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1

Advancing the science of psychological assessment: The Rorschach Inkblot Method as exemplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article comments on a series of 5 articles, concerning the utility of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). Two of the articles provide extensive empirical evidence that the RIM has been standardized, normed, made reliable, and validated in ways that exemplify sound scientific principles for developing an assessment instrument. A 3rd article reports a meta-analysis, indicating that the RIM and

Irving B. Weiner

2001-01-01

2

Call for a Moratorium on the Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in Clinical and Forensic Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A call is issued for a moratorium on the use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in clinical and forensic (but not research) settings. The moratorium should last until we have determined which Rorschach scores are valid and which ones are invalid. Unfortunately, for most Rorschach scores, results from meta-analyses have been uninformative. Also, incremental validity has not been studied for

Howard N. Garb

1999-01-01

3

Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

4

Psychological structure as the governing principle of projective technique: Rorschach theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the literature on the effects of changes of stimulus characteristics upon the responses to ink-blot projective tests. In comparing the Behn-Eschenburg, Harrower, and Howard sets to the Rorschach, he states, \\

1956-01-01

5

Challenges Since Wikipedia: The Availability of Rorschach Information Online and Internet Users’ Reactions to Online Media Coverage of the Rorschach–Wikipedia Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted 2 studies to assess the availability of Rorschach information online and Internet users’ attitudes since the inkblots were published on Wikipedia. In the first study, the authors conducted 2 Google searches for Web sites containing Rorschach-related information. The top 88 results were classified by level of threat to test security; 19% posed a direct threat. The authors also

Douglas S. Schultz; James L. Loving

2012-01-01

6

A Rorschach Study of Personality Development In Identical and Fraternal Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether identical twins show greater resemblances in their general personality make-up than fraternals, seven pairs of identical and eight pairs of fraternal twins were studied using the Rorschach Inkblot test. The results of the inter-twin correlations, on the various Rorschach categories indicated clearly striking similarity or resemblance in identical twins, but no similarity in the case of fraternal

Abdul Basit

1972-01-01

7

Genetic Correlates and Sex Differences in Holtzman Inkblot Technique Responses of Twins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) responses of 36 same sex and 29 opposite sex college student twin pairs are analyzed. The results are discussed in terms of comparable genetic determination studies with Rorschach responses and the necessity for separate male and female norms on several HIT score response scales. (Author/DEP)

Rice, David G.; And Others

1976-01-01

8

Psychophysiological reactions to the response phase of the rorschach and 16PF.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, we investigated whether there was a differential psychophysiological response during the beginning, middle, and end of the administration of a performance-based instrument (Rorschach Inkblot Method, RIM; Exner, 2003) versus a self-report measure of personality (Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, 5th ed. [16PF]; Cattell, Cattell, & Cattell, 1993). Results indicate that adult participants (n = 15) experienced greater electrodermal activity during the administration of the RIM as compared to the 16PF. Effect sizes for the differences between the instruments were all very large (Cohen's d = 1.71 at beginning, d = 1.1 at middle, and d = .98 at end). PMID:19672755

Momenian-Schneider, Sharon H; Brabender, Virginia M; Nath, Sanjay R

2009-09-01

9

Changes in Rorschach Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate recent changes in Rorschach instruction, a double postcard questionnaire was distributed to all APA-approved doctoral programs in clinical psychology asking for information about the number and type of Rorschach courses. The data were compared with 1961 and 1966 surveys. A trend toward fewer Rorschach courses per university and a decrease in courses specifically on the Rorschach is evident.

Linda Biederman; George Cerbus

1971-01-01

10

Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. Methods In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. Results The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. Conclusion The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children.

Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

2013-01-01

11

B.F. Skinner and the auditory inkblot: The rise and fall of the verbal summator as a projective technique.  

PubMed

Behaviorist B.F. Skinner is not typically associated with the fields of personality assessment or projective testing. However, early in his career Skinner developed an instrument he named the verbal summator, which, at one point, he referred to as a device for "snaring out complexes," much like an auditory analogue of the Rorschach inkblots. Skinner's interest in the projective potential of his technique was relatively short lived, but whereas he used the verbal summator to generate experimental data for his theory of verbal behavior, several other clinicians and researchers exploited this potential and adapted the verbal summator technique for both research and applied purposes. The idea of an auditory inkblot struck many as a useful innovation, and the verbal summator spawned the tautophone test, the auditory apperception test, and the Azzageddi test, among others. This article traces the origin, development, and eventual demise of the verbal summator as an auditory projective technique. PMID:14735913

Rutherford, Alexandra

2003-11-01

12

Age, Personality, and the Holtzman Inkblot Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated age changes and differences in personality as measured by the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT). Concluded that the HIT measures perceptual-cognitive variables that are moderately stable in adulthood. (Author/ABB)

Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.

1986-01-01

13

Some Rorschach Data Concerning Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The Rorschachs of 59 effected suicides and 31 attempted suicides, all of which were collected within a period of 60 days prior to the critical event were categorized in terms of method used, and subjected to a computer scan to determine if any constellation of variables occurred with a greater frequency than in the protocols of three control groups,

JOHN E. EXNER; Joyce Wylie

1977-01-01

14

The Rorschach in Forensic Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rorschach is one of the most widely used, openly accepted, and frequently requested tests in forensic psychology practice (Piotrowski, 1996; Meloy, 1991; Weiner, Exner, & Sciara, 1996). Well-trained psychologists with a sophisticated understanding of the individual, psychological constructs, base rates, and conditional probabilities, derive information from the Rorschach beyond what is available from diagnosis, self-report, and interview. The Rorschach

Carl B. Gacono; F. Barton Evans III; Donald J. Viglione

2002-01-01

15

Toward a Resolution of the Rorschach Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments are made about the articles comprising the first round of the Special Series on the Rorschach. G. Stricker and J. R. Gold (1999) and D. J. Viglione (1999) praised the Rorschach, but they consistently failed to cite negative findings. R. M. Dawes (1999) obtained results that provide modest support for the Rorschach, but one of his data sets is

Howard N. Garb; James M. Wood; M. Teresa Nezworski; William M. Grove; William J. Stejskal

2001-01-01

16

A Rorschach journey with Bruno Klopfer: clinical application and teaching.  

PubMed

This article is a draft of a speech given as the recipient of the 2008 Bruno Klopfer Memorial award. I review some important details of the life of Bruno Klopfer, his contributions to the scoring and interpretation of the Rorschach (Exner, 2003), and his emphasis on the use of phenomenology in the process. I then focused on Klopfer's flexible scoring method and his use of Testing of the Limits techniques on the Rorschach, emphasizing their application to therapeutic and collaborative assessment. I illustrate my own application of Testing of the Limits using case vignettes. Finally, I present selected parts of two 1959 radio interviews of Bruno Klopfer. PMID:18925493

Handler, Leonard

2008-11-01

17

Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

Smith, Jane E.; And Others

1991-01-01

18

Self concepts and Rorschach signs of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of this study was that depression is related to the discrepancy between the concept of self and the concept of the ideal self. The Rorschach records of 28 subjects with high discrepancy scores on the Index of Adjustment and Values were compared with the records of 28 low scorers. Of the 6 Rorschach factors chosen as indicators of

Robert E. Bills

1954-01-01

19

Theoretical Foundations of Rorschach by Piotrowski.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writer has tried to lift the veil of mystery from the Rorschach Cards by uncovering in simple form the ten basic principles of Zygmunt Protrowski which can be considered the foundation stones of Rorschach; they are composed of psycho-justifications as well as meaningful administrative procedures allowing the reader broader understanding of…

Daly, William C.

2005-01-01

20

Criterion-Based Training for Rorschach Scoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the effects of structured training on the development of Rorschach coding skills of graduate trainees and broadens the empirical base regarding student acquisition of these coding skills. A course outline for criterion based training in Rorschach scoring is reviewed. A training approach will be described that emphasizes a progressive \\

Mark J. Hilsenroth; Jocelyn W. Charnas; Jennifer Zodan; David L. Streiner

2007-01-01

21

Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing  

PubMed Central

Background The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls. Methods Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls. Results The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C) > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups. Conclusion The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder.

Kimura, Hiromi; Osaki, Akemi; Kawashima, Rui; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Suzuki, Katsuji; Asakura, Satoshi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kitaichi, Yuji; Masui, Takuya; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Kako, Yuki; Abekawa, Tomohiro; Kusumi, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Hiroyoshi; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa

2013-01-01

22

The Rorschach in Brazilian Children: Normative Data From a 9- to 11YearOld Nonpatient Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the normative patterns of children’s responses to the Rorschach. A total of 180 Brazilian children between 9–11 years were selected for the study, presenting indicators of typical development and equally distributed in terms of gender, age, and school origin. Participants were assessed individually, using a child development questionnaire, the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test, and the Rorschach Method

Renata Loureiro Raspantini; Suélen Fernandes; Sonia Regina Pasian

2011-01-01

23

Constructivism and the projective assessment of meaning in Rorschach administration.  

PubMed

Constructivist perspectives on the Rorschach are outlined. I discuss ways in which constructivism complements and adds to existing Rorschach methodologies. It is suggested hat the constructivist emphasis on personally and socially constructed meanings is very consistent with many of the ways the Rorschach has been used and resonates with recent emphases on the Rorschach as a representational task. Furthermore, constructivist perspectives on Rorschach also provide an opportunity to supplement Exner's (1993, 1995) efforts to standardize and norm the Rorschach in a way that maintains the instrument's historic and admirable attention to relational elements of assessment and psychotherapy. I present a variety of meaning-based techniques for conducting Rorschach assessment, incorporating both the constructivist and social constructionist perspective. PMID:11562099

Raskin, J D

2001-08-01

24

On the Science of Rorschach Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe problems in an article by Wood, Nezworski, Stejskal, Garven, and West (1999b). These include (a) claims that researchers found or said things they did not, (b) an assertion that my data did not support the incremental validity of the Rorschach over the MMPI-2 when the opposite was true, (c) complications with their recommended in- cremental validity procedures, (d)

Gregory J. Meyer

2000-01-01

25

The Influence of Color on Emotions in the Holtzman Inkblot Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the influence of chromatic and achromatic color on emotions in the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) was tested empirically. Samples of normals (n = 30), patients with neurotic disorders (n = 30), borderline patients (n = 30), and both acute (n = 25) and chronic schizophrenics (n = 25) were studied with the HIT. A computerized investigation of

Falk Leichsenring

2004-01-01

26

A Five-Factor Theory Perspective on the Rorschach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the constructs the Rorschach is used to assess are related to personality traits included in the Five-Factor Model, but studies to date have not shown convergence between Rorschach and self-report measures of these traits. This poses a problem for the Rorschach, because recent research on the universality, stability, heritability, and consensual validity of traits demonstrate that self-report measures

Robert R. McCrae

2005-01-01

27

Narcissism in the Rorschach Revisited: Some Reflections on Empirical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether the Rorschach test was able to identify pathological expressions of narcissism was studied in 91 patients with Axis II mental disorder. Results suggest that the Rorschach can differentiate narcissistic personality disorder patients from a nonclinical sample and a sample from Cluster A ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

1997-01-01

28

Rorschach Markers in Euthymic Manic-Depressive Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar manic-depressive patients in remission are considered normal by phenomenological criteria but many psychotherapists have noted specific personality markers. The Rorschach test was chosen to study such personality markers since it may provide rich information at a psychological level distant from overt behavior and symptoms. 35 bipolar manic-depressives in a euthymic state were tested with the Rorschach Projective Technique. The

B. Mandel; U. Last; R. H. Belmaker; M. Rosenbaum

1984-01-01

29

Sexual disturbances, Rorschach sexual responses, and mediating factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researchers developed and demonstrated reliability for a list of Rorschach sexual responses. Sexual offenders (n = 40) and child abusers (« = 40) took the Rorschach to investigate differences in these responses. These adult male subjects were randomly assigned to either a permissive or neutral instructional set, and hypothesized differences between groups were found to exist only within the

Leslie Morgan; Donald J. Viglione

1992-01-01

30

Extraversion in Differential Psychology and Experience Balance in the Rorschach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opinion of Rorschach experts through the years on the link between extraversion (E) and experience balance (EB) have ranged from considering the two as virtually identical to denying any relationship between them. Results of empirical studies have been no less divergent: the studies bearing on the observations made by Rorschach on the psychological correlates of EB seem to have

Gregorio E. H. del Pilar

2005-01-01

31

Revising the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index to Accommodate Recent Recommendations about Improving Rorschach Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We used multiple regression to calculate a new Ego Impairment Index (EII-3). The aim was to incorporate changes in the component variables and distribution of the number of responses as found in the new Rorschach Performance Assessment System, while sustaining the validity and reliability of previous EIIs. The EII-3 formula was derived from a…

Viglione, Donald J.; Perry, William; Giromini, Luciano; Meyer, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

32

Under Skinner's skin: gauging a behaviorist from his Rorschach protocol.  

PubMed

Behaviorism and psychodynamic psychology have been regarded as polar opposites. Contrary to popular belief, B. F. Skinner took an interest in Freud and many of his concepts, and agreed to be tested with the Rorschach method and the Thematic Apperception Test by Roe in her study of scientists (Roe, 1953 ). We looked for signs of creativity defined as complex responses, an intriguing emotional tone, novelty, and liveliness. Skinner displayed an enormous number of responses characterized by simplicity, an intellectualized tone, a driven quality rather than creative complexity, and a sense of strained social relationships and lack of liveliness. The findings are in line with Roe's study of other scientists. Skinner's intellectual productivity and high ambition fits well with the commanding figure history describes. PMID:22731841

Grønnerød, Cato; Overskeid, Geir; Hartmann, Ellen

2012-06-25

33

Obesity, Level of Aspiration, and Rorschach and TAT Measures of Oral Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese Israelis and controls were administered the Rorschach, TAT, and a level-of-aspiration task. The obese Ss scored higher on oral dependence than the control Ss on both the Rorschach (p = .01) and TAT (p = .02). There were no differences on either test for oral sadism, although the Rorschach subcategories of overwhelming figures and burdens and TAT themes of

Joseph Masling; Lillie Rabie; S. H. Blondheim

1967-01-01

34

Rorschach measures of posttraumatic stress in Persian Gulf War veterans.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of the Rorschach in detecting acute posttraumatic stress (PTS) in Persian Gulf War veterans was investigated. Subjects were 30 U.S. Marine Reservists who reported experiencing symptoms of PTS after 3 months of active duty in Operation Desert Storm. Subjects were administered the Rorschach and MMPI-2 soon after their return from the Persian Gulf War. Results showed acute distress, a vulnerable capacity for coping and control, and a tendency to be overwhelmed by internal and external stimulation. Selected Rorschach variables were significantly related in a conceptually valid manner to MMPI-2 scales associated with defensiveness, coping ability, and PTS. These findings are discussed in relation to the assessment, understanding, and treatment of PTS symptomatology and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:7760252

Sloan, P; Arsenault, L; Hilsenroth, M; Harvill, L; Handler, L

1995-06-01

35

Narcissism in the Rorschach Revisited: Some Reflections on Empirical Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the extent to which the Rorschach was able to identify accurately pathological expressions of narcissism according to the methodological recommendations offered by T. Nezworski and J. Wood (1995). Ninety-one patients who were found to meet DSM–IV criteria for an Axis II disorder (Cluster A personality disorders = 10; antisocial = 20, borderline = 25, histrionic = 5,

Mark J. Hilsenroth; J. Christopher Fowler; Justin R. Padawer; Leonard Handler

1997-01-01

36

Rorschach Protocols From Children and Adolescents With Asperger's Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rorschach protocols from 24 boys with Asperger's Disorder matched by age to 24 boys with other emotional or behavioral disorders (the contrast group) were com- pared to each other and to Exner's (1995) normative data. Eight variables based on Di- agnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(4th ed. (DSM-IV); American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and a review of the literature

Margot Holaday; Jay Moak; Molly A. Shipley

2001-01-01

37

Rorschach Responses in Borderline Personality Disorder with Alcohol Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze differences in Rorschach responses between two groups of alcoholics, one of which was diagnosed Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and the other Mixed Personality Disorder (MXPD). Forty-three male alcohol dependent inpatients participated in the study. The subjects were diagnosed by two independent clinical psychologists and divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted

Anne Helene Skinstad; Kari Troland; Jenny K. Mortensen

1999-01-01

38

External and internal stimulus factors in Rorschach performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the Rorschach Cards were modified, with one detail being selected from each blot. These were administered to the subjects in 3 consecutive series, yielding 30 responses from each of the 40 Ss. Among the findings was the fact that the Ss in the M > Sum C group \\

James Bieri; Edward Blacker

1956-01-01

39

Performance of Personality Assessment Inventory and Rorschach Indices of Schizophrenia in a Public Psychiatric Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the performance of indices of schizophrenia from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI-SCZ; L. C. Morey, 1991) and Rorschach (Rorschach SCZI; J. E. Exner, 1993) in a heterogeneous sample of 24 inpatients at a public psychiatric hospital in the southeastern United States. Results indicated modest agreement between the PAI-SCZ and Rorschach SCZI. More important, the PAI-SCZ but

E. David Klonsky

2004-01-01

40

Introduction to the Final Special Section in the Special Series on the Utility of the Rorschach for Clinical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Special Series was organized to clarify the merits of the Rorschach for clinical assessment. Except for a neutral meta-analytic review, articles were solicited from scholars known to have opposing views on the Rorschach. The authors participated in a structured, sequential, evidence-based dialogue that focused on strengths and limitations when using the Rorschach for applied purposes. The debate has taken

Gregory J. Meyer

2001-01-01

41

Rorschach Measures of Aggression: A Laboratory-Based Validity Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's (2003) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's (1992) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35

Aaron J. Kivisto; Scott A. Swan

2012-01-01

42

The Relationship Between Texture Responses on the Rorschach and Adult Attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between texture responses (T) on the Rorschach and adult attachment in the Japanese population. 47 Japanese undergraduate and graduate students (mean age = 20.16, SD = 1.87) completed a self-report adult attachment scale as well as the Rorschach. An ANOVA revealed that T = 1 participants were attached more securely than were other groups. T >

Kazunori Iwasa; Toshiki Ogawa

2010-01-01

43

SEXUAL ABUSE IN EARLY VERSUS LATE CHILDHOOD: DIFFERING PATTERNS OF PATHOLOGY AS REVEALED ON THE RORSCHACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the Rorschach protocols of three groups of girls; 37 sexually abused before their ninth birthday; 43 sexually abused after their ninth birthday; and a control group of 72 patients with no history of abuse. Five Rorschach variables were found to reliably differentiate early from late-abuse-onset groups. The pattern of group differences revealed that over half of

Olivia Ann Zivney; Michael R. Nash; Timothy L. Hulsey

1988-01-01

44

The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

2007-01-01

45

A Neuropsychological Approach to the Rorschach in Patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two neuropsychological approaches to using the Rorschach test with patients diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT). The first approach examined Rorschach variables from the Comprehensive System (CS) within the context of the cardinal neuropsychological deficits. The second approach illustrated a \\

William Perry; Eric Potterat; Lisa Auslander; Edith Kaplan; Dilip Jeste

1996-01-01

46

Teaching the Rorschach and learning psychodiagnostic testing: a commentary on Hilsenroth and Handler (1995).  

PubMed

A recent report by Hilsenroth and Handler (1995) surveyed graduate students' impressions of their predoctoral-level training on the Rorschach method. My commentary underscores two central points from their article: (a) the problem of program specialization in a crowded curriculum, and (b) students' indication of a need for more secure grounding in personality theory and clinical diagnosis. The focus of these remarks concerns current trends in clinical psychology education, their implications for training in psychological assessment, establishing a reasonable upper limit of solid competence for achieving a journeyman level of ability, and some considerations about a suitable role for continuing education workshops. A sharp distinction between filing in gaps in knowledge and compensating for fundamental deficiencies is emphasized in this context. PMID:8869576

Silverstein, M L

1996-04-01

47

Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still the dominant method of pain treatment in Japan. The current study aimed to evaluate comprehensive psychological functions and processes in Japanese chronic pain patients. Methods The Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to 49 in-patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Major variables and frequencies from the test were then compared to normative data from non-patient Japanese adults by way of the t-test and chi-square test. Results Patients exhibited high levels of emotional distress with a sense of helplessness with regard to situational stress, confusion, and ambivalent feelings. These emotions were managed by the patients in an inappropriate manner. Cognitive functions resulted in moderate dysfunction in all stages. Information processing tended to focus upon minute features in an inflexible manner. Mediational dysfunction was likely to occur with unstable affective conditions. Ideation was marked by pessimistic and less effective thinking. Since patients exhibited negative self-perception, their interpersonal relationship skills tended to be ineffective. Originally, our patients displayed average psychological resources for control, stress tolerance, and social skills for interpersonal relationships. However, patient coping styles were either situation- or emotion-dependent, and patients were more likely to exhibit emotional instability influenced by external stimuli, resulting in increased vulnerability to pain. Conclusions Data gathered from the Rorschach test suggested psychological approaches to support chronic pain patients that are likely to be highly beneficial, and we thus recommend their incorporation into the course of current pain treatments.

2010-01-01

48

Évolution des boulimiques en psychothérapie dans le test de Rorschach ? ? Recherche effectuée dans le cadre de l'Unité de Traitement des Troubles des Conduites Alimentaires. Responsable : Dr B. Remy. (CSMRP-MGEN, 83, rue Lauriston, 75116 Paris, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This purpose of this study is to evaluate the development of female bulimic patients during their treatment and in particular during the psychotherapy. The method of evaluation takes into account the side effects associated with eating disorders with regard to self image and object relations. It consists in comparing the results of the Rorschach test at the beginning (t1) and

Pierre Gaudriault; Carole Guilbaud

2005-01-01

49

The Rorschach test in clinical diagnosis: a critical review, with a backward look at Garfield (1947).  

PubMed

The present article comments on a classic study by Garfield (1947) then reviews research on the Rorschach and psychiatric diagnoses. Despite a few positive findings, the Rorschach has demonstrated little validity as a diagnostic tool. Deviant verbalizations and bad form on the Rorschach, and indices based on these variables, are related to Schizophrenia and perhaps to Bipolar Disorder and Schizotypal Personality Disorder. Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder also seem to give an above-average number of deviant verbalizations. Otherwise the Rorschach has not shown a well-demonstrated relationship to these disorders or to Major Depressive Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders other than PTSD, Dissociative Identity Disorder, Dependent, Narcissistic, or Antisocial Personality Disorders, Conduct Disorder, or psychopathy. PMID:10726675

Wood, J M; Lilienfeld, S O; Garb, H N; Nezworski, M T

2000-03-01

50

A Rorschach Investigation of Incarcerated Female Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R ? 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures

Ted Cunliffe; Carl B. Gacono

2005-01-01

51

Appraisal of suicidal risk among adolescents and young adults through the Rorschach test.  

PubMed

The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group with suicidal ideation (n = 30), a group with parasuicidal behavior (n = 30), a group with near-lethal suicide attempts (n = 26), and a control group (n = 30). Responses to the Rorschach test yielded 6 potential indicators of suicidal behavior (scored according to Exner's Comprehensive System and the Suicidal Index for Adolescents; Silberg & Armstrong, 1992 ). Rorschach scores including at least 4 of these 6 indicators selected 69% of the people who had committed serious suicide attempts. The Rorschach Suicidal Index reached an acceptable reliability and was related to other criteria of suicide risk, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and Linehan Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL-I; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983). Moreover, the Rorschach Suicidal Index showed incremental validity over the BDI and the RFL-I to predict suicidal behavior. A path analysis additionally showed that low social support was an important mediator between the Rorschach Suicidal Index and the number of suicide attempts committed by participants. PMID:21859292

Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Grygielski, Micha?

52

Personality dimensions reflected by the Rorschach and the 16PF.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships between Rorschach variables and the 16PF in a sample of 62 university students. Good form level was associated with ego strength, and Popular responses were associated inversely with a scale of rebelliousness. The results did not support some hypotheses, for example, that the Difference score, inanimate movement, and diffuse shading would correlate with 16PF indicators of good coping. On the contrary, the Difference score was associated with a scale that suggests anxiety. Further examination revealed that EA, M, and M+ also were associated with 16PF scales of guilt and anxiety. FC+, T, and to a lesser extent S, were associated with indications of good, relatively anxiety-free functioning. PMID:1939719

Greenwald, D F

1991-09-01

53

An exploratory study of agreement between therapists' goals and patients' problems revealed by the rorschach.  

PubMed

This study describes and classifies goals as formulated by psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists, and examines the agreement between the therapists' goals and the patients' problems revealed by the Rorschach. One hundred thirty treatment plans were rated with regard to content, and five of the goal categories were compared to corresponding Rorschach clusters. Personality differences were examined between patients with low agreement between the therapists' goals and patients' problems and those with relatively high agreement. Patients with low agreement were characterized by a high degree of problem complexity and psychopathology, especially in thinking. They also showed signs of psychological defenses that might have obstructed the communication of their psychological problems to the therapists. The results suggest that the Rorschach may provide information about aspects of patients' psychological functioning which they are not able to communicate or which are not paid attention to by the therapists. PMID:22239697

Bihlar, B; Carlsson, A M

2000-02-01

54

The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality.  

PubMed

In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables. PMID:11393464

Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R

2001-04-01

55

The Relevance of the Rorschach and Patient–Examiner Relationship in Treatment Planning and Outcome Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this era of evidence-based mental health care, traditional forms of depth-oriented psychotherapy and psychological assessment have been marginalized in graduate training in clinical psychology. As a counterpoint, this article presents the evaluation and treatment of an adolescent client, along with an outcome assessment, and illustrates ways that aspects of traditional psychological testing, including the Rorschach (Exner, 1986) and the

Anthony D. Bram

2010-01-01

56

Selflessness in Anorexia Nervosa as Reflected in the Rorschach Comprehensive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the expression of selflessness – the tendency to ignore one’s own needs and serve others’ needs – in Rorschach protocols of women suffering from anorexia nervosa. The protocols of 35 women suffering from anorexia nervosa were compared to 30 protocols of a psychiatric comparison group. A multivariate analysis of variance over five variables (AG, PER, PHR, COP,

Gili Curiel-Levy; Laura Canetti; Esti Galili-Weisstub; Myrna Milun; Eitan Gur; Eytan Bachar

2012-01-01

57

Personality Differences on the Rorschach of Dissociative Identity Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Psychotic Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are often diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and misdiagnosed with psychotic illnesses. This study is designed to determine whether the Rorschach protocols of 67 patients with DID differ from those of 40 patients with BPD and 43 patients with psychotic disorder (PSD) in variables reflecting capacity for working alliance, complexity of experience, and

Bethany L. Brand; Judith G. Armstrong; Richard J. Loewenstein; Scot W. McNary

2009-01-01

58

Rorschach variables as indicators of depression in an inpatient adolescent population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the validity of the results of subject's performance on the MMPI - A, BDI I & II, SCL-90, Hopkin's behavior rating scale and the Rorschach. Scores on the MMPI-A, Hopkin's depression and interpersonal sensitivity questions, and treatment team diagnosis determined group membership or where subjects fell on a continuum of depressive symptomatology. Subjects who did not elevate

Gilian N Goldman

2001-01-01

59

Assessing reliability: Critical corrections for a critical examination of the Rorschach Comprehensive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood, Nezworski, and Stejskal (1996a, 1996b) argued that the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) lacked many essential pieces of reliability data and that the available evidence indicated that scoring reliability may be little better than chance. Contrary to their assertions, the author suggests why rater agreement should focus on responses rather than summary scores, how field reliability moves away from testing

Gregory J. Meyer

1997-01-01

60

Appraisal of Suicidal Risk Among Adolescents and Young Adults Through the Rorschach Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group

Sybilla Blasczyk-Schiep; Miguel Kazén; Julius Kuhl; Micha? Grygielski

2011-01-01

61

Rorschach variables and Big Five scales as predictors of military training completion: a replication study of the selection of candidates to the naval special forces in Norway.  

PubMed

We tested 140 male candidates at the Naval Special Forces (NFS) of Norway on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Norwegian version of the Big Five personality dimensions (Engvik & Føllesdal, 2005). Rorschach variables significantly correlated with training completion (effect sizes of r(e) = .14-.25), whereas none of the Big Five factors or facets did. The combination of Rorschach and Big Five variables framed in the illusory mental health concept provided strong predictive ability. Testing under stress produced slightly higher predictive validity coefficients between the Rorschach variables and pass-fail than under calm testing. The findings support the results of Hartmann, Sunde, Kristensen, and Martinussen (2003), indicating that Rorschach variables and indications of good mental health may be valid predictors of NFS training. PMID:19365766

Hartmann, Ellen; Grønnerød, Cato

2009-05-01

62

Concepts of development and the Rorschach: the contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner in historical context.  

PubMed

The Rorschach Test has been approached from 3 fundamentally different developmental perspectives: those growing out of the empiricist tradition, psychoanalysis, and the developmental psychologies of Piaget and Werner. In this article, I highlight the distinctive characteristics of each perspective, explore how they have shaped approaches to Rorschach theory and practice, and examine the contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner in this context. PMID:19085279

Leichtman, Martin

2009-01-01

63

Rorschach personality predictors of weight loss with behavior modification in obesity treatment.  

PubMed

Weight loss outcome for 49 obese patients after 6 months treatment in a behavior modification program was related to Rorschach personality characteristics according to the Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003), also including the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale (Bornstein, 1996; Masling & Rabie, 1967). Less weight loss was predicted by signs of perceptual and cognitive distortions indicated by the Schizophrenia Index. More weight loss was predicted by Food Contents, suggesting a food preoccupation and possibly a benign dependency orientation. Patients with a focus on food and dependent needs could benefit above all from the treatment program implying learning how to handle food and eating in a supportive setting, as evidenced by more weight loss. Distortions in perception and cognition could constitute more profound difficulties in weight reduction important to recognize in obesity treatment. PMID:15548466

Elfhag, Kristina; Rossner, Stephan; Lindgren, Thomas; Andersson, Ingalena; Carlsson, Anna Maria

2004-12-01

64

Rorschach measures of cognition relate to everyday and social functioning in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the Rorschach, in explaining functional and social skills capacity in 72 middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age = 51.2 years). Participants responded to the Rorschach administered with the R-Optimized administration instructions and scored with the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. Relationships with neuropsychological performance and psychopathology were also explored. Psychological complexity, which refers to a person's cognitive capacity for problem solving and organizing his or her surroundings, was correlated with functional capacity (r = .30) and social skills capacity (r = .34). Healthy interpersonal representations were correlated with positive social skills (rs = .24-.28). In multiple regression models, psychological complexity accounted for significant variation in functional (? = .23, p = .02) and social skills capacity (? = .35, p < .01) after controlling for neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology. These data suggest that psychological complexity plays a significant role in the functional limitations seen in schizophrenia, above and beyond the contributions of neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms. Support was also found for the impact of healthy object relations functioning with social functioning. Clinical implications include novel information for future development of cognitive remediation treatment strategies based on a patient's developmental level of psychological capacity and healthy interpersonal schemas. PMID:23148650

Moore, Raeanne C; Viglione, Donald J; Rosenfarb, Irwin S; Patterson, Thomas L; Mausbach, Brent T

2012-11-12

65

Psychodiagnostic Testing in Forensic Psychology: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article comments on five articles in a series designed to provide some current guidelines concerning the forensic applicability of five widely used psychological tests: the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). The author's observations and recommendations make a valuable

Irving B. Weiner

2002-01-01

66

PROTECTING THE INTEGRITY OF RORSCHACH EXPERT WITNESSES A Reply to Grove and Barden (1999) Re: The Admissibility of Testimony Under Daubert\\/Kumho Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rorschach Comprehensive System has been considered by W. M. Grove and R. C. Barden (1999) as inadmissible for expert psychological testimony according to the guidelines from the Daubert (1993), Joiner (1997), and Kumho (1999) decisions. This article refutes W. M. Grove and R. C. Barden's conclusions, arguing that the Rorschach Comprehensive System is (a) testable, (b) valid and reliable,

Barry Ritzler; Robert Erard; Gary Pettigrew

2002-01-01

67

Rorschach measures of posttraumatic stress in Persian Gulf War veterans: a three-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The long-term psychological effects of war-related stress were assessed with the Rorschach 3 years after the Persian Gulf War. Rorschach data are presented for 30 U.S. Marine reservists at a 3-year follow-up who reported experiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) initially after Operation Desert Storm (ODS), and for 25 Marine reservist controls who did not participate in ODS. Results showed significant differences over time between the initial evaluation data and follow-up, and between initial evaluation and the control group on selected Rorschach variables associated with coping ability and PTS. Scores associated with acute distress, capacity for coping and control, and feeling overwhelmed all were found to significantly decrease over time. These findings are discussed in relation to the assessment and understanding of PTS symptomatology over time. PMID:8576835

Sloan, P; Arsenault, L; Hilsenroth, M; Handler, L; Harvill, L

1996-02-01

68

Response frequency and Exner's active-passive ratio as Rorschach indicators of flexibility.  

PubMed

Among 75 college students, response frequency from the Rorschach correlated significantly at .21 with Alternate Uses and at .20 with Match Problems (measures of divergent thinking), but not significantly (r = .07) with the Questionnaire (a self-report measure of flexibility) from the Test of Behavioral Rigidity. Contrary to hypothesis, the Active-Passive Movement Ratio from the Comprehensive System did not correlate significantly with any of these tests (r = .04-.11). Whereas Response Frequency can be seen as another reflection of ideational fluency or productivity, as long has been speculated, the conceptual and empirical links between flexibility and the ratio of active to passive movement are dubious. PMID:21162456

McCloskey, Lawrence

2010-10-01

69

Failure of Rorschach-Comprehensive-System-Based Testimony to Be Admissible Under the Daubert-Joiner-Kumho Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive System for the Rorschach (RCS) is currently the subject of intense scientific criticism. The normative data for many RCS scores are seriously in error and tend to make normal individuals appear maladjusted. Reliability is inadequate for many RCS scores, and validity for the great majority of RCS scores has not been adequately demonstrated. In addition, a substantial number

William M. Grove; R. Christopher Barden; Howard N. Garb; Scott O. Lilienfeld

2002-01-01

70

The use of the Harrower-Erickson Multiple Choice Rorschach Test with a selected group of women in military service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since there was no correspondence between the scores made on the Multiple Choice Rorschach (MCR) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), nor' any observed behavior which warranted a diagnosis of maladjustment such as the extreme scores made on the test would indicate, it must be concluded that the MCR differentiates something other than it purports to do and that

M. C. Winfield

1946-01-01

71

Food Intake With an Antiobesity Drug (Sibutramine) Versus Placebo and Rorschach Data: A Crossover Within-Subjects Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We related the effect of the satiety enhancing drug sibutramine (Meridia®, Reductil®) on food intake to Rorschach Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991, 1993) personality factors. A pla- cebo-controlled crossover, within-subjects design (n = 36) was used. Food intake after 2 weeks in the sibutramine and placebo conditions was assessed with a test meal using the VIKTOR (Cabmek, Stockholm, Sweden) setup, a

Kristina Elfhag; Britta Barkeling; Anna Maria Carlsson; Thomas Lindgren; Stephan Rossner

2004-01-01

72

A Rorschach investigation of incarcerated female offenders with antisocial personality disorder.  

PubMed

Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style. PMID:16260481

Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B

2005-10-01

73

Rorschach Variables and Dysfunctional Attitudes as Measures of Depressive Vulnerability: A 9Year Follow-Up Study of Individuals With Different Histories of Major Depressive Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up.

Ellen Hartmann; Marianne Halvorsen; Catharina E. A. Wang

2012-01-01

74

Dissociative trance disorder: clinical and Rorschach findings in ten persons reporting demon possession and treated by exorcism.  

PubMed

Although dissociative trance disorders, especially possession disorder, are probably more common than is usually though, precise clinical data are lacking. Ten persons undergoing exorcisms for devil trance possession state were studied with the Dissociative Disorders Diagnostic Schedule and the Rorschach test. These persons had many traits in common with dissociative identity disorder patients. They were overwhelmed by paranormal experiences. Despite claiming possession by a demon, most of them managed to maintain normal social functioning. Rorschach findings showed that these persons had a complex personality organization: Some of them displayed a tendency to oversimplify stimulus perception whereas others seemed more committed to psychological complexity. Most had severe impairment of reality testing, and 6 of the participants had an extratensive coping stile. In this group of persons reporting demon possession, dissociative trance disorder seems to be a distinct clinical manifestation of a dissociative continuum, sharing some features with dissociative identity disorder. PMID:8667145

Ferracuti, S; Sacco, R; Lazzari, R

1996-06-01

75

Self-Reported Attachment Patterns and Rorschach-Related Scores of Ego Boundary, Defensive Processes, and Thinking Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we addressed associations between self-reported attachment scales (anxiety and avoidance) and Rorschach (1921\\/1942) indexes indicating ego-boundary perception (barrier and penetration), use of projective identification, devaluation and splitting defenses, and Comprehensive System (Exner, 2005) scores that represent boundary blurring (incongruous and fabulized combinations). In this study, we extended the sample and findings described by Berant, Mikulincer, Shaver, and

Ety Berant; Yaarit Wald

2009-01-01

76

Rorschach variables and dysfunctional attitudes as measures of depressive vulnerability: a 9-year follow-up study of individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes.  

PubMed

Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003 ) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up. At T2, Rorschach markers of depressive vulnerability and scars were identified (i.e., WSum6, related to illogical thinking; X+%, related to conventional perception and social adjustment; X-%, linked to erroneous judgments; MQ-, associated with impaired social relations; and MOR). Test-retest analyses displayed significant temporal stability in Rorschach variables, with r ranging from .34 to .67 and in the DAS, r = .42. Our findings highlight MDE as a recurrent and serious disorder, number of MDEs as a risk factor for future depressions, and Rorschach variables as markers of depressive vulnerability and scars. PMID:22906063

Hartmann, Ellen; Halvorsen, Marianne; Wang, Catharina E A

2012-08-20

77

Assessment of Rorschach dependency measures in female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Dependency Index (DI; Hilsenroth & Bornstein, 2002) and the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale (ROD; Masling, Rabie, & Blondheim, 1967) were examined to determine if these implicit measures of dependency predict observable attachment-seeking behavior in 66 female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Results indicate that both scales produce excellent reliability estimates. The DI and ROD yield adequate base rates, and the distributions of scores approximate normal distributions. The DI was predictive of nursing staff observation of positive attachment/treatment compliance (r = .28, p = .02) but not excessive isolation. By contrast, the ROD predicted positive attachment/treatment compliance (r = .38, p = .002) and excessive isolation (r = -.35, p = .004). Texture responses predicted excessive isolation (r = -.25, p = .05). Discriminant validity was supported when neither dependency measure predicted hostile interactions or self-destructive behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the ROD demonstrated incremental validity over the DI and select Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) variables associated with dependency. PMID:16171415

Fowler, J Christopher; Brunnschweiler, Benjamin; Swales, Stephanie; Brock, Johanna

2005-10-01

78

Exploring the inner world of self-mutilating borderline patients: a Rorschach investigation.  

PubMed

Psychiatric patients who engage in self-destructive behavior by cutting, burning, or abrading their skin are currently one of the most difficult-to-treat groups in both inpatient and outpatient settings. The complexities of treating these patients, the risk factors associated with this symptom, and the rise in the prevalence of self-mutilation in America's adolescents and young adults provided the impetus for the current study. This article explores aspects of aggression, dependency, object relations, defensive structure, and psychic boundary integrity that may contribute to the genesis and maintenance of self-mutilation. Rorschach protocols from 90 borderline personality-disordered inpatients (48 self-mutilators and 42 non-self-mutilators) were scored using five psychoanalytic content scales. Results indicate that self-mutilating patients exhibit greater incidence of primary process aggression, severe boundary disturbance, pathological object representations, defensive idealization, devaluation, and splitting than did a matched group of non-self-mutilating borderline patients. Clinical theory and technical recommendations are considered in light of the current empirical findings. PMID:10998813

Fowler, J C; Hilsenroth, M J; Nolan, E

2000-01-01

79

Extending the Rorschach Trauma Content Index and Aggression Indexes to Dream Narratives of Children Exposed to Enduring Violence: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we compared dream narratives of children and adolescents living under conditions of enduring interpersonal violence (n = 220) versus those living in peaceful surroundings (n = 99) on content variables that have been associated with traumatic experiences in Rorschach (Exner, 1995) imagery. As predicted, children and adolescents living in circumstances of enduring violence reported a higher proportion

Jan H. Kamphuis; Nynke Tuin; Marieke Timmermans; Raija-Leena Punamäki

2008-01-01

80

Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined global treatment outcomes during 16 months of intensive, psychodynamic treatment for 77 inpatients suffering from treatment-refractory disorders. Hypotheses based on the phase model of treatment change (Howard, Lueger, Maling, & Martinovich, 1993; Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) were supported in the study results. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis V scales assessing behavioral functioning demonstrated large and medium effect size change, whereas stable, enduring personality functioning assessed by psychoanalytic Rorschach scales and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, 1995) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) demonstrated small and medium effect size change. We also report assessment of reliable change index and clinical significance. The ecological validity of Rorschach measures is supported by significant validity coefficients (in the hypothesized directions) between implicit measures of personality functioning and behavioral ratings. PMID:15548467

Fowler, J Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C

2004-12-01

81

Changes in Defensiveness and in Affective Distress Following Inpatient Treatment of Eating Disorders: Rorschach Comprehensive System and Self-Report Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualizing eating disorders (EDs) as forming a coping mechanism against facing psychic pain, in this study, we examined the contribution of weight stabilization and ED behaviors to psychological outcomes of affective distress, defensiveness, and contact with inner\\/external reality among 2 subgroups of adolescent inpatients with (a) “restricting type” anorexia (AN–R) and (b) bingeing\\/purging type EDs (B\\/P). We administered Rorschach Comprehensive

Lily Rothschild; Liza Lacoua; Yohanan Eshel; Daniel Stein

2008-01-01

82

Psychopathic and nonpsychopathic violent offenders on the rorschach: discriminative features and comparisons with schizophrenic inpatient and university student samples.  

PubMed

We examined discriminant and convergent validity of theoretically relevant Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables (Exner, 2003) and Meloy and Gacono's (1992) aggression variables in distinguishing between imprisoned violent offenders (VO) who were psychopathic (P-VO) and nonpsychopathic (NP-VO) under psychiatric treatment, schizophrenic inpatients (ISs), and university students (USs). A total of 7 of 12 variables discriminated significantly between P-VO and NP-VO, which suggests more aggressive, cognitive, and interpersonal disturbances among P-VO. We also found significant differences between VOs, ISs, and USs. Logistic regression analyses revealed that AgPast accumulated incrementally in the classification of P-VO versus NP-VO, and AgC accumulated incrementally in the classification of VO versus IS when entered after CS variables. The findings support the view that psychopathy is a distinctive form of antisocial personality disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) organized at a more severe pathological level. PMID:16740113

Hartmann, Ellen; Nørbech, Peder Bryhn; Grønnerød, Cato

2006-06-01

83

Construct validity of the Rorschach Oral Dependency (ROD) Scale: relationship of ROD scores to WAIS-R scores in a psychiatric inpatient sample.  

PubMed

Three-hundred and two psychiatric inpatients (166 women and 136 men) completed Masling, Rabie, and Blondheim's Rorschach Oral Dependency (ROD) Scale and the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R). As predicted, ROD scale scores were unrelated to WAIS-R scores in subjects of either sex. These findings support the discriminant validity of the ROD scale as a measure of interpersonal dependency, and suggest that deficits in intellectual ability do not underlie the dependency-related behaviors (e.g., suggestibility, conformity, interpersonal yielding) that are associated with high scores on the ROD scale. Implications of these findings for research on the dependency-academic performance relationship are discussed, and suggestions for future studies assessing the convergent and discriminant validity of the ROD scale are offered. PMID:9029339

Bornstein, R F; O'Neill, R M

1997-02-01

84

Thought disorder in high-functioning autistic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined thought disorder in a sample (n = 11) of high- functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents (mean IQ = 83) utilizing objective ratings from the Thought, Language and Communication Disorder Scale (TLC Scale) and projective data from the Rorschach inkblots. Results from the TLC Scale pointed to negative features of thought disorder in this sample (e.g., Poverty of

Elisabeth Dykens; Fred Volkmar; Marion Glick

1991-01-01

85

Responses to Inkblot Configurations Resembling the Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described to measure an individual's awareness of the cardiac area. It utilizes three newly developed ink blots whose color-form configurations approximate the heart in various degrees. In the present exploratory study, projective responses were obtained from 68 nursing students. It was observed that their relative awareness of the anatomical connotations in the stimuli related to their past

Wilfred A. Cassell

1969-01-01

86

Rorschach animal responses and intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the number of responses given by the subject was taken into account, there was no over-all relationship between the number of animal responses and Wechsler-Bellevue verbal IQ for a psychiatric population. However, there was a small but statistically significant positive relationship between animal movement responses and IQ.

Robert Sommer

1957-01-01

87

A psychological study of a schizophrenic: exemplification of a method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In diagnosing and treating neuropsychiatric casualties from the armed forces, patients were examined by a full clinical staff. The psychological battery included mental tests, Rorschach, association, aspiration level, thematic apperception under normal and \\

D. Shakow; E. H. Rodnick; T. Lebeaux

1945-01-01

88

The laugh of Satan: a study of a familial murderer.  

PubMed

A teenage murderer who killed his mother, his tiny half-brother, and his step-father was studied through the imagery he associated to three different editions of inkblots. These sets included the Rorschach, Behn-Rorschach, and Ka-Ro plates. The data were used to theorize about clues, dynamics, and diagnosis in this extreme case of adolescent violence. Family background and developmental history are included. The author takes the position that a conventional analysis of these data alone is not sufficient to fully understand familial murderers. Several of C.G. Jung's concepts, notably his view about the power of shadow-projections to influence conscious percepts and his philosophy about evil as a collective phenomenon, were used to speculate about ways we might extend our understanding of this subject's extreme form of violence. Defining the archetype as an energy-complex, the discussion theorized about possible ways different forms of paranoid ideation may arise. PMID:627988

McCully, R S

1978-02-01

89

Methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting declines in population size is one of the highest priorities of the shorebird initiatives in Canada and the United States. The quantitative goal is 80% power to detect a 50% decline, occurring during no more than 20 years, with a significance level of 0.15, using a two-tailed test, and incorporating effects of potential bias into the estimator. The Arctic PRISM program was designed to achieve this goal for arctic-nesting shorebird populations. The survey methods are an application of double sampling. Rapid surveys were made on a large number of plots selected from throughout arctic Alaska and Canada using stratified random sampling. Intensive surveys were made on a subsample of the plots to obtain detection rates, which were used to calibrate results from rapidly surveyed plots. Surveys will be made of the entire arctic region, each lasting several years and producing an estimate of average population size during the survey period. Results from two or more survey periods will be used to estimate change, or trend, in population size.

Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria; Smith, Paul A.; Manning, Ann; Rausch, Jennie; Brown, Stephen

2012-01-01

90

Brief report: thought disorder in Asperger syndrome: comparison with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Asperger syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder generally regarded as a variant of autism. While it has been included in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV as a distinct diagnostic entity, it is still unclear to what extent it differs from high-functioning autism (HFA). Persons with HFA have been reported to show a variety of deficits of thought processes. Abnormalities such as poor reality testing, perceptual distortions, and areas of cognitive slippage have been described using the Rorschach inkblot test (Dykens, Volkmar, & Glick, 1991). Since AS has been conceptualized as a mild variant of autism, we hypothesized that persons with AS will have fewer abnormalities on the Rorschach test compared to persons with HFA. To test this hypothesis, we compared 12 subjects with AS (ICD-10, 10 male, mean age = 12.2 +/- 3.3 years, mean full-scale IQ = 99.6) with 8 subjects with HFA (ICD-10/DSM-III-R, 7 male, mean age = 12.2 +/- 3.8 years, mean full-scale IQ = 83.4) on the Rorschach test. AS subjects demonstrated a trend towards greater levels of disorganized thinking than the HFA group. They were also more likely to be classified as "Introversive" suggesting that AS subjects may have more complex inner lives involving elaborate fantasies, Also, AS subjects tended to be more focused on their internal experiences. However, overall, the Rorschach test was not found to differentiate the two diagnostic groups on the majority of structural variables. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to the diagnostic validity of Asperger syndrome. PMID:7559296

Ghaziuddin, M; Leininger, L; Tsai, L

1995-06-01

91

Assessing disturbed thinking and cognition using the Ego Impairment Index in older schizophrenia patients: paranoid vs. nonparanoid distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We compared thought-disturbance via the Rorschach-derived Ego Impairment Index (EII) between DSM-IV paranoid vs. nonparanoid (undifferentiated and disorganized) subtypes of older schizophrenia patients. Methods: 44 DSM-IV medically stable outpatients with schizophrenia (27 paranoid, 17 nonparanoid) and 45 normal comparison participants aged 45–100years were assessed using the EII, a Rorschach-derived cognitive-based measure of disturbed thinking. Group differences on the EII

Lisa A Auslander; William Perry; Dilip V Jeste

2002-01-01

92

Problems of the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach in Forensic Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Com pre hen sive Sys tern for the Ror schach is currently the sub ject of heated con tro versy among psy chol o gists. Much “com mon knowl edge” about the test is ei ther in cor rect or in dis pute. Psychologists who use the Ror schach in fo ren sic settings can often be sue cess

James M. Wood; M. Teresa Nezworski; Wil liam J. Stejskal; R. K. McKinzey

2001-01-01

93

The Relationship of Culture Value Orientation Change and Rorschach Indices of Psychological Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of culture change to psychological stress was investigated in a sample of second generation Greek-Americans undergoing the acculturation process. The sample was subdivided into four sub-groups on the basis of sex and social class (lower class-middle class) and positioned on a continuum of progressive stages of acculturation. The relation of culture change to psychological stress was then examined

John C. Papajohn; John P. Spiegel

1971-01-01

94

A Rorschach Investigation of Psychopathy in a Sample of Incarcerated Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personality disturbance of psychopathy is one of the most researched and debated conditions in psychopathology and has been considered one of the most important constructs in the criminal justice system. This syndrome has been widely examined in males but remarkably less attention has been given to females, even though contemporary researchers and theorists have suggested that there is a

Sarah A. Baird

2009-01-01

95

The rorschach test and the questions of “prognosis” and “recovery” in syphilitic meningo-encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IThe subject of syphilitic meningo-encephalitis is one of those chapters in psychiatry which offers a wealth of material for the study of the total personality and of psychosomatic relationships. Kraepelin's masterful monograph, which is both stimulating and provocative of thought, testified to the foregoing statement at an early date. Kraepelin was apparently not satisfied with the idea that the brain

G. M. Davidson; Ruth C. Conkey

1950-01-01

96

Newton's method  

SciTech Connect

Newton's method plays a central role in the development of numerical techniques for optimization. In fact, most of the current practical methods for optimization can be viewed as variations on Newton's method. It is therefore important to understand Newton's method as an algorithm in its own right and as a key introduction to the most recent ideas in this area. One of the aims of this expository paper is to present and analyze two main approaches to Newton's method for unconstrained minimization: the line search approach and the trust region approach. The other aim is to present some of the recent developments in the optimization field which are related to Newton's method. In particular, we explore several variations on Newton's method which are appropriate for large scale problems, and we also show how quasi-Newton methods can be derived quite naturally from Newton's method.

More, J. J.; Sorensen, D. C.

1982-02-01

97

Diagnostic method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for prognosing osteoporosis phenotypes or estimating osteoporosis quantitative traits comprising determining outcomes for selected SNP variables and clinical variables. Products and methods for genotyping multiple osteoporosis associated genetic variations.

2012-10-23

98

Psychological Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses three articles of Mr. McDougall, on the subject of psychological method. The articles accomplish their purpose, if by method we mean (with Mr. McDougall) not so much ways and means of going to work in psychology, but the method of conceiving the scope of psychology and of psychological processes. By their contention that there can be \\

W. Caldwell

1899-01-01

99

Discretization Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data-mining applications often involve quantitative data. However, learning from quantitative data is often less effective and less efficient than learning from qualitative data. Discretization addresses this issue by transforming quantitative data into qualitative data. This chapter presents a comprehensive introduction to discretization. It clarifies the definition of discretization. It provides a taxonomy of discretization methods together with a survey of major discretization methods. It also discusses issues that affect the design and application of discretization methods.

Yang, Ying; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Wu, Xindong

100

Unstructured Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of unstructured grid generation is discussed in Chap. 11. Unstructured grids may be composed of cells of arbitrary shape, but they are generally composed of triangles and tetrahedrons. Triangular and tetrahedral grid methods described in the chapter include Delaunay procedures and the advancing-front method.

Liseikin, Vladimir D.

101

Vortex methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at...

A. J. Chorin

1993-01-01

102

Electre Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades a large body of research in the field of ELECTRE family methods appeared. This research has been conducted by several researchers mainly in Europe. The purpose of this chapter\\u000a is to present a survey of the ELECTRE methods since their first appearance in mid-sixties, when ELECTRE I was proposed by Bernard Roy and his colleagues

José Figueira; Vincent Mousseau; Bernard Roy

103

Scientific method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The scientific method starts with asking a question you would like to answer. Next, background research helps form the basis of your hypothesis, or what you think the outcome of your experiment will be given your background research. You would then design an experiment and test your hypothesis in your experiment. Lastly, you would analyze the outcome of your experiment and revise your hypothesis and/or experiment to test again later. The discoveries of DNA and the human genome are in part due to good use of the scientific method and a sharing of information between scientists.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-09

104

Computation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computation methods described in this section are for use in fatigue analyses. The functions to be computed are the Gamma Function, the two Incomplete Gamma Functions, an Error Function and its Inverse, a Probability of Failure Function, and a transce...

R. G. Lambert

1980-01-01

105

Waterflood method  

SciTech Connect

An improvement is disclosed in the method of recovering hydrocarbons from a subterranean formation by use of an aqueous mixture containing an alkali metal hydrocarbon sulfonate and a solubilizing agent (E.G. Isobutanol). Briefly, the improvement comprises using as the sulfonate an alkali metal c20-c24 alkane sulfonate.

Motz, K.L.

1981-10-20

106

Acidizing method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for acidizing a subterranean formation, comprising the steps of: (a) forming an acidizing composition by mixing an aqueous acid component with at least one water-soluble organosilicon compound; and (b) injecting the composition into the formation.

Watkins, D.R.; Kalfayan, L.J.; Hewgill, G.S.

1987-03-03

107

SINTERING METHOD  

DOEpatents

Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)

Googin, J.M.

1963-11-01

108

COATING METHOD  

DOEpatents

A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

Townsend, R.G.

1959-08-25

109

Stretching Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of Chap. 4 acquaints the reader with various types of singularity arising in solutions to equations with a small parameter affecting the higher derivatives. The chapter gives a concise description of the qualitative properties of solutions in boundary and interior layers and an identification of the invariants governing the location and structure of these layers. The second part of Chap. 4 describes a stretching method based on the application of special nonuniform stretching coordinates in regions of large variation of the solution. The chapter ends with the description of a procedure to generate intermediate coordinate transformations which are suitable for smoothing both exponential and power layers.

Liseikin, Vladimir D.

110

Gelcasting methods  

SciTech Connect

A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kirby, Glen H. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Knoxville, TN); Nunn, Stephen D. (Knoxville, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

111

Gelcasting methods  

SciTech Connect

A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

Walls, C.A.; Kirby, G.H.; Janney, M.A.; Omatete, O.O.; Nunn, S.D.; McMillan, A.D.

2000-05-23

112

Thermal methods  

SciTech Connect

This tutorial outlines basic thermal methods, their extremely wide range of application, and the ways in which they are affected by experimental conditions. Numerous exercises included are designed to bridge the gap between theory and practice, and self-assessment questions and interpretive exercises using real, raw laboratory data provide students with a practical, overall grasp of the subject which can then be followed up with more detailed readings suggested in the bibliography. By the end of this tutorial, students will know how to set up, calibrate, and operate a thermobalance calorimeter (for DSC) or analyser (for DTA); select optimum operating conditions for obtaining thermal data by TG/DSC/DTA; prepare a variety of samples for thermal analysis; and many other basic techniques. The ''open learning'' approach allows students to work on their own at their own pace.

Dodd, J.W.; Tonge, K.H.; Currell, B.R.

1987-01-01

113

WELDING METHOD  

DOEpatents

A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

1959-09-29

114

Sampling Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tremendous increase in computing capacity 1ias allowed us to solve the radiative transfer equation at several thousand frequency points during the iterative solution of the classic model atmosphere problem, and to construct a much more detailed and realistic sampling of the opacity than in earlier models. V,T the harmonic mean and straight mean enable a very fast computation of the model structure, the errors in such simple opacity treatments may be bigger than the errors due to neglect of all improvements in the physics included in computations of model atmospheres of cool stars during the last 25 years! Yet the most simple harmonic mean sampling method the Rosseland mean is often still used to compute boundary conditions for evolutionary models of cool stars. Statistical transformation of measured straight mean absorption coefficients into individual lines, followed by careful sampling, has been a considerable improvement over the direct use of the straight absorption coefficient in the construction of model atmospheres. Key words: OPACITIES - STARS: ATMOSPHERES

Jorgensen, U. G.

1992-03-01

115

The psychological aspects of patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study attempts to define the psychological features of patients with delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS).Method: We administered the Yatabe–Guilford test (Y–G test), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Picture-Frustration study (P-F study) and Rorschach test to two groups, one of patients with DSPS (case group) and the other of people without psychiatric symptoms or insomnia (control group).Results: Overall, the

Masako Shirayama; Yukihiko Shirayama; Hideharu Iida; Masaaki Kato; Naofumi Kajimura; Tsuyoshi Watanabe; Masanori Sekimoto; Shuichiro Shirakawa; Masako Okawa; Kiyohisa Takahashi

2003-01-01

116

Archived BAM Method: Rapid Methods for Detecting ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... These new methods are often referred to as "rapid methods", a subjective term ... may have a more extensive identification database than newer tests. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

117

Cutting Plane Methods and Subgradient Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interior point methods have proven very successful at solving linear programming problems. When an explicit linear programming formulation is either not available or is too large to employ directly, a column generation approach can be used. Examples of column generation approaches include cutting plane methods for integer programming and decomposition methods for many classes of optimization problems. We discuss the

John E. Mitchell

118

Genericity in method construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new emerging field of the method engineering discipline acknowledges the need for a rapid construction of methods. We propose an approach aiming to fulfil this objective. The approach is based on the assumption that there exists generic method construction knowledge which can be formalised into method construction patterns for further reuse. Under our approach, the construction of a method

Véronique Plihon; Colette Rolland

1997-01-01

119

Response to color in projective techniques as a measure of affective regulation and emotional stability: A construct validity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to color in projective tests has been postulated to be a measure of emotional stability. This is so for the Rorschach test (Rorschach, 1942) and for Human Figure Drawings (Hammer, 1980). It was therefore expected that there would be consistency in response to color across these two projective tests.^ In the present study the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale and

Barbara Kirshenbaum Weliky

1991-01-01

120

Dimensions of Internalized Object Relations in Borderline and Schizophrenic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores two dimensions of internalized object relations in borderline and schizophrenic patients using Rorschach scales. A thematic and a structural Rorschach measure of object relations is applied to the Rorschachs of two borderline groups (an infantile personality group and an obsessive-paranoid group) and a schizophrenic group. The findings suggest the value of both a multidimensional definition of internalized

Walter E. Spear; Alan Sugarman

1984-01-01

121

Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this new edition of the successful book Level Set Methods, Professor Sethian incorporates the most recent advances in Fast Marching Methods, many of which appear here for the first time. Continuing the expository style of the first edition, this introductory volume presents cutting edge algorithms in these groundbreaking techniques and provides the reader with a wealth of application areas

J. A. Sethian

1999-01-01

122

Cardiac Arrhythmia Treatment Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disclosed are methods of preventing or treating cardiac arrhythmia. In one embodiment, the methods include administering to an amount of at least one polynucleotide that modulates an electrical property of the heart. The methods have a wide variety of imp...

E. Marban J. K. Donahue

2004-01-01

123

Uranium price forecasting methods  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

Fuller, D.M.

1994-03-01

124

New iterative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new three-step predictor corrector type iterative method for finding simple and real roots of a non-linear equation in one variable, i.e., f(x)=0. Experiments show that our new method is more efficient than the other known methods. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods reveals that the new method performs better as shown

Arif Rafiq; Sifat Hussain; Farooq Ahmad; Muhammad Awais

2007-01-01

125

Method Study 2: Nutrient Analyses, Manual Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interlaboratory studies were conducted on selected chemical methods of analysis for ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen or organic nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phsophorus. Samples were prepared in pairs at similar yet different con...

1970-01-01

126

Failure combination method  

SciTech Connect

The method described in this paper is an inductive method for combining failures (called the Failure Combination Method (FCM)). It is based on a preliminary analysis of the systems performed with an FMEA. As a study has been undertaken to test the method, the organization of the study as well as its first results from a methodological point of view are stressed. 8 refs.

Hedin, F.; Le Coguiec, A.; Le Floch, C.; Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

1981-01-01

127

Multivariate methods in research.  

PubMed

Univariate methods are very helpful when utilized appropriately within the research analysis. However, there are many occasions in which only multivariate methods will satisfy an optimal assessment. In this case, multivariate methods will permit the researcher to incorporate many variables within a single research analysis. This work reviews the use of multivariate methods and how to apply them in clinical medicine. PMID:22853812

Flikkema, Robert; Lloris-Carsi, J M; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

2012-08-01

128

Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic Analysis(Chap. 20)Computational Geometry(Chap. 19)Computer Vision(Chaps, 16, 17)Optimality and Control(Chap. 20)Fluid Mechanics(Chap. 18)Combustion(Chap. 18)Materials Sciences(Chap. 18)Semiconductor Manufacturing(Chap. 21)This book is an introduction to level set methods and Fast MarchingMethods, which are powerful numerical techniques for analyzing andcomputing interface motion in a host of settings. They rely on a fundamentalshift in how one views...

J. a. Sethian

1999-01-01

129

Dissatisfaction with contraceptive methods  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Almost two thirds of Iranians eligible for using contraceptive methods use these methods. Their dissatisfaction with the methods would directly and indirectly affect the quality of family planning services and would bring about detrimental results for the service recipients and consequently for other family members. Therefore, identification and evaluation of the factors leading to dissatisfaction with contraceptive methods can help the authorities responsible for family planning services to provide some solutions to increase satisfaction with these methods. METHODS: This research was a qualitative phenomenological study. The study population consisted of the women using intrauterine device (IUD) or contraceptive pills only as contraception, referred to 14-Masoum, Amir Hamzeh, Ebn-e Sina, Shahid Motamed, and Navab Safavi clinical centers. Sampling was goal-based, and 14 individuals participated in the study. Data collection was carried out in four months using deep interview. Data analysis was performed using seven-step Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: The findings of the interviews were assigned 104 codes categorized into three groups; 1- physical and psychological harms experienced by the method, 2- the shortcomings of the methods, and 3- continuation in spite of dissatisfaction with the method. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, the users of contraceptive methods would have some experiences, which lead to their dissatisfaction with the methods. Since dissatisfaction with the methods will result in a decrease in continuation of use of the methods or discontinuation of the method, providing some policies to increase the satisfaction with contraceptive methods can cause more effective use of the methods and continuation of their use.

Fathizadeh, Nahid; Salemi, Parisa; Ehsanpour, Soheila

2011-01-01

130

Methods of gas analysis  

SciTech Connect

Methods for sampling, calibrating, and analyzing for helium, impurities in helium, and natural gases are described. These methods were developed by the US Bureau of Mines to assist in the processing of natural gas for helium recovery. 35 refs.

Emerson, D.E. (Bureau of Mines, Amarillo, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

131

Methods for Photopatterning Hydrogels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In one aspect, the invention provides methods for forming a photopatterned hydrogel. In some embodiments, the methods comprise the step of exposing a solution comprising a monomer, a crosslinking agent, and a photoinitiator to a pattern of light comprisin...

B. D. Ratner K. D. Hauch S. J. Bryant

2005-01-01

132

DOE methods compendium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objectiv...

C. S. Leasure

1992-01-01

133

Dissolution Methods Database  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/informationondrugs

134

Methods of Physical Geodesy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is made of the progress of physical geodesy as of 1963. The gravimetric measurements and astrogeodetic methods, base lines, geopotential methods, the earth constants, flattening and the normal figure of the earth are discussed. (Author)

W. A. Heiskanen H. Moritz

1964-01-01

135

Metallisation Methods and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three different methods of metallization of composite materials bonding or cocuring, indirect metallization and galvanic metallization, are described. These methods are of vital importance in making use of composite materials for antenna applications. Bon...

D. Joensson

1990-01-01

136

Methods for Cloning Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention pertains to methods for cloning animals. In particular, the invention includes methods of cloning an animal by combining a genome from an activated donor cell with an activated enucleated oocyte to thereby obtain a nuclear transfer e...

A. Baguisi E. W. Overstrom

2004-01-01

137

Formal Methods Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contract final technical report documents the Formal Methods Framework (FMF) project results. This project consider the impact of formal methods on industries such as high assurance and telecommunications software and proposes a framework within whic...

2002-01-01

138

Improved Toeplitz Approximation Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint suggests a modification of the Toeplitz approximation method for estimating frequencies of multiple sinusoids from covariance measurements. The method constructs a state-feedback matrix following a low-rank approximation of the Toeplitz covar...

B. D. Rao K. S. Arun

1988-01-01

139

Lethality of suicide methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To (a) quantify the lethality of suicide methods used in Australia in the period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 2003, (b) examine method-specific case fatality by age and sex, and (c) identify changes in case fatality during the study period. Methods: Two sources of data on episodes of self-harm in Australia were used, mortality and hospital separation data.

A A Elnour; J Harrison

2008-01-01

140

Rossi Alpha Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical

1985-01-01

141

Surface interrogation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an overview and analysis of methods for inspecting surface quality. The overview is done by a new classification based on common mathematical concept yielding four groups of methods. First, techniques based on curvature, such as colour-coded map, lines of curvature, isolines of curvature, and focal surfaces are considered. They are followed by methods based on illumination

Nikola Guid; Crtomir Oblonsek; Borut Zalik

1995-01-01

142

Applying Formal Methods Informally  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many problems associated with software development and the associated vulnerabilities are well documented and discussed, there is a distinct and obvious lack of consensus on the means to overcome and remedy these identified issues. This paper introduces the idea of integrating the concepts of formal methods into the programming process from the beginning. This method of applying formal methods

Matt Bishop; Brian Hay; Kara L. Nance

2011-01-01

143

The Use of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Rorschach in Treatment Planning with Antisocial Personality Disordered Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mental health resources dwindle, efficient use of available services becomes an economic and ethical necessity. Integral to this process are screening, assessment, and treatment planning. Treatment planning is especially critical in correctional settings where change-resistant Antisocial Personality Disordered (ASPD) individuals compose a disproportionate percentage of the population. Not a homogeneous group, some ASPDs are treatable, some are not. The

Carl B. Gacono

1998-01-01

144

Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-04

145

Expertise in Methods, Methods of Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Scientific expertise is a key issue in the concept of the knowledge society. While the focus of much of the current research\\u000a is on the user- or the demand-side of scientific expertise, the focus of this paper is on its formation. To achieve this,\\u000a it aims at establishing a connection of the history of scientific methods with the history of

Carsten Reinhardt

146

Integer Factorization Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, factoring integers was thought to be of little benefit to the mathematical world. The subject of integer factorization methods is one that has only relatively recently become of interest to mathematicians, as cryptography and other fields have made its thorough study a necessity.\\u000aHere, we study the continued fraction method of factorization, which is an early method

Stephanie Faith Vergara

2011-01-01

147

Lottery method and system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In one embodiment, a method includes but is not limited to populating a lottery bet slip by use of at least one commercial icon. In another embodiment, a method includes but is not limited to comparing a lottery bet slip, populated with one or more commercial icons, against one or more winning criteria. In one or more various embodiments, related systems include but are not limited to circuitry and/or programming for effecting the foregoing-referenced method embodiments.

2006-09-12

148

Rossi Alpha Method  

SciTech Connect

The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-..alpha.. is no longer an ..alpha..-eigenvalue.

Hansen, G.E.

1985-01-01

149

Multigrid contact detection method.  

PubMed

Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N). Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved. PMID:17500829

He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

2007-03-28

150

Parallel Spectral Numerical Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module teaches the principals of Fourier spectral methods, their utility in solving partial differential equation and how to implement them in code. Performance considerations for several Fourier spectral implementations are discussed and methods for effective scaling on parallel computers are explained.

Chen, Gong; Cloutier, Brandon; Li, Ning; Muite, Benson; Rigge, Paul

151

New Adsorption Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)|

Wankat, Phillip C.

1984-01-01

152

The Oxygen Flask Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)|

Boulton, L. H.

1973-01-01

153

The HVJ Liposome Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advancement of gene technology allows us a practical approach to gene therapy. Among various in vivo gene transfer techniques available, the HVJ liposome method is an efficient procedure which could target the glomerular cells. Using this method, HVJ-mediated cell fusion activity enables us to introduce genetic materials directly into the cytosol without degradation. In addition, cointroduction of non-histone nuclear

Yoshitaka Isaka; Yoshitaka Akagi; Yasufumi Kaneda; Enyu Imai

1998-01-01

154

DISCUSS: Sampling Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Sidney Tyrrell and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces different types of sampling methods. Links to Excel spreadsheet files with exercises for exploring sampling methods are given at the end of the module. Topics include random, systematic, cluster, stratified, and quota sampling. This software require Microsoft Excel. Without this software, these programs will not work.

Hunt, Neville; Tyrrell, Sidney

2009-08-25

155

THE ?SF METHOD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-ray strength function (?SF) interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission as a common ingredient in the statistical model. Outlined here is an indirect method of determining radiative neutron-capture cross sections for unstable nuclei based on the ?-ray strength function. Application examples of the ?SF method are demonstrated.

Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Okamoto, A.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2011-10-01

156

Research Methods in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

2011-01-01

157

Electromagnetic methods in NDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM methods for NDE have reached a quantitative level of sophistication, and possess sound bases for both analytical and numerical modeling. Improvements in instrumentation, in conjunction with growing use of AI methods, can yield characterizations and sizing for a wide variety of flaw types. Attention is given to the advent of small linear arrays of small printed-circuit eddy current probes,

B. A. Auld

1993-01-01

158

Methods of Computational Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of various methods of computational intelligence are presented and illustrated with exampIes. These methods include neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The presentation is focused on neural networks, their learning algorithms and special architectures. General learning rule as a function of the incoming signals is discussed. Other learning rules such as Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, LMS - Least

Bogdan M. Wilamowski

2009-01-01

159

Methods of computational intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of various methods of computational intelligence are presented and illustrated with examples. These methods include neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The presentation is focused on neural networks, their learning algorithms and special architectures. General learning rule as a function of the incoming signals is discussed. Other learning rules such as Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, LMS (least mean

Bogdan M. Wilamowski

2004-01-01

160

WWW: The Scientific Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

2006-01-01

161

Nearest Neighbor Search Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion planning problem consists of finding a valid path for a robot (movable object) from a start configuration to a goal configuration without colliding with any obstacle. Probabilistic road map (PRM) methods use randomization to construct a graph (road map) of collision-free paths that attempts to capture the connectivity of the configuration space.Random sampling strategies are the methods used

Surbhi Chaudhry; Xiabing Xu; Nancy Amato

162

Statistical Methods and Linguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the space of the last ten years, statistical methods have gone from being virtually unknown in computational linguistics to being a fundamental given. In 1996, no one can profess to be a computational linguist without a passing knowl- edge of statistical methods. HMM's are as de rigeur as LR tables, and anyone who cannot at least use the terminology

Steven Abney

1996-01-01

163

Methods for reliable teleportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental results and proposals towards implementation of quantum teleportation are discussed. It is proved that reliable (theoretically, 100% probability of success) teleportation cannot be achieved using the methods applied in recent experiments, i.e., without quantum systems interacting with one another. Teleportation proposals involving atoms and electromagnetic cavities are reviewed and the most feasible methods are described. In particular, the

Lev Vaidman; Nadav Yoran

1999-01-01

164

Validating Analytical Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

Ember, Lois R.

1977-01-01

165

Evaluating Geophysical Equipment & Methods  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologists monitor data collection during a geophysical survey using the horizontal-to-vertical ambient-noise seismic method. This method can be used to estimate unconsolidated sediment thickness and map the bedrock surface as part of groundwater investigations. The survey was conducted as pa...

2009-05-01

166

Method for Preparing Phosphatidylethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for preparing the unique phospholipid phosphatidylethanol, which is a marker of human and animal alcohol intoxication and acts as an effective component of liposomal forms of medicinal compounds. The method consists of preparation of the diethyl ester of phosphatidic acid with subsequent removal of one ethyl by CsF in t-butanol.

D. V. Arsenov; V. I. Dolgopalets

2004-01-01

167

ZEIN DECOLORIZATION METHODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yellow color corn and corn processing coproducts is due to xanthophylls and carotenes which possess nutraceutical value. Colorless zein commands a premium price. Our objective was to devise methods for decolorizing zein. Methods investigated include: supercritical CO2 extraction of zein with ...

168

Enhanced oil recovery methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been estimated that there are between 30 and 50 billion bbl of oil reserves in the US which could be recovered by tertiary recovery methods, usually referred to as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This is oil which is already found and identified but which will remain in place unless special effort involving any one of a number

J. Owen; J. Floyd

1981-01-01

169

Teaching Method English (UME).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter provides a summary of the documentation available on the activities connected with the Unterrichtsmethode English (UME) Project, an investigation of methods for teaching English as a second language, conducted from 1965 to 1970. The documents listed and described cover general reports; details of the material-method system;…

Mentzer, Carl Henrik von

1971-01-01

170

Integral analysis method - IAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the theoretical foundations of the new integral analysis method (IAM), and its application to a facility location problem. This methodology integrates the cardinal and ordinal criteria of combinatorial stochastic optimization problems in four stages: definition of the problem, cardinal analysis, ordinal analysis and integration analysis. The method uses the concepts of stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA), Monte

Rafael Guillermo García Cáceres; Julián Arturo Aráoz Durand; Fernando Palacios Gómez

2009-01-01

171

Connecting assembly and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and methods are described for making underwater connection of marine riser assemblies which have controlled buoyancy. Methods of assembling and using such riser assemblies in underwater drilling operations also are described. A connecting assembly communicates between a first location and a second location lower than the first location, with the 2 locations separated by a fluid body. A

Wardlaw; H. W. R

1978-01-01

172

The Wavelet Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) combines biorthogonal wavelet systems with the philosophy of Spectral Element Methods in order to obtain a biorthogonal wavelet system on fairly general bounded domains in some Rn. The domain of interest is split into subdomains which are mapped to a simple reference domain, heren-dimensional cubes. Thus, one has to construct appropriate biorthogonal wavelets on the

Claudio Canuto; Anita Tabacco; Karsten Urban

1999-01-01

173

Oxalate Ultramicroanalytical Method Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective stated in our proposal (Moye, Oxalate Ultramicroanalytical Method Development, NIH-NIAMDD-RFP-78-4, June 8, 1978) was the development of rapid and precise gas chromatographic methods for the measurement of oxalic acid in urine and serum...

H. A. Hoye

1982-01-01

174

New Adsorption Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

Wankat, Phillip C.

1984-01-01

175

METHODS OF PROJECTING BIRTHS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS NOTE DESCRIBES AND CRITICIZES THE VARIOUS METHODS CURRENTLY IN USE FOR PROJECTING BIRTHS--(1) COHORT-FERTILITY, (2) AGE-SPECIFIC, (3) COHORT-FERTILITY (SCRIPPS), AND (4) MARRIAGE-PARITY-PROGRESSION. VARIABLES USED IN THE VARIOUS METHODS ARE AGE OF MOTHER, COMPLETED FERTILITY, MARRIAGE STATUS, TIME SINCE MARRIAGE, PARITY, AND BIRTH INTERVAL.…

OKADA, TETSUO

176

REVA DATA INTEGRATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The core of the research effort in the Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) is a set of data integration methods ranging from simple overlays to complex multivariate statistics. These methods are described in the EPA publication titled, "Regional Vulnerability Assess...

177

Methods of Motivational Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…

Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot

2008-01-01

178

The Solution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes changes observed during a 2-year period in participants enrolled in The Solution Method, a developmental skills training program for adult weight management. This Intervention is the adult application of a model of treatment previously used only in the management of pediatric obesity (The Shapedown Program). Developmental skills training integrates understandings and methods from developmental, family systems, biomedical,

LAUREL MELLIN; MARY CROUGHAN-MINIHANE; LARRY DICKEY

1997-01-01

179

The Comparative Method Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history of comparative methods and their use in biology as an investigative philosophy. Discusses Bernard's and Krogh's ideas and supports Jorgensen's arguments. Explains conceptual change in the comparative studies which is referred to as "comparative phylogenetic method". (Contains 33 references.) (YDS)

Sanford, Glenn M.; Lutterschmidt, William I.; Hutchison, Victor H.

2002-01-01

180

Method of Targeting DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a method of forming a three-stranded DNA molecule wherein each strand of the three-stranded DNA molecule is hybridized (that is, non-covalently bound) to at least one other strand of the three-stranded DNA molecule. The method com...

R. D. Camerini-Otero M. McIntosh C. S. Camerini-Otero L. J. Ferrin

1991-01-01

181

[Analytical methods for mycotoxins].  

PubMed

Biological, physico-chemical and immunochemical methods are available today for solving the multiple problems which turn up in the course of mycotoxin diagnosis and mycotoxin research. In this review, selected analysis techniques are presented and their limits and possibilities are discussed. The biological methods (chicken-embryo-test, skin irritation test, cell cultures) indicate only toxicities, mostly without further specification for mycotoxins. In contrast, modern physico-chemical analysis (DC, HPLC, CLC, MS) allows the detection of defined mycotoxins in the picogram range; these methods should be employed or official and judicial purposes. The recently developed immunochemical methods (RIA, EIA) are characterized by a simple sample preparation, a short test duration and a high sensitivity; they could be used as a screening method in the course of mycotoxicological control of food and feed. PMID:2673724

Bauer, J; Gareis, M

182

Combined Timber Drying Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of investigations of the moisture and temperature distribution in drying by the conduction method, by means of a radio-frequency electromagnetic field, and by the combined method of heating at a low pressure. The rate of drying by the combined heating method is twice higher than in conduction heating and 1.5 times higher than in radio-frequency heating at the same energy input to the wood. The finite moisture content of the wood in drying by the combined method is much lower than in drying by the other methods, and the moisture gradient in the thickness of the specimen does not exceed 5%. On the basis of the results of investigations a pilotproduction vacuum drier with a loading volume of 1 m3 has been created.

Goreshnev, M. A.; Kazarin, A. N.; Lopatin, V. V.; Sekisov, F. G.; Smerdov, O. V.

2013-03-01

183

[Methods of stopping smoking].  

PubMed

The majority of smokers who stop smoking do it alone. The methods of stopping are aimed at helping those who cannot achieve this. The different methods used include psycho-therapy (individual-group), medication, and in the first place is nicotine chewing-gum (but also clonidine which opens a new perspective), aversive behaviour and reinforcement methods, hypnosis and acupuncture. The inadequacy of validated controlled trials by biological measurements makes it difficult to compare different methods. The levels of cessation evaluated varies as a function of recruitment, the relationship between the patient and the therapist, and between the association of the different methods. An important factor in the success resides in the motivation of the subjects explaining that the bias of recruitment readily lead to differences in the results which are superior to the action of the therapy itself. Associated to psychotherapy is the use of nicotine chewing-gum in pharmacologically dependent smokers, and seems to give good enough results. Behavioural methods have an important early success level but these are somewhat deceiving in the long-term and are not totally without risk. Acupuncture, hypnosis and the progressive reduction in nicotine levels (nicotine fading) requires controlled studies to judge their own efficacy. The frequency of failure in the first year remains the major current problem in the methods of stopping. It is convenient not only to develop maintenance strategies but also at the sociological level to diminish the environmental pressures inciting people to smoke. PMID:2399350

Molimard, M; Hirsch, A

1990-01-01

184

Generalized Schwarzschild's method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new finite element method (FEM) to construct continuous equilibrium distribution functions (DFs) of stellar systems. The method is a generalization of Schwarzschild’s orbit superposition method from the space of discrete functions to continuous ones. In contrast to Schwarzschild’s method, FEM produces a continuous DF and satisfies the intra-element continuity and Jeans equations. The method employs two finite element meshes, one in configuration space and one in action space. The DF is represented by its values at the nodes of the action-space mesh and by interpolating functions inside the elements. The Galerkin projection of all equations that involve the DF leads to a linear system of equations, which can be solved for the nodal values of the DF using linear or quadratic programming, or other optimization methods. We illustrate the superior performance of FEM by constructing ergodic and anisotropic equilibrium DFs for spherical stellar systems (Hernquist models). We also show that explicitly constraining the DF by the Jeans equations leads to smoother and/or more accurate solutions with both Schwarzschild’s method and FEM.

Jalali, Mir Abbas; Tremaine, Scott

2011-01-01

185

Basics of Bayesian methods.  

PubMed

Bayesian methods are rapidly becoming popular tools for making statistical inference in various fields of science including biology, engineering, finance, and genetics. One of the key aspects of Bayesian inferential method is its logical foundation that provides a coherent framework to utilize not only empirical but also scientific information available to a researcher. Prior knowledge arising from scientific background, expert judgment, or previously collected data is used to build a prior distribution which is then combined with current data via the likelihood function to characterize the current state of knowledge using the so-called posterior distribution. Bayesian methods allow the use of models of complex physical phenomena that were previously too difficult to estimate (e.g., using asymptotic approximations). Bayesian methods offer a means of more fully understanding issues that are central to many practical problems by allowing researchers to build integrated models based on hierarchical conditional distributions that can be estimated even with limited amounts of data. Furthermore, advances in numerical integration methods, particularly those based on Monte Carlo methods, have made it possible to compute the optimal Bayes estimators. However, there is a reasonably wide gap between the background of the empirically trained scientists and the full weight of Bayesian statistical inference. Hence, one of the goals of this chapter is to bridge the gap by offering elementary to advanced concepts that emphasize linkages between standard approaches and full probability modeling via Bayesian methods. PMID:20652503

Ghosh, Sujit K

2010-01-01

186

DORIS radar calibration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the interest expressed by ESA and FGAN, it was decided to realise some evaluation of the DORIS calibration method with the TIRA radar. This paper, organised in four parts, describes: - the importance of radar calibration in the space debris domain - the principle of the DORIS calibration method - the results obtained with the TIRA FGAN radar using the DORIS reference - the advantages of the DORIS calibration and the future uses of this method in an European exercise involving for the ESA benefit both French and German radars.

Ameline, P.

2001-10-01

187

Airframe Noise Prediction Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A noise component method is presented for calculating airframe noise. Noise from clean wing and tail surface is represented as trailing edge noise caused by the turbulent boundary layer. Landing gear noise is given by an empirical representation of model ...

M. R. Fink

1977-01-01

188

Rossi Alpha Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the meth...

G. E. Hansen

1985-01-01

189

The Myopia of Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)

Zahorik, John A.

1973-01-01

190

Heating Methods of Forgings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with a study of the most usual electrical heating methods of forgings. Those are investigated under ''Norwegian'' conditions. Inductive heating systems seem to be expensive and result in small return on investment for small production ser...

T. Stroemsvik

1982-01-01

191

Spectral Methods for Discontinuities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigators pursued research on the use of spectral methods in computational fluid dynamics. The implementation is examined for the solution of time dependent partial differential equations. Other topics pursued included the adaptation of spectral m...

Gottlieb

1985-01-01

192

Glycoconjugates and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (1) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (2) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (1) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (2) biochemically processes the first...

C. Bertozzi K. J. Yarema L. K. Mahal

2005-01-01

193

Transformation 2 - Transformation Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the procedure of introducing a new gene into a plant cell (transformation). It discusses the main goals of the transformation process and describes the four main methods of transformation.

194

Food Irradiator and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus is provided for the irradiation pasteurization of food packages of uniform size and shape. Fish is eviscerated, scaled, filleted, trimmed and packaged. The packaged food is passed through a source of gamma rays.

O. A. Kuhl A. B. Oltmann

1965-01-01

195

Spectral Methods in Econometrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the spectral methods of time series analysis and its use in econometrics. The theory of covariance stochastic processes is introduced, with special emphasis on its application in econometrics. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate s...

G. S. Fishman

1968-01-01

196

Echometry Device and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention provides devices and methods for accurate and dependable remote measurement of temperature at predetermined points in a fluid medium, such as the atmosphere or oceans, through the use of propagated waves, such as acoustic or electromagnetic...

E. H. Brown

1981-01-01

197

A generalized tagging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of causes of changes in climate-chemistry simulations is an important, but often challenging task. In atmospheric chemistry, one approach is to tag species according to their origin (e.g. emission categories) and to inherit these tags to other species during subsequent reactions. This concept was recently employed to calculate the contribution of atmospheric processes to temperature. Here a new concept for tagging any state variable is presented. This generalized tagging method results from a sensitivity analysis of the individual forcing terms of the right hand side of the governing differential equations. In a couple of examples, the consistency with previous approaches and the synergy by using different analysis techniques are shown. Since the method is based on a ratio describing relative sensitivities, singularities occur where the method is not applicable. For some applications, such as in atmospheric chemistry, these singularities can easily be removed. However, one theoretical example is given, where this method is not applicable at all.

Grewe, V.

2013-02-01

198

Generalized fast marching method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a segmentation method based on the generalized fast marching method (GFMM) developed by Carlini et alE (submitted). The classical fast marching method (FMM) is a very efficient method for front evolution problems with normal velocity (see also Epstein and Gage, The curve shortening flow. In: Chorin, A., Majda, A. (eds.) Wave Motion: Theory, Modelling and Computation, 1997) of constant sign. The GFMM is an extension of the FMM and removes this sign constraint by authorizing time-dependent velocity with no restriction on the sign. In our modelling, the velocity is borrowed from the Chan-Vese model for segmentation (Chan and Vese, IEEE Trans Image Process 10(2):266-277, 2001). The algorithm is presented and analyzed and some numerical experiments are given, showing in particular that the constraints in the initialization stage can be weakened and that the GFMM offers a powerful and computationally efficient algorithm.

Forcadel, Nicolas; Le Guyader, Carole; Gout, Christian

2008-07-01

199

Variational transcorrelated method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new approach to the use of Jastrow ansatz in the calculation of electron correlations, based on a modification of the transcorrelated method of Boys and Handy [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 309, 209 (1969)]. In this new method, the original transcorrelated orbital equation is replaced with a general variational equation for the reference wave function, whereas the equation for the correlation factor remains the same. The method can be applied to a single determinant Jastrow ansatz as well as to a multideterminant one. For the single determinant ansatz, we obtain a Hartree-Fock type self-consistent equation for the optimization of orbitals, and for the multideterminant ansatz we have tested a CI type equation. We apply the new method in calculations of the C2 molecule and compare the results with those of variational quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

Luo, Hongjun

2010-10-01

200

METHOD OF BRAZING  

DOEpatents

A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)

Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.

1962-11-27

201

Project Delivery Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)|

Dolan, Thomas G.

2003-01-01

202

Stereoscopic Methods in TEM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stereoscopic methods used in TEM are reviewed. The use of stereoscopy to characterize three-dimensional structures observed by TEM has become widespread since the introduction of instruments operating at 1 MV. In its emphasis on whole structures and thick...

L. E. Thomas

1975-01-01

203

Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes  

DOEpatents

A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.

Schattenmann, Florian Johannes (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

204

Prony Method Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown that the Prony Method for symmetric matrix is all that is necessary for any optical resonator calculation; the modifications that the original algorithm must suffer are also discussed. (Atomindex citation 10:459673)

E. Gerck

1978-01-01

205

New Methods in Surgery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The use of lasers in surgery (experimental study); Graphoanalytical method of determining the temperature field of the human head when producing craniocerebral hypothermia with a Kholod-2F machine.

S. D. Pletnev Z. V. Golbert L. A. Sapozhnikov O. A. Smirnov I. G. Meshcherinov

1970-01-01

206

CMC Method Validation - Kedbumin  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... References 1. DG Kleinbaum, LL Kupper and KE Muller - Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods (book) – 2007; 2. SA Glantz ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

207

Polynomial supertree methods revisited.  

PubMed

Supertree methods allow to reconstruct large phylogenetic trees by combining smaller trees with overlapping leaf sets into one, more comprehensive supertree. The most commonly used supertree method, matrix representation with parsimony (MRP), produces accurate supertrees but is rather slow due to the underlying hard optimization problem. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study comparing the performance of MRP and the polynomial supertree methods MinCut Supertree, Modified MinCut Supertree, Build-with-distances, PhySIC, PhySIC_IST, and super distance matrix. We consider both quality and resolution of the reconstructed supertrees. Our findings illustrate the tradeoff between accuracy and running time in supertree construction, as well as the pros and cons of voting- and veto-based supertree approaches. Based on our results, we make some general suggestions for supertree methods yet to come. PMID:22229028

Brinkmeyer, Malte; Griebel, Thasso; Böcker, Sebastian

2011-12-21

208

Probabilistic Structured Query Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Structured methods for query term replacement rely on separate estimates of term frequency and document frequency to compute the weight for each query term. This paper reviews prior work on structured query techniques and introduces three new variants tha...

D. W. Oard K. Darwish

2003-01-01

209

Improved catalysts and method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal ch...

C. E. Taylor R. P. Noceti

1990-01-01

210

The Directed Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many instructors think that by incorporating case study analysis into the science classroom they will sacrifice course content. The directed case method, however, is a proven strategy for deepening and solidifying understanding of facts and concepts when

Curtin, Leslie N.; Cliff, William H.

2000-09-01

211

Boundary Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Chapter 2 Green’s functions in piezoelectric materials were described. Applications of these Green’s functions to the boundary\\u000a element method (BEM) are discussed in this chapter. In contrast to the finite element method (FEM), BEM involves only discretization\\u000a of the boundary of the structure due to the governing differential equation being satisfied exactly inside the domain leading\\u000a to a relatively

Qing-Hua Qin

212

Mind mapping research methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mind maps represent the authors’ concept of research methods at this time. The major aspects, rather than a complete picture,\\u000a of research methods are illustrated in seven distinct areas: research problem, research design, sampling techniques, ethical\\u000a matters, data collection, data analysis, and report findings. Brief descriptions explain the mind maps and why items were\\u000a placed in certain areas where

Michael Crowe; Lorraine Sheppard

2012-01-01

213

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

1983-05-13

214

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

1985-09-10

215

Nucleic acid detection method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of detecting a target nucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid molecule, which comprises: (a) binding of an oligonucleotide probe to said nucleic acid molecule; (b) selective labelling of the bound oligonucleotide probe in the presence of said target nucleotide sequence; (c) hybridization of the labelled oligonucleotide to a complementary sequence; and (d) subsequent detection of the label; such methods being suitable for qualitative and quantitative assays of microbiological populations.

Rudi; Knut (Oslo, NO); Jakobsen; Kjetill Sigurd (Olso, NO)

2003-09-09

216

Method of treating depression  

DOEpatents

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz

2013-04-09

217

IRRADIATION METHOD AND APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for changing fuel bodies into a process tube of a reactor. According to this method fresh fuel elements are introduced into one end of the tube forcing used fuel elements out the other end. When sufficient fuel has been discharged, a reel and tape arrangement is employed to pull the column of bodies back into the center of the tube. Due provision is made for providing shielding in the tube. (AEC)

Cabell, C.P.

1962-12-18

218

Multiplier and gradient methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to suggest a method for finding the minimum of a functionf(x) subject to the constraintg(x)=0. The method consists of replacingf byF=f+?g+1\\/2cg2, wherec is a suitably large constant, and computing the appropriate value of the Lagrange multiplier. Only the simplest algorithm is presented. The remaining part of the paper is devoted to a survey

Magnus R. Hestenes

1969-01-01

219

The microwave frequency method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results showing that when sufficient microwave power is employed the grains carrying the natural remanent moment (NRM) that are able to absorb microwaves reach their blocking temperature in less than 10 ms, and the sample temperature at the end of this very short time has only increased by about 30 °C. We also show that because large gaps exist in the spin-wave frequency of small particles, some grains are unable to absorb because they are too small, and others because they are too large. A large number of results have been published, that were obtained using frequencies close to 14 GHz, using what has been called the microwave Thellier method. However, as Biggin has pointed out [Biggin, A.J., et al., 2007. A comparison of a quasi-perpendicular method of absolute palaeointensity determination with other thermal and microwave techniques. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 257, 564-581] the microwaves constitute a marginal improvement on thermal methods, with the attendant alteration problems. We wish to propose a radically new method here, the microwave frequency method, where the microwave frequency is varied, selectively magnetizing and demagnetizing grains of different sizes thereby keeping the sample temperature so low that alteration is avoided completely.

Walton, Derek; Boehnel, Harald N.

2008-04-01

220

Optimization Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

2009-09-01

221

Method of grid generation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

2002-01-01

222

Softness perceptive texture method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying about people's visual impression and image features for texture images in order to clarify the human subjective interpretation mechanism for images[1]. In corresponding image features of human impressions for the images, we found that the impressions for material were bottle-necked. We have studied a new analysis method which gives the impression for material from texture images. Especially, we mainly focused on the properties of visual targets which people can feel tactile sense. In this paper, we propose a new texture analysis method which is based on frequency analysis with 3D texture which is designed for photorealistic rendering. We found that our new method can estimate not only the surface roughness but also the surface softness.

Kobayashi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masami; Ohya, Jun

2004-06-01

223

Weed extraction system, method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for providing weed extraction so Industrial, Commercial and Home users (ICAHUs) can assure that unwanted weeds can be easily and effectively extracted. The system and method allows ICAHUs to work safely and efficiently and to extract weeds by using a hand-held device that can easily penetrate the ground around weeds, secure the unwanted weed, and aid the user in extracting the weed from the ground. ICAHUs can easily operate the levers of the device which operate jaws to secure to weeds. Specialized debris passages in the jaws of the device allow for debris to be passed through the jaws of the device which allow to for continued use and a greatly reduced need to clean the device during use. The method comprises a system in which unwanted weeds may be easily secured and extracted by the user without an increased risk of accidents or without unnecessary steps or procedures for cleaning.

Carter; Larry (Makawao, HI)

2013-06-25

224

Electrochromatographic Methods: Capillary Electrochromatograpy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capilary electrochromatography is a separation technique that brings together advantages of liquid chromatographic selectivity with high efficiency of CE provided by flat flow profile of the electroosmosis. This chapter provides the basic knowledge on generation of the EOF in capillary electrochromatography and parameters that influence it. Furthermore, attention is paid to the methods used for gradient elution in CEC, which have been one of the problems that restrict the wide use of CEC in chemical laboratories. The chapter also describes the problem of bubble formation in CEC and provides a step-by-step guide of how to perform CEC separation. Moreover, methods of preparation of CEC columns are discussed, including preparation of packed and monolithic silica and polymeric beds. The position of CEC among other contemporary separation methods is also discussed.

Szumski, Micha?

225

Robust Methods in Qsar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large progress in the development of robust methods as an efficient tool for processing of data contaminated with outlying objects has been made over the last years. Outliers in the QSAR studies are usually the result of an improper calculation of some molecular descriptors and/or experimental error in determining the property to be modelled. They influence greatly any least square model, and therefore the conclusions about the biological activity of a potential component based on such a model are misleading. With the use of robust approaches, one can solve this problem building a robust model describing the data majority well. On the other hand, the proper identification of outliers may pinpoint a new direction of a drug development. The outliers' assessment can exclusively be done with robust methods and these methods are to be described in this chapter

Walczak, Beata; Daszykowski, Micha?; Stanimirova, Ivana

226

Bayesian Methods in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

2009-12-01

227

Experimental Physics - Modern Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

Dunlap, R. A.

1988-10-01

228

Computer intensive statistical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special session “Computer-Intensive Statistical Methods” was held in morning and afternoon parts at the 1985 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Calif. Its mission was to provide a forum for hydrologists and statisticians who are active in bringing unconventional, algorithmic-oriented statistical techniques to bear on problems of hydrology. Statistician Emanuel Parzen (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex.) opened the session by relating recent developments in quantile estimation methods and showing how properties of such methods can be used to advantage to categorize runoff data previously analyzed by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela). Statistician Eugene Schuster (University of Texas, El Paso) discussed recent developments in nonparametric density estimation which enlarge the framework for convenient incorporation of prior and ancillary information. These extensions were motivated by peak annual flow analysis. Mathematician D. Myers (University of Arizona, Tucson) gave a brief overview of “kriging” and outlined some recently developed methodology.

Yakowitz, S.

229

Structures and stochastic methods  

SciTech Connect

Studies and research on structures and stochastic methods in the soil dynamics and earthquake engineering filed are covered in this book. The first section is on structures and includes studies on bridges, loaded tanks, sliding structures and wood-framed houses. The second section covers dams, retaining walls and slopes. The third section on underground structures covers pipelines, water supply, fire loss, buried lifeline, and underground transmission lines. The final section is on stochastic methods and includes applications in earthquake response spectra, lifeline aqueduct systems, and various other areas.

Cakmak, A.S.

1987-01-01

230

Randomly exact methods  

SciTech Connect

Important advances in the understanding of random processes have produced a variety of stochastic algorithms that offer unprecedented scope and utility in the study of physical systems. These algorithms represent a departure from the usual philosophy inherent in the study of many-body problems and have a number of significant features. Chief among these features are simplicity, weak dependence on dimensionality, and ease of transition between classical and quantum-mechanical descriptions. These methods are also readily adapted for use on massively parallel computer architectures. These new stochastic methods represent a valuable addition to the tools available for the analysis of both equilibrium and time-dependent many-body problems.

Doll, J.D.; Freeman, D.L.

1986-12-12

231

Contaminant treatment method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

Shapiro, Andrew Philip (Schenectady, NY); Thornton, Roy Fred (Schenectady, NY); Salvo, Joseph James (Schenectady, NY)

2003-01-01

232

FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD  

DOEpatents

A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.

Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.

1960-05-31

233

Subductive waste disposal method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for the disposal of nuclear and toxic waste materials comprising the placing of waste materials into waste repositories radiating from an access tunnel constructed into a subtending tectonic plate adjacent or as near as possible a subduction zone. The waste materials descend within the tectonic plate into the mantle of the earth.

1991-06-11

234

The fourth moment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher moment analysis has typically been used to upper bound certain functions. In this paper, we introduce a new combinatorial method to lower bound the expectation of an absolute value by a fourth moment. We present a special case of this lower bound in a particularly useful form — yielding a general mathematical inequality on expectations. In the special case

Bonnie Berger

1991-01-01

235

Die Feldenkrais-Methode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Feldenkrais-Methode stellt einerseits eine körperorientierte Lernmethode dar, durch die Erkenntnisse über den eigenen\\u000a Körper und eigene dysfunktionale Bewegungsmuster zu gewinnen sind. Andererseits ist sie eine spezielle Form der Körpertherapie,\\u000a die auf der Basis verschiedenster Quellen und ganz wesentlich auch des Judo eine ganz eigene Behandlungsmethode generierte.

Hans-Erich Czetczok

236

Method of capturing sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluidized bed boiler, and a method of operating same in which air is passed through a grate to fluidize a bed of particulate material containing fossil fuel disposed on the grate. A raw acceptor for the sulfur produced as a result of the combustion of the fuel is introduced into the housing and confined within an area of the

R. D. Stewart; R. L. Gamble

1984-01-01

237

Selection: Evaluation and methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...

238

Method for obtaining tetracyclinehydrochloride  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention provides method for obtaining tetracycline hydrochloride through interaction of a suspension consisting of tetracycline base in an organic solvent with concentrated hydrochloric acid, wherein the solution containing tetracycline base and hydrochloric acid is treated by high-frequency oscillations.

1976-09-07

239

Method of drying articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from

M. A. Janney; J. O. Jr. Kiggans

1999-01-01

240

Method of drying articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from

Mark A. Janney; Kiggans Jr. James O

1999-01-01

241

Mastering the Case Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the instructor's role in preparing a case for student discussion and case work. A detailed description of one approach to the case method is presented. This description of case discussion includes specifics for devising interactive stages of student involvement, including a framework for sequencing questions to guide students through cases of analysis and decision making. Accompanying the

Joyce Huth Monro

1997-01-01

242

Image Secret Sharing Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an image secret sharing method which essentially incorporates two k-out-of-n secret sharing schemes: (1) Shamir's secret sharing scheme and (2) matrix projection secret sharing scheme. The technique allows a secret image to be divided ...

A. Ortiz D. Dalessandro L. Bai S. Biswas

2006-01-01

243

FIELD ANALYTICAL METHODS GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance outlines a strategy for dynamic work planning and on-site decision making so that EPA project managers can minimize the number of mobilizations that are involved in reaching site decisions. As part of this process, it describes how field-based analytical methods can...

244

WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

245

Oil shale mining method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for mining underground oil-shale formations consists of drilling a series of small diameter shot holes from the surface vertically downward to near or into the roof of a room previously dug out and mined from the formation, lowering explosive charges to the same depth in each hole and simultaneously exploding these charges to bring down into the room

Arendy

1970-01-01

246

Battery cathode and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for producing electrodes for use in secondary cells is described. A suspension in oil of fine particles of electrode material is applied as a film to a metal foil substrate which is then baked in an inert atmosphere at temperatures high enough to drive off the oil yet below the melting point of the metal foil substrate. Oxygen

K. Brandt; R. R. Haering; J. A. Stiles

1981-01-01

247

The Probabilistic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of randomness is now an accepted tool in Theoretical Computer Science but not everyone is aware of the underpinnings of this methodology in Combinatorics - particularly, in what is now called the probabilistic Method as developed primarily by Paul Erdo&huml;s over the past half century. Here I will explore a particular set of problems - all dealing with

Noga Alon; Joel Spencer

1992-01-01

248

A Stochastic Approximation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $M(x)$ denote the expected value at level $x$ of the response to a certain experiment. $M(x)$ is assumed to be a monotone function of $x$ but is unknown to the experimenter, and it is desired to find the solution $x = \\\\theta$ of the equation $M(x) = \\\\alpha$, where $\\\\alpha$ is a given constant. We give a method for

Herbert Robbins; Sutton Monro

1951-01-01

249

Coating method for graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of YâOâ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

J. G. Banker; C. E. Jr. Holcombe

1975-01-01

250

Coating method for graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of YâOâ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 1 table.

J. G. Banker; C. E. Jr. Holcombe

1977-01-01

251

Shooting Method Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shooting Method model displays the solution to the time-independent Schrödinger equation determined via the shooting method. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ShootingMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default potential energy function is a harmonic oscillator with V(x) = x*x/2. The model assumes that the eigenfunction is bound within a spatial region. The energy of the energy eigenfunction can be changed with the slider. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Shooting Method was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Open Source Physics programs for quantum mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-04

252

Method for forming ammonia  

DOEpatents

A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

Kong; ,Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pink, Robert J. (Pocatello, ID); Zuck, Larry D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-19

253

Cooling load estimation methods  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01

254

Wastewater energy recycling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an auxiliary process and method for use in wastewater treatment plants, modifying conventional primary and secondary treatment, to condition the effluent for use as agricultural irrigation water containing liquified fertilizer and soil amendment materials. Primary sludge and skimmed materials are comminuted and added to the volume of organic materials available for secondary treatment. A bacterial inoculum is

L. G. Erickson; H. E. Worne

1979-01-01

255

Digitalized Method of Graz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this method, the driving speed/time curve of a measuring vehicle driving in the city is recorded, and fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are calculated from the idealized curve. The signal, i.e. the speed of a measuring wheel mounted on the vehic...

J. Haghofer

1982-01-01

256

Methods of Food Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all foods are derived from living cells from animals and plant origin and in some cases from some microorganisms by biotechnology methods. Thus, foods are for the most part composed of “edible biochemicals”. One of the most important goals of the food scientist is to make foods as safe as possible whether they are used fresh or processed. The

Tsvetko Prokopov; Stoyan Tanchev

257

Coating method for graphite  

DOEpatents

A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

Banker, John G. (Kingston, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-01-01

258

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

259

Singularity Expansion Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the transient currents induced on an arbitrary system of thin linear scatterers by an electromagnetic plane wave are solved by using an electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. The transient analysis is carried out using the singularity expansion method (SEM). The general analysis developed here is useful for assessing the vulnerability of military aircraft to a nuclear

Lloyd Stephen Riggs

1985-01-01

260

Quantitative methods in archaeoseismology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the multidisciplinary field of archaeoseismology, quantitative methods have begun to be utilized more prevalently. This paper proposes a scheme of applying quantitative models to test the seismogenic hypothesis of observed damage and gives examples from field cases. The combination of 3D structural models of buildings or their remains based in part on phase shift laserscanner measurements combined with high-resolution

Klaus-G. Hinzen; Claus Fleischer; Sharon K. Reamer; Stephan Schreiber; Sven Schütte; Baris Yerli

2011-01-01

261

INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS, GERMAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CONSTRUCTION, REVISION, AND STANDARDIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN GERMAN IS DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT AFTER CONSIDERATION IS GIVEN TO THE METHODS AND GOALS CONNECTED WITH THE PRODUCTION OF LANGUAGE MATERIAL. THE ROLE OF RESEARCHERS, AUTHORS, PUBLISHERS, TEACHERS, AND STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING COURSE MATERIAL IS OUTLINED. DESCRIPTIONS ARE…

LINDELL, EBBE

262

Method for detecting biomolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film

Qisheng Huo; Jun Liu

2008-01-01

263

Mindfulness: Method and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes and principles that underlie mindfulness is a needed step, because this method enters into the armamentarium of empirical clinical psychology. Mindfulness is closely related to several procedures, in- cluding acceptance, cognitive defusion, and exposure. Although each of these procedures seems to target dif- ferent behavioral processes, they are all interrelated, be- cause ultimately all of them target

Steven C. Hayes; Kelly G. Wilson

2003-01-01

264

Ferrari's Method and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing…

Althoen, Steve

2005-01-01

265

The Discontinuous Enrichment Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a finite element based discretization method in which the standard polynomialfield is enriched within each element by a nonconforming field that is addedto it. The enrichment contains free-space solutions of the homogeneous differentialequation that are not represented by the underlying polynomial field. Continuity ofthe enrichment across element interfaces is enforced weakly by Lagrange multipliers.In this manner, we expect

Charbel Farhat; Isaac Harari; Leopoldo P. Franca

2000-01-01

266

The discontinuous enrichment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a finite element based discretization method in which the standard polynomial field is enriched within each element by a non-conforming field that is added to it. The enrichment contains free-space solutions of the homogeneous differential equation that are not represented by the underlying polynomial field. Continuity of the enrichment across element interfaces is enforced weakly by Lagrange multipliers.

Charbel Farhat; Isaac Harari; Leopoldo P. Franca

2001-01-01

267

Acoustophoresis Method and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absor...

J. S. Heyman

1990-01-01

268

Understanding Method Level Speculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method level speculation (MLS) is an optimistic technique for par- allelizing imperative programs, for which a variety of MLS systems and optimizations have been proposed. However, runtime perfor- mance strongly depends on the interaction between program struc- ture and MLS system design choices, making it difficult to com- pare approaches or understand in a general way how programs be- have

Christopher J. F. Pickett; Clark Verbrugge; Allan Kielstra

269

Method of treating hypertension  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of treating hypertension to reduce blood pressure or to maintain blood pressure at a desired level comprising administering to the patient an effective amount to maintain or lower blood pressure of tea polyphenols. The tea polyphenols include (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, free theaflavin, theaflavin monogallate A, theaflavin monogallate B and theaflavin digallate.

1989-06-20

270

Method of purifying isosaccharinate  

SciTech Connect

A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

Rai, Dhanpat (Yachats, OR); Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-09-07

271

METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION  

DOEpatents

A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

Cohen, K.

1960-05-10

272

Implementing Cooperative Learning Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies the bases and rationale for the concept of cooperative learning; describes the dynamics of the cooperative learning approach; and proposes methods that college faculty can use to enhance student motivation and learning. Cooperative learning is defined and is reported to have positive effects on student achievement, human…

Lyons, Paul R.

273

Voronoi binning method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Voronoi binning method is an IDL program to bin two-dimensional data to a constant signal-to-noise ratio per bin. It optimally solves the problem of preserving the maximum spatial resolution of general two-dimensional data, given a constraint on the minimum signal-to-noise ratio.

Cappellari, Michele; Copin, Yannick

2012-11-01

274

Methods of producing superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed of coating products such as metallic coil formers and wire containing the components of an intermetallic superconductive compound in which the coating is flexible at room temperatures but which has good insulating properties after heat treatment, the coating comprising a mixture of sodium silicate, chalk and China clay which reacts on heat treatment to form an

G. R. Sutcliffe; D. Humpherson; S. J. Warden

1983-01-01

275

Nuclear mechanics and methods.  

PubMed

The role of the nucleus in protecting and sequestering the genome is intrinsically mechanical, and disease-causing structural mutants in lamins and other components underscore this function. Various methods to measure nuclear mechanics, isolated or in situ, are outlined here in some detail. PMID:17613312

Lammerding, Jan; Dahl, Kris Noel; Discher, Dennis E; Kamm, Roger D

2007-01-01

276

Comparing Speckle Imaging Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We will compare speckle imaging reconstruction results for several speckle imaging approaches. In particular, we will compare and contrast four methods: 1) Knox-Thompson, using a hidden phase-finder in the object spectrum phase reconstruction; 2) Knox-Tho...

A. P. Ongstad G. C. Dente M. L. Tilton

2009-01-01

277

Paraffin control method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the world, paraffin crude oils exist and are produced with resulting deposition of paraffin in the production tubing, surface lines, and tanks. There are various remedies to inhibit or prevent this deposition, but none have been entirely satisfactory. This method for controlling paraffin deposition in an oil production system includes injecting an asphaltic crude oil into

1971-01-01

278

Method for stabilizing hydroisomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for improving the daylight stability of a lube oil base stock or blending stock produced by the isomerization of slack wax containing from 0% to 25% oil coming from the dewaxing of conventional petroleum crude oils. It comprises: hydrorefining the total liquid product produced in the petroleum slack wax isomerization unit the hydrorefining being practiced

I. A. Cody; D. T. Eadie; J. M. MacDonald; G. P. Hamner

1992-01-01

279

Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

1989-01-01

280

Subsurface formation fracturing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this fracturing method, the well is first prepared for fracturing by cutting the casing and notching the formation at the desired level in the well. Fracturing fluid is then applied at the notch under sufficient pressure to initiate a fracture in the formation. During propagation of the fracture, fracturing fluid containing propping agent is pumped into the fracture in

J. L. Huitt; B. B. McGlothlin; J. Papaila

1965-01-01

281

Method for Piercing Peas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method relates to the piercing of fresh green peas. In preparing dehydrated peas, the peas are preferably pierced prior to the application of the drying procedure. The piercing is advantageous in that evaporation of moisture can occur at an acceptable...

E. Lowe E. L. Durkee

1965-01-01

282

Maximizing Research Methods Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers some insights on how to maximize the research methods course, such that students will take from the course a meaningful learning experience as opposed to a short-term exercise on memorizing terms and, ideally, administrators who review the course will recognize communication as an academic discipline rich in theory and methodology. (SG)|

Denham, Bryan E.

2003-01-01

283

Building thermal monitoring methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any method for monitoring building thermal energy has three key steps: model selection, building testing, and model analyses. first a thermal model of the building must be chosen that accounts for all major thermal processes and that adequately answers the questions motivating the monitoring project. Once a model is chosen, a test is designed and executed to determine from data

Burch

1986-01-01

284

Method for Treating Glaucoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for reducing intraocular pressure and increasing outflow facility from an eye of a subject having glaucoma includes the step of providing in the trabecular meshwork of the eye an amount of caldesmon effective to reduce intraocular pressure and in...

A. Bershadsky B. Geiger P. L. Laufman T. Borras

2005-01-01

285

Further validation of computer-assessed response time to emotionally evocative stimuli.  

PubMed

Response time (RT) to stimuli from word association test items to Rorschach cards has long been held to be clinically important; especially when unusually long. Recently, Temple and Geisinger (1990) reported longer RT to personality test items previously rated evocative than to other items rated neutral. Our research replicated both Temple and Geisinger's (1990) methods and findings on 23 college students. Subsequent analyses revealed that this effect was found in 78% of all subjects at MMPI-2 item length. Implications for augmenting test validity are discussed. PMID:16370819

Tyron, W W; Mulloy, J M

1993-10-01

286

Roy Schafer's contributions to psychological testing: from clinical sensibility to the analytic attitude.  

PubMed

The author reviews Schafer's contributions to psychological testing, emphasizing his development of the test battery, his significant contributions to psychoanalytically oriented Rorschach interpretation, and his understanding of the complex interpersonal dynamics involved in psychological test interpretation. The author also discusses his use of Schafer's writing in his own teaching and academic work, noting that Schafer's contributions have not only provided innovative methods for examining test data, but have also promoted a respectful, humanistic, and individualized approach to the patient in testing and treatment. The author asserts that Schafer's later seminal contributions to psychoanalysis had their origins in his early career as a psychologist applying psychoanalytic ideas to testing. PMID:23457096

Fritsch, Richard C

2013-01-01

287

Comparing Speckle Imaging Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speckle imaging techniques have been evolving since the fundamental idea was presented almost 40 years ago;(1) the critical insight demonstrated how moments of the Fourier transform of an ensemble of short exposures contain information out to the diffraction limit. Many variations on the theme have been implemented, but in all cases, an ensemble of short-exposure images is collected and then post-processed to restore the object. In this presentation, we will compare speckle imaging reconstruction results for several speckle imaging approaches. In particular, we will compare and contrast four methods: 1) Knox-Thompson, using a hidden phase-finder in the object spectrum phase reconstruction ;(2,3) 2) Knox-Thompson, using a phasor-based phase reconstruction; 3) Bispectrum, using only two bispectrum planes and a phasor-based phase reconstruction;(4) 4) Bispectrum, using four bispectrum planes and a phasor-based phase reconstruction. In each application of the four approaches, we first calculate the modulus of the object spectrum using a Wiener-Helstrom filter to remove the speckle transfer function. The methods then differ in their object spectrum phase reconstructions. The first method solves two-dimensional difference equations for the phase using the method described in Reference 3. There, we demonstrate that the object spectrum phase can be decomposed into a regular, single-valued function determined by the divergence of the phase gradient, as well as a multi-valued function determined by the circulation of the phase gradient; this second function has been called the "hidden phase." The standard least-squares solution to the two-dimensional difference equations always misses this hidden phase. Reference 3 develops a solution method that gives both the regular and hidden parts of the object spectrum phase. The next three methods all use phasor-based phase reconstruction algorithms. Here, we develop "least-squares" motivated iterative improvement algorithms that rapidly converge to the least-squares-best two-dimensional phasor array for the object spectrum. In our applications, we will implement all four methods on a simple binary star object at both moderate and low photon-per-frame light levels. Then, we will apply the four methods to several complex extended objects, once again varying the photons per frame. In the simulations, we will assume that the only aberrations are those introduced by atmospheric turbulence setting the ratio of the telescope diameter, D, to the Fried Parameter, r0, greater than or equal to ten.(5) In addition, we assume only photon noise in the short exposures while neglecting other noise sources. We will present numerous results, describing the strengths and weaknesses of each of the four methods applied to both simple and extended objects. References 1. A. Labeyrie, "Attainment of diffraction limited resolution in large telescopes by Fourier analyzing speckle patterns in star images," Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85-87 (1970). 2. K. T. Knox and B. J. Thompson, "Recovery of images from atmospherically degraded short-exposure photographs," Astron. J. 193, L45-L48 (1974). 3. G. C. Dente, Speckle Imaging and Hidden Phase, Appl. Opt, vol. 39, No. 10, pg. 1480-1485, 2000. 4. G. R. Ayers, M. J. Northcott and J. C. Dainty, "Knox-Thompson and triple-correlation imaging through atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 963-985 (1987). 5. D. L. Fried, "Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372-1379 (1966).

Dente, G.; Tilton, M.; Ongstad, A.

288

Powdered epoxy resin test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes several test methods which may be used to evaluate powdered epoxy resins for their potential use as integral insulation on fractional horsepower motor iron. These are the edge coverage test method, the hot plate gel time test method, the glass pellet flow test method, and the steel panel impact test method. These test methods may be of

N. Hanssen

1991-01-01

289

Meshless methods in computational mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, two meshless methods, the element free Galerkin (EFG) method and the meshless method based on the local boundary integral equation (LBIE), are described. The first part (Chapters II and III) of the thesis is to propose efficient methods in enforcing the essential boundary conditions in the EFG method. A modified collocation method has been proposed for enforcing

Tulong Zhu

1998-01-01

290

Method for making glass  

DOEpatents

A method is discussed for making better quality molten borosilicate glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter`s operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a ``non-bridging oxygen`` term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-12-31

291

Method for making glass  

DOEpatents

A method is discussed for making better quality molten borosilicate glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen'' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-01-01

292

Proximal Point Methods Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.

Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moro?anu, Gheorghe

2011-09-01

293

Die singulation method  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

2013-06-11

294

Open surface flotation method  

SciTech Connect

A method for the in situ separation of viscous crude oil from a reservoir such as, oil sand, or tar sand is disclosed. Hot water is introduced to the top surface of the reservoir while steam is injected into the reservoir through drill holes. The hot water and steam may contain a surfactant. The bouyancy of the crude oil creates an artificial water drive which causes the water and oil to ''flip-flop'' so that the oil rises to the top of the reservoir and separates from the remainder of the reservoir material. If the overburden is deep, underground mining techniques may be used to reach the reservoir prior to applying the present method.

Bass, D.M.; Wang, F.

1981-11-24

295

Glycoconjugates And Methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2005-08-30

296

Glycoconjugates and methods  

DOEpatents

Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

Bertozzi, Carolyn C. (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal; Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

2008-04-01

297

Cell senescence culturing methods.  

PubMed

Development of therapeutic approaches that slow or ablate the adverse physiological and pathological changes associated with aging has been considered as an important goal for gerontological research. As cellular senescence is characterized as the basis for aging in organisms, culturing and subculturing of normal human diploid fibroblasts to mimic the in vivo aging processes have been developed as major methods to investigate molecular events involved in aging. It has been established that normal human diploid fibroblasts can proliferate in culture for only finite periods of time. There are many ways to study aging in vitro. In this chapter, we will discuss some of the basic laboratory procedures for cell senescence culturing methods. PMID:23929093

Chen, Huaping; Li, Yuanyuan; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

2013-01-01

298

Containment reservoir and method  

SciTech Connect

A containment reservoir is described for a liquid such as petroleum oil. It consists of a walled ground containment space or pit, opening upwardly, with the space containing a liquid impervious flexible liner generally following the contour of the space, and with the liner, a layer of pervious fabric material having on at least one of its sides a layer of liquid impervious material, such as rubber. The liner prevents escape of liquid from the containment space; means are provided for removing liquid from the reservoir. A covering layer of pervious fabric material filters anything, including liquid, passing into the reservoir. A method of forming the reservoir from predetermined width strips of liner stock, and a method of retaining and salvaging oil spilled along a railroad track environment is also disclosed.

Luebke, R.W.

1981-10-27

299

Automatic translation method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to an automatic translation method. When a sentence in a source language is translated into a sentence in a target language, the method comprises: a step (1) of extracting the set of sentence portions of the target language from a textual database that correspond to a total or partial translation of the source sentence to be translated; a step (2) of determining all the assemblies of these target sentence portions that overlap the source sentence; a step (3) of choosing the best assemblies according to a criterion of maximum overlap between the target sentence portions assembled in the preceding step and according to a criterion of minimizing the number of assembled elements; a step (4) of determining the target sentence by choosing the best assembly according to coherence criteria. The invention is notably applicable to the translation of texts in a rare language. More generally, it applies to translation with no previously established bilingual texts.

2013-07-16

300

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

301

Groundwater contamination field methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

Johnson, Ivan

302

Developing outcome assessment methods.  

PubMed

Describing the development of an outcome assessment method for accreditation, the authors discuss development of criterion definitions and the evaluation of results from a pilot study using student portfolios. The subsequent design of an outcome assessment tool to provide concrete, objective data, the evolution of the evaluation process using this tool, and how the outcome data are currently used for curriculum evaluation are discussed. PMID:9416088

Martin, J H; Kinnick, V L; Hummel, F; Clukey, L; Baird, S C

303

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOEpatents

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

304

Methods of measurement.  

PubMed

Four points, I feel, have dominated the session devoted to the methods of measurement; First, we all seem to be convinced that ambulatory measurement of blood pressure shows great promise, not only in clinical trials of drugs but also in routine practice. Further development of the technique will almost certainly encourage more manufacturers to produce machines, which by the operation of market forces should lead to lower prices. However, we need to be critical with respect to instrument quality and to the rigour of validation according to the guidelines of hypertension societies, especially for particular populations such as elderly patients. Second, two methods of indirect measurement of blood pressure are now being employed, namely auscultation and oscillometry, which are likely to remain the most widely exploited ones with the current technology. They should not be regarded as competing methods because both have their role to play in the measurement of ambulatory blood pressure, with their own advantages and limits. A possible development would be intelligent machines using both techniques, which could switch between methods depending on the actual conditions of each measurement. Third, desirable features of the new machines would be: more comfortable recording conditions for the patient with a lighter, quieter device giving a faster reading and thus reducing the cuff inflation time; and assistance with interpretation, which I believe is compatible with current technology such as automatic determination of the position of the patient (upright or supine) using some form of sensor and quantification of the degree of activity of the patient, which clearly affects blood pressure. Fourth, it is also likely that future development will include devices capable of measuring blood pressure together with other parameters the variations of which according to blood pressure changes may be of great interest, such as electrocardiographic data, oxygen saturation and the QKD interval. For all these reasons, the near future will certainly see much progress in the ambulatory measurement of blood pressure. PMID:10226228

Gosse

1996-06-01

305

Solutions by Variational Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The variational method for solving stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE’s) of evolutionary type involves recasting\\u000a them as SDE’s in a Gelfand triplet of Hilbert or Banach spaces V?H?V\\u000a ?, where the embeddings are dense and continuous. We discuss only the case of separable Hilbert spaces. In order to construct\\u000a a weak solution, we assume that the embeddings are compact, and

Leszek Gawarecki; Vidyadhar Mandrekar

306

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

307

METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS  

DOEpatents

A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

1958-09-01

308

Secondary recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a waterflood method of oil recovery. A slug of a light hydrocarbon crude-oil distillate having a boiling point below that of gas-oil is injected into the oil-bearing formation. An amount equal to between 10 and 20% of the pore volume of the formation is injected. The slug also contains between 2.5 and 10% by wt of a high-

1965-01-01

309

Method of electromagnetic exploration  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of electromagnetic exploration comprising the following steps: obtaining measures of two horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field at each reference sites; obtaining a measure of the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field for at least one exploratory site; and determining a measure of a multidimensional earth resistivity structure by correlating the measures of horizontal and vertical components of the earth's magnetic field.

Nekut, A.G. Jr.

1987-05-05

310

Computational methods for NDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of ultrasound nondestructive evaluation techniques (NDT) has involved a combination of both analytic and experimental methods. In contrast, relatively little work has been done on the use of computational methods for experimental design and analysis in NDT. This is due to the relative lack of availability of software for such computations. While computational methods and associated software implementations abound in the electromagnetic and structural analysis engineering communities, no such paradigm exists for ultrasound researchers and engineers. This paper demonstrates a software package, Wave2000, which computes the full solution to the 2D viscoelastic wave equation. 2D objects are represented by graphical images and are comprised of a number of solids and/or liquids. Each material is specified in terms of its material density, the first and second Lame constants, and the first and second viscosities. The program computers the displacement vector was a function of Cartesian coordinates x and y and of time t, and the solution includes effects of diffraction, scattering, reflection, and attenuation of the propagating wave. Wave2000 implements a finite difference solution on a standard personal computer running Microsoft Windows 95 or NT. Sources and receivers may be located anywhere in or on the surface of the object. The source waveform can be practically any temporal function desired, including data collected from an actual transducer, and the receiver data can be sorted in a data file for subsequent processing. Several examples of the use of Wave2000 are given, including simulations of scattering from cracks and propagation through layers of materials and fluid-filled porous structures. Results demonstrate that computational methods can play an important can play an important role in NDT specifically and in ultrasonics in general.

Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Luo, Gangming; Bianco, Bruno; Chiabrera, Alessandro; Siffert, Robert S.

1999-02-01

311

Test methods: anabolics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the International Olympic Committee (IOC) accredited laboratories, specific methods have been developed to detect anabolic steroids in athletes' urine. The technique of choice to achieve this is gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to improve the efficiency of anti-doping programmes, the laboratories have defined new analytical strategies. The final sensitivity of the analytical procedure can be improved

Martial Saugy; Christine Cardis; Neil Robinson; Carine Schweizer

2000-01-01

312

GRAPHITE IMPREGNATION METHOD  

DOEpatents

ABS>A method for impregnating a refractory material by filling its pores with a first salt having a high melting temperature is described. The salt is mixed with another, more volatile salt, giving the mixture a much lower melting temperature than that of the first salt. The material is coated with the mixture, then heated to drive off the volatile salt, leaving the first salt in place. (AEC)

Kertesz, F.; Buttram, H.J.

1962-04-24

313

Mining method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of single-entry mining of coal and analogous minerals is disclosed, which permits substantially 100% extraction of the coal or other mineral in a seam. All operations are carried out under hydraulic steel roof supports adjacent the mine face; farther back the roof is supported by non-yielding cast-in-situ pillars of quick-setting concrete rather than coal pillars or other supports.

H. J. Fitzgerald; K. Spies

1983-01-01

314

Mining method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A method of single-entry mining of coal and analogous minerals is disclosed, which permits substantially 100% extraction of the coal or other mineral in a seam. All operations are carried out under hydraulic steel roof supports adjacent the mine face; farther back the roof is supported by non-yielding cast-in-situ pillars of quick-setting concrete rather than coal pillars or other supports. Mining machinery for these purposes is also disclosed.

Fitzgerald, H.J.; Spies, K.

1983-03-29

315

Method for scavenging mercury  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

2011-08-30

316

Hydraulic fracturing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of fracturing subterranean formations employs propping agent particles composed of resin-filled or fiber-reinforced cement pellets or resin-filled clinker. The cement pellets are impregnated with a resinous material, or reinforced with fibrous material, or both. The cement clinker particles also are impregnated with a resinous material. Laboratory tests show that this propping agent has less tendency to crush than

Cooke; C. E. Jr

1975-01-01

317

Well treatment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a method of propping a fracture in subterranean formations, the invention comprises placing in the fractures particulate solids such as sand coated with a water-repellent coating composition such as an oil-soluble organo-silicon compound. The water-repellent coated solid particulate propping agent can be prepared by dissolving an oil-soluble organo-silicon compound in a solvent therefor, admixing the resultant solution with particulate

R. B. Needham; C. P. Thomas; D. R. Wier

1980-01-01

318

Method of coal degasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for producing methane gas and other gases present from a subterranean coal-containing formation comprising the creation of a fracture in the subterranean coal-containing formation, introduction of a propping agent into the open fracture after which at least a portion of the proppant is permitted to settle within the fracture, introduction of a substantially propping agent-free fluid into the

P. A. Lasseter; F. C. Hollingsworth

1984-01-01

319

Method of coal upgrading  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a method of converting a low-rank coal to produce a high-rank coal which has reduced hygroscopicity as well as increased heating value and lowered moisture content during and after transport or storage. The invention comprises the steps of heat-treating coal for dehydrating the coal and distilling off tar therefrom, vaporizing the tar, and coating the heat-treated coal surface with the tar vapor, whereby the coal surface is coated uniformly.

Kuge, T.; Muroi, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Nogita, S.; Yokoyama, H.

1985-06-18

320

Extrusion die and method  

DOEpatents

A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

1994-04-26

321

Exoplanet Detection: Transit Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exoplanet Detection: Transit Method model simulates the detection of exoplanets by using the transit method of detecting exoplanets. In this method, the light curve from a star, and how it changes over time due to exoplanet transits, is observed and then analyzed. In this simulation the exoplanet orbits the star (sun-sized) in circular motion via Kepler's third law.  When the exoplanet passes in front of the star (transits), it blocks part of the starlight. This decrease in starlight is shown on the graph.  If the exoplanet is close enough to the central star, and has sufficient reflectivity, or albedo, it can reflect enough of the starlight to be seen on the light curve. In the simulation the star-exoplanet system is shown as seen from Earth (edge on view) but magnified greatly, and with the star and planet sizes not shown to the scale of the orbit. The radius of the central star (relative to the radius of Sun),semi-major axis of the exoplanet (in AU), radius of the exoplanet (relative to the radius of Jupiter), the exoplanet's albedo (reflectivity), and the inclination of the system relative to Earth can be changed. The simulation uses Java 3D, if installed, to render the view the star and exoplanet. If Java 3D is not installed, the simulation will default to simple 3D using Java.

Belloni, Mario

2010-06-29

322

The data embedding method  

SciTech Connect

Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

1996-06-01

323

SOME DERIVATIVES OF NEWTON'S METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every first-year calculus student learns Newton's method as part of a repertoire of numerical root-finding methods. We present two other numerical root-finding methods that we derive using Newton's method: a simplified Newton's method, and Halley's method. These two methods are not new, yet they seldom find their way into a first calculus course even though they would not be out

J. B. Thoo

2002-01-01

324

Some Derivatives of Newton's Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every rst-year calculus student learns Newton's method as part of a repertoire of numerical root-nding methods. We present two other numerical root-nding methods that we derive using Newton's method: a simplied Newton's method, and Halley's method. These two methods are not new, yet they seldom nd their way into a rst calculus course even though they would not be out

J. B. Thoo

2001-01-01

325

Lidar system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A ground-based method is disclosed which determines the spatial statistics of fragmented and spatially variably dispersed objects in a transmissive medium, by generating a plurality of pulsed beams of laser energy, the beams having selectively variable width and shape; selectively varying the width and shape of the beams; directing the beams toward the dispersed objects; measuring the time and/or phase and intensity of signals returned by the dispersed objects, and calculating the apparent reflectance of the dispersed objects as a function of the range of the dispersed objects for each beam width and beam shape.

Jupp; David L. (Acton, AU); Parkin; David A. (Acton, AU); Poropat; George V. (Acton, AU); Lovell; Jennifer L. (Acton, AU)

2007-03-06

326

METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIATION  

DOEpatents

A method for measuring an unknown integrated quantity of radiation with a condenser ionization chamber is described. The chamber is initially charged to a predetermined voltage by a voltage source. The chamber is then removed from the source and exposed to an unknown quantity of radiation for a period of time. The quantity of radiation to which the chamber was exposed is then measured by detecting the magnitude of the pulse of current necessary to recharge the chamber of its initial value through a suitable impedance. The current pulse is amplified and measured directly by a suitable pulse height analyzing system. (AEC)

Roesch, W.C.; McCall, R.C.

1961-11-21

327

Method for forming boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of boring a well hole into a target zone in a formation comprising the steps of boring an essentially vertical hole to at least a predetermined depth below the target zone in the formation, the vertical hole being laterally displaced from the target zone, lowering via the vertical hole drilling apparatus including a mud pressure driven motor and drilling bit to the predetermined depth, applying pressurized drilling mud from the vertical hole to the mud motor, and mechanically boring with the mud motor and the drilling bit initially in an upward direction from the vertical hole a deviated hole into the target zone.

Goodhart, M.E.

1986-08-12

328

Cooling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

Mayes, James C. (Sugar Land, TX)

2009-05-05

329

Multigrid Monte Carlo methods  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended to be a tutorial on multigrid Monte Carlo techniques, illustrated with two examples. Path-integral quantum Monte Carlo is seen to take only a finite amount of computer time even as the paths are discretized on infinitesimally small scales. A method for eliminating critical slowing down completely/emdash/even for models with discrete degrees of freedom, as in Potts models, or discrete excitations, such as isolated vortices in the XY model/emdash/is presented. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Loh, E. Jr.

1988-01-01

330

Methods for smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Smoking cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance (support and coping strategies). Although most people who quit smoking do so without going through a formal program, many people act on the advice of a health professional. Self-help techniques appear to be cost effective in terms of their minimal use of professionals. The popularity of hypnosis and acupuncture as quitting methods are not warranted by their quit rates. Quit rates can be improved if physicians provide more help to their patients than just simple advice and warnings. PMID:1747991

Schwartz, J L

1991-12-01

331

Methods of making monolayers  

SciTech Connect

The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-12-08

332

Method of drying articles  

DOEpatents

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

1999-03-23

333

Construction Material And Method  

DOEpatents

A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2006-02-21

334

SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

Duffield, R.B.

1958-08-12

335

Introduction to Scientific Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit exposes students to the tools, methods, and processes used by scientists to study our Universe. This includes: safe laboratory practices, quantitative data gathering (measurement, qualitative data gathering (observation), scientific experimentation, and scientific modeling. The second purpose of this unit is to introduce students to the two explanatory themes that underpin much of the Earth Sciences: density and convection. These two broad purposes are presented primarily through a combination of experiments, demonstrations, and readings, combined, to a lesser extent, with lectures and discussions.

2002-01-01

336

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

337

METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION  

DOEpatents

A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.

Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.

1960-02-01

338

Method for resonant measurement  

DOEpatents

A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

1996-03-05

339

Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

Hajjari, Tayebeh

2012-11-01

340

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O' Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

341

Pest control methods  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Certain embodiments of the methods and compositions of matter disclosed herein relate to: "simultaneous" control of rodents and at least one insect pest (e.g., cockroach, ant, tick) using the same bait; control of ticks by orally administering to mammals a diet composition comprising fipronil; enhancing insecticide efficacy through use of a diet composition that comprises a Generation-I rodenticide and an insecticide; use of imidacloprid in a diet composition orally administerable to mammals in an uncontrolled setting; and use of at least one insecticide to enhance the efficacy of a rodenticide.

2011-05-17

342

Well treatment method  

SciTech Connect

In a method of propping a fracture in subterranean formations, the invention comprises placing in the fractures particulate solids such as sand coated with a water-repellent coating composition such as an oil-soluble organo-silicon compound. The water-repellent coated solid particulate propping agent can be prepared by dissolving an oil-soluble organo-silicon compound in a solvent therefor, admixing the resultant solution with particulate material, and thereafter evaporating the solvent to form a coating of organo-silicon compound on the particulate material.

Needham, R.B.; Thomas, C.P.; Wier, D.R.

1980-11-04

343

Method of coal degasification  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing methane gas and other gases present from a subterranean coal-containing formation comprising the creation of a fracture in the subterranean coal-containing formation, introduction of a propping agent into the open fracture after which at least a portion of the proppant is permitted to settle within the fracture, introduction of a substantially propping agent-free fluid into the open fracture to create an open channel over the propping agent and then permitting closure of the fracture upon the propping agent to leave a propped channel.

Lasseter, P.A.; Hollingsworth, F.C.

1984-09-18

344

A new computational method for Laplace transforms by decomposition method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Adomian decomposition method is applied to develop a new computational method for Laplace transforms. Some examples are provided to illustrate the simplicity and reliability of the new method.

E. Babolian; J. Biazar; A. R. Vahidi

2004-01-01

345

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

346

REACTOR AND NOVEL METHOD  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.

Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-06-24

347

METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS  

DOEpatents

ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

Macleish, K.G.

1958-02-11

348

Interfacial area measurement methods  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of local specific interfacial area is required for analysis and prediction of transient and steady characteristics of two-phase flow systems using the two-fluid models. Based on a survey of published work on the subject of specific interfacial area, it is recognized that there is virtually no data base for local specific interfacial area. This report describes the ongoing development of experimental techniques for measurement of local specific interfacial area in gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two-phase systems. Mathematical relations between local specific interfacial area and measurable quantities are derived based on kinematics and geometry. Two methods for determining local specific interfacial area are identified; both entail detection of passage of interfaces through fixed locations in the flow field. A multiple-sensor electrical-resistivity-probe technique is being developed for determination of local specific interfacial area in vertical gas-liquid bubbly flows. The technique consists of simultaneous measurements at two or four locations in the two-phase flow field of the local electrical resistivity of the two-phase mixture. Methods for data analysis are described. Limitations of the technique are briefly discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Tan, M.J.

1989-01-01

349

Interfacial area measurement methods  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of local specific interfacial area is required for analysis and prediction of transient and steady characteristics of two-phase flow systems using the two-fluid models. Based on a survey of published work on the subject of specific interfacial area, it is recognized that there is virtually no data base for local specific interfacial area. This report describes the ongoing development of experimental techniques for measurement of local specific interfacial area in gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two-phase systems. Mathematical relations between local specific interfacial area and measurable quantities are derived based on kinematics and geometry. Two methods for determining local specific interfacial area are identified; both entail detection of passage of interfaces through fixed locations in the flow field. A multiple-sensor electrical-resistivity-probe technique is being developed for determination of local specific interfacial area in vertical gas-liquid bubbly flows. The technique consists of simultaneous measurements at two or four locations in the two-phase flow field of the local electrical resistivity of the two-phase mixture. Methods for data analysis are described. Limitations of the technique are briefly discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs.

Tan, M.J.; Ishii, M.

1989-02-01

350

Ordination Methods for Ecologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Mike Palmer, an Associate Professor of Botany at Oklahoma State University, put together this site as an instructional resource for a graduate-level course. Ordination, which means, literally, "the ordering of a set of data points with respect to one or more axes," is often used to generate hypotheses about the relationship between species composition and the underlying environmental gradients at a given location. While ordination is an advanced technique used mainly by experts, this site does an outstanding job of informing the reader without alienating those with less expertise. Viewers are well-supplied with a newly-updated, hyperlinked glossary; numerous links to software suppliers and other ordination pages; several colorful illustrations; and thorough explanations of ordination methods and related topics.

Palmer, Michael W.

1998-01-01

351

Geophysical methods: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

352

Laser device and method  

SciTech Connect

A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.

Myers, J. D.

1985-06-25

353

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01

354

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30

355

Method for controlling brazing  

DOEpatents

A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Hall, Aaron C. (Albuquerque, NM); Givler, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-01

356

Hydraulic fracture analysis method  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining the orientation of a hydraulic fracture plane in the earth is described, consisting of: positioning an array of sensors for measuring seismic ground motion above a region which includes the fracture, providing a well bore having fluid therein communicating with the fracture to be defined, perturbing the fluid to cause transient pressure or flow oscillations in the fluid column in the well bore, measuring seismic ground motion induced by the transient pressure and flow oscillations in the fracture, calculating, using theory of wave propagation, the ground motion expected of fractures of different orientations, comparing the measured ground motion with the calculated ground motion patterns representing fractures of different orientations, selecting the fracture orientation that yields calculated seismic ground motions most closely resembling the measured seismic ground motions as the most probable fracture orientation, and calculating a probable fracture orientation based on the seismic motion of the ground.

Holzhausen, G.R.; St. Lawrence, W.

1989-01-31

357

Prediction system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method and apparatus to predict the onset of earthquakes, one to three days prior to the event. Predictions of latitude, longitude, and time of occurrence of an incipient earthquake, by monitoring and exploiting unique changes in the ionosphere and atmosphere, may be obtained. The methodology, focused on radio-tomography of the ionosphere, includes data receiving, transmission, and analysis stations on the earth's surface; data from satellite transmitters; and mechanisms to extract earthquake-related signatures that are correlated, processed, interpreted, and disseminated as warnings from central analysis centers. Additionally, data from ground-based radars that display unique clutter maps during earthquake pre-cursor activity and data from cellular telephone networks that display signal fading may also be used.

Kunitsyn; Viatcheslav E. (Moscow,115580, RU); Smirnov; Andre V. (Boulder, CO); Rekenthaler; Douglas A. (Woodbine, MD)

2007-10-02

358

Bayesian Methods in Sherpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian Framework for modeling the high energy astrophysics data has been implemented in Sherpa, a modeling and fitting application in CIAO. Sherpa is written in Python and the latest version can be installed and used with Python 2.7. We describe the concept of models with priors, the MCMC options for exploring the posterior probability distributions, and available algorithms for hypothesis testing and model selection. The methods correctly account for the Poisson nature of high energy astrophysics data from space-based X-ray and gamma-ray missions such as Chandra or Fermi. In most situations the modeling has to account for instrumental effects characterized by a probability of detecting photons of a given energy at a particular detector channel, or a particular location on the detector. We provide variety of examples based on the high energy data with ready to use recipes. Some future directions and potential linking with other Python packages will also be presented.

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Aldcroft, T. L.; Kashyap, V.; Chandra X-ray Center CIAO Team

2013-04-01

359

Surface analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

This workshop proposes a strategy for improving measurements of dry deposition so that the uncertainty in dry deposition is no longer the dominant uncertainty regarding model predictions of the fate and effects of dry deposition. This near term need of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program provided guidance for the activities of the group during the workshop. The objectives of the panel on surface analysis methods were as follows: (1) Critique various surface analysis approaches for their capabilities in routine monitoring and research; and determine their limitations, with respect to addressable chemical species, accuracy, and results expected by 1990; (2) develop a program for the remainder of NAPAP to address needs in dry deposition measurements, and an extension of this program beyond NAPAP in the general area of atmosphere/canopy exchange processes.

Lindberg, S.E.; Davidson, C.I.; Bondietti, E.A.; Graustein, W.C.; Livingston, R.; Lovett, G.; Peters, J.

1986-01-01

360

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1997-04-01

361

Compressor surge control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling surge in a centrifugal compressor having a predetermined surge condition line and providing a combined output with a base load means. It comprises: establishing a main surge control line offset from the centrifugal compressor surge condition line according to a function of pressure differentials across the centrifugal compressor and across an orifice in the inlet line of the centrifugal compressor; establishing a feed forward control signal which is a function of a variable associated with the base load means which may cause the surge condition in the centrifugal compressor; and establishing an anticipatory surge control line offset from the main surge control line as a function of the established main surge control line and the established feed forward control signal.

Dziubakowski, D.J.; Keys, M.A.I.V.; Shaffer, J.J.

1990-02-13

362

Improved catalysts and method  

SciTech Connect

An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.

1990-12-31

363

Method for synthesizing HMX  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ includes oxidizing a solution of N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

McGuire, R.R.; Coon, C.L.; Harrar, J.E.; Pearson, R.K.

1984-02-21

364

CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD  

DOEpatents

A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

1958-11-01

365

Hydroforming device and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.

Guza, David E. (Powell, OH)

2007-09-11

366

METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-02-01

367

Method for radioactivity monitoring  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Cowder, Leo R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1976-10-26

368

Method and demulsifier composition  

SciTech Connect

A demulsifier and method for use in oil-spill recovery and clean -up that rapidly and efficiently separates a water/crude oil emulsion into its water and crude oil phases. The demulsifier comprises various mixtures of two components A and B. A is comprised of at least one wetting agent formulated to displace one liquid from the surface of a bi-wetted solid disposed at a boundary of a water droplet and oil phase continuum with another liquid via a reduction of the liquid-solid interfacial tension; and B is comprised of at least one surfactant effective in displacing an indigenous emulsifying surfactant film by another surfactant that permits water droplet coalescence and separation from said oil phase continuum.

Canevari, G.P.

1982-02-23

369

METHOD FOR PREPARING NORMORPHINE  

DOEpatents

An improved method is presented for producing normorphine from morphine. Morphine as the starting material is acetylated by treatment with acetylating agents to produce di-acetyl morphine (heroin). The acetylated compound is reacted with cyanating agents to produce di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine (cyanonorheroin). The di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine compound is then treated in accordance with the improved hydrolysis reactions of the present invention in which concentrated hydrochloric acid is employed for a limited time period to hydrolyze the acetyl group therefrom forming cyanonormorphine. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is diluted and hydrolysis of the cyano groups from the cyanonormorphine is effected with a longer contact time with dilute hydrochloric acid thereby producing normorphine. A high over-all conversion and production of a high purity product which may be radioactlvely labeled, if desired, is obtained by operation of the process.

Rapoport, H.; Look, M.

1959-06-01

370

Method for maskless lithography  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

NONE

2000-05-09

371

Characterization Methods of Encapsulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food active ingredients can be encapsulated by different processes, including spray drying, spray cooling, spray chilling, spinning disc and centrifugal co-extrusion, extrusion, fluidized bed coating and coacervation (see Chap. 2 of this book). The purpose of encapsulation is often to stabilize an active ingredient, control its release rate and/or convert a liquid formulation into a solid which is easier to handle. A range of edible materials can be used as shell materials of encapsulates, including polysaccharides, fats, waxes and proteins (see Chap. 3 of this book). Encapsulates for typical industrial applications can vary from several microns to several millimetres in diameter although there is an increasing interest in preparing nano-encapsulates. Encapsulates are basically particles with a core-shell structure, but some of them can have a more complex structure, e.g. in a form of multiple cores embedded in a matrix. Particles have physical, mechanical and structural properties, including particle size, size distribution, morphology, surface charge, wall thickness, mechanical strength, glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, flowability and permeability. Information about the properties of encapsulates is very important to understanding their behaviours in different environments, including their manufacturing processes and end-user applications. E.g. encapsulates for most industrial applications should have desirable mechanical strength, which should be strong enough to withstand various mechanical forces generated in manufacturing processes, such as mixing, pumping, extrusion, etc., and may be required to be weak enough in order to release the encapsulated active ingredients by mechanical forces at their end-user applications, such as release rate of flavour by chewing. The mechanical strength of encapsulates and release rate of their food actives are related to their size, morphology, wall thickness, chemical composition, structure etc. Hence, reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

372

Method of bonding  

DOEpatents

1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

1987-12-01

373

In situ leach method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the in situ leaching of uranium and/or related values from a subterranean deposit. The method consists of: drilling at least one injection well and at least one production well into the deposit at spaced intervals from each other; completing the at least one production well so that the production well has a gravel pack therein lying adjacent the deposit; injecting a leach solution into the deposit through the injection well and flowing the leach solution through the deposit to dissolve uranium and/or related values therein; filtering the leach solution and the uranium and/or related values dissolved therein through the gravel pack as the leach solution and dissolve uranium and/or related values flows into the production well to remove substantially all of any particular material and/or sediment entrained in the leach solution; flowing the leach solution and dissolved uranium and/or related values from the production well and downward through a bed of an ion exchange resin without additional filtering of particulate material from the leach solution; absorbing the uranium and/or related values from the leach solution on the bed of ion exchange resin as the leach solution flows downward therethrough; filtering substantially all of any remaining particulate material and/or sediment from the leach solution into the bed of ion exchange resin as the leach solution flows downward therethrough; and adding leach chemicals to the leach solution after the leach solution has flowed through the bed of ion exchange resin without any further filtering of particulate materials and/or sediment from the leach solution to thereby makeup fresh leach solution for recycle in the leaching operation.

Mays, W.M.

1986-03-11

374

Connecting assembly and method  

SciTech Connect

Diclosed is a connecting assembly for communicating between a first location and a second location lower than the first location, with the two locations separated by a fluid body. A first tube extending between the two locations generally encloses a second tube, and the annular area between adjacent surfaces of the two tubes is sealed toward the second location. The buoyancy of the assembly is selectively controlled by selectively controlling the quantity and density of fluid in the area between the tubes. In an embodiment shown, a marine drilling facility is joined to an underwater well site by a riser with a liner set and sealed therein, and gas-lift pumping is used in controlling buoyancy. In a method, a riser is set between an underwater well site and a marine well operating facility. A first segment of the well may be drilled through the riser. Casing is cemented in the well, and a liner is sealed at its bottom end to the riser. Air and jet lines are positioned in the area between the liner and the riser to control the density and quantity of fluid in that area. Continued drilling may occur through the liner and the casing. The connecting assembly may also be constructed by extending a first tube between two locations and generally enclosing a second which is anchored to the riser toward both ends and held in tension. In a method, a riser is set. Then, a liner is positioned within the riser, and anchored to the riser near the bottom of the liner. The liner is then pulled up on relative to the riser, and anchored at the top to hold the liner in tension and to prevent it from slipping downwardly relative to the riser.

Wardlaw, H. W.

1980-08-12

375

Methods of smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine gum or transdermal patches. These products are particularly useful for smokers who show evidence of strong physiologic addiction to nicotine. Attitudes toward smoking have shifted dramatically. In the 1950s, fewer than 50% of American adults believed that cigarette smoking caused lung cancer. In 1986, this proportion had increased to 92%. A majority of the public favors policies restricting smoking in public places and worksites. Half of all Americans who ever smoked had stopped smoking by 1988. Of those who continue to smoke, more than 70% report that they would like to quit. By increasing their knowledge about smoking-cessation methods, health professionals can support and encourage the large majority of smokers who want to quit. PMID:1548971

Schwartz, J L

1992-03-01

376

Replica Cluster Variational Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general formalism to make the Replica-Symmetric and Replica-Symmetry-Breaking ansatz in the context of Kikuchi's Cluster Variational Method (CVM). Using replicas and the message-passing formulation of CVM we obtain a variational expression of the replicated free energy of a system with quenched disorder, both averaged and on a single sample, and make the hierarchical ansatz using functionals of functions of fields to represent the messages. We obtain a set of integral equations for the message functionals. The main difference with the Bethe case is that the functionals appear in the equations in implicit form and are not positive definite, thus standard iterative population dynamic algorithms cannot be used to determine them. In the simplest cases the solution could be obtained iteratively using Fourier transforms. We begin to study the method considering the plaquette approximation to the averaged free energy of the Edwards-Anderson model in the paramagnetic Replica-Symmetric phase. In two dimensions we find that the spurious spin-glass phase transition of the Bethe approximation disappears and the paramagnetic phase is stable down to zero temperature on the square lattice for different random interactions. The quantitative estimates of the free energy and of various other quantities improve those of the Bethe approximation. The plaquette approximation fails to predict a second-order spin-glass phase transition on the cubic 3D lattice but yields good results in dimension four and higher. We provide the physical interpretation of the beliefs in the replica-symmetric phase as disorder distributions of the local Hamiltonian. The messages instead do not admit such an interpretation and indeed they cannot be represented as populations in the spin-glass phase at variance with the Bethe approximation. The approach can be used in principle to study the phase diagram of a wide range of disordered systems and it is also possible that it can be used to get quantitative predictions on single samples. These further developments present however great technical challenges.

Rizzo, Tommaso; Lage-Castellanos, Alejandro; Mulet, Roberto; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

2010-05-01

377

Bismuth generator method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

1998-05-05

378

Method for geophysical exploration  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of seismic exploration employing seismic sources s{sub j} having at least two linearly independent lines of action j with respect to a survey line and seismic receivers r{sub i} having at least two linearly independent lines of action i with respect to the survey line. It comprises imparting seismic energy into the earth with seismic sources s{sub f}; recording the earth's response to the imparted seismic energy with receivers r{sub i}; collecting a concord of seismic signals {phi}{sub ij}, wherein the seismic energy imparted by seismic source s{sub j} are recorded by seismic receiver r{sub i}; and processing the full concord of seismic signals {phi}{sub ij} consisting essentially of diagonalizing the amplitude values of the concord of seismic signals {phi}{sub ij}, as a concord, and obtaining a diagonalized concord of seismic signals {phi}{sub cm}, wherein the amplitude values of the cross component seismic signals {phi}{sub ij} of the concord of seismic signals are substantially reduced to zero.

Alford, R.M.

1991-06-25

379

Casing circulator and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved method of circulating fluid through a casing and from a lowermost end of a casing string into a wellbore for facilitating lowering of the casing string into the wellbore, an uppermost end of the casing string extending above the rig floor to a position adjacent an elevator for grasping the uppermost end of the casing string and moving the casing string axially with respect to the rig floor: It comprises: providing a casing circulator having an exterior sealing member and an interior packer tube defining a fluid flow path; moving the casing circulator axially to a position within the uppermost end of the casing string; thereafter activating the casing circulator to seal the sealing member between the casing string and the interior packer tube; establishing fluid communication between the interior of the packer tube and the interior of the casing string below the casing circulator sealing element while maintaining the sealing element in its sealed position; thereafter pumping fluid through the casing circulator and into the casing string to wash the wellbore adjacent the lowermost end of the casing string; thereafter deactivating the casing circulator to unseal the sealing element from the casing string; and thereafter lowering the casing string into the wellbore by lowering the elevator.

Jordan, D.A.; Stokely, C.O.; Sanford, L.; Mounteer, J.M.

1991-03-05

380

Science Methods, Fall 09  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources for Science Methods Pre-service Teachers IA Help: Basic Instruction: How to use the IA, step by step Connecting People with Online Reources: USU OpenCourseWare Site on how to use the IA Advanced IA Features: Adding an Image to your IA project using Google Picasa Adding a YouTube video to an IA project Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Adding a TeacherTube video to an IA project Digital Libraries arXiv: Open access to 560,904 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Science Education Communities Directory of open access journals Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library National Science Digital Library NSDL: Expert Voices Blog Gateway NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL: Science Refreshers OER (Open Educational Resources) Commons OpenCourseWare Consortium Websites Physics at NIST Virtual Library The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online The Franklin Institute Online Weather Science Hotlist The Goddard Library K-6 IA Science Projects A Desert Adventure Advertising the Animals of Utah Mister Twister Simple Machines There's Nothing Better Than a Clean, Shiny Penny The Wonders of Water!!! 7-12 IA Science Projects Electrical Engineering Global Warming and Our Future Group 1 - DDT Newton's First Law of Motion World of Enzymes ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2009-09-24

381

Bismuth generator method  

DOEpatents

A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

Bray, Lane Allan (Richland, WA); DesChane, Jaquetta R. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01

382

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-03-12

383

Method for etherifications  

DOEpatents

A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

384

Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods  

SciTech Connect

The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

2005-10-01

385

Hyperspectral data discrimination methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral data provides spectral response information that provides detailed chemical, moisture, and other description of constituent parts of an item. These new sensor data are useful in USDA product inspection. However, such data introduce problems such as the curse of dimensionality, the need to reduce the number of features used to accommodate realistic small training set sizes, and the need to employ discriminatory features and still achieve good generalization (comparable training and test set performance). Several two-step methods are compared to a new and preferable single-step spectral decomposition algorithm. Initial results on hyperspectral data for good/bad almonds and for good/bad (aflatoxin infested) corn kernels are presented. The hyperspectral application addressed differs greatly from prior USDA work (PLS) in which the level of a specific channel constituent in food was estimated. A validation set (separate from the test set) is used in selecting algorithm parameters. Threshold parameters are varied to select the best Pc operating point. Initial results show that nonlinear features yield improved performance.

Casasent, David P.; Chen, Xuewen

2000-12-01

386

Laser amplifier and method  

DOEpatents

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

1997-07-01

387

Multibody multipole methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-body potential function can account for interactions among triples of particles which are uncaptured by pairwise interaction functions such as Coulombic or Lennard-Jones potentials. Likewise, a multibody potential of order n can account for interactions among n-tuples of particles uncaptured by interaction functions of lower orders. To date, the computation of multibody potential functions for a large number of particles has not been possible due to its O(Nn) scaling cost. In this paper we describe a fast tree-code for efficiently approximating multibody potentials that can be factorized as products of functions of pairwise distances. For the first time, we show how to derive a Barnes-Hut type algorithm for handling interactions among more than two particles. Our algorithm uses two approximation schemes: (1) a deterministic series expansion-based method; (2) a Monte Carlo-based approximation based on the central limit theorem. Our approach guarantees a user-specified bound on the absolute or relative error in the computed potential with an asymptotic probability guarantee. We provide speedup results on a three-body dispersion potential, the Axilrod-Teller potential.

Lee, Dongryeol; Ozakin, Arkadas; Gray, Alexander G.

2012-08-01

388

Retaining wall and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A retaining wall secured to a portion of earth, comprising a plurality of blocks stacked in longitudinally extending, vertically spaced tiers to define a retaining wall, each of the blocks defining a laterally oriented passageway extending between a pair of opposing sides thereof and having an exterior face orientated outwardly of the portion of the earth, the passageways being substantially aligned in each tier to define a channel within the tier of the retaining wall at least one tieback rod for being embedded at one end in a portion of earth to be covered by the retaining wall and having a protruding end extending therefrom towards the retaining wall at least one elongate member disposed within a portion of one of the channels in the tiers of blocks, the elongate member defining a slot through which the protruding end of the tieback rod extends and a mechanism for connecting the tieback rod to the elongate member to secure the retaining wall to the portion of earth. A method of constructing a retaining wall is disclosed.

Rainey; Thomas L. (Duluth, GA)

1999-07-13

389

Interferometric spectropolarimetry: alternate experimental methods.  

PubMed

Three alternate methods of obtaining spectra of the intensity and state of polarization of light are proposed. The methods make use of a two-beam amplitude division interferometer using the technique of Fourier spectroscopy. They can be applied to either emerging beam, source beam, or detector beam r to both. They do not require the presence of polarizers in the arms of the instrument. In one method (Method 2) a single analyzer is used in front of the detector with three successive orientations of its transmission axis azimuth (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees ). In another method (Method 3) a (linear) polarizer assuming the same set of orientations is placed in the incident beam. A third method (Method 4), a hybrid of the former two methods, makes use of both a polarizer and an analyzer in the locations indicated. The latter method presents itself three alternate possibilities. Method 2 permits the determination of all four Stokes parameters of polarization, whereas Methods 3 and 4 cannot yield the ellipticity parameter. All methods require the recording of three interferograms. However, two interferograms can provide the intensity and degree of polarization in any of the methods described. The theory of our earlier method (Method 1, Fymat and Abhyankar, 1970) is also established more rigorously concerning the proposed interferometric arrangements, the applicability of the method to the source beam, and the possibility of deriving the orientation of the plane of polarization and the ellipticity from a single interferogram. PMID:20119321

Fymat, A L

1972-10-01

390

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff

2003-02-28

391

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

2008-01-18

392

Qualitative methods in health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative methods have much to offer those studying health care and health services. However, because these methods have traditionally been employed in the social sciences, they may be unfa- miliar to health care professionals and researchers with a biomedical or natural science background. Indeed, qualitative methods may seem alien alongside the experimental and observational quant- itative methods used in clinical,

Catherine Pope; Nicholas Mays

2006-01-01

393

CADAC methods in market research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The informatic revolution had a consequence: the fast development of market research methods. In the 80's a new group of market research methods called CADAC (Computer Assisted DAta Collection) was developed. Computer assisted interviewing has become rapidly popular partly because it provides better data quality and data analysis than traditional methods. CADAC methods can be divided into three main categories:

J. Horvat; S. Markovic; M. Perencevic

2001-01-01

394

FIR prefiltering improves Prony's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prony's method, a technique for determining the parameters of sinusoidal signals, is known to be very sensitive to measurement errors in the observed signal samples. The authors present two prefiltering methods that improve the performance of Prony's method. The simple prefiltering operation reduces the effects of noise in the data without violating the fundamental property of Prony's method. In the

R. Kumaresan; Y. Feng

1991-01-01

395

Method for Tissue Hemoglobin Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colorimetric method for analysis of the red cell content of tissues is described, and compared with an independent radioassay method. The introduced method is based upon acid extraction of tissue, treatment with base, and adsorption of the remaining turbidity with lauryl sulfate. Preliminary data are presented on the reproducibility of the colorimetric method on multiple biopsies of the canine

Daniel Andersen; William C. Shoemaker

396

Numerical methods for tracking interfaces  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of special numerical methods for tracking discontinuous fronts and interfaces. These methods include: surface tracking methods based on connected marker points along the interface, volume-tracking methods that track the volume occupied by the solution regions bounded by the interfaces, and moving mesh methods where the underlying mesh is aligned and moved with the interface. The pros and cons of the current methods are discussed, and a new method is proposed that overcomes some of the difficulties encountered in approximating equations with multiply interacting interfaces.

Hyman, J.M.

1983-01-01

397

Manifold methods for methane combustion  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to develop a new method for studying realistic chemistry in turbulent methane combustion with NO{sub x} mechanism. The realistic chemistry is a simplification to a more detailed chemistry based on the manifold method; accuracy is determined by interaction between the transport process and the chemical reaction. In this new (tree) method, probability density function or partially stirred reactor calculations are performed. Compared with the reduced mechanism, manifold, and tabulation methods, the new method overcomes drawbacks of the reduced mechanism method and preserves the advantages of the manifold method. Accuracy is achieved by specifying the size of the cell.

Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

398

Slope stability and stabilization methods  

SciTech Connect

Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.

Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.

1995-12-01

399

NUMERICAL METHODS FOR HYDRAULIC TRANSIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite-difference methods of Lax, Lax-Wendroff (two-step), and the donor celt type, and the finite-element method using a Galerkin procedure with B-splines as approximating functions are compared with the method of characteristics for the solution of waterhammer transients as typified by valve closure problems. From the point of view of accuracy, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method and the method of characteristics

G. K. Leaf; T. C. Chawla; W. J. Minkowycz

1979-01-01

400

Variable metric conjugate gradient methods  

SciTech Connect

1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

1994-07-01

401

A new interface tracking method: The polygonal area mapping method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method, the polygonal area mapping (PAM) method, for tracking a non-diffusive, immiscible material interface between two materials in two-dimensional incompressible flows. This method represents material areas explicitly as piecewise polygons, traces characteristic points on polygon boundaries along pathlines and calculates new material areas inside interface cells via polygon-clippings in a discrete manner. The new method has

Qinghai Zhang; Philip L.-F. Liu

2008-01-01

402

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 21, METHOD 611--HALOETHERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Described herein are the experimental design and the results of an interlaboratory study of an analytical method to detect haloethers in water. The method, EPA Method 611 - Haloethers, consisted of a liquid/liquid extraction using methylene chloride, an evaporation step using Kud...

403

A Novel Polygonal Finite Element Method: Virtual Node Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygonal finite element method (PFEM), which can construct shape functions on polygonal elements, provides greater flexibility in mesh generation. However, the non-polynomial form of traditional PFEM, such as Wachspress method and Mean Value method, leads to inexact numerical integration. Since the integration technique for non-polynomial functions is immature. To overcome this shortcoming, a great number of integration points have to

X. H. Tang; C. Zheng; J. H. Zhang

2010-01-01

404

A learning method of fuzzy inference rules by descent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a learning method for fuzzy inference rules by a descent method. From input-output data gathered from specialists, the inference rules expressing the input-output relation of the data are obtained automatically. The membership functions in the antecedent part and the real number in the consequent part of the inference rules are tuned by means of the descent method.

Hiroyoshi NOMURA; I. Hayashi; N. Wakami

1992-01-01

405

Coherent optical methods for metallography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous methods based on coherent optical techniques have been developed over the past two decades for nondestructive evaluation, vibration analysis and experimental mechanics. These methods have a great deal of potential for the enhancement of metallogr...

M. J. Pechersky

1991-01-01

406

Simple Method for Adhesion Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An indentation method for determining the adhesion of interfaces between thin films and substrates has been developed. The method provides a quantitative measure of the interface fracture resistance and has the advantage of simplicity and reproducibility....

S. S. Chiang D. B. Marshall A. G. Evans

1980-01-01

407

Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A. [DMFCI, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Rolfs, C. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Typel, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

2006-07-12

408

Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)|

Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

1981-01-01

409

Gene Transfer Methods and Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to methods and compositions for transferring genetic material into a cell and regulating expression of the transferred genetic material. Included in the invention are methods for inducing the regulated expression of an exogenous nucl...

D. T. Azar J. H. Chang M. I. Rosenblatt

2004-01-01

410

New Accelerated Corrosion Test Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project which established accelerated corrosion test methods for conventional Al and new AlLi alloys and surface protection schemes is described. New accelerated testing methods will allow the selection of material and protection schemes with increased ...

U. Koch T. Hack

1991-01-01

411

Information Extraction Using Prony's Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prony's method is a technique for determining the coefficients (poles and residues in the frequency domain) of an exponential series. Recently, applications of this method have been considered in electromagnetics because it offers the possibility of obtai...

E. K. Miller D. L. Lager

1977-01-01

412

Variational Methods for Multichannel Scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several methods have recently been proposed for avoiding computational anomalies in the multichannel variational formalism of Kohn. The proposed methods themselves have characteristic difficulties, discussed in detail here, leading to ambiguous or discond...

R. K. Nesbet R. S. Oberoi

1972-01-01

413

Quantitative Methods of Edge Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most local operators used in edge detection can be modelled by one of two methods: edge enhancement/thresholding and edge fitting. This dissertation presents a quantitative design and performance evaluation of these methods. The design techniques are base...

I. E. Abdou

1978-01-01

414

Method of Reducing Cell Differentiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to methods and compositions for culturing embryonic stem (ES) cells. The methods relate to growing the cells in culture on a flexible solid porous matrix, suitably without conditioned media or fibroblast feeder cells and appl...

J. J. de Pablo L. Ji S. P. Palecek

2003-01-01

415

Bioluminometric Method of DNA Sequencing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrosequencing is a bioluminometric single-tube DNA sequencing method that takes advantage of co-operativity between four enzymes to monitor DNA synthesis. In this sequencing-by-synthesis method, a cascade of enzymatic reactions yields detectable light, w...

M. Ronaghi N. Pourmand V. Stolc

2001-01-01

416

Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.  

PubMed

Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems. PMID:22441612

Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

2012-03-01

417

Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.  

PubMed

Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems. PMID:22392041

Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

2012-03-06

418

Moment methods for structural reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-order reliability method (FORM) is considered to be one of the most reliable computational methods. In the last decades, researchers have examined the shortcomings of FORM, primarily accuracy and the difficulties involved in searching for the design point by iteration using the derivatives of the performance function. In order to improve upon FORM, several structural reliability methods have been developed

Yan-Gang Zhao; Tetsuro Ono

2001-01-01

419

Polarization method for static fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the polarization method is presented. The method can by applied for different regimes of the electromagnetic field as well as for electric circuits. Criteria for the choice of the permeability are proposed, so that the iterative scheme leads to a Picard-Banach fixed point procedure. The errors are evaluated. An efficient overrelaxation method is presented. The modality of

Florea I. Hantila; Gabriel Preda; Mihai Vasiliu

2000-01-01

420

ANALYSIS OF IMPLICIT LES METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit LES methods are numerical methods that capture the energy-containing and inertial ranges of turbulent flows, while relying on their own intrinsic dissi- pation to act as a subgrid model. We present a scheme-dependent Kolmogorov scaling analysis of the solutions produced by such methods. From this analysis we can define an effective Reynolds number for implicit LES simulations of inviscid

ANDREW ASPDEN; NIKOS NIKIFORAKIS; STUART DALZIEL; JOHN B. BELL

2008-01-01

421

Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

2005-01-01

422

Overview of paint removal methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch,

Terry Foster

1995-01-01

423

Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a

John Campbell

2010-01-01

424

Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent Champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a

John Campbell

2009-01-01

425

REARING METHODS FOR SPIDER S  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rearing method is reported which provides spiders with a continual supply of food and water . Using this method, spiders have been reared from egg to adult with low mortality . Other rearin g methods for spiders are reviewed . Rearing and maintaining spiders in captivity is often a rather laborious task, especiall y when large numbers are involved

Robert R. Jackson

426

Super-stationary Variational Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stationary character in the usual variational method is extended by using a trial function with stationary character. A successive method for the improvement of the stationary character is also indicated. We have applied this method both for bound state problems and for continuous spectra (scattering problems).

Takashi Kikuta

1954-01-01

427

Comparison of Tracking Test Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of epoxy specimens has been subjected to a number of different tests for track resistance. The degree of agreement between testing agencies using the same method, and between the different test methods is described. Generally speaking, those methods, which impose alternate wet-dry cycles, or otherwise simulate the \\

Mo Kurtz

1971-01-01

428

Developing the business modelling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, business modelling is an art, instead of a science, as no scientific method for business modelling exists. This, and the lack of using business models altogether, causes many projects to end after the pilot stage, unable to fulfil their apparent promise. We propose a structured method to create “as-is” business models in a repeatable manner. The method consists of

L. O. Meertens; M. E. Iacob; L. J. M. Nieuwenhuis; Boris Shishkov

2011-01-01

429

MRI segmentation: Methods and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current literature on MRI segmentation methods is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the relative merits of single image versus multispectral segmentation, and supervised versus unsupervised segmentation methods. Image pre-processing and registration are discussed, as well as methods of validation. The application of MRI segmentation for tumor volume measurements during the course of therapy is presented here as an

L. P. Clarke; R. P. Velthuizen; M. A. Camacho; J. J. Heine; M. Vaidyanathan; L. O. Hall; R. W. Thatcher; M. L. Silbiger

1995-01-01

430

AUTOMATED 4AAP PHENOLIC METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

An automated colorimetric method for the determination of phenol in water and wastes is presented. This method is an automated version of the 4AAP method, capable of analyzing from ten to twenty samples per hour. The minimum detectable levelis 1 microgram phenol/l....

431

CH 600 History of Methodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will survey American Methodism from its beginnings to the present. The course materials focus on the theological, cultural, and institutional themes that shaped Methodism in America. The course especially highlights the spiritual, theological, and social aspects of Methodism's grand legacy. The evangelistic thrust, social concern, institutional development, and theological shifts noted in America between 1766 and the present will

Robert G. Tuttle

2008-01-01

432

Computational methods of neutron transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This books presents a balanced overview of the major methods currently available for obtaining numerical solutions in neutron and gamma ray transport. It focuses on methods particularly suited to the complex problems encountered in the analysis of reactors, fusion devices, radiation shielding, and other nuclear systems. Derivations are given for each of the methods showing how the transport equation is

E. E. Lewis; W. F. Miller

1984-01-01

433

The Discovery Method in Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the form of a discussion between faceless people, this booklet concerns discovery learning and its advantages. Subjects covered in the discussions are: Introducing the Discovery Method; An Experiment with British Railways; The OECD Research Projects in U.S.A., Austria, and Sweden; How the Discovery Method Differs from Other Methods; Discovery…

Belbin, R. M.

434

Linguistic Method: Yesterday and Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper introduces the reader to a brief history of the focus of linguistic method from prehistoric times, through the Classical era, the Middle Ages, to the present. The scientific orientation of linguistic method is exploited; a set of specific principles is found to unify most of today's diverse methods. The success of linguistics is…

Rauch, Irmengard

435

Spectral methods on arbitrary grids  

SciTech Connect

Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Carpenter, M.H. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Gottlieb, D. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

1996-11-01

436

Novel Approach to Job's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job's method of continuous variations is a commonly used procedure for determining the composition of complexes in solution. Presents: (1) a review of the method; (2) theory of a new procedure for measuring Job's plots; and (3) an undergraduate experiment using the new method. (JN)

Hill, Zachary D.; Macarthy, Patrick

1986-01-01

437

A multiscale discontinuous Galerkin method.  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new class of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods based on variational multiscale ideas. Our approach begins with an additive decomposition of the discontinuous finite element space into continuous (coarse) and discontinuous (fine) components. Variational multiscale analysis is used to define an interscale transfer operator that associates coarse and fine scale functions. Composition of this operator with a donor DG method yields a new formulation that combines the advantages of DG methods with the attractive and more efficient computational structure of a continuous Galerkin method. The new class of DG methods is illustrated for a scalar advection-diffusion problem.

Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Scovazzi, Guglielmo; Hughes, Thomas J. R. (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

2005-04-01

438

Immersed interface methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1996-11-01

439

Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

1999-02-08

440

Method of making alkyl esters  

SciTech Connect

Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

2010-09-14

441

A new automatic baseline correction method based on iterative method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new automatic baseline correction method for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra is presented. It is based on an improved baseline recognition method and a new iterative baseline modeling method. The presented baseline recognition method takes advantages of three baseline recognition algorithms in order to recognize all signals in spectra. While in the iterative baseline modeling method, besides the well-recognized baseline points in signal-free regions, the 'quasi-baseline points' in the signal-crowded regions are also identified and then utilized to improve robustness by preventing the negative regions. The experimental results on both simulated data and real metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks show the efficiency of this automatic method.

Bao, Qingjia; Feng, Jiwen; Chen, Fang; Mao, Wenping; Liu, Zao; Liu, Kewen; Liu, Chaoyang

2012-05-01

442

On the method of moving planes and the sliding method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of moving planes and the sliding method are used in proving monotonicity or symmetry in, say, thex1 direction for solutions of nonlinear elliptic equationsF(x, u, Du, D2u)=0 in a bounded domain O in Rn which is convex in thex1 direction. Here we present a much simplified approach to these methods; at the same time it yields improved results.

H. Berestycki; L. Nirenberg

1991-01-01

443

Systematic and Random Method Effects. Estimating Method Bias and Method Variance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lines of research have been followed to assess the effect of the method of measurement on data quality. Split-ballot experiments allowed researchers to assess the effect of the measurement method on the marginal distribution of the responses and to make assessments of relative bias. Structural equation models allowed researchers to assess the effect of the method on reliability and

Germà Coenders; Willem E. Saris

444

Coupling of finite element method with material point method by local multi-mesh contact method  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a Lagrangian particle method, the material point method (MPM) has the potential to model extreme deformation of materials, where the traditional finite element method (FEM) often encounters mesh distortion and element entanglement which lead to numerical difficulties. However, FEM is more accurate and efficient than MPM for problems with small deformation. It is therefore desirable to model the body

Y. P. Lian; X. Zhang; Y. Liu

2011-01-01

445

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

446

Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we start from the assumption that environmental problems originate in the overusing behaviours of very many individuals, we need to consider how new solutions might be tested in a problem area of this magnitude. The instrument of the questionnaire, based upon imaginary situations or conditions, seems ill-suited ('How expensive would gasoline have to be for you to change to

Hans-Joachim Mosler

447

Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the stabilizing effect of the introduction of suitable bubble functions in DG formulations for linear second order elliptic problems, working, for the sake of simplicity, on Laplace operator. In particular we analyze the nonsymmetric formulation of Baumann-Oden on rather general decompositions, and we show that the piecewise linear discontinuous approxi- mation, without jump stabilization, can be used if

M. H. Willing; FRANCO BREZZI; L. DONATELLA MARINI

1925-01-01

448

Extensions of Variational Methods, I ---Super-Stationary Variational Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods to improve the degree of approximation for the stationary character in variational methods, are discussed. By selecting a set of trial functions as prescribed in the present paper, it is shown that we can construct quite generally a super-stationary expression for the quantity we wish to find. By ``super-stationary'' we mean that, the first, second and third varitions

Takashi Kikuta

1955-01-01

449

Combination of Newmark method and natural element method for elastodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural element method (NEM) is a meshless method. The trial and test functions of the NEM are constructed using natural neighbor interpolations which are based on the Voronoi tessellation of a set of nodes. The NEM interpolation is linear between adjacent nodes on the boundary of the convex hull, which makes imposition of essential boundary conditions easy to implement.

Daohong Ding; Qing Zhang; Fuzhang Wang; Lingyan Luo

2012-01-01

450

Pluralisms in Qualitative Research: From Multiple Methods to Integrated Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pluralism offers promising ways forward for qualitative research, invoking the use of multiple methods to investigate complex social questions. Drawing on two different research projects, we reflexively demonstrate, discuss, and illustrate our processes of working pluralistically. In various ways, we argue that multiple methods function smoothly if they are closely aligned with the broad assumptions underpinning the research, resulting in

Kerry Chamberlain; Trudie Cain; Joanna Sheridan; Ann Dupuis

2011-01-01

451

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Method Study 29, Method 624--Purgeables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work which is described in the report was performed for the purpose of validating, through an interlaboratory study, Method 624 for the analysis of the volatile organic priority pollutants. This method is based on purging and concentration of the vari...

1984-01-01

452

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 17, METHOD 607 (NITROSAMINES)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the results obtained and data analyses from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 607 (Nitrosamines). The method is designed to analyze for three nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, and N-nitroso-diphenylamine, in water and...

453

Biaxial bending moment magnifier method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a simplified method to design slender rectangular reinforced concrete columns with doubly symmetric reinforcement subjected to combined axial loads and biaxial bending, which is valid for short-time and sustained loads and for both normal and high strength concretes. The method is based on the so-called moment magnifier method (ACI-318-02) and EuroCode-2 (draft for stage 49) and it

J. L. Bonet; P. F. Miguel; M. A. Fernandez; M. L. Romero

2004-01-01

454

Applications of the Variation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation method is applied to two examples selected for illustration of fundamental principles of the method along with ease of calculation. The first example applies the linear version of the variation method to the particle in a box model, using a basis with explicit parity symmetry, Phik(t) = N (1-t2)tk, where t = 2x\\/L -1 and N is the

Stephen K. Knudson

1997-01-01

455

CNG Method with Weighted Voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNG Method for Authorship Attribution. The Common N-Grams (CNG) classification method for authorship attribution (AATT) was described in (2). The method is based on extracting the most frequent byte n-grams of size n from the training data. The n-grams are sorted by their normalized frequency, and the first L most-frequent n-grams define an author profile. Given a test document, the

Vlado Keselj; Nick Cercone

456

Heuristic Methods for Hypertree Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature provides several structural decomposition methods for identifying tractable subclasses of the constraint satisfaction\\u000a problem. Generalized hypertree decomposition is the most general of such decomposition methods. Although the relationship to other structural decomposition methods has\\u000a been thoroughly investigated, only little research has been done on efficient algorithms for computing generalized hypertree\\u000a decompositions. In this paper we propose new heuristic

Artan Dermaku; Tobias Ganzow; Georg Gottlob; Benjamin J. Mcmahan; Nysret Musliu; Marko Samer

2008-01-01

457

Two methods of conserving fuel  

SciTech Connect

The first method of conservation of fuel described requires the collection of polyethylene and polypropylene containers and films now being discarded as waste. Present methods of disposal are costly in money, in energy and in ecological damage. The second method eliminates grass lawns and the need for lawn-maintenance with a power-mower. In place of grass-cover, the world-wide use of perennial ground cover plants and low-spreading evergreens is proposed. 7 refs.

Becker, B.

1981-01-01

458

The Gardner method for symmetries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gardner method, traditionally used to generate conservation laws of integrable equations, is generalized to generate symmetries. The method is demonstrated for the KdV, Camassa-Holm and sine-Gordon equations. The method involves identifying a generating symmetry which depends upon a parameter; expansion of this symmetry in a (formal) power series in the parameter then gives the usual infinite hierarchy of symmetries. We show that the obtained symmetries commute, discuss the relation of the Gardner method with Lenard recursion (both for symmetries and conservation laws), and also the connection between the symmetries of continuous integrable equations and their discrete analogues.

Rasin, Alexander G.; Schiff, Jeremy

2013-04-01

459

Projector Method: theory and examples  

SciTech Connect

The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

Dahl, E.D.

1985-01-01

460

[Family planning: "Billing's" ovulation method].  

PubMed

The Billings method of contraception, or cervical mucus method, is being introduced, apparently with great success, in Brazil. This method was studied and perfected by the Drs. Billings during the 1950s in Australia; the book explaining how the method works, was published in 1964, and it was soon followed by many other studies. The method is based on the observation of the cyclic changes of cervical mucus. During the first phase of the cycle, or proliferative phase, the increased estrogen secretion produces abundant, wet, elastic mucus, of a quality very conducive to sperm transport; the peak of the mucus symptom coincides with ovulation or precedes it about 1 day. Couples must refrain from intercouse during this period. The second phase of the cycle, or secretory phase, is characterized by increased progesterone secretion which inhibits production of cervical mucus; these are the infertile days of the cycle; mucus will be scant, and dry. This method, which implies periodic sexual abstinence, can by very advantageously used to prevent or to obtain pregnancy. A couple wanting to use this method will have to carefully chart the daily appearance in quantity and quality of cervical mucus, and will have to be instructed on how to do so. The failure rate of the method goes from 0.48 to 2.9/100 women year. The method is totally safe and it promotes marital communication and understanding. PMID:6910749

Bhering, M S; Kajiyama, H

1980-12-01

461

Spatiotemporal interpolation methods in GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, spatiotemporal interpolation of geographic data is considered. Two methods are discussed which are the reduction and the extension methods. The reduction method treats time as an independent dimension, whereas the extension method treats time equivalent to a spatial dimension. Both 2-D and 3-D shape functions are adopted, usually used in finite element methods, for the spatiotemporal interpolation of 2-D spatial & 1-D temporal and 3-D spatial & 1-D temporal data sets. Domains are divided into a finite number of sub-domains (such as triangles and tetrahedra) in which local shape functions are assumed. New 4-D shape functions that can be applied for each 4-D Delaunay Tessellation element are developed using the extension method for 3-D spatial & 1-D temporal problems. The visualization of shape function interpolation results is also explained and illustrated. Using an actual real estate data set with house prices, we compare these methods with other spatiotemporal interpolation methods based on inverse distance weighting and kriging. We compare these methods with respect to interpolation accuracy, error-proneness to time aggregation, invariance to scaling on the coordinate axes, and the type of constraints used in the representation of the interpolated data. Our experimental results show that the extension method based on shape functions is the most accurate and the overall best spatiotemporal interpolation method. Constraint databases provide a general approach to express and solve constraint problems. We show that spatiotemporal interpolation data can be represented in constraint databases efficiently and accurately. The advantage of constraint databases is that many queries that could not be done in traditional GIS systems can now be easily expressed and evaluated in constraint database systems. Finally, the constraint database system MLPQ (Management of Linear Programming Queries) is used to animate and query some spatiotemporal data examples. A translation algorithm between ArcGIS shape files and MLPQ input data files is also discussed.

Li, Lixin

462

Immersed interface methods. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Short summaries are given for the following related projects: Multigrid methods for Poisson problems; Domain embedding; Groundwater flow; Solidification; The explicit jump IIM and conductivity inverse problems; Numerical methods for acoustic and visco-acoustic inverse problems; Finite element version of the IIM; Computation of seismic traveltimes in discontinuous media; and CLAWPACK (Conservation LAWs PACKage) and AMRCLAW (Adaptive Mesh Refinement CLAW).

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1997-06-09

463

Methods for Protein Interaction Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a method for identifying a plurality of pairs of interacting proteins and plasmids for use in the method. The pair of plasmids is adapted for use in a modified two hybrid system wherein wherein each plasmid comprises a recom...

A. Hastle L. Mielnicki S. C. Pruitt

2004-01-01

464

Four Methods for Maintenance Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We had a problem to be solved: the thermal generator maintenance scheduling problem (Yam82). We wanted to look at stochastic methods and this paper will present three methods and discuss the pros and cons of each. We will also present evidence that strongly suggests that for this problem, tabu search was the most effective and efficient technique. The problem is

Edmund K. Burke; John A. Clark; Alistair J. Smith

1997-01-01

465

ALGEBRAIC GRID FRONT MARCHING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfinite interpolation formula of grid generation that employs the Hermite interpolation formula is improved by the addition of a grid front marching method embedded with a simple grid smoother. In the test cases, the proposed method preserved approximate grid orthogonality around all the boundaries and eliminates grid nonsmooth-ness, grid slope discontinuity, and grid overlapping that occurred with the original

Yuan Chang Liou; Yih Nen Jeng

1995-01-01

466

Pneumatic train brake simulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of new pneumatic brakes for rail vehicles or improvements of existing ones can be made better or more efficient by the use of a simulation method. This paper gives a general presentation of the author’s modelling methods used for solving problems relating to railway pneumatic brakes. The brake models in this paper (slightly different from those of other

Tadeusz Piechowiak

2009-01-01

467

Hide processing methods and compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided in part herein are compositions that include isolated microbial enzymes, such as proteases, lipases, useful in dehairing leather. Also provided are methods for isolating proteases, lipases, from microbes, as well as methods of reusing these enzymes effectively for several cycles in an environment friendly process.

Ray Chaudhuri; Shaon (Kolkata, IN)

2013-09-03

468

Method of acid treating wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of acidizing to increase the effective well bore diameter and the effective permeability of the formation and, therefore, the productivity of the well, is described. The method is said to be more economical and efficient than both the non-aqueous solution technique and the liquid chlorine procedure, and also less dangerous to operating personnel than the liquid chlorine procedure.

R. L. Every; D. A. Shock

1967-01-01

469

New methods of pitch extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new methods will be described for the extraction of the fundamental pitch from a speech signal. These are: 1) spectrum flattening followed by a minimum phase correction to synchronize harmonics 2) spectrum flattening followed by auto-correlation, and 3) nonlinear distortion followed by autocorrelation. The last two methods will be shown to be exceptionally rugged, in that they can tolerate

MAX MOHAN SONDHI

1968-01-01

470

Linear scaling electronic structure methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods exhibiting linear scaling with respect to the size of the system, the so-called O(N) methods, are an essential tool for the calculation of the electronic structure of large systems containing many atoms. They are based on algorithms that take advantage of the decay properties of the density matrix. In this article the physical decay properties of the density matrix

Stefan Goedecker

1999-01-01

471

Seven Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven widely held conceptions about formal methods are challenged. These beliefs are variants of the following: formal methods can guarantee that software is perfect; they work by proving that the programs are correct; only highly critical systems benefit from their use; they involve complex mathematics; they increase the cost of development; they are incomprehensible to clients; and nobody uses them

Anthony Hall

1990-01-01

472

Policy Gradient Methods for Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquisition and improvement of motor skills and control policies for robotics from trial and error is of essential importance if robots should ever leave precisely pre-structured environments. However, to date only few existing reinforcement learning methods have been scaled into the domains of high- dimensional robots such as manipulator, legged or humanoid robots. Policy gradient methods remain one of

Jan Peters; Stefan Schaal

2006-01-01

473

Job Search Methods and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the process of job search, using a unique, large-scale data set for Portugal that allows us to assess the effect of job search methods on escape rates from unemployment and, in a new departure, the impact of job-finding methods used by the unemployed on earnings. In each case, the characteristics of workers receive careful attention.

John T. Addison; Pedro Portugal

1998-01-01

474

Review of Job Analysis Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this IC is to discuss how job analysis methods taken from different disciplines can be used together to form a more complete picture of jobs in the mining industry. The term 'job analysis' can be a method of breaking a job into tasks in ord...

J. K. Kuenzi

1995-01-01

475

Job Search Methods and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Portuguese data, this paper investigates the effects of job search methods on escape rates from unemployment and of job-finding methods on earnings. The effectiveness of the job search process is also evaluated in terms of the periodicity of the resulting job match. mphasis is accorded the role of the public employment service. Despite its frequency as a search vehicle,

John T. Addison; Pedro Portugal

2001-01-01

476

IMMUNOLOGICAL BIOSENSOR-BASED METHODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional methods for the detection of microbial food-borne pathogens require 3-7 days to obtain a result. The introduction of HACCP plans and the requirement that raw meat products be held in inventory until test results are confirmed has increased the need for more rapid detection methods. Rec...

477

Standardization of the Steigbild Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing organic market demands methods which can describe food quality within the organic system. With the Steigbild technique, patterns are produced on thin-layer chromatographic paper and evaluated as a fingerprint of the sample as a whole. To be applied in routine analysis the method has to be standardized. After the laboratory process was documented and a standardized visual pattern

Aneta Zalecka; Johannes Kahl; Paul Doesburg; Bent Pyskow; Machteid Huber; Kirsten Skjerbaek; Angelika Ploeger

2010-01-01

478

Direct methods for recovering motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed direct methods for recovering the motion of an observer in a static environment in th e case of pure rotation, pure translation, and arbitrary motion when the rotation is known . Some of thes e methods are based on the minimization of the difference between the observed time derivative of bright - ness and that predicted from

Berthold K. P. Horn; E. J. WELDON JR

1988-01-01

479

Method of making tantalum capacitors  

DOEpatents

A method for manufacturing tantalum capacitors includes preparing a tantalum compact by cold pressing tantalum powder, placing the compact, along with loose refractory metal powder, in a microwave-transparent casket to form an assembly, and heating the assembly for a time sufficient to effect at least partial sintering of the compact and the product made by the method.

McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Clausing, Robert E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Vierow, William F. (Saco, ME)

1998-01-01

480

The Method of Repeated Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reprints a reading classic, originally published in this journal in 1979. Describes the method of repeated readings, discussing the procedure, comprehension, and theoretical rationale. Compares it with music and sports and notes how versions of this method were used in early schooling. (SR)

Samuels, S. Jay

1997-01-01

481

Automating the Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite element method can be viewed as a ma- chine that automates the discretization of differential equa- tions, taking as input a variational problem, a finite element and a mesh, and producing as output a system of discrete equations. However, the generality of the framework pro- vided by the finite element method is seldom reflected in im- plementations (realizations),

Anders Logg

2007-01-01

482

Water Distribution Reliability: Simulation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Following a companion paper on analytical methods, this paper presents simulation as a complementary method for analyzing the reliability of water distribution networks. For this simulation, the distribution system is modeled as a network whose pipes and pumps are subject to failure. Nodes are targeted to receive a given supply at a given head. If this head is not

Janet M. Wagner; Uri Shamir; David H. Marks

1988-01-01

483

Methods for information server selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of using a broker to select a subset of available information servers in order to achieve a good trade-off between document retrieval effectiveness and cost is addressed. Server selection methods which are capable of operating in the absence of global information, and where servers have no knowledge of brokers, are investigated. A novel method using Lightweight Probe queries

David Hawking; Paul B. Thistlewaite

1999-01-01

484

Geometric Methods for Vortex Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two vortex detection methods which are based on the geometric properties of streamlines. Unlike traditional vortex detection meth- ods, which are based on point-samples of physical quantities, one of our methods is also effective in detecting weak vortices. In addition, it allows for quantitative feature extraction by calculating numerical attributes of vortices. Results are pre- sented of

I. Ari Sadarjoen; Frits H. Post

485

Extensions of the operational method  

SciTech Connect

The operational method of data analysis is used to develop new formulas for first and second derivatives on equidistant, curvilinear data consisting of three or more measurements. Echo functions are used to suggest the paths followed by moving data points, and a method of interpolating into rectangles by non-Euclidean geometry is proposed. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Silver, G.L.

1986-08-25

486

Method for Cognitive Task Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for cognitive task analysis is described based on the notion of 'generic tasks'. The method distinguishes three layers of analysis. At the first layer, the task structure, top-level goals of a certain task are identified that have to be fulfilled...

A. M. Schaafstal J. M. Schraagen

1992-01-01

487

Validation Method for Intelligent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge incorporated intelligent solving methods are prevailing in practical planning and scheduling because of the large problem size and complex constraints. However, when intelligent methods are used in real applications, it is an important problem to validate that both optimality and response time are at expert level. Turing Test approaches are useful in validating intelligent systems. Nevertheless, validation burdens experts

Setsuo Tsuruta; Takashi Onoyama; Sen Kubota; Kazuko Oyanagi

2000-01-01

488

Survey of rule extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational intelligence methods such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are gaining popularity for their power and ease of use. ANN learning methods provide a robust and non-linear approach to approximating the target function for many classification, regression and clustering problems. The ability to learn and generalize from data, which mimics the human capability of learning from experience, makes ANNs a

Ahamed Salihe Kuttiyil

2004-01-01

489

Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

Terrell, Steven R.

2012-01-01

490

Analytical Methods for Breath Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath analysis is a non-invasive, painless and attractive diagnostic method without risk to the patients. It has been recommended as a convenient and complementary method for blood and urine analysis. Despite the advantages, breath analysis has not been introduced to medical diagnosis. Only few specific breath tests are available: ethanol in breath after alcohol ingestion, detection of CO2 for diagnosis

Tomasz Ligor

2009-01-01

491

Method for Treating Renal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for preventing and treating a renal disorder in a human or non-human animal is disclosed. The method involves administering 20-HETE or a 20-HETE agonist to the human or non-human animal in an amount sufficient to prevent or treat the renal disord...

A. J. Dahly-Vernon M. Sharma R. J. Roman

2005-01-01

492

Numerical methods in flow metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work in flow metrology has traditionally been very experimental. During the past ten years, the increasing power of personal computers have been made effective numerical methods available at very reasonable costs. At the moment, the flow metrology is at the middle of transitional period, the traditional experimental methods are partly started to be substituted with numerical simulations because of

Sampo Sillanpaa

493

LINGUISTICS AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, I contrast empirical and non-empirical ap- proaches to linguistics by examining the extent to which they practice the scientific method. I provide examples of linguistic analyses that follow and depart from the scientific method and argue that valid explanations about actual language processing rely on adherence to scientific methodology. However, this is not a requirement for

DAVID EDDINGTON

494

Propulsion Method for Swimming Microrobots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel swimming method mediated by traveling waves in elastic tails. The propulsion method is potentially appropriate for maneuvering microrobots inside the human body. The swimming action relies on the creation of a traveling wave along a piezoelectric layered beam divided into several segments. This requires that a voltage with the same frequency, but different phases and

Gábor Kósa; Moshe Shoham; Menashe Zaaroor

2007-01-01

495

Ultrasonic method for cleaning teeth  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved method for cleaning teeth is disclosed. The method for cleaning teeth includes: applying ultrasonic waves of a first frequency through a liquid media to the teeth for a first period of time; and applying ultrasonic waves of a second frequency through a liquid media to the teeth for a second period of time.

2005-04-19

496

Method for translucent online interaction  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for representing users within an online environment. The method allows users to define environmental parameters for controlling user interaction, define user representation parameters of user data within the environment, capture user data from the users, build an abstract graphical display of the environment, and build a user representation within the abstract graphical display for each user's data.

Bellamy; Rachel K. E. (Bedford, NY); Ellis; Jason B. (Atlanta, GA); Erickson; Thomas D. (Minneapolis, MN); Kellogg; Wendy A. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Laff; Mark R. (Mount Kisco, NY); Malkin; Peter K. (Arsdley, NY); Richards; John T. (Chappaqua, NY); Yu; Philip S. (Chappaqua, NY); Wolf; Tracee (Irvington, NY)

2005-11-29

497

A quadratically convergent VBSCF method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quadratically convergent valence bond self-consistent field method is described where the simultaneous optimisation of orbitals and the coefficients of the configurations (VB structures) is based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in actual calculations. The convergence and efficiency are compared with the Super-CI method. A necessary condition to achieve convergence in the Newton-Raphson method is that the Hessian is positive definite. When this is not the case, a combination of the Super-CI and Newton-Raphson methods is shown to be an optimal choice instead of shifting the eigenvalues of the Hessian to make it positive definite. In the combined method, the first few iterations are performed with the Super-CI method and then the Newton-Raphson scheme is switched on based on an internal indicator. This approach is found computationally a more economical choice than using either the Newton-Raphson or Super-CI method alone to perform a full optimisation of the nonorthogonal orbitals.

Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H.

2013-02-01

498

Method of pyrolyzing brown coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step method and apparatus are disclosed based on the fluidized bed principle, for the production of coke, rich gas and pyrolysis tar, with the object of executing the method in a compact apparatus arrangement, with high energy efficiency and high throughput capacity. This is accomplished by a sequence in which the fine grains removed from the drying vapor mixture

W. Michel; I. Heberlein; M. Ossowski; H. Paul; A. Rummel; G. Seher

1985-01-01

499

Fracturing method in solution mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this solution mining method, a channel is created between wells by fracturing without undue extension of the fracture. The method involves creating a horizontal fracture in a subterranean soluble formation extending between at least 2 boreholes. A propping agent is then placed in the fracture. The pressure is reduced when the fracture reaches the desired limits of extension. Thereafter,

D. A. Shock; Davis J. G. II

1968-01-01

500

Methods for Reducing Oxidative Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method for reducing oxidative damage in a mammal, a removed organ, or a cell in need thereof. The method comprises administering an effective amount of an aromatic cationic peptide. The aromatic cationic peptide has (a) at least o...

H. H. Szeto

2005-01-01