373

Substituted 6-nitroquipazines, methods of preparation, and methods of use  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a substituted 6-nitroquipazine of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are each selected from the group consisting of H, Fl, CL, Br, I, CF.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 F, CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, and --CH(CH.sub.3).sub.2, and wherein one of R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 is other than H. Also disclosed is a method for measurement of serotonin uptake sites in a sample, in which a radioligand is incubated with a sample and then the radioactivity of the radioligand bound to the sample is determined, utilizing a radio labeled substituted 6-nitroquipazine as the radioligand. Also disclosed is a method of manufacture and method of use.

Mathis, Jr., Chester A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Biegon, Anat (Rohovot, IL); Taylor, Scott E. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Enas, Joel D. (Pittsburg, CA)

1994-01-01

374

New hormonal methods of contraception.  

PubMed

Three types of new contraceptive delivery system have been discussed in this chapter. Each have novel methods of delivery and may be acceptable to certain groups of women. It is clear that subdermal contraceptive implants are extremely useful as a long-term method of contraception, and provided insertion occurs correctly, removal will then be easy. The second-generation implants using a single rod, compared with the first-generation ones using six capsules, would appear to offer advantages both to the patient and in relation to the training of medical and paramedical personnel who have to fit the subdermal implant. The main disadvantage is the incidence of irregular bleeding, which, by and large, can be overcome by pre-insertion counselling and by time. The second method of delivery, vaginal rings, offers high patient acceptability, but a usable ring for contraception has as yet to be developed. Two approaches appear to be the use of a continuous progestogen-only ring, or a combined ring releasing oestrogen and progestogen with a 21-day-in, 7-day-out cycle of use. Ongoing studies will indicate whether vaginal lesions are significant or related to the flexibility of the ring. If these studies prove satisfactory, further development of the vaginal rings, both as an alternative method for interval use or as a specific postpartum form of contraception using progesterone-releasing rings, will be developed. Significant developments in the use of a combined monthly injectable have led to the release of two preparations, Cyclofem and Mesigyna, which are now available in many countries. This combined approach offers a significant reduction in amenorrhoea rates and unacceptable bleeding, the majority of women having acceptable menstrual patterns even during the first 3 months of use. All three methods have low and acceptable rates of pregnancy, the lowest being seen with the subdermal implants and with combined monthly injectables. Due to the length of action of subdermal implants, these may find a niche for women wishing to use a long-acting method and not wishing to be sterilized. They also provide a useful method where medical intervention is not available on a regular basis. Monthly injectable preparations can be given by paramedical personnel, and introductory studies have indicated that in developing and developed countries, they are highly acceptable. All three methods offer an increased choice for women and safe and effective methods of contraception. PMID:8736724

Newton, J R

1996-04-01

375

Long acting methods of contraception.  

PubMed

Long acting methods of contraception have been developed and refined over the last 10 years. From the classical long acting progestogen-only depot preparations we now have a range of delivery systems including both combined and progestogen only injection systems and vaginal rings also containing either progestogen only or oestrogen and progestogen in combination. Subcutaneous implants at present containing only a progestogen, offer a range of durations from 2-5 years. The efficacy of these methods is high, with failure rates as low as 0.1 per 100 woman years. However, with progestogen only systems a significant proportion of women develop unpredictable menstrual bleeding, which with counselling is acceptable. The commonest reason for discontinuation still remains menstrual disorders and recent WHO workshops have investigated the cause of this bleeding and refined the reference periods of analysis. The method of action of progestogen-only systems is primarily cervical mucus blockade and prevention of sperm penetration. However, they also tend to produce a thinned atrophic endometrium. Ovarian effects ranging from complete anovulation to disordered luteal phase, persistent follicles and disorganised hormone production add to the contraceptive effect in more than half of the treatment cycles, but cause some of the menstrual disturbance. All these long acting methods are essential to family planning programmes, offering highly acceptable, and in some cases novel methods with high efficacy. PMID:8324615

Newton, J

1993-01-01

376

Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

1998-01-01

377

Method for dense packing discovery.  

PubMed

The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ?=128/219?0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing. PMID:21230619

Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

2010-11-01

378

Advanced probabilistic method of development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced structural reliability methods are utilized on the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project to provide a tool for analysis and design of space propulsion system hardware. The role of the effort at the University of Arizona is to provide reliability technology support to this project. PSAM computer programs will provide a design tool for analyzing uncertainty associated with thermal and mechanical loading, material behavior, geometry, and the analysis methods used. Specifically, reliability methods are employed to perform sensitivity analyses, to establish the distribution of a critical response variable (e.g., stress, deflection), to perform reliability assessment, and ultimately to produce a design which will minimize cost and/or weight. Uncertainties in the design factors of space propulsion hardware are described by probability models constructed using statistical analysis of data. Statistical methods are employed to produce a probability model, i.e., a statistical synthesis or summary of each design variable in a format suitable for reliability analysis and ultimately, design decisions.

Wirsching, P. H.

1987-01-01

379

Computational Methods for Hyperbolic Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introduction to some of the basic concepts on modern numerical methods for computing approximate solutions to hyperbolic partial differential equations. This chapter is divided into five sections. Section 1 contains a review of some elementary theoretical concepts on hyperbolic equations, mainly focused on the linear case; the Riemann problem for a general linear system with constant coefficients is solved in detail. Section 2 is an introduction to the basics of discretization methods, including finite difference methods and finite volume methods; concepts such as local truncation error, linear stability and modified equation are included; Godunov's theorem is stated, proved and its implications are discussed. Section 3 contains two approximate Riemann solvers, as applied to the three-dimensional Euler equations, namely HLLC and EVILIN. Section 4 deals with the construction of non-linear (non-oscillatory) numerical methods of the TVD and ENO type, for a scalar conservation law. In Sect. 5 we use the theory developed for scalar equations as a guideline to construct non-linear (quasi non-oscillatory) second-order finite volume schemes for one-dimensional non-linear systems with source terms. Key references for further reading are indicated at the end of each section.

Toro, E. F.

380

On Pressure Stabilization Method and Projection Method for ...  

E-print Network

The relation between the two methods is exploited to derive an improved error estimate ... equations is how to treat the incompressibility constraint “divu = 0”, which not only ... We will use c as a generic constant depending only on the data. In the three dimensional case, we assume a strong solution exists for 0 ? t ? T, i.e..

381

ADALINE NETWORK-BASED TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION METHOD FOR SHM METHOD  

E-print Network

method based on adaptive filter adaptive liner neural (ADALINE) network has been developed to compensate baselines are required for a large temperature range. Experiments are conducted on a stiffened carbon fiber to be applied on real aircraft structures at current stage as the direct wave, boundary reflections and muti

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

CHEMICAL METHODS vs PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PDVF MORPHOLOGY STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PDVF is of practical concern, this polymer may be processed to give a number of different crystal forms such as ?, ?, ? and these may exhibit a wide range of different morphologies. Due to the difficulty of the PVDF material presents to be observed by electron microscopy techniques, Vaughan developed a method that implies chemical

C. Urbina de Navarro; N. Díaz; M. Pérez-De

383

COMPARISON OF A MODIFIED VOST SAMPLING METHOD TO METHOD 0030  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory and field test were performed to select and evaluate possible replacement sorbents for sampling volatile organic compounds in stationary sources using SW-846 Method 0030. n the basis of laboratory results, Anasorb 7470 was selected for testing in the field using dyna...

384

(Bandettini, Neuroimaging Methods) What's new in neuroimaging methods?  

E-print Network

on Functional Imaging Methods & Functional MRI Core Facility National Institute of Mental Health Building 10: bandettini@nih.gov 1 #12;Key Words Functional MRI fMRI Voxel Based Morphometry VBM Diffusion EEG Optical Imaging Diffuse Optical Tomography DOT Endogenous oscillations Default network

Baker, Chris I.

385

Methods of DNA methylation detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

2010-01-01

386

Anesthesia Methods in Laser Resurfacing  

PubMed Central

Laser resurfacing technology offers the ability to treat skin changes that are the result of the aging process. One of the major drawbacks of laser resurfacing technologies is the pain associated with the procedure. The methods of anesthesia used in laser resurfacing to help minimize the pain include both noninvasive and invasive procedures. The noninvasive procedures can be divided into topical, cryoanesthesia, and a combination of both. The invasive methods of anesthesia include injected forms (infiltrative, nerve blocks, and tumescent anesthesia) and supervised anesthesia (monitored anesthesia care and general anesthesia). In this review, the authors summarize the types of anesthesia used in laser resurfacing to aid the provider in offering the most appropriate method for the patient to have as painless a procedure as possible. PMID:23904819

Gaitan, Sergio; Markus, Ramsey

2012-01-01

387

Test methods for textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

1994-01-01

388

Neutron Scattering Methods in Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting with basic properties of the neutron, this chapter reviews the most important neutron scattering methods that provide valuable information for a chemist. The range of such methods is amazingly wide, from standard methods of crystallography to neutron spin echo spectroscopy. Experimental techniques like neutron reflectometry and small angle neutron scattering are able to probe large-scale structures on the surface and in the bulk, thus providing access to the “nano-world.” Apart from traditional areas of solid-state physics, like studying phonons, a particular emphasis is placed on the microscopic and mesoscopic structure and dynamics in the liquid state. Practical aspects, such as main components of the instrumentation, are also touched upon.

Pusztai, L.

389

Spectral Methods for Thesaurus Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, popular synonym acquisition methods are based on the distributional hypothesis, and a metric such as Jaccard coefficients is used to evaluate the similarity between the contexts of words to obtain synonyms for a query. On the other hand, when one tries to compile and clean a thesaurus, one often already has a modest number of synonym relations at hand. Could something be done with a half-built thesaurus alone? We propose the use of spectral methods and discuss their relation to other network-based algorithms in natural language processing (NLP), such as PageRank and Bootstrapping. Since compiling a thesaurus is very laborious, we believe that adding the proposed method to the toolkit of thesaurus constructors would significantly ease the pain in accomplishing this task.

Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Sugiyama, Masashi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

390

Vortex methods for separated flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. Two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies are emphasized. Robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, time-marching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming are treated. Operation counts for unbounded and periodic flows are given, and two algorithms designed to speed up the calculations are described.

Spalart, Philippe R.

1988-01-01

391

Shell model Monte Carlo methods  

SciTech Connect

We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of {gamma}-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs.

Koonin, S.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.; Dean, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

392

Social Research Methods Knowledge Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. The Knowledge Base covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and nonprobability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics. The Knowledge Base was designed to be different from the many typical commercially-available research methods texts. It uses an informal, conversational style to engage both the newcomer and the more experienced student of research. It is a fully hyperlinked text that can be integrated easily into an existing course structure or used as a sourcebook for the experienced researcher who simply wants to browse.

Trochim, William M.

2004-11-17

393

Robotic follow system and method  

DOEpatents

Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

2007-05-01

394

Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics  

PubMed Central

Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers.

Mitchell, John B. O.

2014-01-01

395

New disinfection and sterilization methods.  

PubMed Central

New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

2001-01-01

396

Method for determining damping coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is disclosed a method for determining damping coefficients, the method including the steps of providing a damper assembly including a bar of known parameters, and a viscous damper, wherein a first end of the bar is disposed in the viscous damper while the second end of the bar is free, applying a known force to the second end of the bar in a direction toward the first end of the bar, measuring the response function of the assembly, comprising the ratio of the bar acceleration to the applied force, determining the eigenvalues of the response function, and from the eigenvalues computing the damping coefficient of the damper assembly.

Austin, Stephen A.; Hull, Andrew J.; Hurdis, David A.; Kasper, Kent D.

1995-05-01

397

Method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes that are substantially free of the reaction materials used to produce the radiopharmaceutical complex is disclosed. The method involves admixing in a suitable first solvent in a container a target seeking ligand or salt or metal adduct thereof, a radionuclide label, and a reducing agent for said radionuclide, thereby forming said radiopharmaceutical complex; coating the interior walls of the container with said pharmaceutical complex; discarding the solvent containing by-products and unreacted starting reaction materials; and removing the radiopharmaceutical complex from said walls by dissolving it in a second solvent, thereby obtaining said radiopharmaceutical complex substantially free of by-products and unreacted starting materials.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1989-05-02

398

Fuzzy methods for system performance  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new method, based on the notion of fuzzy sets, to evaluate system performance. This method is applicable to an arbitrary system composed of the components that describe the system hierarchically. As an illustration, we introduce a new figure of merit, consistent with the recommendations of the Advisory Group Meeting on Containment and Surveillance. The fuzzy attributes, such as no-diversion, assurance, and reliability replace the subjective characterization parameters of individual components. Our methodology should be advantageous both in safeguards and in containment and surveillance problems. 12 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Zardecki, A.; Hakkila, E.A.

1991-01-01

399

Tagged-weak {pi} method  

SciTech Connect

A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.

Margaryan, A., E-mail: mat@yerphi.am [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Hashimoto, O. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Tang, L. [Hampton University, Department of Physics (United States)

2011-02-15

400

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30

401

Method for preparing chiral esters  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a chiral ester and more particularly, the method for preparing an optically pure chiral ester from an alkenyl ester at a high yield by mixing and reacting: an alkenyl ester; a ruthenium complex to activate reduction reaction of said alkenyl ester and racemization; a lipase to acylate selectively one of enantiomers of said alkenyl ester; and a reducing agent to supply a hydride to said ruthenium complex. Said optically pure chiral ester of the present invention can be prepared by one-step synthesis from various types of alkenyl esters at a high yield.

2002-11-05

402

Method for analyzing microbial communities  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for quantitatively analyzing microbial genes, species, or strains in a sample that contains at least two species or strains of microorganisms. The method involves using an isothermal DNA polymerase to randomly and representatively amplify genomic DNA of the microorganisms in the sample, hybridizing the resultant polynucleotide amplification product to a polynucleotide microarray that can differentiate different genes, species, or strains of microorganisms of interest, and measuring hybridization signals on the microarray to quantify the genes, species, or strains of interest.

Zhou, Jizhong (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Wu, Liyou (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2010-07-20

403

Method for joining ceramic shapes  

DOEpatents

A method for joining shapes of ceramic materials together to form a unitary ceramic structure. In the method of the invention, a mixture of two or more chemical components which will react exothermically is placed between the surfaces to be joined, and the joined shapes heated to a temperature sufficient to initiate the exothermic reaction forming a joining material which acts to bond the shapes together. Reaction materials are chosen which will react exothermically at temperatures below the degradation temperature of the materials to be joined. The process is particularly suited for joining composite materials of the silicon carbide-silicon carbide fiber type.

Rabin, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

404

Twin-Foucault imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180° magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180° domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

Harada, Ken

2012-02-01

405

Library Research Methods Divinity Graduate Students  

E-print Network

Library Research Methods Divinity Graduate Students Info Lit @ Mac Peggy Findlay Liaison Librarian Research Methods: Divinity #12;Library Research Methods: Divinity Objectives Library Catalogue Database search engines RefWorks: citation manager and bibliography builder #12;Library Research Methods: Divinity

Haykin, Simon

406

Method of forming ceramic bricks  

DOEpatents

A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

1987-04-22

407

Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

1990-01-01

408

Penalty Factors From Newton's Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penalty factors calculated by the classical B-coefficients method are shown to be proportional (but not equal) to the penalty factors calculated directly from the transposed acobian. It is also shown that the economic operating point is independent of the load and generation distribution factors Z. Expected computational times in examples with up to 5873 buses and 943 generators are

F. L. Alvarado

1978-01-01

409

Well perforating apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for perforating a well casing and surrounding formation are disclosed. The perforating apparatus includes a laser source for projecting a high intensity laser beam transversely through the well bore and surrounding formation and a nozzle assembly for injecting exothermically reactive gas along the path of the laser beam. The gas stream shields the output lens of

1980-01-01

410

Method of reducing hydraulic instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for improving the flow range in centrifugal pumps and compressors. Bleed holes are introduced into a volute tongue of a centrifugal pump or compressor thereby providing a double acting means of boundary layer control at the volute tongue.

Veres, Joseph P. (inventor)

1994-01-01

411

CH 600 History of Methodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1999. -Norwood, Frederick A., The Story of American Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974. -Rowe, Kenneth E., United Methodist Studies: Basic Bibliographies, Third edition, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992. (Note: This book is for reference, future consolation on specific subjects, and use in your used book store browsings.)

Kenneth C. Kinghorn

2003-01-01

412

Method of producing molybdenum-99  

DOEpatents

Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

Pitcher, Eric John

2013-05-28

413

Methods of in vitro toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro methods are common and widely used for screening and ranking chemicals, and have also been taken into account sporadically for risk assessment purposes in the case of food additives. However, the range of food-associated compounds amenable to in vitro toxicology is considered much broader, comprising not only natural ingredients, including those from food preparation, but also compounds formed

G Eisenbrand; B Pool-Zobel; V Baker; M Balls; B. J Blaauboer; A Boobis; A Carere; S Kevekordes; J.-C Lhuguenot; R Pieters; J Kleiner

2002-01-01

414

Shooting methods and topological transversality  

E-print Network

of Bath, Bath BA27AY, U.K. bb1@maths.bath.ac.uk Abstract. We show that shooting methods for homoclinic by Kalies, Kwapisz and VanderVorst [KV,KKV]. In contrast with (1) where homoclinic solutions to 0 describe

Bath, University of

415

Method of zoom lens design.  

PubMed

Optical systems with variable optical characteristics (zoom lenses) find broader applications in practice nowadays and methods for their design are constantly developed and improved. We describe a relatively simple method of the design of zoom lenses using the third-order aberration theory. It presents one of the possible approaches of obtaining the Seidel aberration coefficients of individual members of a zoom lens. The advantage of this method is that Seidel aberration coefficients of individual elements of a given optical system can be obtained simply by solving of a set of linear equations. By using these coefficients, one can determine residual aberrations of the optical system without detailed knowledge about the structure of its individual elements. Furthermore, we can determine construction parameters of the optical system, i.e., radii of curvature and thicknesses of individual elements of a given optical system. The proposed method makes it possible to determine which elements of the optical system can be designed as simple lenses and which elements must have a more complicated design, e.g., doublets or triplets. PMID:19002234

Miks, Antonín; Novák, Jirí; Novák, Pavel

2008-11-10

416

Image registration methods: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present a review of recent as well as classic image registration methods. Image registration is the process of overlaying images (two or more) of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints, and\\/or by different sensors. The registration geometrically align two images (the reference and sensed images). The reviewed approaches are classified according to

Barbara Zitova ´; Jan Flusser

2003-01-01

417

Developing Tools for Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods are based on rigorous mathematical notations, which aim to describe systems in the early stages of software development. Such formal descriptions are useful to precisely specify a system's data and\\/or control, and as a consequence to verify whether certain properties are true as well as to test whether the final product meets the initial description. All of these

P. Kefalas; G. Eleftherakis; A. Sotiriadou

418

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01

419

Rapid actinide-separation methods  

SciTech Connect

New high-speed actinide-separation methods have been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory that can be applied to nuclear materials process samples, waste solutions and environmental samples. As part of a reengineering effort to improve efficiencies and reduce operating costs, solvent extraction methods (TTA, Hexone, TBP and TIOA) used for over thirty years in the SRS Central Laboratory were replaced with new rapid extraction column methods able to handle a variety of difficult sample matrices and actinide levels. Significant costs savings were realized and costly mixed-waste controls were avoided by using applied vacuum and 50-100 micron particle-size resins from Eichrom Industries. TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, UTEVA Resin{reg_sign}, and TRU Resin{reg_sign} columns are used with flow rates of approximately two to three milliliters per minute to minimize sample turnaround times. Single-column, dual-column and sequential-cartridge methods for plutonium, uranium, neptunium, americium and curium were developed that enable rapid, cost-effective separations prior to alpha-particle counting, thermal ionization and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and laser phosphorescence measurements.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1997-12-31

420

Gas flaring method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of flaring a gas mixture formed in a landfill. It comprises: withdrawing said gas mixture from said landfill; conducting said gas mixture to an annular burner comprised of an annular channel having sides and a bottom and a continuous top structure having a plurality of elongated flow passages therein configured such that said gas mixture

M. R. Keller; R. K. Noble; D. W. Pressnall

1990-01-01

421

Advances in Adaptive Control Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster presentation describes recent advances in adaptive control technology developed by NASA. Optimal Control Modification is a novel adaptive law that can improve performance and robustness of adaptive control systems. A new technique has been developed to provide an analytical method for computing time delay stability margin for adaptive control systems.

Nguyen, Nhan

2009-01-01

422

Pyramid Methods in Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The data structure used torepresent image information can be criticalto the successful completion of an imageprocessing task. One structure that hasattracted considerable attention is the imagepyramid This consists of a set of lowpass orbandpass copies of an image, eachrepresenting pattern information of adifferent scale. Here we describe a variety ofpyramid methods that we have developedfor image data compression, enhancement,analysis

E. H. Adelson; C. H. Anderson; J. R. Bergen; P. J. Burt; J. M. Ogden

1984-01-01

423

Triangulation methods for automated docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated docking system must have a reliable method for determining range and orientation of the passive (target) vehicle with respect to the active vehicle. This method must also provide accurate information on the rates of change of range to and orientation of the passive vehicle. The method must be accurate within required tolerances and capable of operating in real time. The method being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center employs a single TV camera, a laser illumination system and a target consisting, in its minimal configuration, of three retro-reflectors. Two of the retro-reflectors are mounted flush to the same surface, with the third retro-reflector mounted to a post fixed midway between the other two and jutting at a right angle from the surface. For redundancy, two additional retroreflectors are mounted on the surface on a line at right angles to the line containing the first two retro-reflectors, and equally spaced on either side of the post. The target vehicle will contain a large target for initial acquisition and several smaller targets for close range.

Bales, John W.

1996-01-01

424

Method of forming ceramic bricks  

DOEpatents

A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Claar, Terry D. (Newark, DE); Silkowski, Peter (Urbana, IL)

1988-01-01

425

Formal methods in PLC programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed generic model of the control design process is introduced and discussed. It is used for surveying different formal approaches in the context of PLC programming. The survey focuses on formal methods for verification and validation (V&V). The varying works in this area are categorized using three criteria: the general approach (A) to the task (model based, constraint based

Georg Frey; Lothar Litz

2000-01-01

426

Quantitative molecular methods in virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the past few years, significant technical effort was made to develop molecular methods for the absolute quantitation of nucleic acids in biological samples. In virology, semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques of different principle, complexity, and reliability were designed, optimized, and applied in basic and clinical researches. The principal data obtained in successful pilot applications in vivo are reported in

M. Clementi; S. Menzo; A. Manzin; P. Bagnarelli

1995-01-01

427

Radiological Methods in Liver Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 63 localized masses in a group of 169 patients, CT was found to be the most reliable diagnostic method with an accuracy of 97%, a sensitivity of 95%, and a specificity of 97%. With an accuracy of 87%, a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 95%, sono...

N. M. Boeck

1982-01-01

428

Methods and Applications Rastislav Lukac  

E-print Network

images or, more generally, processing multichannel images, such as satellite images, color filter arrayCOLOR IMAGE PROCESSING Methods and Applications Edited by Rastislav Lukac Konstantinos N of techniques and the range of applications of image processing. However, the area of color image processing

Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

429

Numerical methods in fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transonic flow calculations are examined, taking into account the formulation of transonic flow problems, the solution of the transonic small-disturbance equation, the solution of the exact potential flow equation, accelerated iterative methods, and various applications, including airfoil calculations using a mapping to a circle, boundary-layer correction, nacelle calculations, and the calculation of the flow past a swept wing. The application

H. J. Wirz; J. J. Smolderen

1978-01-01

430

Asymptotic methods in fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research done on asymptotic methods in fluid dynamics at the Computational Center of the Soviet Academy of Sciences is surveyed. Wave propagation in the inhomogeneous atmosphere is considered; a unified treatment of nonlinear wave processes in a radiating gas and in chemically active mixtures is presented; the theory of transonic flows of ideal and viscous heat-conducting gases is reviewed. First

O. S. Ryzhov

1980-01-01

431

Pivot methods for global optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is presented for the location of the global minimum of a multiple minima problem. It begins with a series of randomly placed probes in phase space, and then uses an iterative redistribution of the worst probes into better regions of phase space until a chosen convergence criterion is fulfilled. The method quickly converges, does not require derivatives,

Aaron Fletcher Stanton

1999-01-01

432

CSM parallel structural methods research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

Storaasli, Olaf O.

1989-01-01

433

Emotions Across Cultures and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants included 46 European American, 33 Asian American, 91 Japanese, 160 Indian, and 80 Hispanic students (N = 416). Discrete emotions, as well as pleasant and unpleasant emotions, were assessed: (a) with global self-report measures, (b) using an experience-sampling method for 1 week, and (c) by asking participants to recall their emotions from the experience sampling week. Cultural differences emerged

Christie N. Scollon; Ed Diener; Shigehiro Oishi; Robert Biswas-Diener

2004-01-01

434

Additive manufacturing method of producing  

E-print Network

Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

Painter, Kevin

435

Gait analysis methods in rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Brand's four reasons for clinical tests and his analysis of the characteristics of valid biomechanical tests for use in orthopaedics are taken as a basis for determining what methodologies are required for gait analysis in a clinical rehabilitation context. MEASUREMENT METHODS IN CLINICAL GAIT ANALYSIS: The state of the art of optical systems capable of measuring the positions of

Richard Baker; Hugh Williamson; Gait CCRE

2006-01-01

436

Method of conditioning building air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of operating a hybrid air conditioning system comprised of a refrigeration subsystem and a liquid desiccant dehumidification subsystem having dehumidifier, cooling tower, desiccant regenerator, and air-to-air recuperative heat exchanger components. It comprises: flowing a controlled mixture of relatively dilute desiccant solution and relatively concentrated desiccant solution to the dehumidifier component and controlling the mixing of

1990-01-01

437

Elaborating transition interface sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path

Titus S. van. Erp; Peter G.. Bolhuis

2005-01-01

438

Steel Production Methods Improvement Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a three-phase, interdisciplinary study undertaken to improve methods of steel production within timing and capital investment constraints. The defined objective of this study was to increase the throughput of the hydrogen annealing process via assessment of various operating policies and resource levels. The three phases of the study successively involved work measurement project management, and discrete process simulation.

Edward J. Williams; Celia Ortiz

439

Method for driving an engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes the method of improving the overall efficiency of an internal combustion engine having at least one piston, cylinder walls, a combustion drive cycle, and engine block, and an engine cooling system including a jacket surrounding the cylinder walls and piston. It consists of collecting heat generated in the engine block in a separate chamber located interiorly of

Soltermack

1987-01-01

440

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOEpatents

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22

441

Method of controlling gene expression  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

Peters, Norman K. (Berkeley, CA); Frost, John W. (Menlo Park, CA); Long, Sharon R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1991-12-03

442

An Invitation to Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most challenging tasks in software system design is to assure reliability, especially as these systems are increasingly used in sensitive and often life-critical environments such as medical systems, air traffic control, and space applications. Many claim that formal methods not only provide assurance of reliability but also have the potential to reduce costs. Although the literature contains

Hossein Saiedian; Jonathan P. Bowen; Ricky W. Butler; David L. Dill; Robert L. Glass; David Gries; Anthony Hall; Michael G. Hinchey; C. Michael Holloway; Daniel Jackson; Cliff B. Jones; Michael J. Lutz; David Lorge Parnas; John M. Rushby; Jeannette M. Wing; Pamela Zave

1996-01-01

443

Space Radiation Transport Methods Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary design concepts to the final design. In particular, we will discuss the progress towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic code for which the current HZETRN evaluates the lowest order asymptotic term. HZETRN is the first deterministic solution to the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design practice enabling development of integrated multidisciplinary design optimization methods. A single ray trace in ISS FEM geometry requires 14 milliseconds and severely limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given in terms of reconfigurable computing and could be utilized in the final design as verification of the deterministic method optimized design.

Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Prael, R. E.; Norbury, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

2002-01-01

444

Luminescence techniques: instrumentation and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena – thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the state

Lars BØtter-Jensen

1997-01-01

445

Assessment methods in medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1950s, there has been rapid and extensive change in the way assessment is conducted in medical education. Several new methods of assessment have been developed and implemented over this time and they have focused on clinical skills (taking a history from a patient and performing a physical examination), communication skills, procedural skills, and professionalism. In this paper, we

John J. Norcini; Danette W. McKinley

2007-01-01

446

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

447

Methods in Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) seeks to assist consumers, clinicians, purchasers, and policy makers to make informed decisions to improve health care at both the individual and population levels. CER includes evidence generation and evidence synthesis. Randomized controlled trials are central to CER because of the lack of selection bias, with the recent development of adaptive and pragmatic trials increasing their relevance to real-world decision making. Observational studies comprise a growing proportion of CER because of their efficiency, generalizability to clinical practice, and ability to examine differences in effectiveness across patient subgroups. Concerns about selection bias in observational studies can be mitigated by measuring potential confounders and analytic approaches, including multivariable regression, propensity score analysis, and instrumental variable analysis. Evidence synthesis methods include systematic reviews and decision models. Systematic reviews are a major component of evidence-based medicine and can be adapted to CER by broadening the types of studies included and examining the full range of benefits and harms of alternative interventions. Decision models are particularly suited to CER, because they make quantitative estimates of expected outcomes based on data from a range of sources. These estimates can be tailored to patient characteristics and can include economic outcomes to assess cost effectiveness. The choice of method for CER is driven by the relative weight placed on concerns about selection bias and generalizability, as well as pragmatic concerns related to data availability and timing. Value of information methods can identify priority areas for investigation and inform research methods. PMID:23071240

Armstrong, Katrina

2012-01-01

448

Methods of degrading napalm B  

DOEpatents

Methods of degrading napalm and/or trinitrotoluene involve contacting the waste with specific intra-amoebic isolates of ATCC 40908 and/or dispersants derived therefrom. Useful isolates are deposited as ATCC 77529, NAP-1 deposited as ATCC 77526 and 13 deposited as ATCC 77527.

Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.

1995-09-12

449

Improvement for the TLM Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple improvement of the transmission line matrix method is proposed. The choice of a Hanning window instead of the rectangular one which is usually preferred allows a drastic reduction of the number of iterations required to obtain a fair response.

P. Saguet, E. Pic

1986-01-01

450

Soldering method using longitudinal ultrasonic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient ultrasonic soldering method of inserting the metal bumps into the solder is investigated in this work for electronic packaging. The effects of the process parameters such as the ultrasonic frequency, amplitude, dimensions of the metal bump and solder are analyzed through the viscoelastic modeling. The ultrasonic soldering was conducted using the Cu and Au bumps, and the acceptable

Jung H. Kim; Jihye Lee; Choong D. Yoo

2005-01-01

451

Method of dehydrating natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for dehydration of natural gas is provided wherein well head gas is supplied to a three-phase inlet separator, the vapor mixture of natural gas and water removed from that inlet separator means is supplied to a turboexpander, and the resulting refrigerated mixture of natural gas and condensed water vapor is supplied to a multi-phase outlet separator. The turboexpander

1985-01-01

452

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

453

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

454

Definition of the Engineering Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to more clearly define the engineering method, this document attempts to draw distinctions between engineering and science. Part I, "Some Thoughts on Engineering," discusses strategies that engineers employ to solve problems, and the characteristics of the types of engineering problems. Part II, "The Principal Rule of the Engineering…

Koen, Billy Vaughn

455

A New Method of Trisection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most interesting episodes in the saga of angle trisection was Archimedes' discovery that he could trisect an angle if he could make two marks on his straightedge. This note gives a method of trisection without marks; of course, one does have to "cheat" a little.

Brooks, David Alan

2007-01-01

456

The Intelligent Method of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early psychologist William James [1842-1910] and philosopher John Dewey [1859-1952] described intelligence as a method which can be learned. That view of education is integrated with knowledge about the brain's executive functions to empower pupils to intelligently organize their learning. This article links the pragmatist philosophy of…

Moula, Alireza; Mohseni, Simin; Starrin, Bengt; Scherp, Hans Ake; Puddephatt, Antony J.

2010-01-01

457

Method of making monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOEpatents

A method of making particles of either spherical or cylindrical geometry with a characteristic diameter less than 50 nanometers by mixing at least one structure directing agent dissolved in a solvent with at least one amphiphilic block copolymer dissolved in a solvent to make a solution containing particles, where the particles can be subsequently separated and dispersed in a solvent of choice.

Fan, Hongyon; Sun, Zaicheng

2012-10-16

458

Method for liquifying natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for liquefying natural gas comprises heat exchanging a pressurized natural gas with two independent coolant circuits. The first coolant circuit pre-cools the compressed natural gas. After the natural gas is pre-cooled in the first circuit, a major portion is liquefied in heat exchange with the coolant in the second circuit while the remaining minor portion is liquefied in

Forg

1980-01-01

459

Computational Methods for Ramsey Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ramsey number R(k,l) is the least integer in such that all graphs on n or more vertices contain a clique of k vertices or an independent set of 1 vertices as an induced subgraph. In this work we investigate computational methods for finding lower boun...

H. Haanpaeae

2000-01-01

460

The Double Absorbing Boundary method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach is devised for solving wave problems in unbounded domains. It has common features to each of two types of existing techniques: local high-order Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC) and Perfectly Matched Layers (PML). However, it is different from both and enjoys relative advantages with respect to both. The new method, called the Double Absorbing Boundary (DAB) method, is based on truncating the unbounded domain to produce a finite computational domain ?, and on applying a local high-order ABC on two parallel artificial boundaries, which are a small distance apart, and thus form a thin non-reflecting layer. Auxiliary variables are defined on the two boundaries and inside the layer bounded by them, and participate in the numerical scheme. The DAB method is first introduced in general terms, using the 2D scalar time-dependent wave equation as a model. Then it is applied to the 1D Klein-Gordon equation, using finite difference discretization in space and time, and to the 2D wave equation in a wave guide, using finite element discretization in space and dissipative time stepping. The computational aspects of the method are discussed, and numerical experiments demonstrate its performance.

Hagstrom, Thomas; Givoli, Dan; Rabinovich, Daniel; Bielak, Jacobo

2014-02-01

461

APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

462

Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method. PMID:22617405

Sanders, Erin R

2012-01-01

463

New methods for competitive coevolution.  

PubMed

We consider "competitive coevolution," in which fitness is based on direct competition among individuals selected from two independently evolving populations of "hosts" and "parasites." Competitive coevolution can lead to an "arms race," in which the two populations reciprocally drive one another to increasing levels of performance and complexity. We use the games of Nim and 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe as test problems to explore three new techniques in competitive coevolution. "Competitive fitness sharing" changes the way fitness is measured; "shared sampling" provides a method for selecting a strong, diverse set of parasites; and the "hall of fame" encourages arms races by saving good individuals from prior generations. We provide several different motivations for these methods and mathematical insights into their use. Experimental comparisons are done, and a detailed analysis of these experiments is presented in terms of testing issues, diversity, extinction, arms race progress measurements, and drift. PMID:10021751

Rosin, C D; Belew, R K

1997-01-01

464

Explosives detection system and method  

DOEpatents

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-11

465

An Iterative Rejection Sampling Method  

E-print Network

In the note we consider an iterative generalisation of the rejection sampling method. In high energy physics, this sampling is frequently used for event generation, i.e. preparation of phase space points distributed according to a matrix element squared $|M|^2$ for a scattering process. In many realistic cases $|M|^2$ is a complicated multi-dimensional function, so, the standard von Neumann procedure has quite low efficiency, even if an error reducing technique, like VEGAS, is applied. As a result of that, many of the $|M|^2$ calculations go to ``waste''. The considered iterative modification of the procedure can extract more ``unweighted'' events, i.e. distributed according to $|M|^2$. In several simple examples we show practical benefits of the technique and obtain more events than the standard von Neumann method, without any extra calculations of $|M|^2$.

A. Sherstnev

2008-07-17

466

Method for deploying multiple spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

467

Oil recovery method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of recovering oil from a layer of oil at an oil spill site on a water surface, the method comprising the steps of: providing a vessel for transporting buoyant, oil absorbent material to the oil spill site, dispersing the oil absorbent material below the water surface at the oil spill site, whereby the dispersed oil absorbent material advances upward toward the layer of oil and the water surface and absorbs oil and water, containing the dispersed oil absorbent material on the water surface, transferring the contained oil absorbent material from the water surface to the vessel, removing oil and water from the oil absorbent material on the vessel, whereby the oil absorbent material from which oil and water is removed is reuseable.

Torrance, G.

1993-08-17

468

Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

469

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

470

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

1998-01-13

471

Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods  

SciTech Connect

This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

Ng, B

2006-10-12

472

Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core 10 of a first metal, a tubular sleeve 12 of a second metal, and an outer sheath 14, 16, 18 of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket 14. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MDH channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core 10 and the second metal of the sleeve 12 strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

Killpatrick, Don H. (Orland Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

1982-01-01

473

Explorations in statistics: permutation methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eighth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores permutation methods, empiric procedures we can use to assess an experimental resultÃÂto test a null hypothesisÃÂwhen we are reluctant to trust statistical theory alone. Permutation methods operate on the observationsÃÂthe dataÃÂwe get from an experiment. A permutation procedure answers this question: out of all the possible ways we can rearrange the observations we got, in what proportion of those arrangements is the sample statistic we care about at least as extreme as the one we got? The answer to that question is the P value.

Douglas Curran-Everett (University of Colorado Denver Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine)

2012-09-01

474

Krylov subspace methods on supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short survey of recent research on Krylov subspace methods with emphasis on implementation on vector and parallel computers is presented. Conjugate gradient methods have proven very useful on traditional scalar computers, and their popularity is likely to increase as three-dimensional models gain importance. A conservative approach to derive effective iterative techniques for supercomputers has been to find efficient parallel/vector implementations of the standard algorithms. The main source of difficulty in the incomplete factorization preconditionings is in the solution of the triangular systems at each step. A few approaches consisting of implementing efficient forward and backward triangular solutions are described in detail. Polynomial preconditioning as an alternative to standard incomplete factorization techniques is also discussed. Another efficient approach is to reorder the equations so as to improve the structure of the matrix to achieve better parallelism or vectorization. An overview of these and other ideas and their effectiveness or potential for different types of architectures is given.

Saad, Youcef

1988-01-01

475

Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOEpatents

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

Felter, T. E. (Livermore, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

476

Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOEpatents

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

Felter, T. E. (727 Clara St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kubiak, G. D. (475 Maple St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01

477

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1991-10-08

478

method and approximate sparse inverses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of algebraic multigrid method and approximate sparse inverses are applied as preconditioners for large algebraic systems arising in approximation of diusion-reaction problems in 3-dimensional complex domains. Here we report the results of numerical experiments when using highly graded and locally rened meshes for problems with non-homogeneous and anisotropic coecien ts that have small features and almost singular solutions. For

Veselin Dobrev; Richard Ewing; Raytcho Lazarov; Joseph Pasciak

479

Wavelet methods in data mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data mining (knowledge discovery in data base) is comparatively new interdisciplinary field developed by joint efforts of mathematicians, statisticians, computer scientists and engineers. There are twelve important ingredients of this field along with their applications in real world problems. In this chapter, we have reviewed application of wavelet methods to data mining, particularly denoising, dimension reduction, similarity search, feature extraction and prediction. Meteorological data of Saudi Arabia and Stock market data of India are considered for illustration.

Manchanda, P.

2012-07-01

480

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

481

Method of forming pointed structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of forming an array of pointed structures comprises depositing a ferrofluid on a substrate, applying a magnetic field to the ferrofluid to generate an array of surface protrusions, and solidifying the surface protrusions to form the array of pointed structures. The pointed structures may have a tip radius ranging from approximately 10 nm to approximately 25 micron. Solidifying the surface protrusions may be carried out at a temperature ranging from approximately 10 degrees C. to approximately 30 degrees C.

Pugel, Diane E. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

482

Adsorption Desalination: A Novel Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The search for potable water for quenching global thirst remains a pressing concern throughout many regions of the world.\\u000a The demand for new and sustainable sources and the associated technologies for producing fresh water are intrinsically linked\\u000a to the solving of potable water availability and hitherto, innovative and energy efficient desalination methods seems to be\\u000a the practical solutions. Quenching global

Kim Choon Ng; Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy; Bidyut Baran Saha; Anutosh Chakraborty

483

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOEpatents

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01

484

An extension of Christopher's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made to extend the method of Christopher (1973). which gives an accurate approximation to equations of the form$to equations of the formwhere f(x) is cither a polynomial of the form$or can be approximated by such a polynomial.The approach suggested is the approximation of f(x) by the cubic, c1x + c3x , in a Chebychev sense. Having thus

A. C. SOUDACK

1974-01-01

485

Ingot slicing machine and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method for simultaneously slicing one or a multiplicity of boules of silicon into silicon wafers is described. A plurality of vertical stacks of horizontal saw blades of circular configuration are arranged in juxtaposed coaxial alignment. Each blade is characterized by having a cutting diameter slightly greater than the cutting diameter of the blade arranged immediately above, imparting a simultaneous rotation to the blades.

Kuo, Y. S. (inventor)

1984-01-01

486

Irrationality via the Hypergeometric method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe how the hypergeometric method of Thue and Siegel may be applied to questions of irrationality. As a consequence of our approach, we provide a somewhat simple proof of a classical theorem of Ljunggren to the effect that the Diophantine equation x2-2y4 = -1 has only the solutions (x,y) = (1,1) and (x,y) = (239,13) in positive integers.

Bennett, Michael A.

2008-01-01

487

Combustion method for producing fullerenes  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing fullerenes in flames is provided. Fullerenes are prepared by burning carbon-containing compounds in a flame and collecting the condensibles. The condensibles contain the desired fullerenes. Fullerene yields can be optimized and fullerene composition can be selectively varied. Fullerene yields and compositions are determined by selectively controlling flame conditions and parameters such as C/O ratio, pressure, temperature, residence time, diluent concentration and gas velocity.

Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); McKinnon, J. Thomas (Boulder, CO)

1993-01-01

488

Combustion method for producing fullerenes  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing fullerenes in flames is provided. Fullerenes are prepared by burning carbon-containing compounds in a flame and collecting the condensable. The condensable contain the desired fullerenes. Fullerene yields can be optimized and fullerene composition can be selectively varied. Fullerene yields and compositions are determined by selectively controlling flame conditions and parameters such as C/O ratio, pressure, temperature, residence time, diluent concentration and gas velocity. 4 figures.

Howard, J.B.; McKinnon, J.T.

1993-12-28

489

Introduction to Earthquake Seismology Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students will consider various aspects of earthquake seismology methods that include p-wave amplitude, location of an earthquake epicenter, determining the time of occurrence of an earthquake and the relationships between type of plate boundary and earthquake focal depth. Students will be exposed to several types of graphing program and spreadsheets to analyze and illustrate the results. They will also use seismicity maps and the WWW to reinforce the concepts presented both in the lab and in lecture.

Rueger, Bruce

490

Vehicle performance monitor and method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of monitoring the operation of a motor vehicle comprising: disposing an acceleration sensing means in a motor vehicle periodically energizing the acceleration sensing means as the motor vehicle operates to cause it sense variations in acceleration of the vehicle as it travels and to periodically generate output electrical signals generating different code signals. The code signals are indicative of time each time the acceleration sensing means is periodically energized and transmitting the code signals.

Lemelson, J.H.

1987-06-09

491

An improved inexact Newton method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For unconstrained optimization, an inexact Newton algorithm is proposed recently, in which the preconditioned conjugate gradient\\u000a method is applied to solve the Newton equations. In this paper, we improve this algorithm by efficiently using automatic differentiation\\u000a and establish a new inexact Newton algorithm. Based on the efficiency coefficient defined by Brent, a theoretical efficiency\\u000a ratio of the new algorithm to

Haibin Zhang; Naiyang Deng

2007-01-01

492

Semiclassical methods in nuclear physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

These lecture notes present an introduction to some semi-classical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics.\\u000a Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level\\u000a density fluctuations and the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for many-body problems. There are applications\\u000a to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha

David M. Brink

493

Thermal well-test method  

DOEpatents

A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

494

Physiological Feedback Method and System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and system provide physiological feedback for a patient and/or physician. At least one physiological effect experienced by a body part of a patient is measured noninvasively. A three-dimensional graphics model serving as an analogous representation of the body part is altered in accordance with the measurements. A binocular image signal representative of the three-dimensional graphics model so-altered is displayed for the patient and/or physician in a virtual reality environment.

Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt E. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

495

River Sinuosity Classification - The method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduced a new evaluation method, the classification of multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be as useful, as the sinuosity spectrum, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. Each sinuosity calculation that was performed for a given window size, has been considered as one band (one channel) of a multichannel "image". Then, the sinuosity spectrums became multichannel images are of size 1 X N where N represents the length of the actual river in pixels. Using this multichannel input unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, using ER Mapper software. The requested number of classes was set to 5. The results of the sinuosity calculations are scalars. Earlier, it was a subjective decision to divide the sinuosity values into the categories (low, medium-low, medium, medium-high, and high), while the new method provides integer numbers (1 to 5) itself. These numbers are calculated from the sinuosity values, but are not equal to them. Analysing the results of the classification, it is important to note that the method typically splits the river course into contiguous sections that belong to the same class. Boundaries of these classes can be considered as points of considerable change in the river course, because the method uses statistically relevant amount of data of the river course in a robust way to detect changes. Some specific classes or their boundaries seem to be correlated to tectonically active zones. The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

2012-04-01

496

Methods of forming hardened surfaces  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

2004-07-27

497

Method for measuring pollutant formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic methods for determining an instantaneous rate of pollutant formation in a combustion system are based on measurement of chemiluminescence intensity generated simultaneously with the formation of the pollutant. The chemiluminescent signal is generated by an analog reaction which occurs in parallel with a key step in the formation of a specific pollutant of interest. The connection between the analog reaction and the pollution reaction is such that the chemiluminescent signal indicates the local, instantaneous formation rate of the pollutant of interest.

Annen, Kurt (Inventor); Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

498

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains DM4000 and its derivatives DM4000 priA2::kan (JC18983) and DM4000 priA2::kan dnaC809 (JC19008) have been described previously {Sandler et al., 1996 post-UV) -20 0 20 40 60 80 1 0.1 0.01 Rateofsynthesis(3H) -20 0 20 40 60 80 priA2 dnaC809priA2 B

Courcelle, Justin

499

Emotions Across Cultures and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants included 46 European American, 33 Asian American, 91 Japanese, 160 Indian, and 80 Hispanic students (N = 416). Discrete emotions, as well as pleasant and unpleasant emotions, were assessed: (a) with global self-report measures,\\u000a (b) using an experience-sampling method for 1 week, and (c) by asking participants to recall their emotions from the experience\\u000a sampling week. Cultural differences emerged

Christie Napa Scollon; Ed Diener; Shigehiro Oishi; Robert Biswas-Diener

500

Research Methods for Genetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the basic concepts of genes and genetic studies to clinicians. Some of the relevant methods and issues\\u000a in genetic epidemiology studies are briefly discussed with an emphasis on single nucleotide polymorphism based association\\u000a studies which are currently the main focus of clinical and translational genetics.\\u000a \\u000a Genetics is the fundamental basis of any organism so understanding of genetics

Sadeep Shrestha; Donna K. Arnett